Finite Element Analysis: Theory and Programming

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Finite Element Analysis: Theory and Programming

© All Rights Reserved

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Ong Lin Seng

School of Mechanical and Production Engineering,

Nanyang Technological Institute, Singapore

(Received 12 March 1987; accepted 17 March 1987)

ABSTRACT

This paper describes a general analysis for a cylindrical shell, simply

supported at both ends and subjected to various kinds of surface loadings.

Double Fourier expansion technique is employed to solve the shell equations

and also to express the displacement and loading functions. The applications

and validity of the analysis are shown by two examples, which show good

results. A computer program for the analysis is also attached, which is capable

of analysing a few loading cases at the same time.

NOMENCLATURE

A

E

L

m

M,

n

Nx

P,

e,

Pr.,n

Px,.n

P ,,.,

q

r

Modulus of elasticity

Length of cylinder

Harmonic number associated with x direction

Moment resultants

Harmonic number associated with ~b direction

Direct stress resultants

External applied loading in the radial direction

External applied loading in the x direction

External applied loading in the ~b direction

Loading coefficient in the radial direction

Loading coefficient in the x direction

Loading coefficient in the ~b direction

Internal pressure

Radius of cylinder

131

Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping 0308-0161/87/$03"50 Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd,

132

Thickness of cylinder

Mid-surface displacement in the x direction

Displacement coefficient in the x direction

Umn

1)

Mid-surface displacement in the 4' direction

Displacement

coefficient in the 4' direction

l)mn

W

Mid-surface displacement in the radial direction

Displacement coefficient in the radial direction

Wren

Coordinate in the axial direction

X

z

Coordinate in the radial direction

gx, ~ , gx~b Strains

t~x, K4~, Kxgp Curvatures

mvzr / L

2

v

Poisson's ratio

Coordinate in the circumferential direction

4'

u

INTRODUCTION

The cylindrical shell is a c o m m o n and important structural component; it is

widely used and has received more attention than shells of other shapes.

Typical uses of cylindrical shells are mostly seen in chemical process plants

and the gas industry, usually for storing and transmitting fluid or gases. In

the normal operating condition, not only is the cylinder subject to loading by

its own contents, but is also subject to other loadings, such as those that

arise from the attachments, piping connections and supports. These

loadings are usually localised in nature and affect stress distribution mainly

in the immediate area of constraint or load application. During the design

stage, it is essential that the designer should consider all possible loadings on

the cylinder, and find out their effects on the displacements and stresses set

up on the shell wall. Over the years, much work has been done in an effort to

analyse cylindrical shell under various kinds of loading. However, these

analyses often lack generality, and in most cases only a single type of loading

is considered, its analysis being exclusive to that particular type of loading. A

more general analysis has been done by Duthie and Tooth, 1 but in this case

however, only symmetric loadings were considered. In dealing with local

loading problems, design codes such as BS5500 and ASME boiler and

pressure vessel codes provide parametric formulae and curves to obtain

stresses and displacements along the boundary of a loaded area. In such

cases the accuracy of the results depends on the choices of parameters used.

Though their approach is simple, however, it is usually required to

interpolate between curves and at times extrapolate from curves to obtain

results. The above reasons prompted the work described in this paper. The

aim is to present a general analysis for cylindrical shell loaded by various

133

analysis.

In the world of stress analysis, although the finite element method has

rapidly become a universal and popular tool, it is nevertheless considered

expensive so that not many people can afford to use it. For local loading

problems, the use of the finite element method is fundamentally inefficient as

most effort is wasted on regions of the shell where the solution has little

interest. Besides, the accuracy of the solution depends on the number of

elements. The use of an insufficient number of elements in regions of high

stress gradient may adversely affect the accuracy of the solution, whereas the

use of a large number of elements in the model will increase the cost greatly.

For the above reasons, a direct solution of the governing equations provides

the better alternative for the local loading problems.

In this work, the cylindrical shell equations of Sanders 2 will be adopted

but modified to take account of the stiffening effect of internal pressure on

the shell wall. The shell equations are then solved by the double Fourier

expansion technique. This technique is versatile as virtually almost any

shape of loading can be represented by Fourier series. The technique has

been successfully used by many authors to solve local loading problems in

shells of various geometries. However, the main drawback of this method is

that a great number of terms are usually required before a solution of

acceptable accuracy could be reached. Today, this problem is less important

owing to the rapid development of computer technology. Many terms can

now be considered without taking up a great deal of computer storage and

time. In the development of a program, the Fourier expansion solution can

be written in such a way that it will cycle through a user-specified number of

Fourier harmonics and superpose separate solutions. This feature will

enable the user to establish the rate of convergence for a particular loading

system, this information can be useful to other similar problems. All these

advantages make the Fourier expansion technique an ideal method for

solving the shell equations presented in the next section.

