Int. J. Pres. Ves.

& Piping 30 (1987) 131-149

A Computer Program for Cylindrical Shell Analysis
Ong Lin Seng
School of Mechanical and Production Engineering,
Nanyang Technological Institute, Singapore
(Received 12 March 1987; accepted 17 March 1987)

This paper describes a general analysis for a cylindrical shell, simply
supported at both ends and subjected to various kinds of surface loadings.
Double Fourier expansion technique is employed to solve the shell equations
and also to express the displacement and loading functions. The applications
and validity of the analysis are shown by two examples, which show good
results. A computer program for the analysis is also attached, which is capable
of analysing a few loading cases at the same time.




P ,,.,

Extensional rigidity = Et/(1 - v2)
Modulus of elasticity
Length of cylinder
Harmonic number associated with x direction
Moment resultants
Harmonic number associated with ~b direction
Direct stress resultants
External applied loading in the radial direction
External applied loading in the x direction
External applied loading in the ~b direction
Loading coefficient in the radial direction
Loading coefficient in the x direction
Loading coefficient in the ~b direction
Internal pressure
Radius of cylinder

Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping 0308-0161/87/$03"50 © Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd,

England, 1987. Printed in Great Britain

132 Ong Lin Seng t Thickness of cylinder Mid-surface displacement in the x direction Displacement coefficient in the x direction Umn 1) Mid-surface displacement in the 4' direction Displacement coefficient in the 4' direction l)mn W Mid-surface displacement in the radial direction Displacement coefficient in the radial direction Wren Coordinate in the axial direction X z Coordinate in the radial direction gx. In the normal operating condition. K4~. gx~b Strains t~x. A more general analysis has been done by Duthie and Tooth. it is usually required to interpolate between curves and at times extrapolate from curves to obtain results. These loadings are usually localised in nature and affect stress distribution mainly in the immediate area of constraint or load application. 1 but in this case however. and find out their effects on the displacements and stresses set up on the shell wall. In such cases the accuracy of the results depends on the choices of parameters used. it is widely used and has received more attention than shells of other shapes. Over the years. usually for storing and transmitting fluid or gases. During the design stage. such as those that arise from the attachments. but is also subject to other loadings. piping connections and supports. however. it is essential that the designer should consider all possible loadings on the cylinder. In dealing with local loading problems. Kxgp Curvatures mvzr / L 2 v Poisson's ratio Coordinate in the circumferential direction 4' u INTRODUCTION The cylindrical shell is a c o m m o n and important structural component. Though their approach is simple. However. not only is the cylinder subject to loading by its own contents. and in most cases only a single type of loading is considered. its analysis being exclusive to that particular type of loading. design codes such as BS5500 and ASME boiler and pressure vessel codes provide parametric formulae and curves to obtain stresses and displacements along the boundary of a loaded area. these analyses often lack generality. Typical uses of cylindrical shells are mostly seen in chemical process plants and the gas industry. only symmetric loadings were considered. The above reasons prompted the work described in this paper. The aim is to present a general analysis for cylindrical shell loaded by various . ~ . much work has been done in an effort to analyse cylindrical shell under various kinds of loading.

it is nevertheless considered expensive so that not many people can afford to use it. the cylindrical shell equations of Sanders 2 will be adopted but modified to take account of the stiffening effect of internal pressure on the shell wall. the use of the finite element method is fundamentally inefficient as most effort is wasted on regions of the shell where the solution has little interest. This technique is versatile as virtually almost any shape of loading can be represented by Fourier series. Besides. whereas the use of a large number of elements in the model will increase the cost greatly. For the above reasons. The technique has been successfully used by many authors to solve local loading problems in shells of various geometries. this information can be useful to other similar problems. C Y L I N D R I C A L SHELL ANALYSIS The cylindrical shell equations of Sanders. In the development of a program. In the world of stress analysis. the accuracy of the solution depends on the number of elements. a direct solution of the governing equations provides the better alternative for the local loading problems. This feature will enable the user to establish the rate of convergence for a particular loading system.A computer program for cylindrical shell analysis 133 types of external loadings and to provide a computer program based on the analysis.J where L's are the differential operators. can be shown as follows: L2 L4 L5 L3 L5 L6 =~- x (1) [P. Today. The use of an insufficient number of elements in regions of high stress gradient may adversely affect the accuracy of the solution. 2 when expressed in terms of midsurface displacements and surface loadings. However. All these advantages make the Fourier expansion technique an ideal method for solving the shell equations presented in the next section. In this work. this problem is less important owing to the rapid development of computer technology. the Fourier expansion solution can be written in such a way that it will cycle through a user-specified number of Fourier harmonics and superpose separate solutions. as defined by Ong and Tooth. For local loading problems. The shell equations are then solved by the double Fourier expansion technique. the main drawback of this method is that a great number of terms are usually required before a solution of acceptable accuracy could be reached. although the finite element method has rapidly become a universal and popular tool. Many terms can now be considered without taking up a great deal of computer storage and time. 3 .

