Submitted By:-

Abdur Rahim Khan

Roll No- SATS-02-006
Batch No-2
Course- Skylark Advance Program


This section of the assignment gives us information
regarding to history of aviation and different governing body
like IATA, ICAO, MOCA, DGCA, BCAS etc. and their
function. And also get information about Airport Handling
Procedure (AHP. Its include Reservation Counter, Check-in
Counter, BMA, Boarding gate/SHA, RAMP, Arrival and Cargo

5 RAMP 3. Aviation History 2. Governing Body 3. Airport Handling Procedure 3.7 Cargo 4.2 Check-in Counter 3.3 BMA 3.1 Reservation 3.4 BG/SHA 3.6 Arrival 3.2 INDEX CONTENT: 1. Acknowledgement PAGES: 3-5 6-9 10-24 10-11 12-14 14-15 15 16-19 19-21 22-24 25 .

but he did not attempt to demonstrate his ideas by actually constructing them. gases such as hydrogen were discovered which in turn led to the invention of hydrogen balloons.3 AVIATION HISTORY The history of aviation has extended over more than two thousand years from the earliest attempts in kites and gliders to powered. powered flight possible for the first time. Leonardo da Vinci's 15th-century dream of flight found expression in several designs. Various theories in mechanics by physicists during the same period of time. notably fluid dynamics and Newton's laws of motion. supersonic. where balloons provided observation during the Battle of Petersburg. . Yuan Huangtou. when a general flew a kite over enemy territory to calculate the length of tunnel required to enter the region. survived by tying himself to the kite. a Chinese prince. The first form of man-made flying objects were kites. and by the early 20th-century advances in engine technology and aerodynamics made controlled. With the efforts to analyze the atmosphere from the 17th to 19th centuries. The earliest known record of kite flying is from around 200 BC in China. Tethered balloons filled with hot air were used in the first half of the 19th century and saw considerable action in several mid-century wars.Tethered balloons Experiments with gliders provided the groundwork for heavier-than-air craft. heavier-than-air. Fig:-Glider Fig:. led to the foundation of modern aerodynamics. most notably the American Civil War. and hypersonic flight.

the Wright Flyer. and it performed far better than the previous models. had only about half the lift they anticipated. They flew it successfully hundreds of times in 1902. the brothers built and tested a series of kite and glider designs from 1900 to 1902 before attempting to build a powered design. the Wrights constructed their own wind tunnel and created a number of sophisticated devices to measure lift and drag on the 200 wing designs they tested. but also helped advance the science of aeronautical engineering. the Wrights corrected earlier mistakes in calculations regarding drag and lift. built the following year.4 The Wright Brothers Following a step by step method. The Wright Flyer: the first sustained fkight with a powered. Their first glider. Their second glider. Rather than giving up.’ Their testing and calculating produced a third glider with a higher aspect ratio and true three-axis control. involving wind-tunnel testing of airfoils and flight testing of fullsize prototypes. but not as well as the Wrights had expected based on the experiments and writings of their 19th-century predecessors. the Wrights not only built a working aircraft. discovering aerodynamics forces then controlling the flight. By using a rigorous system of experimentation. The gliders worked. launched in 1900. performed even more poorly. As a result. . controlled aircraft.

anhedral wings were less affected by crosswinds and were consistent with the low yaw stability. Although wing-warping as a means of lateral control was used only briefly during the early history of aviation. the principle of combining lateral control in combination with a rudder was a key advance in aircraft control. a local businessman. Almost as an afterthought. The flights were witnessed by three coastal lifesaving crewmen. . While many aviation pioneers appeared to leave safety largely to chance. making these the first public flights and the first well-documented ones. and a boy from the village. of 120 feet (37 m) in 12 seconds.5 The Wrights appear to be the first to make serious studied attempts to simultaneously solve the power and control problems. the Wrights' design was greatly influenced by the need to teach themselves to fly without unreasonable risk to life and limb. Both problems proved difficult. In the fourth flight of the same day. as well as low engine power. They also designed and carved wooden propellers that were more efficient than any before. they designed and built a low-powered internal combustion engine. because the canard could not be highly loaded. Wilbur Wright flew 852 feet (260 m) in 59 seconds. They solved the control problem by inventing wing warping for roll control. by surviving crashes. was the reason for low flying speed and for taking off in a head wind. combined with simultaneous yaw control with a steerable rear rudder. but they never lost interest. was recorded in a famous photograph. The first flight by Orville Wright. This emphasis. enabling them to gain adequate performance from their low engine power. Performance (rather than safety) was also the reason for the rear-heavy design.

 IATA also runs the Billing and Settlement Plan. IATA /IATAN (International Association of Travel Agents Network) ID card is globally recognized industry credential for travel professionals. Switzerland. Tony Tyler. IATA supports airline activity and helps formulate industry policy and standards. respectively. Full accreditation allows agents to sell tickets on behalf of all IATA member airlines. IATA is formed in 19th April 1945 at the Havana of Cuba. And it provides a number of business intelligence publications and services. It is headquartered in Montreal. which are commonly used worldwide. including the electronic ticket[14] and the bar coded boarding pass. which is a $300 billion-plus financial system that looks after airline money. It represents some 240 airlines or more than 80% of total air traffic. This initiative has introduced a number of crucial concepts to passenger travel. The Director General (DG) & CEO is Mr.  Travel Agent accreditation is available for travel professionals.  In 2003.  IATA regulates the shipping of dangerous goods and publishes the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations manual(DGR). the IATA Operational Safety Audit (AOSA) was launched with the aim to serve as a standard and worldwide recognized certificate of airlines’ operational management. THE FUNCTION OF IATA:  IATA assigns three-letter & two-letter codes to airport & airlines.6 INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (IATA) The International Air Transport Association is the trade association for the world’s airlines. Cargo Agent accreditation is a similar program. Canada with Executive Offices in Geneva. including a range of self-service baggage options. Many other innovations are being established as part of the Fast Travel initiative.  Simplifying the Business was launched in 2004. .

