# Engineering Calculation for Power

System Analysis

Page 1 of 178

CONTENTS
Modules

Pages

3-16

2. Short Circuit Analysis.

17-47

Case1-ANSI/IEEE Method
Case2-IEC Method
3. Motor Starting Analysis.

48-66

4. Transient Stability Analysis.

67-96

Case1-Single Machine System
Case2-Multi Machine System
5. Relay Co-ordination.

97-107

6. Harmonic Analysis.

108-125

7. Ground Grid Analysis.

126-141

8. Optimal Capacitor Placement.

142-151

9. Arc Flash Analysis

152-164

10. Underground Raceway System

166-183

Page 2 of 178

Page 3 of 178

cables.e. transformer.INTRODUCTION: Load flow solution analysis is essential for designing a new power system and planning of the existing one for increased load demand. which determine the steady state operating condition to calculate.e. MW & Mvar losses on each branch Page 4 of 178 .its magnitude in kV or % of nominal kV  Current flow throughout the System  MVA and /or MW plus Mvar power flows throughout each branch of the (i.  Voltage Profile . line or series reactor etc) electrical system  Voltage drop and Power factor  Branch Losses i.

MW. Ratings. Mvar and Var limits 4. kV and #/Cable 3. Swing (slack) – %v and del 2. Status.Continuous . kV and rated Torque 2.Input data required for LFA: Sl.kV. Status. Status. Rating-kV.Continuous . Mvar Control (PQ) -MW. Length in ft/m/mile/km 2.Continuous . Mvar and PF 3. Fuses-Rated kV 4. Cable Type. Intermittent or Spare 2) Rating-kV. Mvar Bank and No of Banks. Status. Insulation. Intermittent or Spare 2. Rating-HP and kV 1. 1) Rating-Amps and kV 2) Impedance. %Z Positive sequence Impedance. Mvar and PF 1. Length in ft/m/mile/km 2.no Component 1 2 3 Bus Power Grid Syn Generator 4 Transformer 5 Motor 6 Syn Motor 7 Static Load 8 Lump Load 9 Cable 8 Transmission Line 9 10 MOV Protective Devices 11 Capacitor 12 Impedance Required input Nominal kv Voltage rating.Continuous . Intermittent or Spare 2. X/R ratio 1. Impedance per phase-positive sequence 1. Rating-HP and kV 1. Parameter-Phase conductor 3. Mvar limits 3. Voltage Control (PV) – MW. MW. Intermittent or Spare 2.Continuous . %Tap. Load Type-Motor Load or Static load 1. Intermittent or Spare 2. Contactors. PF Control-MW and PF Py kV. Impedance/conductor-Positive sequence 1. Tolerance and LTC settings 1. Circuit Breakers-Rated kV 3. Rating-HP. Max kV. MVA. Switches-Rated kV and amps 5. MVA sc. Sec kV.Size.Positive sequence Z and X/R Page 5 of 178 .Rated kV and amps 1) Status.

STEP by STEP Procedure for Load Flow Analysis Step 1: Build the Single Line Diagram Page 6 of 178 .

Step 2: Input Parameters/data for LFA
Power Grid:Nominal kV
kAsc
X/R

= 11kV
= 40 kA
= 14

Assume it is the base kV=11

Cable:Cable sizes and types are selected from the software library
Insulation
= XLPE
kV
= 15
Conductor type= CU
#/Cable
= 3/c
Size
= 300mm2
Length
= 0.836 km
Transformer:Primary kV = 11
Secondary kV = 0.433
MVA
= 10
%Z and X/R = Typical Value
Z Tolerance = If %Z <10 tolerance is 10
%Z >10 tolerance is 7.5 ( thumb rule)
Tap
= If needed. (To improve the bus voltage)
=4
Mvar
=3
%PF
= 80

Step 3: Data needed for Hand Calculation
Power Grid:X/R
MVAsc

= 14
= 762.102

Cable:R
X
Transformer:Z%
X/R

= 0.0801 Ω/km
= 0.1273 Ω/km
= 6.75
= 15.5

Page 7 of 178

Step 4: ETAP WITH HAND CALCULATION
1. To find Voltage Drop(Vd)
Formula: %Voltage drop= Delta V*100 --------------------------------------- eq1
To find Delta V:

Delta V= (√ (Vr+ (RP+XQ/Vr) ^2+ (XP-RQ/Vr) ^2))-Vr ----------------------- eq2
Where:
Vr = Receiving end voltage
R = Resistance of the cable/transmission in p.u
P = Real Power in MW
Q = Reactive Power in Mvar
X = Reactance of the cable in p.u
S= Apparent power in p.u
We know that,
Base MVA

= 100 MVA

Base kV

= 11 kV

Nominal kV

= 11 kV

= 0.8

R Ω/km

= 0.0801 Ω

X Ω/km

= 0.12736 Ω

Length

= 0.836 km

Assume Vr

= 1 p.u

To find Z base:
Zbase

= BasekV^2/Base MVA
= 11^2 / 100
Page 8 of 178

Z base = 1.21

R

= R*length / Zbase
= 0.0801*0.836 / 1.21
R = 0.0554

X

= X*length / Zbase
= 0.12726*0.836 / 1.21
X = 0.0879

To Find P, Q and S:
We know MW and Mvar of Lump load,
a. To find
MVA =√ (MW^2+Mvar^2)
= √ (4^2+3^2)
MVA=5.033
P

= MW/Base MVA
= 4 / 100
P=0.040

Q

= Mvar/Base MVA
= 3 / 100
Q=0.030

S

= MVA/Base MVA
=5.033 / 100
S=0.0503

The following tabular columns are the results in p.u:
R
0.055

X
0.088

P
0.040

Q
0.030

S
0.0503

Page 9 of 178

995 To find Voltage drop: eq 1=> Voltage drop= Delta V*100 = 0.040+0.005*100 Voltage drop (Vd) = 0.088*0.040-0.055*0.030/1) ^2+ (0.005 Note Vs ≠Vr so we are finding the new Vr new Vr new=Vr -Delta V-----------------------------------------------eq3 = 1.u Substitute the above calculated values from the table in the eq2 Delta V= (√ (1+ (0.030) ^2))-1 Delta V = 0.005 Vr new=0.088*0.055*0.5 Page 10 of 178 .0.u Assume Vr = 1 p.To find % voltage drop: eq 2=> Delta V= (√ (Vr+ (RP+XQ/Vr) ^2+ (XP-RQ/Vr) ^2))-Vr Consider Vs=1 p.

433/ 0.0503*100*(0.014 To Find Mvar: Eq 5=> Mvar = X*S^2*Base MVA*(Base kV/Nominal kV) ^2 =0.433/ 0.014+j0.433) ^2 Mvar = 0.055*0.0503*0.2.eq 5 To find MW: Eq 4=> MW =R*S^2*Base MVA*(Base kV/Nominal kV) ^2 =0.433) ^2 MW = 0.022 Cable losses = MW+jMvar = 0.eq 4 Mvar = X*S^2*Base MVA*(Base kV/Nominal kV) ^2-----------------.0503*100*(0.0503*0.022 Page 11 of 178 .088*0. To find cable loss: Formula: MW =R*S^2*Base MVA*(Base kV/Nominal kV) ^2-----------------.

To find Transformer Losses Formula: MW =R*S^2*Base MVA*(Base kV/Nominal kV) ^2-------------------.u: R = %R / TFR MVA Page 12 of 178 .43^2} %X=6.5 To find transformer new %R.eq 7 We know that Nominal kV =11 kV Source kA =40 kA X/R =14 Base MVA =100 Z% = 6.75 X/R = 15.5 ^2 +1)} %R=0.75 To Find R. %X and %Z: %R =Z%* √ {(1/(X/R) ^2) +1} =6.43^2 + 6.0. X. Q and S in p. P.3.eq 6 Mvar = X*S^2*Base MVA*(Base kV/Nominal kV) ^2-------------------.74 %Z = √ {%R^2 + %X^2} =√ {0.75*√ {1 / (15.%R^2} =√ {6.74^2} %Z=6.75^2.43 %X = √ {%Z^2 .

= 0.43/10
R=0.0434
X

= %X / TFR MVA
= 6.74/10
X=0.674

P

= PMW / Base MVA
= 4/100
P=0.04

Q

= Q Mvar / Base MVA
= 3/100
Q = 0.03

S

= √ (P^2+Q^2)
= √ (0.04^2+0.03^2)
S=0.05

The following tabular columns are the results in p.u:
R
0.0434

X
0.674

P
0.04

Q
0.03

S
0.05

Page 13 of 178

To find MW:
eq 6=>
MW

=R*S^2*Base MVA*(Base kV/Nominal kV) ^2
=0.0434*0.05*0.05*100*(11/11) ^2
MW = 0.011

To Find Mvar:
eq 7=>
Mvar

= X*S^2*Base MVA*(Base kV/Nominal kV) ^2
=0.674*0.05*0.05*100*(11/11) ^2
Mvar = 0.199

Transformer losses = MW+jMvar = 0.011+j0.199

Page 14 of 178

Step 5: Run Load Flow Analysis with ETAP software

Page 15 of 178

Step 7: Comparison Table.012 0.188 Cable Voltage drop 0.5 Page 16 of 178 .02 Transformer Losses 0.022 0.011 0.015 0.199 0.5 0.Step 6: Summary Report. Hand Calculation MW Mvar ETAP Result MW Mvar Cable Losses 0.014 0.

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS (IEEE / ANSI AND IEC METHOD) Page 17 of 178 .2.

The program calculates the total short circuit currents as well as the contributions of individual motors. generators. Purpose of Short-Circuit Studies: A Short-Circuit Study can be used to determine any or all of the following:  Verify protective device close and latch capability  Verify protective device Interrupting capability  Protect equipment from large mechanical forces (maximum fault kA)  I2t protection for equipment (thermal stress)  Selecting ratings or settings for relay coordination Elements that Contribute Current to a Short-Circuit:  Generator  Power Grid  Synchronous Motors  Induction Machines  Lumped Loads (with some % motor load)  Inverters  I0 from Yg-Delta Connected Transformer Elements that do Not Contribute Current in PowerStation:  Static Loads  Motor Operated Valves Page 18 of 178 . line-to-ground.CASE 1:-ANSI / IEEE METHOD INTRODUCTION: The ETAP Short-Circuit Analysis program analyzes the effect of 3-phase. and line-to-line-to-ground faults on electrical distribution systems. Fault duties are in compliance with the latest editions of the ANSI/IEEE Standards (C37 series). and utility ties in the system. line-to-line.

All Shunt Y Connected Branches

Short-Circuit Phenomenon:

Page 19 of 178

v(t)

i(t)

di
 Vm  Sin(  t   )
dt
equation 1 yields the following

v(t)  Ri  L

RL
-

i(t) 

expression

e

Solving

(1)

t
Vm
Vm
 sin(  t   -  ) 
 sin(  -  ) 
Z
Z
      
       

State

Transient
(DC Offset)

Copyright 2003 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit ANSI

Slide 9

Symmetrical Faults:
The ETAP Short-Circuit Analysis program analyzes the effect of 3-phase
Symmetrical faults on electrical distribution systems. The program calculates the total short
circuit currents as well as the contributions of individual motors, generators, and utility ties in
the system. Fault duties are in compliance with the latest editions of the C37 series which
calculates

Momentary symmetrical fault current in kA

Interrupting symmetrical fault current in kA

Unsymmetrical Faults:
The ETAP Short-Circuit Analysis program also analyzes the effect of 3-phase
unsymmetrical Faults like

Line to Ground fault

Double line fault

Double line to ground fault.

Page 20 of 178

½ Cycle Network
This is the network used to calculate momentary short-circuit current and protective device
duties at the ½ cycle after the fault.
1 ½ to 4 Cycle Network
This network is used to calculate the interrupting short-circuits current and protective device
duties 1.5-4 cycles after the fault.
30-Cycle Network
This is the network used to calculate the steady-state short-circuit current and settings for
over current relays after 30 cycles of the fault.

Device Duty and Usage of Fault Currents from Different Networks:

HV Circuit Breaker
LV Circuit Breaker
Fuse
SWGR / MCC
Relay

½ Cycle Currents
(Sub transient Network)
Closing and Latching
Capability
Interrupting Capability
Interrupting Capability
Bus Bracing
Instantaneous Settings

1 ½ to 4 Cycle Currents
(Transient Network)
Interrupting
Capability
-

Page 21 of 178

2002 Standard for Safety for Molded-Case Circuit Breakers.010 1979.1999 IEEEC37.04g 1986 Supplements IEEE C37. as listed below: Standard EEE C37. 2000.04 1999 IEEE C37.04f 1990 Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis and IEEE C37.04i 1991 IEEE C37.010b 1985 Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis IEEE C37.13 1990 Standard Application Guide for AC High-Voltage Standard for Low-Voltage AC Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures IEEE C37.010 1999 IEEE C37. 1993.013 1997 Standard for AC High-Voltage Generator Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis IEEE C37. Molded-Case Switches. 2002 Power System Analysis – the Brown Book Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants – the Red Book IEEE Std 242 1986 & 2001 IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems – the Buff Book UL 489_9 1996.04 Pub.1 1993 2002 Standard for Metal Enclosed Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breaker Switchgear IEEE Std 399 IEEE Std 141 1990 & 1997 1986. and Circuit-Breaker Enclosures Page 22 of 178 .ANSI Calculation Standard Compliance: ETAP short circuit calculation per ANSI/IEEE Standards fully complies with the latest ANSI/IEEE and UL Standards. 1988.010e 1985 and Supplements IEEE C37.20. Year Title 1979(1988) Standard Rating Structure for AC High-Voltage Circuit IEEE C37.04h 1990 IEEE C37.