..v'. cos n~b)sin (mTtx/L) (P. It is to be noted that the Fourier harmonics are uncoupled.2 u.. the i-th harmonic does not interact with thej-th harmonic.. sin n~b)sin (mxx/L) .. Px P (w.P~... Although the boundary conditions do not precisely describe the conditions pertaining to all end closure configurations. where loadings are remote from the ends. they are sufficient for most problems encountered in practice. sin nq~ .. and surface loadings are shown in Fig. stress resultants.. The origin of the coordinate system is taken at one end of the cylinder.2 (4) tv2.] .... w u P. that is..sin nqS)sin (mnx/L) (u.. The resulting matrix equations will involve only the coefficients of displacements and loadings. The prescribed boundary conditions imply that the cylinder is supported in radial and tangential directions at the ends and the shell is free to rotate about a tangent to the edge..... The sign conventions for displacements.. cos nq5 + u~.=o . = --~ [Kq] - x [Pjmn] (3) Uran and [w-. This is typical of a linear elasticity problem. The double Fourier series for the loads and displacements are given by eqn (2). sin n~b .. cos nq5 + w~. cos n~b)sin (mrtx/L) (2) The unprimed coefficients in eqn (2) refer to patterns symmetric about q~= 0 and the primed coefficients refer to patterns anti-symmetric about 4)= 0. sin nq~)cos (mrcx/L) _(P~. The displacement coefficients for the symmetric and anti-symmetric parts are given below: Wren] 1. ] .. sin nq~)cos (mnx/L) (v..... The solution for displacements can be obtained by first dividing displacement and loading functions into symmetric and anti-symmetric parts and then substituting each part separately into eqn (1). cos n~b + P'..=o (Px.Ong Lin Seng 134 The first step in solving differential equations by the double Fourier expansion method is to express all the known and unknown functions by double Fourier series. cos nq5 + P'~.. /. 1. This provision permits us to describe symmetric or non-symmetric functions.

v)] = K32 K33 = n2(1 + k) + 8~1 . It is incidental that both symmetric and anti-symmetric sets of displacement coefficients have the same [Ku] matrix. 2.2/2) K12 = 2[~1 -. . and [Ku] is the stiffness matrix. refer to radial. 3. Positive directions of mid-surface displacements.] matrix are obtained by operating through the differential operators [Lu] ofeqn (1) and are given below.1~ igid diaphragm t bX x¢ NCx F Me NQ Fig. stress resultants and loading components.v] = K21 K13 = n(1 + nZk) + ~ 3 .3k(1 .vX4 + 9k)22 (5) .1 + )]. and ~ . K l l = 1 + k(n 2 + 22) 2 + -~(r/2 . ofeqn (2).vX4 + k)n 2 Ke3 = .31_ ~'(1 ..~n214(1 + v) . axial and circumferential directions. The elements of the [Ko.j = 1. where i.. 1...v)kn2 z = K31 K22 = •2.A computer program for cylindrical shell analysis 135 ~.v)kn 2 -. the result of assigning negative signs to v~.

. their Fourier coefficients can be evaluated by multiplying both sides of the loading function by suitable orthogonal functions such that .. sin n~b) sin (mnx/L) F2 =.Z2jF1 r(nZ3j + Zlt)F1 ~X E~ r "~(. THE LOADING COEFFICIENTS The solutions presented in the preceding section are all expressed in terms of loading coefficients ['jr. 2 -. AS the types of loadings on the cylinder are always known. and Fjm. Using eqns (2) to (4).Pj.~.(Ptm. sin nq~ -... cos n~b)cos (mnx/L) Once eqn (7) is obtained.r.jmnSlnnffg)sln(mr~x/L) ] g2j(Pjm n c o s nq5 + Ptm.Ong Lin Seng 136 where k=l~(2t/r 2) and 2- mT~r L Let [Zit] = [Kit].. glj(PtranCOSH ¢ -~. sin n~b)cos (mrtx/L)] Z3j(Ptm.nZ2 j)F2 l£x/ KO tCx~ 1 m= n=0 j=l (7) 22ZljF1 (n2 Z xj -}.~. cos nq~ + U~m..nZ3 t)F1 (32Zaj + n2Zlj + ¼nZ2j)F2 where F1 = (P j. which is symmetric as [Kit] is symmetric. cos nO) sin (mr~x/L) ] (6) The strain and curvature functions can also be found by the linear strain displacement relations of Sanders.1. sin nq~ . the stress and m o m e n t resultants can all be found through constitutive relations.~ m . the displacement functions can be expressed follows: 3 W U V m=0 n=0 j=l p! • as .Z3j -.

