REVIEWER

Second Term
3 – CFIJ
I. KING ARTHUR
Le Morte D’ Arthur
Characters: King Arthur (wounded, weak), Sir Lucan, Sir
Bedivere
Settings: battlefield, small chapel, unnamed town,
seaside, lake
Plot:
 King Arthur’s trusted knights, Sir Lucan and Sir
Bedivere, fight to keep King Arthur alive.
 The two knights decide to take Arthur to a small
town.
 While going there, Sir Lucan dies of heart
attack.
 Upon reaching the town, Arthur instructs
Bedivere to throw Excalibur to the nearby lake.
 Bedivere takes Excalibur; however, awed by its
riches and power, Bedivere decides to keep it.
 Bedivere returns to Arthur, and reports that he
threw Excalibur.
 Arthur does not believe Bedivere, for the latter
claims to have not seen anything when he
threw the sword.
 Arthur instructs Bedivere to throw it at the cost
of his life, and Bedivere fearfully obeys.
 As Excalibur was thrown, a hand catches it,
shakes it thrice, and vanishes in the water with
the sword.
 Arthur asks for one last favor: to take him to the
seaside where a boat is waiting for him.
 Arthur journeys on the boat with ladies wearing
black cloaks, to Avalon.
(My dear students, kindly re-read the story for specific
details. You will need knowledge of the plot.)
II. RENAISSANCE LITERATURE
The Renaissance Spirit
Secularism – separation of state and church; this
concept asserts the right to be free from church
teachings in issues concerning the State.
This movement effects the following:
 More worldly/materialistic view of life
 Exploration of one’s potentials
 Widening of skills and possibilities
 Scientific growth
The Renaissance Man
Descriptions:
 Cultivates his innate capabilities to the fullest
 Is a multi-faceted individual
 Strives to attain BALANCE in physical,
emotional, social, mental and spiritual aspects
 A patron of the arts and sciences (includes
mathematics, physical education, etc.)
III. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
Life: refer to your worksheet on William Shakespeare
Bio-data. Memorize the dates and names.
Works: 154 sonnets and 37 plays

FOR SECTIONS C, F, I, J ONLY
MS. ABARISO

SHAKESPEAREAN PLAYS
Classifications: comedies, tragedies and histories
Comedy: has a happy ending, usually involving
marriages between the unmarried characters, and a
tone and style that is more light-hearted
List of comedies
 All's Well That Ends Well
 As You Like It
 The Comedy of Errors
 Love's Labour's Lost
 Measure for Measure
 The Merchant of Venice
 The Merry Wives of Windsor
 A Midsummer Night's Dream
 Much Ado About Nothing
 The Taming of the Shrew
 The Two Gentlemen of Verona
 The Two Noble Kinsmen
 Twelfth Night
Tragedy: has a noble protagonist, who is flawed in
some way, placed in a stressful heightened situation
and ends with a fatal conclusion; focuses on the reverse
of fortune of the central characters which leads to ruin
and ultimately, death.
List of tragedies
 Titus Andronicus
 Romeo and Juliet
 Julius Caesar (history)
 Hamlet
 Othello
 King Lear
 Macbeth
 Timon of Athens (history)
 Antony and Cleopatra (history)
 Coriolanus
 Cymbeline
History
List of histories
 Edward III (not included in folio but often attributed
to Shakespeare)
 Richard II
 Henry IV, Part 1
 Henry IV, Part 2
 Henry V
 Henry VI, Part 1
 Henry VI, Part 2
 Henry VI, Part 3
 Richard III
ENGLISH III SHAKESPEAREAN PLAYS (A MUST-READ!)