C Y L I N D R I C A L SHELL ANALYSIS

The cylindrical shell equations of Sanders, 2 when expressed in terms of midsurface displacements and surface loadings, can be shown as follows:

L2 L4 L5

L3

L5

L6

=~-

(1)

[P,J

where L's are the differential operators, as defined by Ong and Tooth. 3

134

expansion method is to express all the known and unknown functions by

double Fourier series. The double Fourier series for the loads and

displacements are given by eqn (2).

w

u

P.

Px

P

(u,.. cos nq5 + u~,. sin nq~)cos (mnx/L)

(v,.. sin nq~ - v'. cos n~b)sin (mTtx/L)

(P... cos n~b + P'.,,. sin n~b)sin (mxx/L)

,,=o .=o (Px,.. cos nq5 + P'~.,. sin nq~)cos (mrcx/L)

_(P~,,.. sin n~b - P~,.,. cos n~b)sin (mrtx/L)

(2)

The unprimed coefficients in eqn (2) refer to patterns symmetric about q~= 0

and the primed coefficients refer to patterns anti-symmetric about 4)= 0.

This provision permits us to describe symmetric or non-symmetric

functions. The origin of the coordinate system is taken at one end of the

cylinder. The prescribed boundary conditions imply that the cylinder is

supported in radial and tangential directions at the ends and the shell is free

to rotate about a tangent to the edge. Although the boundary conditions do

not precisely describe the conditions pertaining to all end closure

configurations, they are sufficient for most problems encountered in

practice, where loadings are remote from the ends. The sign conventions for

displacements, stress resultants, and surface loadings are shown in Fig. 1.

The solution for displacements can be obtained by first dividing

displacement and loading functions into symmetric and anti-symmetric

parts and then substituting each part separately into eqn (1). The resulting

matrix equations will involve only the coefficients of displacements and

loadings. It is to be noted that the Fourier harmonics are uncoupled, that is,

the i-th harmonic does not interact with thej-th harmonic. This is typical of a

linear elasticity problem. The displacement coefficients for the symmetric

and anti-symmetric parts are given below:

Wren]

1.2

x [Pjmn]

(3)

Uran

and

[w-.]

,

/.2

(4)

tv2. ]

135

t

bX

x NCx

F Me

NQ

components.

[Ku] is the stiffness matrix.

It is incidental that both symmetric and anti-symmetric sets of

displacement coefficients have the same [Ku] matrix, the result of assigning

negative signs to v~,. and ~ . . ofeqn (2). The elements of the [Ko.] matrix are

obtained by operating through the differential operators [Lu] ofeqn (1) and

are given below.

K l l = 1 + k(n 2 + 22) 2 + -~(r/2 - 1 + )],2/2)

K13 = n(1 + nZk) + ~ 3 - v)kn2 z = K31

K22 = 2.31_ ~'(1 - - vX4 + k)n 2

K33 = n2(1 + k) + 8~1 - vX4 + 9k)22

(5)

136

where

k=l~(2t/r 2)

and

2-

mT~r

Using eqns (2) to (4), the displacement functions can be expressed

follows:

3

W

U

V

p!

as

g2j(Pjm n c o s nq5 + Ptm. sin n~b)cos (mrtx/L)]

Z3j(Ptm. sin nq~ - Pj,.. cos nO) sin (mr~x/L) ]

(6)

The strain and curvature functions can also be found by the linear strain

displacement relations of Sanders. 2

-- r,~.Z2jF1

r(nZ3j + Zlt)F1

~X

E~

r

"~(,~,Z3j -- nZ2 j)F2

lx/

KO

tCx~

m=

n=0 j=l

(7)

22ZljF1

(n2 Z xj -}- nZ3 t)F1

(32Zaj + n2Zlj + nZ2j)F2

where

F1 = (P j,.. cos nq~ + U~m. sin n~b) sin (mnx/L)

F2 =- (Ptm. sin nq~ -- ~ m . cos n~b)cos (mnx/L)

Once eqn (7) is obtained, the stress and m o m e n t resultants can all be found

through constitutive relations.

The solutions presented in the preceding section are all expressed in terms of

loading coefficients ['jr.. and Fjm.. AS the types of loadings on the cylinder

are always known, their Fourier coefficients can be evaluated by multiplying

both sides of the loading function by suitable orthogonal functions such that

137

integration over the surface o f the cylinder eliminates all but one o f the

F o u r i e r coefficients. In this manner, the loading coefficients for the radial,

axial, and circumferential directions can be determined, as given in the

following.

l[Lf

= -erran trt j o

Pr sin (mrcx/L) dx d e

J o

(n = O)

L~

P'rr~,

2'~

(n = 1, 2, 3, ...)