3. . ) 1 CLI2~ P'x. as given in the following. . 2. 2. . m = 0) = Px cos n ¢ cos (mrcx/L) dx d e (n.. n = 1. and circumferential directions can be determined. the loading coefficients for the radial. . 2. . 3 . 2.. cos n ¢ sin (rnrx/L) d x d e L~ - P'rr~.)o do 1 . . . 2. . 3. axial. ) = = L~z. lf/ff Pxr.. sin n ¢ sin (mr~x/L) dx d e - (n = 1.. 3 . m = 1.2 r L f 2n PC sin n ¢ sin (mrtx/L) dx d e Lrrdo do Ptcran F LrC V o d 0 P . m = 1. 3 .) For tangential loadings: P4.. ... 2. In this manner.) - Lrt j o . 2'~ (n = 1. 2.. Lrc j o .. sin (m•x/L) dx d e - - (n = 1. .).J o L x j o do (8) M o s t o f the loadings can be readily expressed by d o u b l e Fourier series u p o n .) L~Z j O J O P. 3 . 2.) 0 (n = 0) P• cos n ¢ sin (mTzx/ L) dx dc~ (n = 1. For radial loadings: l[Lf = -erran trt j o Pr sin (mrcx/L) dx d e J o (n = O) P. 3 . .A computer program for cylindrical shell analysis 137 integration over the surface o f the cylinder eliminates all but one o f the F o u r i e r coefficients. . . . . .. ) For longitudinal loadings: l f. 3. . ) Px sin n ¢ d x d e (m = O) Px sin nq~ cos (mnx/L)'dx d e (m.. = -Px cos n ¢ d x d e Lrt do do (n = 1. .2Lzt = ~ Px d x d e Px cos (mTrx/L) dx d e (n = m = 0) (n = O.

The problem was later used by Duthie and Tooth to verify their theory x and since then it has become a benchmark problem. It is found that there is essentially no difference in results obtained. for instance. taking 100 terms each for the m and n coefficients should be sufficient for most problems. Any combination or repetition of the above loadings can be considered and placed at any position on the cylinder. a solution based on a refined barrel vault theory was made available by Flugge. Example (1) A cylinder supported at its ends and half-filled with water For this problem. The rate of convergence for the loadings and solution depend on the types ofloadings as well as the vessel dimensions. 2. and radial directions (5) Radial triangular loads varying in the x or ~bdirections with straight side facing x = 0 or ~b = 0. of which the results compared favourably well with experimental data. they include the following: (1) Internal pressure (2) Vessel self-weight loading (3) Fluid content loading of any level of fill (4) Patch/line/point loads in the x. other types of loadings not mentioned above can also be considered if their effects can be simulated by combination of different loading types. The program is written in F O R T R A N 77. two examples will be given to show the validity of the program. For example. In addition. This program has been verified against the work of Duthie and Tooth 1 who developed a cylindrical shell analysis based on Flugge's shell theory. the IBM PC/XT/AT. which can be implemented on a mainframe computer or a personal microcomputer. THE COMPUTER PROGRAM The types of loadings considered in the computer program are shown pictorially in Fig. The general details of the cylinder and the comparisons of circumferential bending stress (6M~/t 2) and axial direct stress (Nx/t) distributions with the . As a general guide. q~. one patch load with one triangular load of opposite directions. this program was part of the present author's work 3 in analysing a pressurised vessel with initial geometric imperfections. In the following. Furthermore.138 Ong Lin Seng application of eqn (8). a moment loading can be simulated by combining two patch loads of equal magnitude but opposite in directions. or alternatively.

G2. 4 A vessel is 2.. and is subjected to a longitudinal moment of 1. .A computer program for cylindrical shell analysis 139 ! -~---~." ~ ~ ' _ x=O ~=0 Patch "~'~'~d (degree) loads 2C or 2d. E = 186 GPa.. 12 mm thick. Example (2) A vessel with square attachment The second example is taken from BS5500. The maximum stresses and the rotation o f the bracket are to be determined. 4 m long. Varioustypes of loadingson cylinder. results from the computer program are shown in Fig. 3. The agreement is considered most satisfactory.13 x 106 N m m applied through a square attachment o f 300 × 300 mm 2 at the mid-length of the shell . 4. xJo -I Triangular load Self-weight pressure t1=0 Fig.see Fig. 2..5 m dia.