X/R 1. Intermittent or Spare 2. Contactors.Continuous . X2 and X/R) 1. Mvar and Var limits 4. Impedance-%Z (+Ve & -Ve sequence Impedance) 3. 3. Mvar Control-MW. Size. 3. Amps.Input data required for SCA: Sl. Model-Impedance(Xd’’. Mvar Bank and No of Banks. Model-Parameters-X0. Xo.X2.Size. X/R) 1. Status. %PF. 4. Impedance/conductor-Positive sequence 1.Continuous . Tolerance 4. kV and rated Torque 1. PF Control-MW and PF 5. Length in ft/m/mile/km 2.kV. Status. Mvar limits 3. Status. X/R ratio 1. Cable Type.Positive sequence Z and X/R Page 23 of 178 . MW. MW. Max kV. Rating-kV. Xd. Impedance. Parameter-Phase conductor 3.Rated kV. Rating-Amps and kV 2. BIL ratings and amps 4. Rating-HP.Xd’. Circuit Breakers-Rated kV. Grounding-Py and Sec. Interrupting kA 2. Intermittent or Spare 2. Intermittent or Spare 2.Continuous . Impedance per phase-positive sequence 1.Xd’. Interrupting kA and amps 1. MVA sc. Intermittent or Spare 2. Switches-Rated kV . kV and #/Cable 3. Load Type-Motor Load or Static load 1. Mvar and PF 1. 1. Interrupting kA 3. Tap-Fixed Tap and LTC settings 5. Rating-HP and kV and select MFR details. Voltage Control – MW. Rating-HP and kV and select MFR details. Status. Length in ft/m/mile/km 2. Status. Swing – %v and del 2. Ratings.Xo. Model-%LRC. Fuses-Rated kV. Insulation. 1. Sec kV. Amps. MVA 2. Imp/Model-Impedance(Xd’’.Continuous . Rating-Py kV. Rating-kV. Intermittent or Spare 2.no 1 2 3 Component Bus Power Grid Syn Generator 4 Transformer 5 Motor 6 Syn Motor 7 Static Load 8 Lump Load 9 Cable 8 Transmission Line 9 10 MOV Protective Devices 11 Capacitor 12 Impedance Required input Nominal kv Voltage rating.Continuous . Mvar and PF 3.

Step 1: Build the single line diagram using ANSI / IEEE method Page 24 of 178 .

38 X/R = 24.1ohms/km X = 0.94 LRC = 400% Input MVA = 5.282 Motor 1:- Motor 2:- Page 25 of 178 .1ohms/km Cable:- Transformer:Primary kV = 33 kV Secondary kV = 6.12 Length = 4.85km R = 0.676 LRC = 550% Input MVA = 1.Step 2: Input Parameters/data for short circuit Analysis Power Grid:Nominal kV = 33 kV MVAsc = 750 kA X/R = 14 kAsc = 13.3 kV MVA = 15 MVA Base MVA = 1 MVA Z% = 14.

u Xcable = Rohm/km*L/100 =0. Formulae: Isymm=MVAsc/√3*kV----------------------------------eq 1 MVAsc=symm fault level *1.38/ (100*15) XTFR=0.6 ----------------------eq 2 Symm fault level=1/ XTOTAL----------------------------------------eq 3 To find XTOTAL XTOTAL= Xgrid+ Xcable+ XTFR---------------------------------------eq 4 i. because the Calculation 1 was done without motor contribution. Xgrid =Base MVA/MVAsc =1/750 Xgrid=0.e.u Page 26 of 178 .u XTFR =%Z/ (100*MVA) =14. Step 4: Check with Hand Calculation.85/100 Xcable=0. First step to find Grid. Cable and Transformer reactance.1*4. total reactance of all components in the system.009587p.00485 p. Sum of this will get the Total reactance. using this we can find out the symmetrical fault current at the faulted bus. Apply fault at the bus 4 by opening the short circuit study case editor and open the motor side circuit breaker.Step 3: Apply Fault. Calculation 1: Without motor contribution.0013 p.

Total reactance XTOTAL = Xgrid+ Xcable+ XTFR =0.00485+0.6 MVAsc=140. Isymm=MVAsc/√3*kV =140.0013+0.49 kA (without motor contribution) Page 27 of 178 .6 =87.68MVA--------------------------------eq 6 Then find MVAsc at the faulted bus For this substitute eq 6 in eq 2 MVAsc=symm fault level *1.28 --------------------------------eq 7 To find Symmetrical Fault Current Substitute 7 in eq 1.009587 XTOTAL =0.28/ (√3*6) Symmetrical fault current (Isymm) =13.011485 =87. Symm fault level =1/ XTOTAL =1/ XTOTAL =1/0.68*1.011485----------------------------eq 5 To find Symmetrical fault level substitute 5 in eq 3.

Step 5: Run Short Circuit Analysis without motor contribution Page 28 of 178 .

Step 6: Build the single line diagram using ANSI / IEEE method Page 29 of 178 .

u--------------------------------------------eq12 Where MVAsc =Short Circuit MVA at the faulted bus kV =Nominal kV at the faulted bus.676 XM1=0.25/5.25 Then find the reactance of the motor 1 XM1 = Xd1'' / rated input MVA = 0.Step 7: Compare hand calculation with ETAP software.u Input MVA = 5. LRC =Locked Rotor Current MOTOR 1: w.0440 Substitute the above values in eq 9 Page 30 of 178 . Xm = Motor reactance Xd'' = Dynamic reactance of the motor. Calculation 2: With motor contribution. Formulae: Isymm=MVAsc/√3*kV------------------------------------eq 8 MVAsc=Base MVA/ XM ----------------------------eq 9 XM = Xd1'' / rated input MVA---------------------------eq 10 Xd''=1/LRC p.k.t LRC =400% =4 p.u Xd'' =1/4 Xd1''=0.676 MVA Bus kV =6 kV Base MVA =1 To find Xd'' Xd''=1/LRC p.

u Input MVA = 1.0440 MVAsc=22.1418 Page 31 of 178 .k.70 Substitute the above values in eq 8 Then to find the short circuit current by motor 1 contribution KAm1 =MVAsc/ (√ (3)*kV) =22.282 MVA Bus kV = 6 kV Base MVA =1 To find Xd'' Xd''=1/LRC p.Then find the MVA at the faulted bus MVAsc = Base MVA/ XM1 = 1/0.18 kA.282 XM2=0.70 / (√ (3)*6) KAm1=2.5 Xd2''=0.1818/1.1418 Substitute the above values in eq 9 Then find the MVA at the faulted bus MVAsc = Base MVA/ XM2 = 1/0.1818 Then find the reactance of the motor 2 XM2 = Xd2'' / rated input MVA = 0. MOTOR 2: w.t LRC =550% = 5.u Xd'' =1/5.5 p. short circuit current due to motor 1 contribution.

t Symmetrical fault current = 13.MVAsc=7.45 kA (with motor contribution) Page 32 of 178 . short circuit current due to motor2 contribution.k.858 kA (KAm1+ KAm2) --------------------.eq 13 Short circuit current by motors = 2.49 kA without motor contribution--------.49+2.678 kA. From the above results w.051 Substitute the above values in eq 8 Then to find the short circuit current by motor 2 contributions KAm2 =MVAsc/ (√ (3)*kV) =7.051 / (√ (3)*6) KAm2=0.eq 14 Sum of above two equations 13 & 14 We get the total Symmetrical fault current KAsc Total =13.45 kA Symmetrical fault current (Isymm) =16. Note:-Sum of all the short circuit current without motor contribution and with motor contribution gives the total fault current in the faulted bus.858 =16.

Step 8: Run short circuit Analysis with motor contribution. Page 33 of 178 .

Step 9: Comparison Table. Hand Calculation ETAP Result % Difference Methods With Contribution ANSI/IEEE Method 13.49 Without contribution 2.21 Page 34 of 178 .858 0.7 2.858 With contribution Without contribution 13.

line-to-line. line-to-ground. The program calculates the total short circuit currents as well as the contributions of individual motors. and utility ties in the system. Purpose of Short-Circuit Studies: A Short-Circuit Study can be used to determine any or all of the following:  Verify protective device close and latch capability  Verify protective device Interrupting capability  Protect equipment from large mechanical forces (maximum fault kA)  I2t protection for equipment (thermal stress)  Selecting ratings or settings for relay coordination Elements that Contribute Current to a Short-Circuit:  Generator  Power Grid  Synchronous Motors  Induction Machines  Lumped Loads (with some % motor load)  Inverters  I0 from Yg-Delta Connected Transformer Page 35 of 178 . generators. and line-to-line-to-ground faults on electrical distribution systems.IEC METHOD INTRODUCTION: The ETAP Short-Circuit Analysis program analyzes the effect of 3-phase. Fault duties are in compliance with the latest editions of the IEC Standards (IEC 60909 and others).CASE 2:.

Elements that do Not Contribute Current in PowerStation:  Static Loads  Motor Operated Valves  All Shunt Y Connected Branches IEC Short-Circuit Calculation (IEC 909):  Initial Symmetrical Short-Circuit Current (I"k)  Peak Short-Circuit Current (ip)  Symmetrical Short-Circuit Breaking Current (Ib)  Steady-State Short-Circuit Current (Ik) ETAP checks the protective device rated making and breaking capacities against the fault currents and flags inadequate devices. Types of SC Faults  Three-Phase Ungrounded Fault  Three-Phase Grounded Fault  Phase to Phase Ungrounded Fault  Phase to Phase Grounded Fault  Phase to Ground Fault Page 36 of 178 .

Types of Short-Circuits Near-To-Generator Short-Circuit  This is a short-circuit condition to which at least one synchronous machine contributes a prospective initial short-circuit current which is more than twice the generator’s rated current. or a short-circuit condition to which synchronous and asynchronous motors contribute more than 5% of the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current ( I"k) without motors. Far-From-Generator Short-Circuit Page 37 of 178 .

 This is a short-circuit condition during which the magnitude of the symmetrical ac component of available short-circuit current remains essentially constant Page 38 of 178 .

systems Part 4: Examples for the calculation of short-circuit currents IEC 60947-1 2004 Low voltage switchgear and control gear. Part 2: Circuit breaker Page 39 of 178 .Part 1: Factors for the calculation of short-circuit currents according to IEC-60909-0 IEC 60909-2 1992 Electrical equipment .c.Data for short-circuit current calculations in accordance with IEC 909 (1988) IEC 60909-4 2000 Short-circuit currents in three-phase a. IEC 60909-0 2001 Short-Circuit Currents in Three-phase a.Part 0: Calculation of Currents (including 2002 corrigendum 1) IEC 60909-1 2002 Short-circuit currents in three-phase a.IEC Calculation Standard Compliance: Standard Pub. systems .c. Part 1: General rules IEC 60947-2 2003 Low voltage switchgear and control gear.c.c. systems . Year Title IEC 62271-100 2003 High-voltage switchgear and control gear – Part 100: Highvoltage alternating-current circuit breakers IEC 62271-200 2003 High-voltage switchgear and control gear – Part 200: AC metal-enclosed switchgear and control gear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV IEC 62271-203 2003 High-voltage switchgear and control gear – Part 203: Gasinsulated metal-enclosed switchgear for rated voltages above 52 kV IEC 60282-2 IEC 61363-1 1997 1998 High-voltage fuses – Part2: Expulsion fuses Electrical installations of ships and mobile and fixed offshore units – Part 1: Procedures for calculating short-circuit currents in three-phase a.

Input data required for SCA: Sl. Intermittent or Spare 2. Tolerance 4. Sec kV. Ratings.Xo.Continuous . Status.Rated kV. X/R 1. Swing – %v and del 2. Size. Intermittent or Spare 2.no 1 2 3 Component Bus Power Grid Syn Generator 4 Transformer 5 Motor 6 Syn Motor 7 Static Load 8 Lump Load 9 Cable 8 Transmission Line 9 10 MOV Protective Devices 11 Capacitor 12 Impedance Required input Nominal kv Voltage rating. MVA 2. kV and #/Cable 3. Status. Rating-HP and kV and select MFR details. Impedance. Interrupting kA 2. Parameter-Phase conductor 3. Length in ft/m/mile/km 2. Interrupting kA and amps 1.Size. MW.Xd. BIL ratings and amps 4. Interrupting kA 3. Mvar limits 3. Voltage Control – MW. MVA sc.Xd. Rating-kV. Tap-Fixed Tap and LTC settings 5. Fuses-Rated kV.Xo. 3. MW. Load Type-Motor Load or Static load 1. Model-%LRC. PF Control-MW and PF 5. Rating-HP and kV and select MFR details. Mvar and Var limits 4.Xd’. Cable Type. Amps. Contactors. Amps.Continuous .X2. Model-Impedance(Xd’’. Model-Parameters-X0.kV. Imp/Model-Impedance(Xd’’. Insulation. %PF. Mvar Control-MW.Continuous . Impedance/conductor-Positive sequence 1. kV and rated Torque 1. Impedance per phase-positive sequence 1. Intermittent or Spare 2. Status. Mvar and PF 3.Continuous .X2 and X/R) 1. Rating-kV. 1. Impedance-%Z (+Ve & -Ve sequence Impedance) 3. Length in ft/m/mile/km 2. Status. 4. Rating-Amps and kV 2.Continuous . Switches-Rated kV . Intermittent or Spare 2. Rating-HP.X/R) 1. Mvar and PF 1. Circuit Breakers-Rated kV. Intermittent or Spare 2. Mvar Bank and No of Banks. Status. X/R ratio 1. Max kV.Positive sequence Z and X/R Page 40 of 178 . Rating-Py kV. 1. Grounding-Py and Sec. 3.

Step 1: Build the single line diagram using IEC method Page 41 of 178 .

Zt. Page 42 of 178 .Equivalent impedance at the fault location. Intial Symmetrical Short circuit current (I''k) I''k =C*Vn/√ (3)*Zt--------------------------eq 1 Where C.Voltage factor.25 % X/R = 10.Nominal bus kV at the fault bus.433 kV MVA = 2.5 MVA Base MVA = 100 MVA Z% = 6.67 Step 3: Apply Fault Apply fault at the bus 2 Step 4: Compare hand calculation with ETAP result Formulae: 1. Vn.Step 2: Input Parameters/data for short circuit Analysis Power Grid:Nominal kV = 33 kV X/R = 14 kAsc = 40 Transformer:Primary kV = 33 kV Secondary kV = 0.