(n = 1, 2, 3, ...)

P4,mn-- 2 r L f 2n PC sin n sin (mrtx/L) dx d e

Lrrdo do

Ptcran

(n = 1, 2, 3, ...)

Lrt j o .) 0

(n = 0)

(n = 1, 2, 3 . . . . )

l f;;).

lf/ff

Pxr,, - 2Lzt

= ~

Px d x d e

Px cos (mTrx/L) dx d e

(n = m = 0)

(n = O, m = 1, 2, 3 . . . . )

1 CLI2~

P'x,,,,,

= -Px cos n d x d e

Lrt do do

(n = 1, 2, 3 . . . . m = 0)

(n, m = 1, 2, 3 . . . . )

Px sin n d x d e

(m = O)

(m, n = 1, 2, 3 . . . . )

=

=

L~z.)o do

1 ILl2.

Lrc j o .J o

L x j o do

(8)

138

application of eqn (8). The rate of convergence for the loadings and solution

depend on the types ofloadings as well as the vessel dimensions. As a general

guide, taking 100 terms each for the m and n coefficients should be sufficient

for most problems.

The types of loadings considered in the computer program are shown

pictorially in Fig. 2; they include the following:

(1) Internal pressure

(2) Vessel self-weight loading

(3) Fluid content loading of any level of fill

(4) Patch/line/point loads in the x, q~, and radial directions

(5) Radial triangular loads varying in the x or ~bdirections with straight

side facing x = 0 or ~b = 0.

Any combination or repetition of the above loadings can be considered and

placed at any position on the cylinder. In addition, other types of loadings not

mentioned above can also be considered if their effects can be simulated by

combination of different loading types. For example, a moment loading can

be simulated by combining two patch loads of equal magnitude but opposite

in directions, or alternatively, one patch load with one triangular load of

opposite directions.

The program is written in F O R T R A N 77, which can be implemented on a

mainframe computer or a personal microcomputer, for instance, the IBM

PC/XT/AT. This program has been verified against the work of Duthie and

Tooth 1 who developed a cylindrical shell analysis based on Flugge's shell

theory. It is found that there is essentially no difference in results obtained.

Furthermore, this program was part of the present author's work 3 in

analysing a pressurised vessel with initial geometric imperfections, of which

the results compared favourably well with experimental data. In the

following, two examples will be given to show the validity of the program.

Example (1) A cylinder supported at its ends and half-filled with water

For this problem, a solution based on a refined barrel vault theory was made

available by Flugge. The problem was later used by Duthie and Tooth to

verify their theory x and since then it has become a benchmark problem. The

general details of the cylinder and the comparisons of circumferential

bending stress (6M~/t 2) and axial direct stress (Nx/t) distributions with the

139

-~---~.." ~ ~ ' _

x=O

~=0

Patch

"~'~'~d

(degree)

loads

2C or 2d.

xJo

-I

Triangular load

Self-weight

pressure

t1=0

results from the computer program are shown in Fig. 3. The agreement is

considered most satisfactory.

The second example is taken from BS5500, G2. 4 A vessel is 2.5 m dia., 4 m

long, 12 mm thick, E = 186 GPa, and is subjected to a longitudinal moment

of 1.13 x 106 N m m applied through a square attachment o f 300 300 mm 2

at the mid-length of the shell - - see Fig. 4. The maximum stresses and the

rotation o f the bracket are to be determined.

12.7mm

. __

~.

~ d i Q

12190 mm

g[

E = 207GPQ

u=0.3

e = 9.51 E-6 N~mmn

20 t MPO

1S

~ . ~ ~

computer progrcu~

10

S

0

-S

%'

// ~-~'-r-,

-10

-1S

Fig. 3.

~:~

1.13 E 6 Nn~2 mm

' l++o

J dio.

t~O00 mm

i'--

P~

,,.I

~..

p = 0.188 MPcz

i~ l~mm_~: lOOmm,l_ lOOmm~

Ml~

__.--

Computer program

Edge

30

'

20

(BSSSOO)

10

0

z.o x

-I0

-20

-30

i

-SO'

Fig. 4.