~..I ~. ~ ~ • . . bQrret vault sotution tref....l_ lOOmm~ Ml~ __. __ ~. t~O00 mm i'-- P~ .12.-- Computer program Edge 30 ' 20 (BSSSOO) 10 0 z.. p = 0. 3. -10 t -1S Fig. wt. 1 ) computer progrcu~ 10 S 0 -S +'". of water) 20 t MPO 1S ~ .~ Cm) -I0 -20 -30 i -SO' Fig. Comparison with barrel vault solution.o + + " +o.188 MPcz + by two I~tch roods i~ l~mm_~: lOOmm.3 e = 9.<~.51 E-6 N~mmn (sp. 4. Axial moment on cylinder. ~:~ 1.o x 211 Iz. ~ d i Q 12190 mm g[ E = 207GPQ u=0. %' // ~-~'-r-.zY'~ / i 2 3 ~.13 E 6 Nn~2 mm ' l++°o J dio.7mm ..

Local loads on cylindrical shells: a Fourier series solution. 1984. thus the rotation of the bracket is equal to 0-0014 radians. By the BS5500. Spence. the BS5500 gives 0. they reveal that the code is not conservative in this case. obtained by the program. The analysis will be useful to the stress analysts or designers who would like to find out the stress and displacement distributions on the cylinder. 4. As a check.004 14 radians. The computer program attached is written in such a way that different types of loadings can be considered and superposed.97 MPa and 33. which takes into account the rigidity of the bracket. together with the stress distributions for the axial and circumferential directions.A computer program for cylindrical shell analysis 141 Following the procedure given by BS5500. Therefore. However. the author modelled the moment by triangular patch loads. The double Fourier expansion technique is used for the solution. 235-72. ed.32 MPa. London. Since the attachment is relatively rigid compared to the cylindrical wall. G. It can be concluded from this example that the BS5500 is conservative in estimating displacements but it underestimates stresses. Behaviour of Thin-Walled Structures. With regard to the rotation of the bracket. . the maximum radial displacement at either side of the bracket is 0. REFERENCES Duthie. must be sought to determine the actual peak stresses as it is an important factor in estimating the fatigue life of the component under consideration.206 mm. which allows users to consider a complex loading case when its solution is not readily attainable elsewhere.. and Tooth. Rhodes and J. When these values are compared with the corresponding computed values of 26. respectively. the outside stresses are 19.72 MPa for the axial and circumferential directions. pp. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. When the bracket is subjected to fatigue loading. an alternative analysis. From the program. stress concentration will be developed and the stresses around the attachment will be much higher than that simulated by patch loads. care must be taken when using BS5500 for such a problem. the moment load is replaced by two uniform patch loads of equal magnitudes but opposite in direction. A. J. the results obtained almost coincide with that of the patch load model except that it has slightly lower peak stresses. CONCLUSION A general theory for a simply end-supported cylinder subjected to various types of external loadings has been presented.25 MPa and 22. This patch load model is shown in Fig. S.

C2. It is listed here as an example. Poisson's ratio. . . C 6 I = M o m e n t 1. and Tooth. C3. Step of result output.13E6 N . Specification for unfired fusion welded pressure vessels. S.) M. 1982.. of M and N terms used in. N u m b e r of loading specifications. British Standards Institution.v. . London. Applied Solid Mechanics--1 Conference. C3.m m 50. 3. Nsym. 0. Job description (Max. q l. Glasgow. C5. J. NASA Rep. 0.75 C1. step 1700. 26-27 March 1985. S. 24. 50 rOWS 1. 4000 2 1. The loading is not symmetric about x = L/2. 0. x2. 13. The effect of high internal pressure on pipes and cylindrical vessels which are subjected to external constraints and initial geometric imperfection. . 100.188. 60 chars. 1900. . The loading is symmetric about ~b = 0. length.Ong Lin Seng 142 2. London. Consider the stiffening effect of pressure.solution. ed. Ignore the stiffening effect of pressure. 2300. APPENDIX 1 Data-file for the program The layout for the data-file is shown in the following. -0. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. The loading is not symmetric about q~ --0. The first and second coordinates for output. No.t. S.75 Definitions M. 1959. 13. Jr. N = Nsys = 1 = 2 Nsym = 1 = 2 Ncsym = 1 = 2 g. . C5. C2. . step No. 186E3. Ong. A. C4. Ncsym R. Radius.3. A.. University of Strathclyde. 4.t. x2. C 6 ] 'Nload' C1. 12. C4. . thickness.L Nload xl. . . An improvedfirst approximation theory for thin shells.1.v R. Tooth and J. L.L Nload C1.N Nsys. ~bl. 0. Spence. . . Young's modulus.2 1250. The loading is symmetric about x = L/2. 0. C2. ~b2.E. 1986.. British Standard BS5500:1982. Sanders. L. 0. On the right hand side is the data-file for the second example. 2100. 100.188. C6 xl. . . 50 1.