003392 √(Zs^2/((X/R)^2+1) x/R 14 Xs/Rs PU Transformer Zt 2.721571 %Z/MVA Xt 2.is the minimum delay time of the PD.476314 0.475104 0. f.7139 X/R Calculation Of Impedance Upto Fault In ohms Source Z Values in Ohm Z ohm X ohm R ohm x/R Total Upto Fault Z in Ohm Z ohm X ohm R ohm x/R 0.2.047615 kV)^2 Xs 0.75719 Xs+Xt R 0.257347 Rs+Rt x/R 10.7139 √(X^2+R^2) X*(sy new kV)^2/Base MVA R*(sy new kV)^2/Base MVA Xohm/Rohm Page 43 of 178 .004749 0.709696 √(Zt^2-Rt^2) Rt 0. Peak Short circuit current (Ip) Ip = I''k * √ (2) + I''k* √ (2)*e (-t/τ) ---------------eq 2 . τ = 1000*X/R/ (2*π*f) -------------------------------eq 3 Where Tmin.67 Xt/Rt PU TOTAL Z 2.004769 0. Symmetrical Breaking current (Ib) Ib = I''k-----------------------------------------------eq 4 The below shows the calculated for source and transformer SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION Calculation Of Impedance Upto Fault In PU PU source (100/MVAsc)*(old kV/new Zs 0.047494 √(Zs^2-Rs^2) Rs 0.253955 √(Zt^2/((X/R)^2+1) x/R 10.033936 14 Zs*(New kV)^2/Base MVA Xs*(New kV)^2/Base MVA √(Zs^2/((X/R)^2+1) Xohm/Rohm 0.769174 √(X^2+R^2) X 2.is the frequency in Hz. 3.000443 10.

26*1.714 C = 1.415kV Zt = 0.00477 New X/R =10.1 Vn = 0.415*1000 / (1.1*0.00477 as per IEC for < 1001 V To find Intial Symmetrical Fault Current (I''k). eq 1=> I''k =C*Vn / √ (3)*Zt =1. τ = 1000*10.44 Page 44 of 178 .414+55.10-------------------------------------------------eq 5 Substitute eq 5 in eq 2 eq 2=> Ip = I''k * √ (2) + I''k* √ (2)*e (-t/τ) Ip =55.10) Peak short circuit current Ip =136.00477) Intial Symmetrical fault current I''k = 55.732*0.713/ (2*3.We know that New Zohm =0.26 kA To find Peak Short Circuit Current (Ip). eq 3=> τ = 1000*X/R/ (2*π*f).14*50) τ =34.414*exp (-10/34.26*1.

eq 4=> Ib= Ip w.e.8 kA 136.44 I. we get Symmetrical Breaking current Ib =136.44 131 kA I''k Peak Short Circuit Current Ip Page 45 of 178 . So substitute in eq 4.To find Symmetrical Breaking Current (Ip). The symmetrical short circuit breaking current (Ib) is equal to the initial symmetrical short circuit current.t Ip =136.26 55.44 kA Step 5: Comparison Table Intial Symmetrical Fault Current Hand Calculation ETAP Result 55.k.

Step 6: Run Short Circuit Analysis for three phase fault to find Intial symmetrical rms. Page 46 of 178 .

Page 47 of 178 .Step 7: Run Short Circuit Analysis for three phase fault to peak short circuit current.

MOTOR STARTING ANALYSIS Page 48 of 178 .3.

It draws a large current from the system. the starting motors are represented by dynamic models and the Motor Acceleration module simulates the entire process of motor acceleration. about six times the motor rated current. The purpose of performing a motor starting study is two fold:  To investigate whether the starting motor can be successfully started under the operating conditions.INTRODUCTION: During the motor starting period. Page 49 of 178 . This method is used to determine if a motor can be started and how much time is needed for the motor to reach its rated speed. Since the motor acceleration torque is dependent on motor terminal voltage. This makes it necessary to perform a motor starting analysis. This method is suitable for checking the effect of motor starting on the system when the dynamic model is not available for starting motors. as well as to determine the effect of voltage dips on the system. Dynamic Motor Acceleration:In the Dynamic Motor Acceleration calculation. which therefore results in voltage drops (dips) in the system and imposes disturbances to the normal operation of other system loads. simulating the worst impact on normal operating loads. ETAP provides two types of motor starting calculations: Static Motor Starting:In Static Motor Starting.  To see if starting the motor will seriously slow down the normal operation of other loads in the system. the starting motors are modeled by the locked-rotor impedance during acceleration time. in some cases the starting motor may not be able to reach its rated speed due to extremely low terminal voltage. the starting motor appears to the system as small impedance connected to a bus.

Operating Motor  Constant KVA Load 2. CKT Model The following are the various of CKT models a.Static versus Dynamic:   Use Static Model When – Concerned with effect of motor starting on other loads – Missing dynamic motor information Use Dynamic Model When – Concerned with actual acceleration time – Concerned if motor will actually start Motor Modeling: 1. Single Cage Rotor “Single1” – constant rotor resistance and reactance Page 50 of 178 . Starting Motor  During Acceleration – Constant Impedance  Locked-Rotor Impedance  Circuit Models Characteristic Curves After Acceleration – Constant KVA Load Motor modelling is of different types in ETAP 1.

“Single2” . Double Cage Rotor a.b.deep bar effect. “DB1” – integrated rotor cages Page 51 of 178 . Single Cage Rotor a. rotor resistance and reactance vary with speed [Xm is removed] c.

d. “DB2” – independent rotor cages Page 52 of 178 . Double Cage Rotor a.

and PF as function of Slip-Static Model Calculation Methods  Static Motor Starting – Time domain using static model – Switching motors modeled as Zlr during starting and constant kVA load after starting – Run load flow when any change in system  Dynamic Motor Starting – Time domain using dynamic model and inertia model – Dynamic model used for the entire simulation – Requires motor and load dynamic (characteristic) model Page 53 of 178 . Characteristic Model – Motor Torque. I.2.

Xo.X/R) 1.Continuous . X/R ratio 1. Circuit Breakers-Rated kV. Switches-Rated kV .Continuous . Mvar Bank and No of Banks. Length in ft/m/mile/km 2.Rated kV. Page 54 of 178 . 1. Status. X/R 5. Load 1. BIL ratings and amps 4. Model-%LRC. 3. PF Control-MW and PF 5. MW. 3. Model-Parameters-X0. MVA sc. Status. Impedance/conductor-Positive sequence 1. Mvar limits 3. Impedance per phase-positive sequence 1.Xo.Xd’.Continuous . kV and rated Torque 1.Continuous .X2. Mvar and Var limits 4. Rating-kV. Swing – %v and del 2. Ratings. Amps. Length in ft/m/mile/km 2. Intermittent or Spare 2. Interrupting kA and amps 1. Status. Load Type-Motor Load or Static load 1. MW. Intermittent or Spare 2. Amps.Xd.no 1 2 3 Component Bus Power Grid Syn Generator 4 Transformer 5 Motor 6 Syn Motor 7 Static Load 8 Lump Load 9 Cable 8 Transmission Line 9 10 MOV Protective Devices 11 Capacitor Required input Nominal kv Voltage rating. Intermittent or Spare 2.kV. Status.Xd. Contactors. MVA 2. Mvar and PF 3.Input data required for MSA: Sl. Load Model-Type 6. Model-Impedance(Xd’’.Continuous . Voltage Control – MW. Parameter-Phase conductor 3. kV and #/Cable 3.Size. 4. Mvar Control-MW. Rating-HP. Max kV. Insulation. Rating-HP and kV and select MFR details. Impedance-%Z (+Ve & -Ve sequence Impedance) 3. Intermittent or Spare 2. Interrupting kA 3. Cable Type. Grounding-Py and Sec. Sec kV. Rating-HP and kV and select MFR details. Status. Mvar and PF 1. Tolerance 4. Intermittent or Spare 2. Fuses-Rated kV.X2 and X/R) 1. Tap-Fixed Tap and LTC settings 5. Inertia-Motor. Size. Rating-kV. Imp/Model-Impedance(Xd’’. Rating-Py kV. %PF. Interrupting kA 2.

Page 55 of 178 .CASE STUDY-1 STEP 1: Draw a SLD with a motor.

0 100 %V Sync.1 50 89 96. Speed (Ns) 1500 RPM Full load speed (Nr) 1489 RPM Motor 6000 kW 50 Hz Frequency 2.230 0.0 0. Data’s taken from the motor data sheet for calculating the load Model 1. Moment of inertia of Machine and External load is 0.345/1.F % Efficiency % 100 89 97 75 90 97. Machine Drive for Turbo-Compressor So TL  N2 Page 56 of 178 .7 170 Tmax Starting Voltage 1.u 0.1.U Operating Voltage % Units 6 kV Locked rotor current (LRC) 4.000 1m2 5.2 420 Amps Locked rotor torque 0.465 4.2 0. Operating and starting Data:P.6 3.6 0.4 0.150 0.0 0.140 0.340 1.u Torque p.59 59 T Break down torque 1.090 0.8 0. Counter – Torque as per the data sheet enclosed:Speed p. Efficiency / Power Factor as per the data sheet enclosed:Load % P.0 TO MODEL THE MOTOR BY CURVE APPROACH STEP 2: Input data taken as per siemens data sheet enclosed.

u F-frequency in Hz P-number of poles To find Top eq 1=> Top = T fl= 100% =1.eq 4 % Sfl = 100* Sfl -------------------.u T fl =Full load Torque in p.u Sfl=Full load Slip in p.e.u Nr-Rated Slip in p. Formulae: Top= T fl ----------------------------.eq 3 Sfl = (N s .eq 5 Where Top =Operating Torque in p. TL  N2) To find for 100 % LF and 85 % LF 1) At 100% Load factor.0 PU Page 57 of 178 .eq 1 N fl = S fl = {1.N r) / N s ---------------.eq 2 Nop= N fl ----------------------------.% Sfl/100} -------.STEP 3: FINDING THE CURVE TYPE LOAD TORQUE:To find the Speed Vs Torque Characteristics consider the following motor data (as per the data sheet) for given motor as a Turbo-Compressor load type where load torque is proportional to square of speed (i.u Ns=Synchronous Slip in p.u N fl=Full load Speed in p.u Nop=Operating Speed in p.

9913 PU Then calculate the below table for Speed Vs Torque in p.u. Page 58 of 178 .t Nop = N fl = 0. w.0 PU Nop=0.k.t from the above calculation Top= 1.k.9913 PU Top = T fl =1.To find Full load Slip eq 4=> Sfl = (N s .9913 PU.% Sfl/100} = {1.N r) / N s = (1500-1487)/1500 Sfl = 0.87 % for 100 % Load Factor To find Full load Speed (N fl) eq 2=> N fl = S fl = {1.0087 (PU) % Sfl = 100* Sfl % Sfl = 0.0 PU (full load in this case) Case 1: LOAD TORQUE VERSUS SPEED TABLE AT 100 % LF W.87/100} N fl = 0.0.

9913)^2*1= 0.20 0.0 (Nop= N fl) (Top = Tfl ) 1.651 0.80/Nop)^2 x Top = (0.651 = (0.87 % from eq 4 Sop = 0.9913)^2*1= 1.366 = (0.017 2) At 80% Load factor. = (1.eq 8 To find Top eq 6=> Top = T fl= 80% =0.80 x 0.10(Adjusted) 0.0/Nop)^2 x Top= (1/0.40/0.15 Stiction Torque of 15 % (TL at Nr = 0) 0.20/Nop)^2 x Top = (0.0 1.696 % To find Operating Speed (Nop) eq 7=> N op = S op = {1.40/Nop)^2 x Top = (0.20/0.8 PU To find Operating Slip (Sop) eq 8=> (Sop / S fl) = 0.40 0.9913 1.80/0.163 = (0.% Sop /100} Page 59 of 178 . Formulae: Top= T fl ----------------------------.9913)^2*1= 0.80 x S fl We already know that S fl = 0.60/0.80 0.60/Nop)^2 x Top = (0.9913)^2*1= 0.80 Sop = 0.80 ---------------------.eq 6 N op = S op = {1.% Sop /100} ------.163 0.Table 1: Speed in PU Torque in PU REMARKS 0 0.9913)^2*1= 0.80 x S fl % Sop = 0.366 0.87 % Sop = 0.eq 7 (Sop / S fl) = 0.1 = (0.60 0.01756 We already find out the Operating Speed & Torque At FL for 100 % LF.

9926)^2*0.80 PU Nop=0.0/Nop)^2 x Top= (1/0.6 80 65.60 0. % Speed p.9926)^2*0.5191 0.80= 0.9930 0. As per the table 1 the below table shows the Speed Vs Torque Characteristics for 100% LF.u %Torque TL 0 15 20 10 40 16.k.t from the above calculation Top= 0.40/0.1 =(0.80= 0.3 60 36. for our convenience convert the PU Speed into Percentage of Speed.0.696 /100} Nop= 0.292 = (0.1 Page 60 of 178 .9930)^2*0.= {1.292 0.129 0.20/0.9930 PU Then calculate the below table for Speed Vs Torque in p.80= 0.80 0.60/0.40/Nop)^2 x Top = (0.40 0.10(Adjusted) 0.20 0.80= 0.9930 PU.15 Stiction Torque of 15 % (TL at Nr = 0) 0.20/Nop)^2xTop = (0.80 (Nop= N fl) (Top = Tfl ) 1.9926)^2*0.5191 = (0.80= 0.8112 By using the above case 1 and 2 models the load in curve type between Torque Vs Speed.8112 We already find out the Operating Speed & Torque At FL for 80 % LF. Case 2: LOAD TORQUE VERSUS SPEED TABLE AT 80 % LF W.9926)^2*0.80/0.129 = (0. = (1.60/Nop)^2 x Top = (0.80/Nop)^2 x Top = (0.0 0.u for 80 % Load factor Table 2: Speed in PU Torque in PU REMARKS 0 0.

13 100 100 101.7 STEP 4: MODEL THE LOAD AS PER THE ABOVE TABLE FOR 100%LF STEP 5: MODELLING THE MOTOR As per the data given in the data sheet go to the Parameter estimation in the motor model and enter the Locked rotor Values (Starting Current. Break down Torque and Full load values (like slip.99. Page 61 of 178 . pf and Torque). pf and Efficiency) as given in the data sheet and make estimate and update. The etap will automatically model the circuit as per the input given.

Ns / 60) ^2] x 10 -6 KE= [0.340 MW-sec To find H Page 62 of 178 . J. (2.89 MVA=6.Ns / 60) ^2] x 10 -6 (MW-sec) -------------eq 2  MVA= MW/( PF * η ) -----------------------------------------------eq 3 Note: The PF & η values are in PU W.5*1000*(2*pi ()*1500/60) ^2] x 10 -6 KE=12.t wr2 = J=1000 kg-m2 Ns=1500 RPM P= 6 MW To find MVA eq 3=> MVA= MW/( PF * η ) MVA= (6* 0.k. π.97)/ 0. (2.95 MVA To find KE eq 2=> KE = [½. π. J.STEP 6: TO FIND MOTOR INERTIA CONSTANT (J = wr2) in kg-m2 or lb-ft  H = KE/MVA (MW-s/MVA)--------------------------------eq 1  KE = [½.