141

two uniform patch loads of equal magnitudes but opposite in direction. This

patch load model is shown in Fig. 4, together with the stress distributions for

the axial and circumferential directions, obtained by the program. By the

BS5500, the outside stresses are 19.25 MPa and 22.72 MPa for the axial and

circumferential directions, respectively. When these values are compared

with the corresponding computed values of 26.97 MPa and 33.32 MPa, they

reveal that the code is not conservative in this case. With regard to the

rotation of the bracket, the BS5500 gives 0.004 14 radians. From the

program, the maximum radial displacement at either side of the bracket is

0.206 mm, thus the rotation of the bracket is equal to 0-0014 radians. It can

be concluded from this example that the BS5500 is conservative in

estimating displacements but it underestimates stresses. As a check, the

author modelled the moment by triangular patch loads. However, the results

obtained almost coincide with that of the patch load model except that it has

slightly lower peak stresses. Since the attachment is relatively rigid

compared to the cylindrical wall, stress concentration will be developed and

the stresses around the attachment will be much higher than that simulated

by patch loads. Therefore, care must be taken when using BS5500 for such a

problem. When the bracket is subjected to fatigue loading, an alternative

analysis, which takes into account the rigidity of the bracket, must be sought

to determine the actual peak stresses as it is an important factor in

estimating the fatigue life of the component under consideration.

CONCLUSION

A general theory for a simply end-supported cylinder subjected to various

types of external loadings has been presented. The double Fourier expansion

technique is used for the solution. The analysis will be useful to the stress

analysts or designers who would like to find out the stress and displacement

distributions on the cylinder. The computer program attached is written in

such a way that different types of loadings can be considered and

superposed, which allows users to consider a complex loading case when its

solution is not readily attainable elsewhere.

REFERENCES

Duthie, G. and Tooth, A. S., Local loads on cylindrical shells: a Fourier series

solution, Behaviour of Thin-Walled Structures, ed. J. Rhodes and J. Spence,

Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, 1984, pp. 235-72.

142

Rep. No. 24, 1959.

3. Ong, L. S. and Tooth, A. S., The effect of high internal pressure on pipes and

cylindrical vessels which are subjected to external constraints and initial

geometric imperfection, Applied Solid Mechanics--1 Conference, University of

Strathclyde, Glasgow, 26-27 March 1985, ed. A. S. Tooth and J. Spence, Elsevier

Applied Science Publishers, London, 1986.

4. British Standard BS5500:1982, Specification for unfired fusion welded pressure

vessels, British Standards Institution, London, 1982.

APPENDIX 1

Data-file for the program

The layout for the data-file is shown in the following. On the right hand side

is the data-file for the second example. It is listed here as an example.

Job description (Max. 60 chars.)

M,N

Nsys, Nsym, Ncsym

R,E,v,t,L

Nload

C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C 6 ]

'Nload'

C1, C2,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C 6 I =

M o m e n t 1.13E6 N - m m

50, 50

1,1,2

1250, 186E3, 0.3, 12, 4000

2

1, 0.188, 1900, 0, 100, 13.75

xl, ~bl, x2, ~b2, step

1700, 0, 2300, 0, 50

rOWS

Definitions

M, N =

Nsys = 1

= 2

Nsym = 1

= 2

Ncsym = 1

= 2

g,v

R,t,L

Nload

xl, q l, x2,

step

Ignore the stiffening effect of pressure.

Consider the stiffening effect of pressure.

The loading is not symmetric about x = L/2.

The loading is symmetric about x = L/2.

The loading is not symmetric about q~ --0.

The loading is symmetric about ~b = 0.

Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio.

Radius, thickness, length.

N u m b e r of loading specifications.

The first and second coordinates for output.

Step of result output.

If C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

=

=

=

=

=

=

143

0, then

Specific weight of shell's material

Magnitude of internal pressure

Specific weight of fluid

Level of fill (in degrees from = 0)

0 (not used)

If C1 ~ 0,

C1 = 1

= 2

= 3

= 4

=

C2 =

C3, C4 =

C5, C6 --

then

Radial patch

Axial shear patch

Circumferential shear patch

Triangular patch, varying in the x-direction and with vertical

side facing x = 0.

5 Triangular patch, varying in the C-direction and with vertical

side facing = 0.

Magnitude of load

Location of load (x, q~)

Size of load (2c, 2d), see Fig. (2).

The stress and displacement output can be requested from first point (x 1, 4h)

to last point (x 2, 2), in step of 'step' and in the constant x or constant

directions.

Result output

The results are stored in a file called 'output'. It contains the following items

for each requested output point.

(a) Position--{x, )

(b) Displacements--w, u, v

(c) Direct stress-resultants--Nx, N~, Nx~

(d) M o m e n t resultants--Mx, M~, Mx~

(e) Inside and outside axial stresses and strains.

(f) Inside and outside circumferential stresses and strains.