q~) Size of load (2c. varying in the x-direction and with vertical side facing x = 0. If C1 ~ 0. 2d). . N~. Nx~ (d) M o m e n t resultants--Mx. see Fig. varying in the C-direction and with vertical side facing ¢ = 0. C4 = C5. Result output The results are stored in a file called 'output'. The stress and displacement output can be requested from first point (x 1. u. in step of 'step' and in the constant x or constant ¢ directions. M~. C6 -- then Radial patch Axial shear patch Circumferential shear patch Triangular patch. ¢2). then Specific weight of shell's material Magnitude of internal pressure Specific weight of fluid Level of fill (in degrees from ¢ = 0) 0 (not used) Any item not to be considered is set to zero. (a) Position--{x. It contains the following items for each requested output point. (2). 5 Triangular patch.A computer program for cylindrical shell analysis If C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 = = = = = = 143 0. C1 = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = C2 = C3. v (c) Direct stress-resultants--Nx. Mx~ (e) Inside and outside axial stresses and strains. (f) Inside and outside circumferential stresses and strains. ¢) (b) Displacements--w. 4h) to last point (x 2. Magnitude of load Location of load (x.


M T E R M K=M*NSYM-KM C8=T3*K C9ffiC8"C8 AI=I.5.C P I ) / S T E P ITOL=I.0) G O T O 333 W R I T E ( 6 .0. 9 EO ( J ) = 0 .W ) *Cl C 5 = 0 .'SP. WT.I=2. 'T H I C K N E S S = '. I) A I = ( C P 4 . '* L O A D I N G * ' ) FORMAT(/5X. 'PHY' .NE. I ) = 0 .='. ' HOOP TRIANGULAR (5) '// &5X.2X. 1IX.FT.0.2 (2X. 1 2 5 " T 1 " (4. (CL(K).2X.'YOUNGS MODULUS ='.0) W R I T E (6. I 4 / 5 X .0. V V FORMAT(/10X.4X.C P 2 ) / S T E P IF (NP.*) 'CALCULATIONS D O 3001 M = I .2) W R I T E (6. 2X. N T E R M F O R M A T ( / 5 X .EQ.NE. E . 'TYPE = R A D I A L P A T C H (1) A X I A L S H E A R P A T C H (2)'/ & 5X.3 .0) ITOL=I IF (STEP. 3 4 4 ) IC. WT.K=J+I. ' M T E R M = ' . F I L E = 'O U T P U T '. O F F L U I D = ' . ILEVEL O F FILT-~I. FT. I+AI E N D IF DO 990 J = l .'RADIUS ='EI2. 5 * ( 3 .5.360) F O R M A T ( S X .8X.2X. 'U N I T '/ & 10X.2) A I = ( C P 3 . 0 Z0(3)=0.0+9. 'X'. 0 * C I * T I ) C 7 = 0 . R . 0 + V V ) . 1 2 5 " T I * (4.'DEG') F O R M A T ( / 5 X .5. '2BETA' ) F O R M A T (7X.I4) W R I T E (6.330) F O R M A T ( / / 5 X . 0 DO 990 I = I . N L O A D J = (I-1) "6+1 IC=CL(J) IF(IC.305) (CL(I). 'MAGNITUDE' . 2. '2C' .300) X L E N .8X.5/ & 5X.2. 0 .343) DO 333 I = I .5) . 2 X .2X.9X. 2) IF (CL(1).c9) IN PROGRESS' 145 .5) IF (CL(1).EQ. FT.F7.'UNIT'/ & 10X.'LENGTH ='EI2. 0 + C I * C 9 " C 9 A4f-VV*C8 A5=AI*C9-A4*A4 Z0 (i) = C 9 / A 5 Z 0 (2 ) = . ' P O I S S O N R A T I O •'. 'STIFFENING E F F E C T O F P R E S S U R E H A S B E E N CONSIDERED') W R I T E (6.EI2.EQ.3) C 306 305 343 344 333 C 990 W R I T E (6. o P02 (2)=0°0 C X=CPI PHY=CP2*RADIAN STEPI=STEP*HADIAN C WRITE(*. El2.0"C1) -PRINT INPUT DATAO P E N (6. A/) IF (NSYS. El2.EQ.EQ. I T O L + N T Y P E R E S (J. T .0) W R I T E (6.5. 5 .'SP.0+Cl) C 6 = 0 .A computer program for cylindrical shell analysis C 780 360 782 330 300 C 4 = 0 .'UNIT'/ & 10X.0.5.306) F O R M A T (//5X. El2.E12.o Po2 (1) =o.0* (i. 'TYPE' . E I 2 . I2.A 4 / A 5 zo (5) =1. EQ.2X.E12. ' N T E R M ='. ' C Y L I N D R I C A L SHELL') W R I T E (6.' H O O P S H E A R P A T C H (3) AXIAL TRIANGULAR (4) '/ & 5X.2X.0 zo(4)=o.'UNIT'/ & 1 0 X . 1 2 5 " (4.780) N A M E F O R M A T (//5X.2X.J+5) CONTINUE IF (STEP. o/(c7. S T A T U S = 'N E W ' ) W R I T E (6.0) T H E N IF (NP.782) M T E R M .5.'PRESSURE ='.