13% X1 = 16.u MVA = 6. X1. R2start.0585 X1=Zbase*% X1/100 =5.62% To find Zbase. w.950 Zbase = 5.75% Xm = 546.k. R1=Zbase*% R1/100 =5.95 H=1. R2fl.79% R2fl = 0.eq 1=> H = KE/MVA H=12.775 MW-s/MVA STEP 7: HAND CALCULATION. Zbase = kV^2/MVA = 6*6/6.340/6.950 R1 = 1.869 Page 63 of 178 .1798*1.56% R2start = 2. X2start.13/100 R1=0.7% X2fl = 14.1798*16.1798 To find R1.79/100 X1=0.t Slip = 0.0073 p. and Xm in ohms.98% X2start = 6. X2fl.

50 R1ohm+R2eq Page 64 of 178 .04 1/[1/R2st+(1/R2fl-1/R2st)*(1-S)^2] X2(s) 0.154 X2start =Zbase*% X2start /100 =5.754 R2start =Zbase*% R2start /100 =5.1798*2.349 Xm =Zbase*% Xm /100 =5.R2fl =Zbase*% R2fl /100 =5.1798*546.56/100 X2fl =0.98/100 R2start =0.46 Xm*[R2(s)^2/S^2+X2(s)^2+X2(s)*Xm]/[(R2(s)/S)^2+(X2(s)+Xm)^2] Z2eq 4.75/100 X2start =0.1798*0. Parameters Values Formulae R2(s) 0.1798*14.31 The below shows the calculated for to find speed and Current.7/100 R2fl =0.036 X2fl =Zbase*% X2fl /100 =5.62/100 Xm =28.67 √(R2eq^2+X2eq^2) Rt 4.1798*6.74 1/[1/X2st+(1/X2fl-1/X2st)*(1-S)^2] R2eq 4.44 R2(s)/s*Xm^2/[(R2(s)/S)^2+(X2(s)+Xm)^2 X2eq 1.

579 5.700 0.37 2825.950 0.99 2701.61 2820.100 24.400 0.06 √(Rt^2+Xt^2) Angle of Zt 0.33 X1ohm+X2eq Zt 5.58 2639.48 tan-1(Xt/Rt) Zt in degree 27.88 2747.010 0.936 7.100 0.360 24.800 0.06 N in RPM 1488 V*1000/(√(3)*Zt) (1-0.200 0.000 0.34 Angle of Zt*180/pi() p.70 684.93 2814.833 11.515 3.63 2436.07 2554.500 0.45 2238.06 Note: Slip and Starting Current are in PU.040 2.020 0.180 24.30 2805.530 2.67 2781.900 0.040 24.008 2828.240 1.84 1396.300 0.008 0.020 23.89 Cos(angle of Zt) Is in Amps 684.070 18.600 0.483 4. Speed by varying the Time and Slip Speed in RPM Time in sec Slip in PU Is in Amps 0 75 150 225 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1455 1470 1485 1488 0.000 0.f 0.850 0.06 858. Page 65 of 178 .008)*Ns By using the above table calculates the Starting Current.926 1.17 712.Xt 2.

45 18.02 1200 2436.10 1470 839.17 24.833 900 2610.Comparision Table: Sl.02 1200 2416.54 4 24.833 900 2639.515 300 2805.52 2 7.69 5 24.24 1488 684.06 24.67 2.STEP 8:.07 7.69 3 18.00 1488 678.no Hand Calculation ETAP Calculation Time in Speed in Is in Time in Speed in Is in Sec RPM Amps Sec RPM Amps 1 2.10 1470 858.26 Page 66 of 178 .515 300 2800.

4. TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS Page 67 of 178 .

capacitors. Some typical consequences are listed below:  Area-wide blackout  Interruption of loads  Low-voltage conditions  Damage to equipment  Relay and protective device malfunctions.  Impact loading (motors and static loads)  A sudden large step change of load or generation Consequences of Instability Problems: The consequences of power system instability problems usually are very severe and can range from permanent damage on equipment and shutting down processes. but are not limited to:  Short-circuits  Loss of a tie connection to a utility system  Loss of a portion of in-plant co-generation (generator rejection)  Starting a motor that is large relative to the system generating capacity  Switching operations of lines. Page 69 of 178 . etc. all the way to causing a whole area power outage.Causes of Instability Problems: The major causes to industrial power system instability problems include.

Rotor Angle Responses:  Case 1: Steady-state stable  Case 2: Transient stable  Case 3: Small-signal unstable  Case 4: First swing unstable Generator Modeling: • Machine-Equivalent Model / Transient Model / Sub transient Model Page 70 of 178 .

• Exciter and Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) • Prime Mover and Speed Governor • Power System Stabilizer (PSS) Typical synchronous machine data: Page 71 of 178 .

kV and #/Cable 3. Model-Impedance(Xd’’. Rating-Py kV. MVA sc. Tap-Fixed Tap and LTC settings 5. Mvar and PF 1. MW. Sbreak.Continuous . Load Type-Motor Load or Static load 1. 3. S100.Continuous .Rated kV. Load Model-Type 6. Max kV. Intermittent or Spare 2. Status. Rating-HP. X/R 5. Inertia 7. Swing – %v and del 2. Amps.Xo. BIL ratings and amps 4.X2 and X/R) -Dynamic (Xd.Xd. Interrupting kA 2.Size. Rating-kV. Mvar Bank and No of Banks. Interrupting kA and amps 1. MW. Switches-Rated kV . kV and rated Torque 1. Model-Parameters-X0.X/R) 4.INPUT DATA REQUIRED FOR MSA: Sl. Impedance-%Z (+Ve & -Ve sequence Impedance) 3. Ratings. Intermittent or Spare 2. Rating-kV. Status. 1. Mvar limits 3.no 1 2 3 Component Bus Power Grid Syn Generator 4 Transformer 5 Motor 6 Syn Motor 7 Static Load 8 Lump Load 9 Cable 8 Transmission Line 9 10 MOV Protective Devices 11 Capacitor Required input Nominal kv Voltage rating. Sec kV. Model-%LRC. Imp/Model-Impedance(Xd’’. Status. Insulation. Length in ft/m/mile/km 2. Load 1. Mvar and Var limits 4.Continuous . XL.kV. Inertia-Motor. Tolerance 4. PF Control-MW and PF 5. Governor 8. Status.Continuous . Exciter 1. Impedance/conductor-Positive sequence 1. Exciter 1. Intermittent or Spare 2. Size. Mvar Control-MW. Rating-HP and kV and select MFR details. Xq. Parameter-Phase conductor 3. Amps. 6.Continuous . MVA 2. Intermittent or Spare 2. Cable Type. Impedance per phase-positive sequence 1. Interrupting kA 3. Mvar and PF 3. 3. Grounding-Py and Sec. Length in ft/m/mile/km 2. Td0’. 4. Contactors. Intermittent or Spare 2.X2.Xd’.Xo. Rating-HP and kV and select MFR details. Page 73 of 178 . %PF. Circuit Breakers-Rated kV. Status. Voltage Control – MW. X/R ratio 1. Fuses-Rated kV.

12 Impedance 1. STEP 2: INPUT PARAMETERS: Generator in feed: Operation Mode: Swing MW=8. Rating-Amps and kV 2. Impedance.Positive sequence Z and X/R CASE-1(SINGLE MACHINE SYSTEM) STEP 1: CONSTRUCT THE SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM FOR SINGLE MACHINE.5 Rated real power Page 74 of 178 .

Sbreak=0. machine base) XL=11% This is the armature leakage reactance in percent (machine base) Xq=92% This is the quadratic-axis synchronous reactance in percent (saturated value. S100=1. machine base) Tdo’=5. machine base) X2=12% This is the negative sequence reactance in percent (machine base) X0=10% This is the zero sequence reactance in percent (machine base) Gen Type= Turbo Rotor Type= RR Xd=100% This is the direct-axis synchronous reactance in percent (saturated value.07 This is the saturation factor at 100% terminal voltage. Generator 1: Operation Mode: Voltage Control MW=8.6 This is the direct-axis transient open-circuit time constant in seconds.8 This is the per unit of terminal voltage at which the generator saturation curve skews from the air-gap line. Typical values range from 2% (short shaft) to 10% ( long shaft) Grounding=Star Inertia=100 This is the total inertia of the generator shaft.5 Rated real power kV=6.kV=132 Rated Voltage %PF=85 Rated PF MVA=100 Rated Power Poles=4 Rated poles in 60 Hz frequency Xd'=5% This is the direct-axis transient reactance in percent (saturated value. Damping=5 This is the shaft mechanical damping term in percent MW change due to 1 Hz deviation in speed (% MW/Hz).6 Rated Voltage Page 75 of 178 .

Page 76 of 178 . machine base) X2=12% This is the negative sequence reactance in percent (machine base) X0=10% This is the zero sequence reactance in percent (machine base) Gen Type= Turbo Rotor Type= RR Xd=100% This is the direct-axis synchronous reactance in percent (saturated value. machine base) Tdo’=5.08 This is the saturation factor at 120% terminal voltage Damping=5 This is the shaft mechanical damping term in percent MW change due to 1 Hz deviation in speed (% MW/Hz). Typical values range from 2% (short shaft) to 10% ( long shaft) Grounding=Star Inertia=7.6 This is the direct-axis transient open-circuit time constant in seconds.%PF=85 Rated PF MVA=10 Rated Power Poles=4 Rated poles in 60 Hz frequency Xd'=20% This is the direct-axis transient reactance in percent (saturated value. Sbreak=0.07 This is the saturation factor at 100% terminal voltage.8 This is the per unit of terminal voltage at which the generator saturation curve skews from the air-gap line.5 This is the total inertia of the generator shaft. S100=1. S120=1. machine base) XL=8% This is the armature leakage reactance in percent (machine base) Xq=92% This is the quadratic-axis synchronous reactance in percent (saturated value.

Sbreak=0.Generator 2: Operation Mode: Voltage Control MW=2. machine base) XL=11% This is the armature leakage reactance in percent (machine base) Xq=108% This is the quadratic-axis synchronous reactance in percent (saturated value. S100=1. S120=1.6 This is the direct-axis transient open-circuit time constant in seconds.6 Rated Voltage %PF=85 Rated PF MVA=2. machine base) X2=12% This is the negative sequence reactance in percent (machine base) X0=10% This is the zero sequence reactance in percent (machine base) X/R=48% This is the armature X/R ratio (X’’/Ra) Rotor Type= RR Gen Type= Turbo Xd=110% This is the direct-axis synchronous reactance in percent (saturated value.08 This is the saturation factor at 120% terminal voltage Damping=5 This is the shaft mechanical damping term in percent MW change due to 1 Hz deviation in speed (% MW/Hz).07 This is the saturation factor at 100% terminal voltage. Page 77 of 178 .8 This is the per unit of terminal voltage at which the generator saturation curve skews from the air-gap line.125 Rated real power kV=6.5 Rated Power Poles=4 Rated poles in 60 Hz frequency Xd'=25% This is the direct-axis transient reactance in percent (saturated value. machine base) Tdo’=5. Typical values range from 2% (short shaft) to 10% ( long shaft) Grounding=Star Inertia=?As per This is the total inertia of the generator shaft.

415 Secondary Voltage rating Max MVA=3 Enter Max MVA of the transformer %Z=8 This is he positive sequence impedance for the transformer %X/R=12.14 Enter typical value Py=Star Sy=delta (SOLID) Page 78 of 178 .6 Primary voltage rating Secondary kV=0.67 Enter typical value Py=Star Sy=delta (SOLID) Transformer T2 (Connected between Bus2 and Bus5) MVA=5 This value is used as the base MVA for the transformer impedance Primary kV=6.415 Secondary Voltage rating Max MVA=3 Enter Max MVA of the transformer %Z=8 This is he positive sequence impedance for the transformer %X/R=10.6 Primary voltage rating Secondary kV=0.6 Secondary Voltage rating Max MVA=10 Enter Max MVA of the transformer %Z=10 This is he positive sequence impedance for the transformer %X/R=15.Transformer T1 (Connected between Bus6 and Bus1) MVA=10 This value is used as the base MVA for the transformer impedance Primary kV=132 Primary voltage rating Secondary kV=6.5 Enter typical value Py=Star Sy=delta (SOLID) Transformer T6 (Connected between Bus1 and Bus3) MVA=3 This value is used as the base MVA for the transformer impedance Primary kV=6.

Lump 31 (Connected to Bus 3): MVA=2.556 Rated MVA MW=5 Rated real Power %PF=90 P.6 Primary voltage rating Secondary kV=0.415 Secondary Voltage rating Max MVA=6 Enter Max MVA of the transformer %Z=8 This is he positive sequence impedance for the transformer %X/R=12.223 Rated MVA MW=2 Rated real Power %PF=90 P.Lump 1 (Connected to Bus 4): MVA=5.Transformer T3 (Connected between Bus7 and Bus4) MVA=6 This value is used as the base MVA for the transformer impedance Primary kV=6.85 Enter typical value Py=Star Sy=delta (SOLID) Lumped load.F=MVA/MW Load type Constant KVA=100% Lumped load.3 Rated voltage Page 79 of 178 .6 Rated voltage Induction Motor Mtr4 (Connected to Bus 9) HP=5000 Enter the machine output (shaft) rating in horsepower (HP) or kW kV=3.F=MVA/MW Load type Constant KVA=100% Induction Motor Mtr2 (Connected to Bus 5) HP=2500 Enter the machine output (shaft) rating in horsepower (HP) or kW kV=6.

u R = 0.0025 p. STEP 4: HAND CALCULATION WITH ETAP.6 kV Base MVA = 10 MVA Frequency = 60 Hz Power Factor = 0.u MW = 8. Formulae: New angle= δR+ Delta degree-------------------------------------------------eq 1 δR = Pa* t^*ω/ (4*H) -------------------------------------------------------------eq 2 Delta degree=tan-1((XP-RQ)/ (Vt^2+ (RP+XQ))*180/π-------------eq 3 Where Pa.9 H =4 Xd' = 0.is the accelerating power t.STEP 3: CREATE THE EVENT IN THE STUDY CASE EDITOR BY APPLYING 3φ FAULT AND REMOVING FAULTS WITH A TIME INTERVAL.u Xd''/R = 48 Xd’=X = 0. w.t Nominal kV = 6.inertia constants of the machine (MW-seconds/MVA) Vt-terminal voltage δR. H.12 p.2 p.u Xd'' = 0.is the rotor angle degrees.k.2 Generator 1 Data Generator Voltage=1.0 p.is the time in seconds.5 Page 80 of 178 .

u P=0.41 p.5 / 10 P=0.098 To find Delta degree i.5+4.Mvar = 4.0 p.5*8.0025 p.12 To find MVA MVA =√ (MW^2+Mvar^2) =√ (8.85 p.u P = MW/Base MVA = 8.356 To find P.u – Terminal Voltage R=0.u To find field excitation Voltage (Efd) Efd= (√ (Vt+ (RP+XQ/Vt) ^2+ (XP-RQ/Vt) ^2))-Vt =√ (1+ (0.2*0. Q.k.t Vt =1.u X=0.85 Q = Mvar/Base MVA = 4.e.85-0.85+0.41/1)^2) Efd=1.12*4.2*0.12 / 10 Q=0.0025*0.0025*0. and S in p.2 p. Page 81 of 178 .41/1) ^2+ (0.u Q=0.44 To find Zbase Zbase =kV^2/Base MVA =6. intial angle in degrees.6/10 Zbase=4.12) MVA=9.41 So w.6*6.