144

APPENDIX

C

C

2: PROGRAM

LISTING

END SIMPLY-SUPPORTED

CYLINDER SUBJECTED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF LOADINGS

IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-2)

CHARACTER*20

NANE*60,FILNM

DIMENSION 2(6),20(6),PO(3),P(3),PO2(3),P2(3)

DIMENSION LOAD(3),CL(60),ES(10),EO(lO)

DIMENSION DISP(9,120),RES(9,120)

COMMON/BLK2/T3,T4,PI,RADIAN,T,R,XLEN,NCSYM

COMMON/BLK3/P,PO,P2,P02

103

NRITE(*,*)

INPUT DATA-FILE NAME'

READ(*,l) FILNM

FORMAT(A20)

OPEN(2,FILE=FILNM,STATUS='OLD')

READ(2,103)

NAME

FORNAT(A60)

READ (2,*) MTERN,NTERM

READ (2,*) NSYS,NSYM,NCSYM

READ (2,*) R,E,W,T,XLEN

READ (2,*) NLCAD

READ (2,*) (CL(I),I=l,NLOAD*6)

READ (2,*) CPl,CP2,CP3,CP4,STEP

N-1

IF (CP2.EQ.CP4) NP=2

CLOSE (UNIT=2)

C

C

C

AXIAL SYMMETRY

NSYM=2, KM=1

NON AXIAL SYMMETRY

NSYM=l, KM=0

KM-1

IF (NSYM.EQ.l) KN=O

GLOBAL CONSTANTS

PI=ASIN(1.0)*2.0

RADIAN=PI/180.0

PI2=PI*PI

Tl=l.O-W

TZ=T*T

A=E*T/(l.O-W*W)

T3=PI*R/XLEN

TI=PI/XLEN

TS=R*R/A

T6=T2/12.0

C

C

40

41

DCI 40 1=1,3

LOAD(I)=0

Do 41 I=l,NLDAD

K=(I-1)*6-l

IF(CL(K).EQ.l.O.OR.CL(K).GE.4.0)

LOAD(l)=1

IF(CL(K).EQ.2.0)

LOAD(2)=1

IF(CL(K).EQ.3.0)

I..OAD(3)=1

Cl=T6/(R*R)

c2=0.0

PRESS=O.O

IF (CL(l).EQ.O.O)

THEN

LOAD(l)=1

IF(CL(Z).NE.O.O)

LOAD(3)=1

ALFHA=CL(S)*RADIAN

PRESS=CL(3)

Cll=SIN(ALPHA)

Cl2=COS(ALPHA)

PBAR=CL(3)+CL(4)*R*(Cll-ALPHA*C12)/PI

CI=PBAR*R/A

END IF

IF (NSYS.EQ.l) C2=0.0

C3=0.5*Tl*Cl

C

780

360

782

330

300

C 4 = 0 . 5 * ( 3 . 0 - W ) *Cl

C 5 = 0 . 1 2 5 " T 1 " (4.0+Cl)

C 6 = 0 . 1 2 5 " (4.0* (i. 0 + V V ) - 3 . 0 * C I * T I )

C 7 = 0 . 1 2 5 " T I * (4.0+9.0"C1)

-PRINT INPUT DATAO P E N (6, F I L E = 'O U T P U T ', S T A T U S = 'N E W ' )

W R I T E (6,780) N A M E

F O R M A T (//5X, A/)

IF (NSYS.EQ.2) W R I T E (6,360)

F O R M A T ( S X , 'STIFFENING E F F E C T O F P R E S S U R E H A S B E E N CONSIDERED')

W R I T E (6,782) M T E R M , N T E R M

F O R M A T ( / 5 X , ' M T E R M = ' , I 4 / 5 X , ' N T E R M =',I4)

W R I T E (6,330)

F O R M A T ( / / 5 X , ' C Y L I N D R I C A L SHELL')

W R I T E (6,300) X L E N , R , T , E , V V

FORMAT(/10X,'LENGTH ='EI2.5,2X,'UNIT'/

&

10X,'RADIUS ='EI2.5,2X,'UNIT'/

&

10X, 'T H I C K N E S S = ', El2.5,2X, 'U N I T '/

&

10X,'YOUNGS MODULUS =',EI2.5,2X,'UNIT'/

&

1 0 X , ' P O I S S O N R A T I O ',F7.3)

C

306

305

343

344

333

C

990

W R I T E (6,306)

F O R M A T (//5X, '* L O A D I N G * ' )

FORMAT(/5X,'SP. WT.=',E12.5,2X,'PRESSURE

=',E12.5/

& 5X,'SP. WT. O F F L U I D = ' , E I 2 . 5 , 2 X , ILEVEL O F FILT-~I,FT.2,'DEG')

F O R M A T ( / 5 X , 'TYPE = R A D I A L P A T C H (1)

A X I A L S H E A R P A T C H (2)'/

&

5X,'

H O O P S H E A R P A T C H (3)

AXIAL TRIANGULAR

(4) '/

&

5X, '

HOOP TRIANGULAR

(5) '//

&5X, 'TYPE' ,4X, 'MAGNITUDE' ,9X, 'X', 1IX, 'PHY' ,8X, '2C' ,8X, '2BETA' )