MAD) CALL ENO(X.EQ.O 3003 P2(1)=0.0 Ic=2*LiI DO 30 JC=1.9 DISP(JC.9) DC 3001 N=l.O+N2*Cl)+C4*N*C9 A22=C9+C5*N2 A23=-C6*N*C6 A33=N2*(1.9 DC 930 J=l.0*Al2*A23*Al3-All*A23*A23 &-A22*A13*A13-A33*A12*A12 Z(l)=(A22*A33-A23*A23)/DEN 2(2)-(A13*A23-A12*A33)/DEN Z(3)=(A12*A23-A13*A22)/DEN Z(4)-(A12*A13_All*A23)/DEN Z(5)= (All*A22-A12*A12)/DEN Z(6)-(All*A33-A13*A13)/DEN DO 3003 1=1.5/(1.ITOL RES(I.K.I)+DISP(J.ITOL) Il=ITOL Do 500 I=L+l.I) 910 CONTINUE 3001 C IF (NP.N.146 Ong Lin Seng ZO(6)=Al/A5 Do 3004 1=1.ITOL) GOT0 555 100 IF (NP.NMAD.OE6/A A4=PRESS*O.N.LOAD) ELSE X=(L-l)*STEP+CPl CALL ENN(X.ES.NLOAD.PHI.ES.P02.l) THEN ANG=CP2+(J-l)*STEP ELSE X=CPl+(J-l)*STEP END IF .K.I)=Al*ES(JC)-DISP(JC.P02.O.K.9 555 DO 910 I=l.Z.EO.ITOL R?%(J.LOAD.P.LOAD) STEPl=T4*K*STEP/N END IF Do 900 JC=1.0 CALL PJMN(K.0+C1*(N2+C9)**2+C2*((N2-1)+0.5*C9) A12=CS*(C3*N2-W) A13==N*(l.ITOL IF (NP.I)=RES(J.PHY.EQ.ZO.CL) IF (NP.0 CALL PJMN(K.EQ.IC) 30 500 CONTINUE L=L*2 GOT0 100 DC 910 J=1.NTERM NZ=N*N A11=1..0-W*W) WRITE(*.CL) li=l 11=-l IF (Il.O+Cl)+C7*C9 DEN=All*A22*A33+2.*) 'WRITE TO OUTPUT FILE' DO 940 J=l.O PO2(3)=0.L)=ES(JC) 900 Il=L*2-1 IF (Il.K.GE.3 P(I)=O.P.Z.3 3004 PO(I)=O.P2.l) THEN Do 930 1=1.ES.J)=RES(I.PO.EQ.EQ.J)+EO(I) 930 END IF C A3=1.N.9 DISP(JC.l) THEN PHI=(L-l)*STEPl+PHY CALL ENN(X.ZO.l) CALL ENO(X.P2.Il Al=COS(N*(I-L)*STEP1)*2.PO.