14 Δdeg=8.is the fault clearing time To find the δ rotor angle in degree δR in degree = δ in radian * 180/π =1.86 Page 82 of 178 .2*0.85*0.eq 3=> Delta degree=tan-1((XP-RQ)/ (Vt^2+ (RP+XQ))*180/π =tan-1((0.95 in degree Hence New angle in degree.14*60/ (4*7.14 δR in degree =107.8845*180/3.42*0.85-0.42*2*3.908 To find the δ rotor angle eq 2=> δR = Pa* t^*ω/ (4*H) Note: ω=2*π*f = 0. eq 1=> New angle= δR+ Delta degree = 107.908 New Power angle=116.95+8.0025*0.85+0.2*0.0025*0.41)/ (1*1+ (0.5) δR = 1.41))*180/3.8845 in radian Note: t.

Page 83 of 178 .STEP 5: RUN THE TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS.

The X-axis shows the time in seconds and Y-axis shows the rotor angle in degree. before that point time is the critical clearance time shown in the fig 2. Fig 1 Fig 2 Page 84 of 178 .STEP 6: PLOT THE TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS.35s) and check with the graph shown in fig 1. in which time the system becomes instable. As per the event enter in the study case editor by applying three phase fault at Bus flt and clear the fault after a time interval and check the critical clearance time by varying the event time (here it is taken as 0.

As per Hand As per ETAP Comparison Calculation T in sec G1 in degree G1 in degree 0.42. if it exceeds this time the system becomes instability.STEP 7: COMPARISION TABLE: The below table shows below the fault clearance time and the rotor angle in degree.35 1. to remain in steady state stability the fault want to cleared with in this time. Page 85 of 178 .42 116.49 Note: The final Critical Fault Clearance time 0.86 118.

The ensuing power surging is not shown in Fig. The duration of the fault has caused generator 2 to lose synchronism with generator 1 and the grid infeed. Acting as a consultant engineer to the industrial plant owner what action do you recommend after having carried out this analysis? 1. if generator 2 has not already been purchased a unit with a similar inertia constant to generator 1 (if practicable) could be chosen.19 shows the consequences of an identical fault at (F) under these new system conditions. A 2. Figure 1. saliency. Figure 1. 1. Figure 1.19 but can be assumed to jeopardize the operation of the whole of the power system. No changes are proposed to the existing protection or circuit breaker arrangements. damping and stator resistance.5 MVA generator No. 1. This machine has a relatively low inertia constant compared to the existing on-site generator No. Would you consider a further study under these conditions with more accurate generator modelling? This study demonstrates the need to review plant transient stability whenever major extensions or changes are contemplated. The client. not wishing to spend more money than absolutely necessary.CASE-2 (Multi Machine System) Introduction: In this study it is assumed that a decision has been made to use surplus industrial plant gas to generate more electrical power and thus reduce grid infeedtariffs. Do you have anything to say about protection operating times for busbar 5 feeder or generator 2 breaker? 2. 2 is added to busbar 1. Page 86 of 178 .queries the accuracy of your analysis.19b shows generator 2 has become unstable. Generator 2 is a new machine and good manufacturer’s data is available including AVR characteristics.19a shows generator 1 to continue to be stable. Both site generators are supplying full load. Alternatively. In this example a solution could be found by decreasing protection and circuit breaker operating times. saturation.

Page 87 of 178 .STEP 1: RUN THE TRANSIENT STABILITY WITH TWO MACHINE SYSTEM.

is the time in seconds.u Page 88 of 178 .12 p.STEP 2: HAND CALCULATION WITH ETAP.0 p.u MW = 2.t Nominal kV = 6.is the rotor angle degrees.u Xd'' = 0. H.31 To find for Generator 1 Formulae: New angle= δR+ Delta degree-------------------------------------------------eq 1 δR = Pa* t^*ω/ (4*H) -------------------------------------------------------------eq 2 Delta degree=tan-1((XP-RQ)/ (Vt^2+ (RP+XQ))*180/π-------------eq 3 Where Pa.k.0025 p.2 p.0 p.6 kV Base MVA = 10 MVA Frequency = 60 Hz Power Factor = 0.is the accelerating power t.125 Mvar = 1.9 H =4 Xd' = 0.inertia constants of the machine (MW-seconds/MVA) Vt-terminal voltage δR. Generator 2 Data Generator Voltage=1.u R = 0. w.u Xd''/R = 48 Xd’=X = 0.2 Generator 1 Data Generator Voltage=1.

5*8.85+0.MW = 8.41 p.6/10 Zbase=4.u P = MW/Base MVA = 8.u To find field excitation Voltage (Efd) Efd= (√ (Vt+ (RP+XQ/Vt) ^2+ (XP-RQ/Vt) ^2))-Vt =√ (1+ (0.u Q=0.t Vt =1.41/1)^2) Efd=1.u P=0.0025*0.12 To find MVA MVA =√ (MW^2+Mvar^2) =√ (8.u X=0.098 Page 89 of 178 .85 Q = Mvar/Base MVA = 4.12 / 10 Q=0.0025 p.2*0.5 / 10 P=0.u – Terminal Voltage R=0.12*4.0 p.85-0.2*0.5 Mvar = 4. and S in p.5+4.85 p. Q.2 p.k.44 To find Zbase Zbase =kV^2/Base MVA =6.356 To find P.0025*0.41 So w.6*6.12) MVA=9.41/1) ^2+ (0.

e.8845*180/3.95+8.908 To find the δ rotor angle eq 2=> δR = Pa* t^*ω/ (4*H) Note: ω=2*π*f = 0.To find Delta degree i.85*0.95 in degree Hence New angle in degree.86 To find for Generator 2 Formulae: New angle= δR+ Delta degree-------------------------------------------------eq 1 δR = Pa* t^*ω/ (4*H) -------------------------------------------------------------eq 2 Delta degree=tan-1((XP-RQ)/ (Vt^2+ (RP+XQ))*180/π-------------eq 3 Page 90 of 178 .85-0.2*0.is the fault clearing time To find the δ rotor angle in degree δR in degree = δ in radian * 180/π =1.4*2*3.14 Δdeg=8.41))*180/3.41)/ (1*1+ (0.4*0.908 New Power angle=116.5) δR = 1.14 δR in degree =107.0025*0. intial angle in degrees.14*60/ (4*7. eq 3=> Delta degree=tan-1((XP-RQ)/ (Vt^2+ (RP+XQ))*180/π =tan-1((0.8845 in radian Note: t.0025*0. eq 1=> New angle= δR+ Delta degree = 107.2*0.85+0.

85-0.t Vt =1.527 p.u X=0.527 So w.125*2.0 p.03) MVA=2.125 / 2.0 p.03*1. Q.5 MW = 2.527/1) ^2+ (0.u P = MW/Base MVA = 2.0025 p.5 Q=0.u P=0.t Generator 2 Data Generator Voltage =1.u – Terminal Voltage R=0.36 To find P.25*0.25*0.0025*0.125+1.85+0. Page 91 of 178 .5 P=0.125 Mvar = 1.25 p.527/1)^2) Efd=1.k.316 / 2.w. intial angle in degrees.u To find field excitation Voltage (Efd) Efd= (√ (Vt+ (RP+XQ/Vt) ^2+ (XP-RQ/Vt) ^2))-Vt =√ (1+ (0.85 Q = Mvar/Base MVA = 1.u Base MVA =2.u Q=0. and S in p.154 To find Delta degree i.85 p.k.e.316 To find MVA MVA =√ (MW^2+Mvar^2) =√ (2.0025*0.

Then check run the stability and plot the graph and check the condition.0025*0.14*60/ (4*3) δR = 4.614 To find the δ rotor angle eq 2=> δR = Pa* t^*ω/ (4*H) Note: ω=2*π*f = 0.527)/ (1*1+ (0.273 in radian Note: t.613 New Power angle=255.14 Δdeg=10.273*180/3.527))*180/3.eq 3=> Delta degree=tan-1((XP-RQ)/ (Vt^2+ (RP+XQ))*180/π =tan-1((0. The generator 1 remains stable and generator 2 becomes unstable as shown in below diagram.0025*0.25*0.5=G1=G2 and run the stability.8 in degree Hence New angle in degree.85-0. Now you will find both the machine are in stable state.85*0.25*0.4*2*3.41 In this above calculation done for this transient stability analysis the Gen 1 remains in stable and Gen 2 becomes instable in this case change the inertia of Gen 2 equal to Gen 1 i. eq 1=> New angle= δR+ Delta degree = 244.14 δR in degree =244.4*0.8+10.is the fault clearing time To find the δ rotor angle in degree δR in degree = δ in radian * 180/π =4.e.85+0. STEP: 3 Page 92 of 178 . H=7. Note: The inertia of the Generator 2 is 3 as recommended by the Bayliss IEEE case study.

e. See the dotted line shows foe generator 2.For the same transient stability but with equally loaded machines. Page 93 of 178 . Next change the instable machine inertia i. The machines swing together and there will be no relative rotor angle swing between them and both machines are seen to recover back to original operating condition as soon as the electrical fault is cleared. generator 2 inertia equal to generator 1 inertia i.5.. which becomes instable and the continuous line is for generator 1 which remains stable as per the previous case study. 7.. the power swings in step-2 plotted shows stable machine response and instable machine response.e. check the system stability or not. which is shown in below step-3. which is another simulation carried out for the purpose of the note.

eq 1=> New angle= δR+ Delta degree = 97.STEP 4: CHANGE THE INERTIA OF THE GENERATOR 2.4.5) δR = 1. to remain in steady state stability the fault want to cleared with in this time.5 To find the δ rotor angle eq 2=> δR = Pa* t^*ω/ (4*H) Note: ω=2*π*f = 0.is the fault clearing time To find the δ rotor angle in degree δR in degree = δ in radian * 180/π =1.613 New Power angle=108.14*60/ (4*7. Page 94 of 178 .709 in radian Note: t. which will operate the circuit breaker.709*180/3.85*0.4*2*3. if it exceeds this time the system becomes instability.4*0. Consider H=7.53 Now the Generator 2 becomes stable by changing the inertia value equal to generator 1 Note: The final Critical Fault Clearance time 0.14 δR in degree =97.92 in degree Hence New angle in degree.92+10. So this time want to set in the relay.

e. single machine system. generator 1 and generator 2 becomes stability because of by changing the inertia of Generator H1=Generator H2..STEP 5: See the machines. Page 95 of 178 . Now we want to find the Critical fault clearance time same as we done before in the case 1 i.

the normal established industry practice for multiple generators in parallel is to operate them : with equal loading if the machines are of the same rating OR  with loads shared in equal proportion of their ratings.SUMMARY OF THE DISCUSSION: In order to ensure stable operation. based on details given in the above discussions. Page 96 of 178 . if the operating machines are of unequal rating The risks involved in paralleling machines with unequal loading are the possible loss of synchronism between machines with possible shaft damage due to large torque swings that will occur under transients associated with close up 3 phase electrical faults that may not be cleared quickly in unit protection.

STAR-PROTECTIVE DEVICE COORDINATION Page 97 of 178 .5.

IEC 60255 defines a number of standard characteristics as follows. The built-in intelligent features provide informed and reliable recommendations regarding the feasibility of the devices under consideration. This is achieved by utilizing intelligent one-line diagrams. and state of protective devices  Offers insight into troubleshooting false trips. The current/time tripping characteristics of IDMT over current relays may need to be varied according to the tripping time required and the characteristics of other protection devices used in the network. Stars short-circuit and sequence-of-operation calculations are conducted and reported using the settings of the study case selected in the toolbar. For this purpose. and boost financial savings. Engineers can quickly realize possible design issues and make informed decisions to improve system reliability. Star represents a new concept in performing steady-state and dynamic device coordination. This feature is designed to organize your study efforts and save you time. comprehensive device libraries. and miscoordination Page 98 of 178 . Star enables power engineers to easily and efficiently perform protective device coordination studies. increase system stability.  Standard Inverse (SI)  Very Inverse (VI)  Extremely Inverse (EI)  Define Inverse (DI) Objectives:  Enables system engineers to easily & efficiently perform protective device coordination studies  Provide an accurate and realistic operating characteristic. and an integrated multi-dimensional database. This allows you to switch between study cases without having to reset the study case options each time. relay mis-operation. time. and testing.INTRODUCTION: Star is a fully integrated system protective device coordination and selectivity module within ETAP. protection.

Info-Interlock. Input-Current-Py and Sy amps. Settings-Real/Reactive Power-Over/Under power. Burden in VA or ohms 3 Potential Transformer 1. Over Current Relay 3. Multi functional Relay 3. Output-Interlock-Add device id and action. 2.Calculated or user-defined. 4. 1. TCC kA. Input-Current-Py and Sy amps.Over/Under Voltage Control interlocks.Calculated or user-defined. Reverse Power Relay 1. Frequency Relay 1. 2. TCC kA. 2.no 1 2 Component Bus Power Grid Required input Nominal kv Voltage rating. Output-Interlock-Add device id and action. Output-Interlock-Add device id and action. Aids system engineers & planners to quickly realize possible design issues & make informed decisions INPUT DATA REQUIRED FOR INSTRUMENTATION COMPONENTS: Sl. Voltage Relay 1. Rating-ratio(Py & Sy) 2. OLR-Select Library-Select manufacture. 4. 1. Input-Current-Py and Sy amps. MVA sc.Calculated or user-defined. Interlock. X/R ratio Page 99 of 178 . Interlock-Over/Under frequency interlock. 2 Current Transformer 1.Add device id and action. 1 5. OCR-Select Library-Select manufacture.no Components Parameters 1. OLR-Select Library-Select manufacture. 2. Info-Ratings(Py & Sy kV) INPUT DATA REQUIRED FOR SLD: Sl. Motor Relay 3. OCR-Library-Select manufacture. 4. TCC kA.