A. COMEDIES
1. MERCHANT OF VENICE
Setting: Venice, Italy
Major Characters:

a young adventurer from Verona. who accompanies Lucentio from Pisa. FOR SECTIONS C. disguised as a Latin tutor. Antonio cannot repay the borrowed money on time. eccentric. best friend to Hermia Robin Goodfellow (puck): a mischievous fairy who delights in playing pranks on mortals Oberon: The king of the fairies. Bianca already has two suitors. Puck makes a mistake and puts the potion in Lysander's eyes. All four become lost in the woods near Athens. the merchant of Venice. His insistence on the terms of the bond is just. This potion will make her fall in love with the first thing she sees when she wakes. is at odds with his wife Titania: The beautiful queen of the fairies. but justice must be softened with mercy. I. Oberon realizes everything is all mixed up. He wins Portia's love. Bassanio uses the money travel to Belmont. He gives some of the love potion to Demetrius. Katherina. in love with Jessica Nerissa: Portia’s lady-in-waiting and confidante. Hermia and Lysander decide to run away. Italy Major Characters: Katherine: The shrew of the play’s title. The elderly Gremio hires Lucentio. Bianca. Sad and confused. Tranio: Lucentio’s servant. Petruchio: Loud. Hermia's best friend. but now loves Hermia. Oberon undid the potion and makes peace with his wife. He puts a love potion into her eyes while she is asleep. as well as beautiful Lucentio: A young nobleman from Pisa who comes to Padua to study at the city’s renowned university. suitor (and later. Portia’s beauty is matched only by her intelligence. She follows him. Antonio signs a bond agreeing to give Shylock a pound of his flesh if the money is not repaid on a certain date. engaged to marry Theseus. elopes with the young Christian gentleman Lorenzo. 2. all the lovers fall asleep. Oberon and Titania are having an argument because of a young Indian prince Titania brought with her. a beautiful young lady of Belmont. A MIDSUMMER NIGHT’S DREAM Setting: Athens. to woo Bianca on his behalf. once in love with Helena. He learns about Katherina and decides to woo her. arrives to visit his friend Hortensio. and unassuming. Oberon decides to teach Titania a lesson. cannot be married before her strongwilled sister. Oberon finds Helena and Demetrius. he loves Helena instead of his real sweetheart Hermia! The workmen are practising a play in the woods for the upcoming marriage of Theseus and Hippolyta. At last. sweet. Hermia does not want to marry him. but doesn’t like either. SHORT PLOT Lucentio arrives in Padua. Demetrius: A young nobleman of Athens. Bassanio: A gentleman of Venice and a kinsman and dear friend to Antonio. Helena. She loves another man named Lysander. He hears that the merchant Baptista has two daughters. aided by both Gremio and Hortensio. Lorenzo: A friend of Bassanio and Antonio. for a loan. but who is immediately sidetracked when he falls in love with Bianca at first sight. soft-spoken. The fairies use their magic to bless all the lovers. Magical forest Major Characters: Theseus: The duke of Athens Hippolyta: The queen of the Amazons. schemes to get revenge by ruthlessly demanding a pound of Antonio’s flesh as penalty for Antonio’s defaulting on a loan. F. and makes Demetrius love Helena. J ONLY MS. He is sleeping near Titania. The other actors run away. so Bottom goes to sleep. boisterous. and the oldest daughter of Baptista Minola and sister of Bianca. Antonio: The merchant whose love for his friend Bassanio prompts him to sign Shylock’s contract and almost lose his life. She says that Shylock's bond is cruel. Shylock will not relent. THE TAMING OF THE SHREW Setting: Padua. marries Nerissa Jessica: Shylock’s daughter. He tells Puck to give Demetrius some of the love potion so that he will love Helena. Demetrius follows them. The court forces him to release Antonio. and the father of Katherine and Bianca Bianca: The younger daughter of Baptista. father of Hermia Hermia: Egeus’s daughter. Puck plays a trick on Nick Bottom by giving him donkey ears. They are happy with each other again. Meanwhile. and quickwitted. He makes Lysander love Hermia again. He ends up with Helena Helena: A young woman of Athens in love with Demetrius. He has fallen in love with Portia. Portia disguises herself as a lawyer. Shylock insists on the pound of flesh as stated in the bond. is in love with Demetrius. Portia: A wealthy heiress from Belmont. marries Gratiano SHORT PLOT Bassanio is an aristocratic but poor young man of Venice. extremely strong-willed. Everyone is happy. Now Demetrius and Lysander both love Helena. He borrows money from a Jewish moneylender named Shylock. Bassanio needs money to woo the lady. The case goes to court. He asks his friend Antonio. Meanwhile Petruchio. Antonio's money is tied-up in business ventures. fights with her husband to keep the young Indian prince Nick Bottom: actor in the woods with whom Titania falls in love because of the love potion SHORT PLOT Egeus wants his daughter Hermia to marry Demetrius. On seeing Bianca Lucentio falls in love with her and changes identities with his servant Tranio. Petruchio comes to Padua to increase his fortune by marrying rich Baptista Minola: A wealthy citizen of Padua. Egeus: A respected nobleman in Theseus’s court. but the younger.Shylock: A Jewish moneylender in Venice. Puck rights all the wrongs. prettier daughter. When Lysander wakes up. husband) to Portia Gratiano: A friend of Bassanio’s who accompanies him to Belmont. in love with Lysander Lysander: A young nobleman of Athens in love with Hermia. 3. while Hortensio disguises himself as a musician to get access to her. The workmen perform their play after the wedding of Theseus and Hippolyta. She wakes up and falls in love with him. ABARISO .