5.'SPYI='.A computer program for cylindrical shell analysis 940 C 310 311 312 313 314 999 i0 RES (l.2.5/ & 4X.EI2.'EXI='. J)/2.3X.J)) ES (2) =R* (RES (5.J) *T5 WRITE (6.EI2.310) X. J ) -T* 0.0*ES (5 )/T2 E0 (4) =A2+6. J) +A4 RES (5.5.3X.J) ) ES (5) =T6* (RES ( 8 .0) GOTO i0 JU--J+I IF(J.LOAD) IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H.2.J) =RES (2 .'DEG') FORMAT(5X.5*RES (7.J) =RES (3.J) . J) +T*0. J ) + W * R E S (7.O-Z) DIMENSION E0(10). & 3X.3) RES (4.K=I.3X. RADIAN. J) +T*0 •5*RES (7.EI2.J) =RES (i .3 IF(LOAD(J).4) WRITE (6. J) AI=ES (1 )/T A2 =ES (2 )/T E0 (i) =AI-6.0*ES (4)/T2 E0 (2 )=AI+6.LOAD(3) COMMON/BLK2/T3.75*C3*Z0(JV) CONTINUE RETURN END 147 .F8.'ANGLE ='. PI. J ) .EQ.EI2.J) +VV*RES (4 .5.6) WRITE (6.5.'U ='.EI2. R.EI2.0*ES (5)/T2 E0 (5) = (R*RES (4.J) *T5 RES (2 .3X.314) (E0(K).5.2. J) ) *A3 EO (6) = (R*RES (4.3X.5.P0.5*RES (8.EI2.J) +VV*RES (5.3X.P02(3).313) (E0(K).2) JU=6 JV--J+2 C8=PO(J)*C4 C9=-P02(J)*C5 E0(1)=E0(1)+Z0(J)*C8 E0(2)=E0(2)+Z0(JU)*C8/C45 E0(3)=E0(3)+Z0(JV)*C9*C45 E0(4)=E0(4)-C8*C3*Z0(JU) E0(5)=E0(5)+C8*Z0(J) E0(6)=E0(.K=5.K=I.F7.2) STOP END SUBROUTINE ENO(X.ANG WRITE (6.5) FORMAT(4X.5. INX~'.F8.312) (ES(K).T * 0 • 5 * R E S ( 8.'X ='.E12.P02. J) =RES (5.'EPYO='.'SPYO='.EI2.5) FORMAT(4X.'SXO='. J ) ) *A3 WRITE (6.Z0(6).EI2.M.J) +VV*RES (8 .J) *T5 RES (3.3X.1X.F8. T.EI2.'MXPY='.'NXPY='.J)) ES (6) =T6*TI*RES (9.'EPYI='.J). & IX.Z0.'EXO='. NCSYM C2=M*T4 C3=C2"R CI=C3"C3 C4=SIN(C2*X) C5=COS(C2*X) C45=C4/C5 DO I0 J=l.8) CONTINUE FORMAT(//SX.EI2.3X. J ) ) *A3 EO (7) = (R*RES (5. IMX=I.'W ='.'NPY='.3X.6)+C9*C3*Z0(JV) E0(7)=EO(7)+C8*CI*ZO(J) E0(9)=E0(9)+C9*0.A 4 * W ES (1) =R* (RES (4. J) =RES (4.5.1X.5.K=I.E0. T4.EI2.2.P0(3).311) (RES(K.EI2. J) ) *A3 E0 (8 )= (R*RES (5.0*ES (4 )/T2 EO (3 )=A2-6.5.J) ) ES (3 )=R*TI*RES (6.5) FORMAT(4X.EQ. XLEN.'MPY=I. ISXI='. tV ='.0 ES (4) =T6* (RES (7 .F8.