Rating-Amps and kV Impedance. MW. 1. Mvar limits Mvar Control-MW.Continuous . Tap Status. 2. 1. 3. 2. Intermittent or Spare Ratings. 1.Size. Model-%LRC.3 Syn Generator 4 Transformer 5 Motor 6 Syn Motor 7 Static Load 8 Lump Load 9 Cable 8 Transmission Line 9 10 MOV Protective Devices 11 Capacitor 12 Impedance 1.Positive sequence Z and X/R Page 100 of 178 . 1. Max kV. Mvar and Var limits PF Control-MW and PF Rating-Py kV. Mvar and PF Load Type-Motor Load or Static load Length in ft/m/mile/km Cable Type. 1. Swing – %v and del Voltage Control – MW. Status. Intermittent or Spare Rating-kV. 1. 2. Sec kV. Amps. Interrupting kA Switches-Rated kV . kV and #/Cable Impedance/conductor-Positive sequence Length in ft/m/mile/km Parameter-Phase conductor Impedance per phase-positive sequence Rating-HP. 1. MVA Impedance-%Z (+Ve & -Ve sequence Impedance) Tolerance. BIL ratings and amps Contactors. Interrupting kA and amps Status. 2. Intermittent or Spare Rating-HP and kV and select MFR details. 1. 4. 1. %PF. 2. Mvar and PF Status. 3. 3. 2. 2. MW. Interrupting kA Fuses-Rated kV.kV. 2. Mvar Bank and No of Banks. 3. kV and rated Torque Circuit Breakers-Rated kV.Continuous . Status.Rated kV. 3. 2.Continuous . 1.Continuous . Amps. 3. 1. 3.Continuous . 2. Insulation. Intermittent or Spare Rating-HP and kV and select MFR details. 2. 4. Size. Intermittent or Spare Rating-kV.

if know. 7.  Fixed point/damage curve modeling.  Automatic layout of the one-line diagram in Star TCC View. indicate long time. For each protective device: note short circuit current. For each fuse. acceleration time and locked rotor current. For each low-voltage breaker. 4.  Automatic current & voltage scaling. CT ratio. note kVA. Feature & Capabilities  Illustrate system wide coordination. note rating.  Integration of short circuit analysis with protective devices. For cable damage curves: note cable size.  Phase & ground coordination modes. & device labeling. impedance. full load current and voltage level at each device. 6. and cable insulation. Note motor horse power. 2. legends. List device manufacture and type and program file name for the device. 1. conductor material. tap and time dial. Note settings if existing device.  User-definable display options.  Graphical printing/plotting.Typical Procedure: A typical procedure for organizing data before beginning coordination studies by computer it as follows. Page 101 of 178 .  Graphical time-difference calculator. instantaneous.  Comprehensive print functionality. For each transformer. For each relay. fan cooled rating. 3.  Motor starting curves based on motor acceleration studies. note tap settings. full load power.  Click & drag curves to adjust settings. short time. and whether relay has instantaneous. 5.  Comprehensive relay interlocks. and transformer connection.

Step 2: Enter the input Parameters for all the components including current transformer (CT) ratio depend upon the transformer primary and secondary full load amps and the relay (Over current relay) details by selecting the manufacture from the library and relay operation for to operate the circuit breaker CB2 Page 102 of 178 .Step 1: Construct the SLD for Protective Device Coordination.

5 VA Page 103 of 178 .2 MVAsc Fault kA : 14 kA X/R ratio : 40 TRANSFORMER:Primary : 33 kV Secondary : 11 kV Capacity : 10 MVA Impedance : 8.723*11) =962.35 To Find Formulae: Py FLA= KVA/ (√ (3)*Py kV) Sy FLA=KVA/ (√ (3)*Sy kV) Transformer Full Load Amps Py FLA= KVA/ (√ (3)*Py kV) =10000/ (1.3 Amps CT-RATIO:Primary : 200 Secondary :1 Burden : 2.SYSTEM PARAMETERS:Voltage : 33KV.723*33) =175 Amps Sy FLA=KVA/ (√ (3)*Sy kV) =10000/ (1. 50 Hz Fault MVA level : 800.

transformers and lines Step 3: Run the SLD for Protective Device Coordination. Run the SLD after applying fault on bus 2. monitoring and control of motors. Application : Protection. Page 104 of 178 . The run and update short circuit kA for the system relay and run the system for coordination.RELAY DATA:Type : ALSTOM Model : P139 Functions : Over Current relay.

The below graph shows the Time Vs Current Characteristics curve.Step 5: Create star view for the system. Then select the relay want to co-ordinate and go to create star view and find out the Time Vs Current in the graph. Page 105 of 178 .

9 Ir =1. Extremely Inverse EI 80 Page 106 of 178 .Step 6: Check with the hand Calculation.86 sec To find I in amps eq 1=> I=CT ratio * Ir =200*1. Formulae: For Extremely Inverse Relay Characteristic t=TMS*(80/Ir^2-1) -----------eq 1 I=CT ratio * Ir ------------------eq 2 #Note: As per IEC 60255 standards Consider TMS =0.9*(80/ (1.1*1.1 CT ratio=200 Where TMS-Time Multiplier Setting. To find t in seconds eq 1=> t=TMS*(80/Ir^2-1) =0.1-1)) t=342. Ir-Relay Current Settings.1 I=220 amps The below table shows current with respect to time for different relay current. I-Relay current in Amps.

50 1.5 15 20 31 342.80 3.00 9.13 1 Amps 220 300 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2500 3000 4000 6200 Step 6: Comparison Table.5 1400 1402 3 2.6 6 9. Sl.06 1200 1199 4 3 1000 1005 5 4.14 0.18 0.9 1800 1796 2 1.32 0.06 1.1 1.8 800 799.CT ratio TMS 200 0.60 24.86 57.0 600 598.73 0.2 Page 107 of 178 .9 relay current settings Ir Sec t 1.00 2.no Hand Calculation t in sec ETAP Calculation I in Amps I in Amps 1 0.00 4.90 0.46 0.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12.

6. HARMONIC ANALYSIS Page 108 of 178 .

uninterruptible power supplies (UPS). and cycloconverters are also responsible for the deterioration in power system quality. or devices including saturated transformers. The presence of harmonics in a power system can give rise to a variety of problems including equipment overheating. This phenomenon has become a major concern for power quality due to the ever-increasing usage of electronic devices and equipment in power systems. circuit resonance to cause electric apparatus dielectric failure and other types of severe damage. arc furnaces. In these areas components other than that of fundamental frequency can be found to exist in the distorted voltage and current waveforms. such as variable speed drives. and in some cases. UPS. harmonic currents generated in one area can penetrate into the power grid and propagate into other areas. deteriorating performance of electrical equipment. fluorescent lights. Because of the wide and ever increasing applications of power electronic devices. reduced power factors.INTRODUCTION: Harmonics are voltages and/or currents present in an electrical system at some multiple of the fundamental frequency. Even worse. some other nonlinear loads. resulting in voltage and current distortions for the entire system. In addition to electronic devices. Some of the main features of the ETAP Harmonic Load Flow Study are summarized below:  Harmonic order up to 73rd  Model harmonic voltage source  Model harmonic current source  Generation of harmonic source based on device parameters for VFD. called harmonics. interference with communication devices. etc. charger. These components usually are the integer multipliers of the fundamental frequency. SVC and HVDC  User-selected harmonic source inclusion by device categories  Calculation of various harmonic indices based on IEEE standards  Total harmonic distortions (THD) for both bus voltages and branch current  Total RMS value for both bus voltages and branch currents  Total arithmetic summation value (ASUM) for both bus voltages and branch currents  Telephone influence factors (TIF) for both bus voltages and branch currents Page 109 of 178 .” (IEEE Std 399. the incorrect operation of protective relays. power system voltage and current quality has been severely affected in some areas. Brown Book). inverter.. static power converters.

Characteristic Harmonics Generally produced by power converters Page 110 of 178 . Classification of Harmonics Harmonics may be classified as: 1. Automatic filter sizing based on different criteria.

Non-Characteristic Harmonics Typically produced by arc furnaces and discharge lighting (from non-periodical waveforms) Reducing System Harmonics:  Add Passive Filters  – Shunt or Single Tuned Filters – Broadband Filters or Band Pass Filters – Provide low impedance path for harmonic current – Least expensive Increase Pulse Numbers – Increasing pulse number of convert circuits – Limited by practical control problems Page 111 of 178 .2.

Apply Transformer Phase Shifting

Using Phase Shifting Transformers

Achieve higher pulse operation of the total converter installation

In PowerStation

Phase shift is specified in the tab page of the transformer editor

Distortion Limits:
Recommended Practices for Utilities (IEEE 519):
Bus Voltage At PCC

Individual Distortion

Total Voltage Distortion

THD (%)

THD (%)

69 kV and below

3.0

5.0

69.001 kV through 161kV

1.5

2.5

1.0

1.5

161.001 and above
In PowerStation:

Specify Harmonic Distortion Limits in Harmonic Page of Bus editor.

Page 112 of 178

CASE 1-WITHOUT FILTER
STEP 1: DRAW THE SLD FOR HARMONIC ANALYSIS:

STEP 2: INPUT PARAMETERS REQUIRED FOR HARMONIC ANALYSIS:
POWER GRID:Page 113 of 178

Voltage

: 33KV, 50 Hz

Fault MVA level

: 1000 MVAsc

Fault kA

: 999 kA (some infinity)

X/R ratio

: 40

TRANSFORMER’s:Primary

: 33 kV

Secondary

: 6.6 kV

Capacity

: 10 MVA

Impedance

: 8.35 %

kV

: 6.6 kV

Amps

: 220 amps

%PF

: 80 %

STEP 3: CALCULATION TO CREATE HARMONIC LIBRARY:

FORMULAE:h=np±1----------------------------------------eq 1
%Ih=100/h------------------------------------eq 2
Where
h=harmonic order from 1 to n.
p=number of pulses. (in this case p=12)
%Ih= magnitude of harmonic current.
To find harmonic order
Consider n= 1
eq 1=>

h=np-1
=1*12-1

h=11
Page 114 of 178

we get n Harmonic Order .857 3 37 2.Consider n= 1 eq 1=> h=np+1 =1*12+1 h=13 in the same method do for 2 to n.703 Using the above table create the harmonic library for current source and update in the static load component. STEP 4: CALCULATION TO FIND THE INDIVIDUAL HARMONIC CURRENT: FORMULAE:Ih= I*%Ih/100 -------------------------eq 3 Where Page 115 of 178 . eq 2=> %Ih=100/h =100/11 %Ih =9.692 2 23 4.09 %Ih=100/h =100/13 %Ih =7.348 2 25 4. upto 73rd harmonics To find magnitude of harmonic Current for above order 11th and 13th order. h Magnitude %lh 1 11 9.69 So do for upto 73rd harmonic.000 3 35 2.091 1 13 7.

00 16.29 5.92 9. h 11 13 23 25 35 37 Magnitude %Ih 9.703 Harmonic current.091 7.80 6.k.348 4.t I= 220 amps (i.57 8.I = Load current in Amps (Static load) h= harmonic order w.09/100 Ih=20 Amps In same method do for different harmonic order. static load current) To find harmonic Current eq 3=> Ih= I*%Ih/100 =220*9. Ih 20.000 2.692 4.857 2.e.95 Page 116 of 178 . we get Harmonic Order .

STEP 5: RUN THE HARMONIC LOAD FLOW TO FIND THE HARMONIC CURRENT FOR DIFFERENT ORDER: STEP 6: HAND CALCULATION TO FIND % VHD AND % IHD: Page 117 of 178 .

188 37 Formulae 2.00 14520851.57 25 4 8.9 3306.35 Ih* Xheq Isys=Ih Vh*Vh Isys*Isys ∑ Vh^2 ∑ Isys ^2 To find THD Voltage in Bus Formulae: %THD= [(√ (∑ Vh^2)/Vph]/100----------------------eq 4 Where THD= Total Harmonic Distortion.16 3306.94 eq 4=> %THD= {(√ (∑ Vh^2)/Vph}/100 = {(√19836.51 19836.80 6.00 13 7.39 91. Vh= is the voltage drop Vph= phase Voltage To find % THD We know that from the above table ∑ Vh^2=19836.87 2.15 57.50 57.50 220 20.94)/3810.92 9. Current Phase Volt Xhnet Xheq Vh drop Isys Vh square Isys square 1 220 3810.80 35 2.29 3306.16 35.29 2.16 3306.40 6.16 3306.53 9.50 57.26 0.50 57.87 3.01 6.53 6.16 48400 400.35 9.09 20.49 77.50 5.67 Xeq=Xnet 57.44 39.691% Page 118 of 178 .00 57.26 11 9.95 3306.40 3.86 6.50 57.57 8.69 16.15 9.62}/100 THD Voltage =3.67 Total reactance 9.50 16.62 0.01 6.7 h/100 5.92 23 4.95 220*%Ih/100 VL/Sqrt(3) 9.Harmonic %Ih Ih.16 286.94 930.

62}/100 THD Current= 13.To find THD Branch Current Formulae: %THD= [(√ (∑ Isys^2)/Vph]/100----------------------eq 5 To find % THD We know that from the above table ∑ Isys^2=930.86% Page 119 of 178 .188)/3810.188 eq 5=> %THD= {(√ (∑ Isys^2)/Vph}/100 = {(√930.

STEP 7: RUN THE HARMONIC LOAD FLOW: Page 120 of 178 .

CASE 2-WITH FILTER STEP 8: ADD HARMONIC FILTER: Page 121 of 178 .