F O R M A T (7X, I2,2 (2X, El2.5) , 2X, FT. 2,2X, El2.5,2X, FT. 2)

IF (CL(1).EQ.0.0) W R I T E (6,305) (CL(I),I=2,5)

IF (CL(1).NE.0.0) W R I T E (6,343)

DO 333 I = I , N L O A D

J = (I-1) "6+1

IC=CL(J)

IF(IC.EQ.0) G O T O 333

W R I T E ( 6 , 3 4 4 ) IC, (CL(K),K=J+I,J+5)

CONTINUE

IF (STEP.EQ.0.0) ITOL=I

IF (STEP.NE.0.0) T H E N

IF (NP. EQ. I) A I = ( C P 4 - C P 2 ) / S T E P

IF (NP.EQ.2) A I = ( C P 3 - C P I ) / S T E P

ITOL=I. I+AI

E N D IF

DO 990 J = l , 9

EO ( J ) = 0 . 0

DO 990 I = I , I T O L + N T Y P E

R E S (J, I ) = 0 . 0

Z0(3)=0.0

zo(4)=o.o

Po2 (1) =o. o

P02 (2)=00

C

X=CPI

PHY=CP2*RADIAN

STEPI=STEP*HADIAN

C

WRITE(*,*) 'CALCULATIONS

D O 3001 M = I , M T E R M

K=M*NSYM-KM

C8=T3*K

C9ffiC8"C8

AI=I. 0 + C I * C 9 " C 9

A4f-VV*C8

A5=AI*C9-A4*A4

Z0 (i) = C 9 / A 5

Z 0 (2 ) = - A 4 / A 5

zo (5) =1. o/(c7.c9)

IN PROGRESS'

145

146

ZO(6)=Al/A5

Do 3004 1=1,3

3004

PO(I)=O.O

PO2(3)=0.0

CALL PJMN(K,O,NLOAD,CL)

IF (NP.EQ.l) CALL ENO(X,K,EO,ZO,PO,P02,LOAD,9)

DC 3001 N=l,NTERM

NZ=N*N

A11=1.0+C1*(N2+C9)**2+C2*((N2-1)+0.5*C9)

A12=CS*(C3*N2-W)

A13==N*(l.O+N2*Cl)+C4*N*C9

A22=C9+C5*N2

A23=-C6*N*C6

A33=N2*(1.O+Cl)+C7*C9

DEN=All*A22*A33+2.0*Al2*A23*Al3-All*A23*A23

&-A22*A13*A13-A33*A12*A12

Z(l)=(A22*A33-A23*A23)/DEN

2(2)-(A13*A23-A12*A33)/DEN

Z(3)=(A12*A23-A13*A22)/DEN

Z(4)-(A12*A13_All*A23)/DEN

Z(5)= (All*A22-A12*A12)/DEN

Z(6)-(All*A33-A13*A13)/DEN

DO 3003 1=1,3

P(I)=O.O

3003

P2(1)=0.0

CALL PJMN(K,N,NMAD,CL)

li=l

11=-l

IF (Il.EQ.ITOL) GOT0 555

100

IF (NP.EQ.l) THEN

PHI=(L-l)*STEPl+PHY

CALL ENN(X,PHI,K,N,ES,Z,P,P2,LOAD)

ELSE

X=(L-l)*STEP+CPl

CALL ENN(X,PHY,K,N,ES,Z,P,P2,MAD)

CALL ENO(X,K,ES,ZO,PO,P02,,LOAD)

STEPl=T4*K*STEP/N

END IF

Do 900 JC=1,9

DISP(JC,L)=ES(JC)

900

Il=L*2-1

IF (Il.GE.ITOL)

Il=ITOL

Do 500 I=L+l,Il

Al=COS(N*(I-L)*STEP1)*2.0

Ic=2*LiI

DO 30 JC=1,9

DISP(JC,I)=Al*ES(JC)-DISP(JC,IC)

30

500

CONTINUE

L=L*2

GOT0 100

DC 910 J=1,9

555

DO 910 I=l,ITOL

R?%(J,I)=RES(J,I)+DISP(J,I)

910

CONTINUE

3001

C

IF (NP.EQ.l) THEN

Do 930 1=1,9

DC 930 J=l,ITOL

RES(I,J)=RES(I,J)+EO(I)

930

END IF

C

A3=1.OE6/A

A4=PRESS*O.5/(1.0-W*W)

WRITE(*,*)

'WRITE TO OUTPUT FILE'

DO 940 J=l,ITOL

IF (NP.EQ.l) THEN

ANG=CP2+(J-l)*STEP

ELSE

X=CPl+(J-l)*STEP

END IF

940

C

310

311

312

313

314

999

i0

RES (2 ,J) =RES (2 ,J) *T5

RES (3,J) =RES (3,J) *T5

WRITE (6,310) X,ANG

WRITE (6,311) (RES(K,J),K=I,3)