P0(3) COMMON/BLK2/T3. P2. XLEN. P0.9 ES(I)=0. A I .P02 DO 20 I=I. P.ALPHA*RADIAN A I = S I N (ALPHA) A 2 = C O S (ALPHA) A3=SW*R/(M*PI*PI) IF(N. M. M . RADIAN. ES.I) GOTO i0 P0 (1) =4.O-Z) DIMENSION ES(10).25*N*Z (JU)) CONTINUE RETURN END C S U B R O U T I N E PJMN(M.0 CNT=COS (N'PHI) S N T = S I N (N'PHI) A2=M*T4 A3=A2*R AI=A3 *A3 A 4 = S I N (A2*X) A5=COS (A2 *X) A45=A4/A5 DO i0 J=l.T4.CL) IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H.AI.A2. A 3 .I) CALL SWP(P.T.LOAD(3) COMMON/BLK2/T3.AND.GT. ALPHA) IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H.N. SW. N.0*A3* (A1-ALPHA*A2) RETURN A5=4. PI.NLOAD.O-Z) DIMENSION P(3).P02(3).75*A3*Z (JV) +N*A3*Z (J) +0. SWV.0*PRESS/(M*PI) +4.EQ.0.P(3). T.M. T4.M. LOAD) IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H.O-Z) D I M E N S I O N P(3).RADIAN.MOD(M.P2. Z. N C S Y M DO 5 I=i. N. PRESS. RADIAN.0) GOTO i0 JU=J+ 1 IF(J.PI.NCSYM 2O COMMON/BLK3/P.0*T*SWV/(PI*M) P (i) = A 5 + 4 .P0(3). 0 * A 3 * (ALPHA-AI*A2) P(3) =-A5 RETURN . PO.2).Z(6).NE.NLOAD J=(I-l)*6+l IC=CL(J) AI=CL(J+I) A2=CL(J+2) A3=CL(J+3) A4=CL(J+4) A5=CL(J+5) IF (IC. A 4 .A3. A 5 .0) CALL P A T C H ( I C . R.EQ.R. A 2 .I) GOTO 20 IF(N. T4. N C S Y M ALPHA".148 I0 Ong Lin Seng S U B R O U T I N E ENN (X.EQ.EQ. 2) JU=6 JV=J+2 A6= (P (J) *CNT+P2 (J) *SNT) *A4 A7= (P (J) *SNT-P2 (J) *CNT) *A5 ES (I) =ES (i) +Z (J) *A6 ES (2) =ES (2) +Z (JU) *A6/A45 ES (3) =ES (3) +Z (JV) *A7*A45 ES (4) =ES (4) -A6*A3*Z (JU) ES (5) =ES (5) +A6* (N*Z (JV) +Z (J)) ES (6) =ES (6) +A7* (A3*Z (JV)-N*Z (JU)) ES (7) =ES (7) +A6*Z (J) *AI ES (8) =ES (8) +A6* (Z (J) *N*N+N*Z (JV)) ES (9) =ES (9) +A7* (0. PHI .P2(3). XLEN.EQ.XLEN.P0.A4) IF (IC.3 IF(LOAD(J).CL(60) COMMON/BLK2/T3. R. T. PI. N ) CONTINUE RETURN END C C I0 S U B R O U T I N E SWP (P.N.P2(3).

P0(3). R.0) THEN A5=Q/(R* PI ) GOTO 50 END IF AI=2.600. NCSYM COMMON/BLK3/P.500.700.0*SIN(A2)*SIN(A3)/A4 GOTO 30 IF (CC.0) AM=4.0*COS(A2)/XLEN IF (CC. P0.P2(3).0*R*Pi) IF (BETA1.P02(3) COMMON/BLK2/T3. Q.A computer program for cylindrical shell analysis 20 1 2 4 30 50 500 600 700 60 501 601 701 AM=8.0.0. P02 AFA=AFA*RADIAN BETAI=BETAI*RADIAN c=cc/2.501) . CC.1.EQ. B.EQ. BETA1.0*SIN(A2)/XLEN IF (CC. EQ.0*(SIN(N*ALP~)*A2-N*COS(N*A~)*AI)/(N*(N*N-I)) P(1)=~*A3 ~TURN END SUBROUTINE PATCH (KTYPE.0.EQ. RADIAN.0) AM=2.0 IC=0 IF (NCSYM.O.I) IC=I AI=M*T4 A2=AI*B A3=AI*C A4=M*PI GOTO (1. T.0) AM=4.0) AM=2.1) KTYPE IF (CC.4.GT.601.0) GOTO 60 A4=N*AFA IF (BETAI.KTYPE P0 (i) =PO (1) +AM*AN0 RETURN P0 (2 )=P0 (2 )+AM*AN0 RETURN P02 (3) =P02 (3) -IC*AN0*AM RETURN END 149 . N) IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H.501.EQ.O-Z) DIMENSION P(3). o BETA=BETA1/2.500) . P2.0/A4 IF (N.701.GT.KTYPE P(1) =P(1) +AM*AN P2 (i) =P2 (i) +IC*AM*BN RETURN P (2) =P (2) +AM*AN P2 (2) =P2 (2) +IC*AM*BN RETURN P(3) =P(3) +AM*BN P2 (3)=P2 (3) -IC*AM*AN RETURN IF (BETAI.0. 0. PI.0 GOTO(501. M.0) AN0=Q/(2. EQ. AFA.2. 5) A5=A5/2 • 0+AI* (SIN (A2)/A2-COS (A2) ) AN=A5*COS (A4) BN=A5*SIN (A4) GOTO (500. 5) ANO=AM0/2.0*Q/(N*PI) A2=N*BETA A 5 = A I * S I N (A2) IF (KTYPE.0*COS(A2)*SIN(A3)/A4 GOTO 30 AM=(COS (A2) * (COS (A3)-SIN(A3)/A3) +SIN(A2)*SIN(A3) ) "2.0) AN0=BETA*Q/PI IF (KTYPE.EQ. T4.EQ. XLEN.0. GT.