Enter all the know values and size the filter. After sizing and updated the values enter the inductor Q-factor STEP 10: RUN THE HARMONIC LOAD FLOW WITH FILTER.STEP 9: PARAMETERS NEEDED FOR SIZING THE FILTER Harmonic Order = 11th Order Harmonic Current = 20 Existing PF = 80 Desired PF = 89 Load MVA = 2. ETAP will automatically size the filter based on the order of the Harmonic with respective current. from the table Page 113 Note: Load MVA and Existing PF are taken after running the Load Flow Analysis.5 MVA i.e. Page 122 of 178 .

Page 123 of 178 .

STEP 11: HARMONIC ANALAYSIS PLOT WITHOUT FILTER: STEP 12: HARMONIC ANALAYSIS PLOT WITH FILTER: Page 124 of 178 .

Page 125 of 178 .SUMMARY OF THE STUDY: From the above steps we conclude that the harmonices can be suppressed by sizing the filter. So different order different filter want to be size seperately with respect to harmonic order and harmonic current .

8. GROUND GRID SYSTEMS Page 126 of 178 .

80-1986: IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Methods: The Ground Grid Systems module utilizes the following four methods of computation:  FEM .Finite Element Method  IEEE 80-1986  IEEE 80-2000  IEEE 665-1995 Page 127 of 178 .Introduction: This design calculation note evaluates the GIS (Gas Insulated Substation) ground grid requirements to be considered in order to control the substation grid potential rise gradient to safe and tolerable values so as to avoid shock or injury to any substation operating personnel due to grid potential rise that occurs during an earth fault. square or rectangular meshes of bare copper grounding conductor buried in the soil around the substation. and connected to requisite number of ground rod electrodes. The object of the substation grounding design is to provide as nearly as possible a surface under and around the substation. Standards: The assessment of HV substation grounding has been based on the consideration of ground grid touch and step potential rise gradient. which shall be at a uniform potential during an earth fault. This is achieved by providing a ground grid or mat comprising of a number of adequately spaced. ANSI/IEEE STD. as per the following standards: BS 7354:1990: Code of practice for Design of high voltage open-terminal stations.

with vertical and horizontal conductors • One ground grid only • Rods.IEEE Methods • Empirical method. but arrangements are not flexible • Calculates required parameters Typical IEEE Grid Finite Element Method • Handles 2 layers plus a protective surface material • Any shape • Multiple interconnected ground grids • Rod location modeled in detail • Calculates required parameters at all points • Graphic potential profile Page 128 of 178 . limited applications • Handles 2 layers plus protective surface material (1 layer for touch potential) • Rectangular and triangular shapes only.

 Graphic profiles for the absolute Step and Touch voltages. The following are the steps to done to find soil resistivity. as well as the tables of the voltages at various locations (Finite Element Method). calculated Step and Mesh potentials (IEEE Std 80 and IEEE Std 665).  The Step and Touch potentials  The tolerable Step and Mesh potentials and compares them with actual.000 ohmmeters. between 1 and 10. Designing of Earthing (or Grounding) Grid In designing the grounding grid for a substation.1 inches • Vertical ground rods should be at least 8 ft.The Ground Grid Systems module calculates the following:  The Maximum Allowable Current for specified conductors.  The Ground Resistance and Ground Potential rise (GPR). To design the most economical grounding system for a substation.  The optimum number of parallel ground conductors and rods for a ground grid.  Done at a number of places in the substation Page 129 of 178 . long • Determine if touch and step voltages are below tolerable limits • Few iterations may be required to determine correct grid design Step 1 – Soil Resistivity Analysis:The resistivity of earth varies within extremely wide limits. it is necessary to obtain the following information about the system • Use network of bare conductors buried in the earth • Encompass all area within the substation fence and extend at least 3 feet outside • Perform soil resistivity test • Surface material at least 4 inches • Determine fault current using short circuit • Determine maximum clearing time • Size conductors • Conductor should be buried a minimum of 18 inches to 59. it is necessary to obtain accurate data on the soil resistivity and its variation at the station site.

therefore 3 sec time may be adopted as the fault clearing time for grounding calculation. the same duration as is used for short time rating of switchgear. The potential gradients are also a function of this current. or L-shaped grids Step 3 – Ground Fault Currents:The maximum ground fault current constitutes a major factor in the grounding system design.A. Typical Shock Situations Page 130 of 178 .S.  L-G fault on substation bus or transmission line  Interested in maximum amount of fault current expected to flow into the ground grid  Determine maximum symmetrical rms fault current. The Russian practice is to adopt 0.2 sec as the time of clearing the fault whereas in U. triangular. Several layers with different resistivity  Lateral surface changes are more gradual than vertical changes  Wenner Four-Pin Method Step 2 – Grid Area: Area should be as large as possible  Increasing area is more effective than adding additional conductor to reduce grid resistance  Outer conductor should be placed on the boundary of substation  Fence should be placed a minimum of 3 feet inside  Square. Step 4 – Fault Clearing Time:There are many considerations which influence the choice of fault clearing time such as the system stability. The short time rating of switch gear as per Indian and British practice is based on 3 seconds. This determines the cross-section of the grounding conductor as well as total rise of the grounding system potential. T-shaped.e. the type of switchgear and relay used. the trend is towards adopting 4 sec i. rectangular.

Typical Values: Page 131 of 178 .

Page 132 of 178 .

Ly in feet Breadth of area provided with bare buried conductor Depth of burial of conductor in ft Conductor cross section area of buried copper conductor Length of Conductor Number of conductors in X and Y direction Size of the conductors in mm2 or AWG/kcmil Type of conductors For Rod: Total number of earth pits Rod depth in feet Diameter of ground rods in inch Arrangement of the rod Type of the rod. Lx. Page 133 of 178 .INPUT DATA REQUIRED FOR DESIGNING GGS IEEE METHOD IN ETAP:For Soil Editor Soil resistivity of upper layer ohm-m Soil resistivity of lower layer ohm-m Material Depth in ft For Conductor: Length of area provided with bare buried conductor.

DRAW THE SLD FOR GGD:- Page 134 of 178 .STEP 1:.

082 Page 135 of 178 .2 Rk= 1000 as per IEEE 80 for 50kg body weight.eq3 Where Rk= Body Resistance as per IEEE 80 Rf = Foot Resistance Ik = Tolerable Body current as per IEEE 80 Cs= Surface layer Derating factor. To find Ik eq3=> Ik= 0.k.eq2 Ik= 0.4.eq1 Rf =3*ρs* Cs -------------------------------------------.CALCULATION FOR TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP POTENTIAL.8 of BS 7345 as per IEEE 80 ρs = Surface resistivity (Crushed rock and insulated mat) w. TO FIND TOLERABLE TOUCH: FORMULAE:Etouch= (Rk +Rf /2)*Ik ---------------------------------.886 taken from ETAP.t Cs= 0.116/√ (ts) =0. ρs = 2000 ts = 0.2 Ik =0. ts = Duration of Shock as per section 7.116/√0.116/√ (ts) -----------------------------------------.STEP 2:.

2 Etouch =948.To find Rf eq2=> Rf =3*ρs* Cs =3*2000*0.eq5 Ik= 0. ts = Duration of Shock as per section 7.116/√ (ts) = (116+0.eq6 Where Rk= Body Resistance as per IEEE 80 Rf = Foot Resistance Ik = Tolerable Body current as per IEEE 80 Cs= Surface layer Derating factor.886 ρs = 2000 Page 136 of 178 .116/√ (ts) = (1000+1.t Cs= 0.174*ρs* Cs)/√ (ts) = (116+0.k.174*2000*0.eq4 ------------------------------------------.886)/ √0.8 of BS 7345 as per IEEE 80 ρs = Surface resistivity (Crushed rock and insulated mat) w.83 TO FIND STEP POTENTIAL: FORMULAE:Estep= (Rk +2Rf )*Ik Rf =3*ρs* Cs ----------------------------------.116/√ (ts) -----------------------------------------.5*ρs* Cs)* 0.4.886 Rf =5316 To find Etouch eq2=> Etouch= (Rk +Rf /2)*Ik = (1000+3*ρs* Cs /2)* 0.

ts = 0.116/√0.116/√ (ts) =0.15 STEP 3:. To find Ik eq6=> Ik= 0.696*2000*0.CALCULATION FOR TO FIND GROUND GRID RESISTANCE USING SCHWARZ’S FORMULA.116/√ (ts) = (116+0.886 Rf =5316 To find Estep eq4=> Estep= (Rk +2Rf )*Ik = (1000+6*ρs* Cs)* 0.K2] ------------------------------eq8 R2 = [ρa/ (2*n* π *dr)]*[ln (8*dr/d2) .0.696*ρs* Cs)/√ (ts) = (116+0.2 Rk= 1000 as per IEEE 80 for 50kg body weight. FORMULAE:Rg=R1+R2-R12/ (R1+R2-2R12) ---------------------------------------------------------eq7 R1 = [ρ/ (π*Lc)]*[ln (2*Lc/h') + K1*(Lc/√A) .2 Ik =0.1 + 2*K1*(dr/√A)*(√n .886)/ √0.082 To find Rf eq5=> Rf =3*ρs* Cs =3*2000*0.1)²]------eq9 Page 137 of 178 .2 Estep =3017.

88] R1=10.1*(3433/√1250)-4.K2] = [1000/(3.0687 A= 1250m2 ie.R12 = [ρa/ (π *Lc)]*[ln (2*Lc/dr) + K1*(Lc/√A) .K2 + 1] ------------------eq10 Where Rg = ground grid resistance Lc = Total Length of buried conductor dr = rod depth d2 = diameter of ground rod in m.88 To find R1 eq8=> R1 = [ρ/ (π*Lc)]*[ln (2*Lc/h') + K1*(Lc/√A) . ρ = soil resistivity of upper layer ρa = apparent soil resistivity Lc = total length of buried conductor A = Area of plot n = no of ground rods w.26 ohm-m Lc = 3433m h' = 0.0687)+1.t ρ = 1000 ohm-m ρa =355.518 ohm To find R2 Page 138 of 178 ..k. 50*25 m n = 6997 dr = 2.14*3433)]*[ln(2*3433/0.1 K2=4.7m d2 = 0.02m K1=1.

649/(10.eq9=> R2 = [ρa/ (2*n* π *dr)]*[ln (8*dr/d2) .14*3433)]*[ln(2*3433/2.453-3.7)]*[ln(8*2.02)-1+2*1.7)+1.88+1] R12=3.1 + 2*K1*(dr/√A)*(√n .453-2*3.518+3.26/(2*6997*3. IG=Maximum grid current in amps Df = is the decrement factor for the entire duration of fault Page 139 of 178 . STEP 4:.14*2.7/0.26/(3.7/√1250)*( /√1250-1)^2] R2=3.518+3.1)²] = [355.649 ohm To find R12 Eq7=> Rg=R1+R2-R12/ (R1+R2-2R12) =10.1*(3433/√1250)-4.K2 + 1] = [355.453 ohm To find R12 eq10=> R12 = [ρa/ (π *Lc)]*[ln (2*Lc/dr) + K1*(Lc/√A) .CALCULATION FOR TO FIND GROUND POTRNTIAL RISE (GPR).649) Rg= 4.88 ohm. FORMULAE:GPR=Rg*IG----------------------------------------------------eq11 IG=Df *If--------------------------------------------------------eq12 Where Rg= grid resistance in ohms If= rms symmetrical current in amps.1*(2.

156*1000 GPR=73991.28 Volts Page 140 of 178 .125*13.t If=40kA Rg=4.88*15.w.156 kA To find GPR eq11=> GPR=Rg*IG =4.475 IG=15.2s To find IG eq12=> IG=Df *If =1.125 X/R=20 tf=0.k.92 ohms Df= 1.

8 Tolerable Step 3017.5 Volts Page 141 of 178 .83 948.28 74003.STEP 5: SUMMARY FROM ETAP: STEP 6: COMPARISION BETWEEN HAND CALCULATION Vs ETAP: Hand Calculation ETAP Results Tolerable Touch Volts 948.2 Rg in Ohm 4.15 3017.883 GPR in Volts 73991.88 4.

OPTIMAL CAPACITOR PLACEMENT Page 142 of 178 .

location. and require additional reactive power flow from the power grid. while minimizing the total cost of installation and operation. But excessive reactive power demands result in reduced system capacity. This solution should also be able to place capacitors for voltage support and power factor correction. An ideal solution would be a capacitor placement tool able to weigh all these factors and that considers load levels. Power systems are inductive in nature. but bank size. and cost considerations are important issues that need to be optimized during the design phase. as well as higher operating costs. KEY FEATURES:  Calculate the most cost-effective installation locations and best bank size  Minimize total installation and operation cost  Consider voltage support and power factor correction  Evaluate Capacitor control method  Allow review of capacitor impact on the system  Employ most advanced optimum techniques FLEXIBLE OPERATION:  Show available locations  Apply user-selected load categories  Utilize individual and global constraints  Handle unlimited network configurations  Use only user selected installation locations  Constrain maximum capacitors installed at a location to user specified quantity CAPABILITY: Page 143 of 178 . ETAP now provides just such an application in its Optimum Capacitor Placement (OCP) module. increased losses.INTRODUCTION: The majority of power systems operate at a lagging power factor due to inductive loads and delivery apparatus (lines and transformers). and decreased voltage. Shunt capacitor banks are able to compensate for var requirements. the capacitor control method.

average and minimum loads  Branch capacity release  Cost summary Page 144 of 178 . Advanced graphic user interface  User friendly input and output  Instantly view new capacitors  Speed and precision control  Integrated load flow results  Standard Crystal reports REPORTING:  Capacitor properties  Capacitor locations and sizes  Load flow results for maximum.

STEP 1:.DRAW THE SLD FOR OCP ANALYSIS: Page 146 of 178 .

16 kV MVA =15 MVA Impedance =Typical X/R =Typical Transformer (T2): Primary kV =13.INPUT DATAS FOR OCP ANALYSIS: Power Grid (U1=U2): Rated kV =13.8 kV Secondary kV=4.STEP 2:.8 kV MVAsc =50 MVAsc X/R =8 Transformer (T1): Primary kV =13.8 kV Secondary kV=4.0 kV MVA =15 MVA Impedance =Typical X/R =Typical Generator (G2): Operating Mode= Voltage Control MW = 20 MW kV =4.16 kV Page 147 of 178 .

In addition.Cable 1=2: Length = 100 ft R = 0.044 Lump 1 MVA =8 MVA kV =4.556 X =0.0 kV %PF =85% STEP 3:. Load Power Factor (PF) should be greater than the minimum.ADD THE VOLTAGE CONSTRAINT CANDIDATE BUSES: The main constraints for capacitor placement are to meet the load flow constraints.16 kV %PF =85% Lump 2 MVA =8 MVA kV =4. all voltage magnitudes of load (PQ) buses should be within the lower and upper bars. Page 148 of 178 . It may be a maximum power factor bar.