RES (4, J) =RES (4, J) +A4

RES (5, J) =RES (5,J) - A 4 * W

ES (1) =R* (RES (4,J) +VV*RES (5,J))

ES (2) =R* (RES (5,J) +VV*RES (4 ,J) )

ES (3 )=R*TI*RES (6, J)/2.0

ES (4) =T6* (RES (7 ,J) +VV*RES (8 ,J) )

ES (5) =T6* (RES ( 8 , J ) + W * R E S (7,J))

ES (6) =T6*TI*RES (9, J)

AI=ES (1 )/T

A2 =ES (2 )/T

E0 (i) =AI-6.0*ES (4)/T2

E0 (2 )=AI+6.0*ES (4 )/T2

EO (3 )=A2-6.0*ES (5 )/T2

E0 (4) =A2+6.0*ES (5)/T2

E0 (5) = (R*RES (4, J) +T*0 5*RES (7, J) ) *A3

EO (6) = (R*RES (4, J ) -T* 0.5*RES (7, J ) ) *A3

EO (7) = (R*RES (5, J) +T*0.5*RES (8, J) ) *A3

E0 (8 )= (R*RES (5, J ) - T * 0 5 * R E S ( 8, J ) ) *A3

WRITE (6,312) (ES(K),K=I,6)

WRITE (6,313) (E0(K),K=I,4)

WRITE (6,314) (E0(K),K=5,8)

CONTINUE

FORMAT(//SX,'X =',EI2.5,3X,'ANGLE =',F7.2,'DEG')

FORMAT(5X,'W =',EI2.5,3X,'U =',EI2.5,3X, tV =',E12.5)

FORMAT(4X, INX~',EI2.5,3X,'NPY=',EI2.5,3X,'NXPY=',EI2.5/

&

4X, IMX=I,EI2.5,3X,'MPY=I,EI2.5,3X,'MXPY=',EI2.5)

FORMAT(4X, ISXI=',EI2.5,1X,'SXO=',EI2.5,1X,'SPYI=',EI2.5,

& IX,'SPYO=',EI2.5)

FORMAT(4X,'EXO=',F8.2,3X,'EXI=',F8.2,3X,'EPYO=',F8.2,

& 3X,'EPYI=',F8.2)

STOP

END

SUBROUTINE ENO(X,M,E0,Z0,P0,P02,LOAD)

IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)

DIMENSION E0(10),Z0(6),P0(3),P02(3),LOAD(3)

COMMON/BLK2/T3, T4, PI, RADIAN, T, R, XLEN, NCSYM

C2=M*T4

C3=C2"R

CI=C3"C3

C4=SIN(C2*X)

C5=COS(C2*X)

C45=C4/C5

DO I0 J=l,3

IF(LOAD(J).EQ.0) GOTO i0

JU--J+I

IF(J.EQ.2) JU=6

JV--J+2

C8=PO(J)*C4

C9=-P02(J)*C5

E0(1)=E0(1)+Z0(J)*C8

E0(2)=E0(2)+Z0(JU)*C8/C45

E0(3)=E0(3)+Z0(JV)*C9*C45

E0(4)=E0(4)-C8*C3*Z0(JU)

E0(5)=E0(5)+C8*Z0(J)

E0(6)=E0(.6)+C9*C3*Z0(JV)

E0(7)=EO(7)+C8*CI*ZO(J)

E0(9)=E0(9)+C9*0.75*C3*Z0(JV)

CONTINUE

RETURN

END

147

148

I0

IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)

DIMENSION ES(10),Z(6),P(3),P2(3),LOAD(3)

COMMON/BLK2/T3, T4, PI, RADIAN, T, R, XLEN, N C S Y M

DO 5 I=i,9

ES(I)=0.0

CNT=COS (N'PHI)

S N T = S I N (N'PHI)

A2=M*T4

A3=A2*R

AI=A3 *A3

A 4 = S I N (A2*X)

A5=COS (A2 *X)

A45=A4/A5

DO i0 J=l,3

IF(LOAD(J).EQ.0)

GOTO i0

JU=J+ 1

IF(J.EQ. 2) JU=6

JV=J+2

A6= (P (J) *CNT+P2 (J) *SNT) *A4

A7= (P (J) *SNT-P2 (J) *CNT) *A5

ES (I) =ES (i) +Z (J) *A6

ES (2) =ES (2) +Z (JU) *A6/A45

ES (3) =ES (3) +Z (JV) *A7*A45

ES (4) =ES (4) -A6*A3*Z (JU)

ES (5) =ES (5) +A6* (N*Z (JV) +Z (J))

ES (6) =ES (6) +A7* (A3*Z (JV)-N*Z (JU))