Fortinbras. and puts poison on his own sword. Duncan. J ONLY MS. They tell Macbeth he will be King. Nevertheless. ABARISO . 3. Petruchio will not be put off as he woos Kate and he fixes their wedding day. Hamlet's friend. full of hatred for his uncle and disgust at his mother for marrying him. 6. Baptista holds a wedding feast for both his daughters. 2. his uncle Claudius becomes king and marries Hamlet's mother (Gertrude). Hamlet tells his mother that he knows about the murder. On the journey the couple meet Vincentio. While there he kills Polonius. Petruchio arrives in an absurd outfit and after the ceremony he leaves for Verona immediately. rejected by Bianca. Hamlet to England to have Hamlet killed. Macbeth returns to the witches. her brother. He gets some travelling actors to perform a play which shows the murder of a king in the same way Hamlet's father said he was killed. deeply ambitious The Three Witches: plot mischief against Macbeth using prophecies. After Hamlet’s death. 2. Macbeth kills the King. crowned prince of Scotland B. and in the meantime his mother drinks the poisoned wine without knowing. Hamlet’s uncle. To teach her to obey him Petruchio does not allow her new clothes or a hat. Horatio recounts the tale and Fortinbras orders Hamlet's body borne off in honour. While Vincentio attempts to unravel the complexities of the situation his son Lucentio returns from a secret wedding with Bianca. loyal and helpful to Hamlet throughout the play. When Claudius reacts badly to seeing this. and then dies from the poison. but their ship is attacked by pirates who take Hamlet prisoner but then return him to Denmark. 4. SHORT PLOT (from http://getrevising. Hamlet is not sure that the ghost is really his father. Eventually. recently married to Claudius. worn down by her husband’s relentless eccentricity. Cawdor. Horatio. because he thinks he is Claudius. and is denied food and sleep. On reaching there Kate is mistreated by Petruchio and his servants. killed by Hamlet Horatio: Hamlet’s close friend. imagines he sees the ghost of Banquo. As the men relax after their meal Petruchio devises a competition to prove whose wife is the most obedient. who is the king's advisor. Laertes. Ophelia: Polonius’s daughter. 7. HAMLET Setting: Elsinore. and cynical. Banquo is killed but Fleance escapes. sweet and innocent young girl. Bianca and the widow fail to come to their husbands when called while Kate lectures the women on the duties of a wife. Macbeth tells Lady Macbeth about the events and she persuades him to kill the King. Kate submits and accepts all his eccentricities. TRAGEDIES 1. a beautiful young woman with whom Hamlet has been in love. Banquo: The brave. tells everyone about the murder of the old king. When Hamlet's father dies. and the father of Laertes and Ophelia. Hamlet believes he is guilty. He challenges Hamlet to a sword fight. Horatio remains alive to tell Hamlet’s story. Claudius: The king of Denmark.co. according to the witches' prophecy. should be king. At first Hamlet wins the sword fight. Then she falls into a river and drowns. with his new wife. At the church. The three reach Padua where Hortensio. Macbeth starts to panic. F. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern were Hamlet's childhood friends. Macbeth feels better especially after ordering the death of Macduff's wife and children (Macduff has gone to FOR SECTIONS C. Hamlet’s mother. Hamlet's father appears as a ghost and tells Hamlet that he was murdered by Claudius. 5. They tell him that he should beware of Macduff. They set off to visit her father in Padua. noble general whose children. will inherit the Scottish throne King Duncan: The good king of Scotland whom Macbeth murders Macduff: A Scottish nobleman who has always been doubtful of Macbeth’s rise to power Malcolm: The son of Duncan. Ophelia. When Fortinbras arrives. MACBETH Setting: Scotland Major Characters: Macbeth: A Scottish general and the thane of Glamis. Macbeth orders the death of Banquo and Banquo's son Fleance. Laertes tells Hamlet about the plot and then dies. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are taken to England where they die. and at dinner with the Lords one night. On the other hand Laertes falsely pierces Hamlet with a poisoned blade. father of Hamlet SHORT PLOT Hamlet is the son of the King of Denmark. Polonius' daughter. villain of the play. that he will not be killed until Birnam woods moves to Dunsinane castle and that he cannot be killed by a man born of a woman. I. Hamlet tells everyone that the Norwegian prince. meet the witches. kills Hamlet The Ghost: King Hamlet. and later King of Scotland through dirty means Lady Macbeth: Macbeth’s wife. where Kate unwillingly awaits him. Hamlet kills Claudius with the poisoned sword.Baptista is enthusiastic about Petruchio’s suit because the feisty Katherina is a burden to him and is continually quarrelling with her sister and with him. has married a widow and Baptista has been tricked into believing a passing stranger is Tranio’s rich father. decides to kill Hamlet in revenge. bitter. as he is scared that Banquo will realise the truth. who are returning from battle. and dies. commits suicide Laertes: Polonius’s son and Ophelia’s brother. blames it on the guards and is made King of Scotland after King Duncan's sons flee to England and Ireland. but then Hamlet stabs Laertes with the same sword. Claudius sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern with 1. killed by Hamlet and the poison Gertrude: The queen of Denmark. Denmark Major Characters: Hamlet: The prince of Denmark.uk/revisionnotes/macbeth_plot_summary_including_macbeth_in_ 10_easy) Macbeth and his friend Banquo. goes mad after knowing that Hamlet killed her father. melancholy. Claudius makes some poisoned wine for Hamlet to drink in case that does not work. Hamlet returns just as her funeral is happening. dies due to the poison Polonius: The Lord Chamberlain of Claudius’s court.

J ONLY MS. Malcolm becomes King. Malcolm. Antony: A loyal friend of Caesar’s Cassius: resents the fact that the Roman populace has come to revere Caesar almost as a god. Caius Cassius plots a conspiracy to murder Caesar. he rejects Cassius' proposal that Mark Antony. Calphurnia: Caesar’s wife SHORT PLOT Julius Caesar has returned to Rome triumphant from the war against Pompey.  GOD BLESS! HAVE A HAPPY CHRISTMAS WITH YOUR LOVED ONES! 3. Macduff says his mother was dead as he was born. Malcolm and Macduff's army attack the castle. well-regarded Roman nobleman who participates in a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. STUDY WELL FOR THE EXAMS. I. PRIDE AND PREJUDICE Review the concept of women. Macbeth thinks he can not be killed as Macduff must have been born from a woman. The Roman republic is prepared to heap him with new honours. SONNETS  Little song  Lyric poem  Shakespearean Sonnet  14 lines  Iambic pentameter (refer to your notes)  Rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg V. Meanwhile. killed by his trusted senators Brutus: A high-ranking. enlisting the support of the well-respected Marcus Brutus. Italy Major Characters: Julius Caesar: A great Roman general who has recently returned to Rome after a military victory. However. should also be killed. FOR SECTIONS C. cutting down branches and hiding behind them to camouflage themselves. son of the old King of Scotland. take command of Rome and lead an army against the conspirators. However. close friend of Caesar. in the castle Macbeth says he will carry on fighting and Lady Macbeth jumps to her death. 9. Brutus and Cassius are defeated at Philippi where they kill themselves rather than be captured. and kills Macbeth. Mark Antony and Caesar's nephew. Mark Antony speaks next and turns the mob against the conspirators. who are forced to flee from Rome. and Macduff plan to attack the castle. ABARISO . However. plots the murder of Caesar Octavius: Caesar’s adopted son and appointed successor Casca: the first to stab Caesar. Cassius and their co-conspirators stab Caesar to death at the senate house on the Ides of March. Brutus. Brutus has misgivings but is persuaded that Caesar's death is necessary for the good of the republic. 8. IV. causing concern and dismay among some senators who fear that too much power is held by one man. marriage and money in the 18th century.England). JULIUS CAESAR Setting: Rome. Macduff finds Macbeth. Octavius. At Caesar's funeral Brutus addresses the people and successfully explains the conspirators' motives. but his wife Lady Macbeth appears to be losing her mind. F.