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Before I am going to answer these questions I want to share with you my idea which I got it

when I was making a search about the Assessment. In my understanding the assessment should
provide information needed to improve learning. This information is shared through feedback.
1. Summative assessment takes place after the learning has been completed and provides
information and feedback that sums up the teaching and learning process. Typically, no more
formal learning is taking place at this stage, other than incidental learning which might take
place through the completion of projects and assignments.
2. Formative assessment provides feedback and information during the instructional process,
while learning is taking place, and while learning is occurring. Formative assessment measures
student progress but it can also assess your own progress as an instructor. For example, when
implementing a new activity in class, you can, through observation and/or surveying the
students, determine whether or not the activity should be used again (or modified). A primary
focus of formative assessment is to identify areas that may need improvement.
3. Validity refers to how well a test measures what it is purported to measure. Validity
encompasses the entire experimental concept and establishes whether the results obtained
meet all of the requirements of the scientific research method.
4. Reliability is the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results.
Reliability is an essential pre-requisite for validity. It is possible to have a reliable measure that
is not valid; however a valid measure must also be reliable.
5. Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been
variously defined by sources. Generally, objectivity means the quality of being true even
outside of a subject's individual.
6. It is not possible.
- Because the understanding of the students will be not good. The students need to
understand the course very well to solving the problems which are they face during the course.
So there will be unbalanced between the content of the course and the time because the time
will be not enough to complete the course and support students by motivating them to
improve their level and knowledge.
7. There are many types of assessments I will talk about two types as follow :
- Diagnostic assessment can help you by identifying your students current knowledge of a
subject, their skill sets and capabilities.

- Norm-referenced assessment is generally used to sort students rather than to measure


individual performance against a standard or criterion
8. The knowledge is the fact or condition of knowing something with familiarity gained through
experience or association or something that does not need analyze to find out the solving.
The understanding which needs to analyze and simplify something
-

The ability to duplicate the information.


The ability to know the meaning of something.
The ability to know the nature of something.
The ability to skillfully perform tasks in the area.

In order for a teacher to check the student's understanding, then the teacher needs to get the
student to do something or some things that illustrate the student's understanding. In this way
both the student and the teacher can be sure that understanding has occurred.

9. The exam questions which test the knowledge are:


- Multiple choice questions.
- True or False questions.
- Fill in the sentence gap.
- Connecting or matching questions.

10. The exam questions which test the understanding are :


Development of opinions, judgments, or decisions
-

Analyze question
Describing questions
Name or writing questions
Evaluating questions

Reference :

http://www.anglia.ac.uk/
http://learntech.uwe.ac.uk/da/Default.aspx?pageid=1429
http://www.uni.edu/chfasoa/reliabilityandvalidity.htm