ES (7) =ES (7) +A6*Z (J) *AI

ES (8) =ES (8) +A6* (Z (J) *N*N+N*Z (JV))

ES (9) =ES (9) +A7* (0.75*A3*Z (JV) +N*A3*Z (J) +0.25*N*Z (JU))

CONTINUE

RETURN

END

C

S U B R O U T I N E PJMN(M,N,NLOAD,CL)

IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)

DIMENSION P(3),P0(3),P2(3),P02(3),CL(60)

COMMON/BLK2/T3,T4,PI,RADIAN,T,R,XLEN,NCSYM

2O

COMMON/BLK3/P,P0,P2,P02

DO 20 I=I,NLOAD

J=(I-l)*6+l

IC=CL(J)

AI=CL(J+I)

A2=CL(J+2)

A3=CL(J+3)

A4=CL(J+4)

A5=CL(J+5)

IF (IC.EQ.0.AND.MOD(M,2).EQ.I)

CALL SWP(P, P0,M,N,AI,A2,A3,A4)

IF (IC.NE.0) CALL P A T C H ( I C , A I , A 2 , A 3 , A 4 , A 5 , M , N )

CONTINUE

RETURN

END

C

C

I0

IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)

D I M E N S I O N P(3),P0(3)

COMMON/BLK2/T3, T4, PI, RADIAN, T, R, XLEN, N C S Y M

ALPHA".ALPHA*RADIAN

A I = S I N (ALPHA)

A 2 = C O S (ALPHA)

A3=SW*R/(M*PI*PI)

IF(N.GT.I) GOTO 20

IF(N.EQ.I) GOTO i0

P0 (1) =4.0*PRESS/(M*PI) +4.0*A3* (A1-ALPHA*A2)

RETURN

A5=4.0*T*SWV/(PI*M)

P (i) = A 5 + 4 . 0 * A 3 * (ALPHA-AI*A2)

P(3) =-A5

RETURN

20

1

2

4

30

50

500

600

700

60

501

601

701

AM=8.0*(SIN(N*ALP~)*A2-N*COS(N*A~)*AI)/(N*(N*N-I))

P(1)=~*A3

~TURN

END

SUBROUTINE PATCH (KTYPE, Q, B, AFA, CC, BETA1, M, N)

IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)

DIMENSION P(3),P0(3),P2(3),P02(3)

COMMON/BLK2/T3, T4, PI, RADIAN, T, R, XLEN, NCSYM

COMMON/BLK3/P, P0, P2, P02

AFA=AFA*RADIAN

BETAI=BETAI*RADIAN

c=cc/2, o

BETA=BETA1/2.0

IC=0

IF (NCSYM.EQ.I) IC=I

AI=M*T4

A2=AI*B

A3=AI*C

A4=M*PI

GOTO (1,2,1,4,1) KTYPE

IF (CC.EQ.0.0) AM=2.0*SIN(A2)/XLEN

IF (CC.GT.0.0) AM=4.0*SIN(A2)*SIN(A3)/A4

GOTO 30

IF (CC.EQ.0.0) AM=2.0*COS(A2)/XLEN

IF (CC.GT.0.0) AM=4.0*COS(A2)*SIN(A3)/A4

GOTO 30

AM=(COS (A2) * (COS (A3)-SIN(A3)/A3) +SIN(A2)*SIN(A3) ) "2.0/A4

IF (N.EQ.0) GOTO 60

A4=N*AFA

IF (BETAI.EQ.0.0) THEN

A5=Q/(R* PI )

GOTO 50

END IF

AI=2.0*Q/(N*PI)

A2=N*BETA

A 5 = A I * S I N (A2)

IF (KTYPE. EQ. 5) A5=A5/2 0+AI* (SIN (A2)/A2-COS (A2) )

AN=A5*COS (A4)

BN=A5*SIN (A4)

GOTO (500,600,700,500,500) ,KTYPE

P(1) =P(1) +AM*AN

P2 (i) =P2 (i) +IC*AM*BN

RETURN

P (2) =P (2) +AM*AN

P2 (2) =P2 (2) +IC*AM*BN

RETURN

P(3) =P(3) +AM*BN

P2 (3)=P2 (3) -IC*AM*AN

RETURN

IF (BETAI.EQ.O.0) AN0=Q/(2.0*R*Pi)

IF (BETA1. GT. 0.0) AN0=BETA*Q/PI

IF (KTYPE. EQ. 5) ANO=AM0/2.0

GOTO(501,601,701,501,501) ,KTYPE

P0 (i) =PO (1) +AM*AN0

RETURN

P0 (2 )=P0 (2 )+AM*AN0

RETURN

P02 (3) =P02 (3) -IC*AN0*AM

RETURN

END

149

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