Page 149 of 178 . Bus 1 is the voltage constraint buses in this case.amps.CAPACITOR INSERTION: By running the optimal capacitor placement analysis. After doing this analysis place the capacitor banks and again run the analysis.RUN THE OCP ANALYSIS: STEP 5:. It will suggest the capacitor ratings in kvar.STEP 4:. Xc and no of banks depend upon the voltage constraits in the buses. Now we can identified the buses which under voltage constraints by placing the capacitor banks as per the system suggestuion we will reduce the voltage constraints.

16^2/2215.65 Kvar To find Capacitor Current eq 2=> Amps =kvar/(sqrt(3)*kV) =2215.81 Ω Page 150 of 178 .65) =7.16) =307.HAND CALCULATION: FORMULAE:Kvar=Kvar/bank*( # no of Banks) -------------------------------eq 1 Amps=kvar/(sqrt(3)*kV) amps -------------------------------eq 2 Xc=10^3* (kV^2/kvar) ohms -------------------------------eq 3 µF = 10^6/(Xc*2*π*f) -------------------------------eq 4 w k.16 kV Kvar= 2215.t kV= 4.STEP 6:.50 amps To find Capacitor Reactance eq 3=> Xc =10^3* (kV^2/kvar) =10^3*(4.65/(sqrt(3)*4.

COMPARISION TABLE: Hand Calculation ETAP Results No of Banks 12 12 Kvar/Banks 200 200 Amps 307.5 Xc 7.81*2*pi()*60) =339.5 320.63 353 Page 151 of 178 .63 µF STEP 6:.6 µF 339.To Find Farad eq 4=> µF = 10^6/(Xc*2*π*f) =10^6/(7.81 7.

ARC FLASH ANALYSIS Page 152 of 178 .

ETAP Arc Flash is a fully integrated module that takes advantage of all the capabilities already built into ETAP.INTRODUCTION: The ETAP Arc Flash Analysis module incorporates the latest software technology available to investigate a worker potential exposure to arc flash energy. Bolted fault currents should be determined for each piece of equipment likely to require maintenance or inspection while energized. one for use with 0. bolted fault current. but selecting IEC will change the arc flash results since the short-circuit currents used to calculate the arc flash results are determined based on IEC 60909 standards. due to greater resistance. Page 153 of 178 .208-1 kV systems. conductor gap distance. It also calculates the individual arcing current contributions and arc fault clearing time of all the protective devices involved in the arc fault by interfacing with ETAP Star (Protective device selectivity and coordination module).The current that flows through an arcing fault is usually significantly less than the bolted fault current. All the automation dramatically reduces the time required to perform an arc flash analysis according to the standards. Arc Fault Current . DEFINITIONS: Bolted Fault Current ( Bus Fault Current) . It is the maximum current available to flow through a short circuit. In addition. There is no IEC arc flash standard. Arc fault current calculations are based on voltage. This information is used to calculate the arc fault currents. and other factors. The incident energy and flash protection boundaries are determined based on the following two available standards for arc flash analysis:  National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) 70E-2000 and 2004  IEEE Standards 1584-2002 & IEEE 1584a 2004. The program automatically determines the bolted Short-circuit current. and the other for systems between 1 and 15 kV. IEEE 1584 presents two formulas for calculating arc fault currents. which may be required for the purpose of injury prevention and determination of appropriate levels of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).The bolted fault current is the current that would flow through a short circuit consisting of two conductors bolted together. the Bolted Current is equal to Arcing Current. Note: If the nominal kV is greater than 15kV. ETAP determines automatically the system grounding configuration and other information required to determine the most adequate and conservative hazard analysis results. STANDARDS: Select either the ANSI or IEC standard.

A shock protection boundary not to be crossed by unqualified persons unless escorted by a qualified person.A shock protection boundary to be crossed by only qualified persons.641 Cables 2.208-1 kV) switchgear 1.Distance at which the incident energy level equals 1. Incident Energy .0 Limited Approach Boundary .473 High-voltage (1-15 kV) switchgear 0.973 Low-voltage MCCs and panels 1. the "surface" is the worker's body at the assumed working distance. Restricted Approach Boundary . generated during an electrical arc event.Working Distance The working distance is the distance from a potential arc source to a worker's face and chest. as even an increase of a few inches in working distance can cause a significant drop in incident energy.0 Low-voltage (. It is a critical quantity in determining the flash hazard boundary. Incident energy is expressed in calories/cm2 Equipment Type Open air D (Distance Exponent) 2. Some usual working distances are shown in the table at right. but efforts should be made to determine actual working distances.Incident energy is defined in NFPA 70E as "the amount of energy impressed on a surface. For voltages greater than 1000V.5 cal/cm2 for clearing times that are 0." In an arc flash hazard study. Page 154 of 178 .1 seconds or faster. Working distance Equipment class Low-voltage switchgear 24" 15 kV/5 kV switchgear 36" Low-voltage MCCs and panelboards 18" Cables 18" Flash Protection Boundary . a certain distance from the source. use 1.2 cal/cm2 for fault clearing time greater than 0. When crossed the use of shock protection techniques and equipment is required. 18 inches is the working distance most commonly assumed in calculations.1 seconds.

When crossed the same protection is required as if direct contact is made with the live part.A shock protection boundary only to be crossed by qualified persons.Prohibited Approach Boundary . TRADITIONAL METHODS FOR REDUCING ARC FLASH HAZARDS:  Reducing the Arcing Current  Increasing the working distance  Reducing the Clearing Time ARC FLASH CALCULATION BASED IEEE STD 1584-2002 Page 155 of 178 .

Page 156 of 178 .

4. NFPA 70E Hazard/Risk Category: Page 157 of 178 .

Page 158 of 178 . Protective Clothing Characteristics based on NPFA-70E-2004 Application.5.

STEP 1: Draw SLD For Arc Flash Analysis: STEP 2: Inputs Required For Arc Flash Analysis: Page 159 of 178 .

STEP 3: Run the Analysis after completing the Relay coordination.4 mm.2 mm V=20 kA Ibf= 3.557*(0.00402+0. To find Arcing Current (Ia): FORMULAE:.as per equ 4 IgIa=0.12*105VIbf(t/D2) Where E= Incident Energy in Cal/cm2 V=System Voltage Ibf=Bolted fault current in kA ( Symmetrical RMS) t=Fault Clearing Time (FCT) in Seconds. D=Distance from the possible arc current in mm w.557 kA t=0. To find Incident Energy (E): by Lee Method FORMULAE:.099 Sec To find Incident Energy:- E=5.12*105VIbf(t/D2) =5. so 18 inch= 457.that D=1 inch *1 inch= 25.k.983IgIbf Where Ig=log10 Ia= Arcing Current in kA Ibf=Bolted fault Current in kA Page 160 of 178 .2^2) Incident Energy(E) =17.as per equ 9 E=5.25 Cal/cm2 2.12*100000*20*3. STEP 4: Hand Calculation For Arc Flash Analysis using IEEE Std: For Bus B 1.099/457.

50 kA 3. V=20 kA Ibf= 3.w.12*105VIbf(t/EB) in mm Where.983*3.00402+0..557 kA To find Arcing Current:IgIa=0.k that.k.as per equ 11 DB=Sqrt(5.2 Cal/cm2 Page 161 of 178 .099 sec EB =1.983IgIbf 1*Ia=0.557 Arcing Current (Ia)=3. To find the Flash Protection Boundary (DB): by Lee Method FORMULAE:. EB = Incident Energy at the boundary in Cal/cm2 *As per the satandard IEEE 1584-2002 EB =1. V= System Voltage Ibf = Bolted fault current in kA ( Symmetrical RMS) t = Fault Clearing Time (FCT) in Seconds.t.2 Cal/cm2 W.00402+0.557 kA t=0. Ig = log10=1 Ibf=3.

Hazard/Risk Categories: The System Bus B is under Category is 3 as per the standard (see the above sidebar 3) the incident energy is between the range of 8-25 Cal/cm2 STEP 5: Run Arc Flash Analysis: Page 162 of 178 .12*105VIbf(t/EB) =Sqrt((5.To find Flash Protection Boundary:DB=Sqrt(5.2*(0.68 ft 4.00328 ft So 1734.557)) DB = 1734.099/3.2 mm= 17342.2 mm 1 mm = 0.00328 DB = 5.2*0.12*100000*20*1.

STEP 6: ETAP Report: STEP 7: Alert Report Page 163 of 178 .

31 Cal/cm2 0.5 kA 3.557 kA 0.03 ft Page 164 of 178 .06 Cal/cm2 Arcing Current 3.68 ft 5.STEP 8: Comparision Table: Hand Calculation ETAP Calculation Difference Incident Energy 17.71 ft 0.25 Cal/cm2 17.05 kA Flash Boundary 5.

UNDERGROUND RACEWAY SYSTEM ANALYSIS Page 165 of 178 .

uniform-ampacity cable ampacity calculation. Each UGS presentation is a different cross-section of the underground system. cables. cables. The steadystate temperature calculation is based on the IEC 60287 or the NEC accepted Neher-McGrath method. The cable ampacity calculation and cable sizing are based on the NEC accepted NeherMcGrath method only. conduits/locations. The UGS presentation allows you to graphically arrange raceways. All of these calculations can handle multi-raceway systems and consider the effect of heat generated by neighboring cables and external heat sources. uniform-temperature cable ampacity calculation. This is a different concept than the multi-presentation of the one-line diagram. and external heat sources to represent cable routing and to provide a physical environment to conduct cable ampacity derating studies. ETAP provides five types of calculations for cable derating analysis. this determines the proper size of cables to carry the specified loads. conduits. The transient temperature calculation is based on a dynamic thermal circuit model. and heat sources. and transient temperature calculation. cable sizing. Page 166 of 178 . When performing an analysis of an existing system. which are in the same vicinity which was as shown in the below Fig 1.INTRODUCTION: Cable derating analysis is an important part of power system design and analysis. where all presentations have the same elements. Underground Raceway System GUI: The UGS presentation is conceptually a cross-section of desired raceways. it examines cable temperatures and determines their ampacities. When you are designing a new system. steady-state temperature calculation. namely.

this raceway can be added to other UGS presentations as an existing raceway. However. this raceway will not be shown in the other UGS presentations.Fig 1 You can create as many UGS presentations as you wish. Also. raceways from any UGS presentation can be added to the other UGS presentations as existing raceways. Page 167 of 178 . If you add a raceway to a UGS presentation. each presentation acts independently. if you delete a raceway from a UGS presentation into the Dumpster. There is no limit on the number of raceways and heat sources that can be created/added in one presentation. In UGS.

Note: The cables located in different conduits/locations in general will not have the same temperature. In the calculations. cable sizing. all conductors from the same cable branch are presumed to equally share the total line current. The calculation considers the mutual heat effect of cables in the same raceway as well as in different raceways. However. and transient temperature calculation. uniform-ampacity ampacity calculation. which employs a thermal circuit model to represent heat flow situations. steady-state temperature calculation.Cable Derating Calculation Methods: ETAP provides five types of cable derating calculations. and the location of each particular cable. uniform-temperature ampacity calculation. namely. Page 168 of 178 . Steady-State Temperature Calculation: The Steady-State Cable Temperature calculation determines the temperature of all the cable conductors involved in the raceway system under a specified loading condition. It also considers the heat effect from external heat sources. The raceway system can contain several raceways and external heat sources. They can be located in the same conduit/location or different conduits/locations in the same raceway. cable loading. It is assumed that the cables have been carrying the specified load long enough that the heat flow has reached its steady-state and no more changes of temperature will occur throughout the raceway system. even though they carry the same load current. the calculated temperature will be the same. if they are located in the same conduit/location. The cable temperature calculated is dependent on raceway system configuration. The calculation is based on the IEC 60287 standard or the NEC accepted Neher-McGrath approach.

you cannot run studies if the raceway contains unassigned cables (cables that are assigned to a raceway but are not located in a specific conduit or location). insulation. that is. Cable Derating Required Data: 1. the cable will be considered not changeable. You can run studies with raceways that contain no cables.. Page 171 of 178 . as the cable to be sized. The minimum requirement for underground system data includes soil type. Raceway data can be entered from the Raceway page of the Raceway editor. raceway fill type.Cable Sizing – UGS: The Cable Sizing calculation determines the minimum size for each cable that will carry the specified load current without violating the cable temperature limit. etc. If a solution is reached. The cable temperature calculation is done in the same way as the steady-state temperature calculation described above. The calculation is an iterative process involving repetitively adjusting the cable size and calculating cable temperature. conductor type. If there are no available alternative sizes for a cable. they have the same voltage. The cables considered as candidates for cable sizing are the ones that are flagged as available cables in the Cable Library of the same cable type. 2. The minimum requirement for raceway data includes raceway dimension. soil thermal resistivity. However. Raceway Data Two types of raceways are supported in the current version of ETAP: Duct Bank Raceway and Direct Buried Raceway. calculation results will be reported in the output report and the cables involved in the study will be changed to the new sizes if the Update Size option is checked in the study case. Underground Raceway System Data The data for the underground raceway system can be entered from the Underground System editor. and ambient temperature. and its thermal resistivity.

Data from the Info Page The cable type data must be available before performing any cable derating calculation. otherwise it will use the data from the Physical page of the Cable editor. Special attention should be given to the Link to Library box. the cable derating calculation will extract the cable physical data directly from the Cable Library. When this box is checked. outside diameter. 4. Conduit/Location Data The data for conduit/location can be entered into the Location page of the Raceway editor. b). Cable Data Cable data is entered into several pages of the Cable editor. The only requirement for location data is its location. Other data that are needed for cable derating calculations and that can be entered into the Info page include the cable size and the number of conductors per phase. Physical Page  This page is designed especially for entering parameters employed in cable derating calculations. type. These parameters describing the physical aspect of a cable are required to Page 172 of 178 . A conduit/location can be empty (contain no cables). Location A location is a specified space in a direct buried raceway in which cables are placed. You can select cable type from the Cable Library by clicking on the Library button. a). The minimum requirements for conduit data include location.3. Location can only be assigned to a direct buried raceway. Conduit A conduit can only be placed in a duct bank raceway. and thickness.