. MINISTRY OF CIVIL AVIATION (INDIA) The Ministry of Civil Aviation of the Government of India is the nodal Ministry responsible for the formulation of national policies and programs for development and regulation of Civil Aviation and for devising and implementing schemes for the orderly growth and expansion of civil air transport. and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. its infrastructure. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. The head of the ICAO is Mr. Its functions also extend to overseeing airport facilities. Additionally it also defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation in respective countries. Its headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal. ICAO is formed on 4th April 1947 but India is a member of ICAO in 1st March 1947. Raymond Benjamin. flight inspection. The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation. air traffic services and carriage of passengers and goods by air. prevention of unlawful interference. Canada.7 INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is aspecialized agency of the United Nations. The Ministry also administers implementation of the 1934 Aircraft Act and is administratively responsible for the Commission of Railways Safety. Quebec.

And also mock exercise to test efficiency of contingency plan and operational preparedness of the various agencies . 1987 under the MOCA as a sequel to the Kanishka Tragedy in June 1985.8 The ministry is under the charge of Ajit Singh. 1976. The BCAS conducting surprise/Dummy checks to test professional sufficiency and alertness of security staff. three Joint Secretaries. The main responsibility of BCAS are lay down standards and measures in respect of security of civil flight at International and domestic airports in India. The minister has under its preview the organization such bas  Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS). inspect and train personnel in Civil Aviation Security matters. The Secretary is the head of the Ministry and is assisted by one Additional Secretary & Financial Adviser. It is located at Rajiv Gandhi Bhavan. The roll of the cell was to co-ordinate. Safdarjung Airport. BUREAU OF CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY (BCAS) The Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS)was initially set up as a cell in the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) in January 1978 on the recommendation of Pande Committee constituted in the wake of hijacking of the Indian Airlines flight on 10th September. seven officers of the level of Director / Deputy Secretary / Financial Controller and ten officers of the level of Under Secretary. monitor.  Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA). New Delhi. The BCAS was recognized into an independent department on 1st April.

Kanpur. air safety and airworthiness standards. Cochin. DGCA has fourteen Regional Airworthiness Offices (RAO) at Delhi. The Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) is the Indian governmental regulatory body in the field of civil aviation under the Ministry of Civil Aviation primarily dealing with safety issues. The headquarters are located in New Delhi with regional offices in the various parts of India. Arun Mishra. Hyderabad. Mumbai. The Director General is Mr. Bangalore. It also co-ordinates all regulatory functions with International Civil Aviation Organization. Bhubaneswar. Mumbai. Kolkata. It is responsible for regulation of air transport services to/from/within India and for enforcement of civil air regulations.9 DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF CIVIL AVIATION (DGCA). It has a Regional Research and Development Office located at Bangalore and a Gliding Centre at Pune . Bhopal. Chennai. Guwahati and Patiala. It has also five Regional Air Safety offices located at Delhi. Lucknow. Kolkata and Hyderabad. Patna. Chennai.

Over view of Airport RESERVATION COUNTER: Reservation counter means a counter.10 AIRPORT HANDLING PROCEDURE (AHP) It includes several operation like        Reservation counter Check –in counter Baggage Make Up Area (BMA) Boarding gate Region of aircraft movement and parking(RAMP) Arrival Cargo Fig: . where from a passenger can purchase his/her ticket for travel. . Generally we can see reservation counter in airports.

11 Fig: .Airlines E-Ticket FUNCTION S/RESPONSIBILITIES:         Reservation Cancellation Rescheduling/Rebooking SSR(Special Service request) booking Meal request Changing sector Help desk Refund(depending on point of purchase) .

accumulate frequent flyer program miles. Along with that always wish passengers with a pleasant or warm smile and wish the time of the day followed by:  Check for the security sticker and condition of the baggage. the passenger has the ability to ask for special accommodations such as seating preferences. The check-in is normally handled by an airline itself or a handling agent working on behalf of an airline. Make sure baggage has been screened and does not contain any dangerous goods articles. The airline check-in's main function. make changes to reservations. Check-in is usually the first procedure for a passenger when arriving at an airport. During this process. is to accept luggage that is to go in the aircraft's cargo hold and issue boarding passes FUNCTIONS OF CHECK –IN COUNTER: When passenger presents himself/herself at the check-in counter the following checks must be done. however. Passengers usually hand over any baggage that they do not wish or are not allowed to carry on to the aircraft's cabin and receive a boarding pass before they can proceed to board their aircraft. as airline regulations require passengers to check in by certain times prior to the departure of a flight. . or pay for upgrades.12 CHECK –IN COUNTER Airport check-in uses service counters found at commercial airports handling commercial air travel. This duration spans from 15 minutes to 4 hours depending on the destination and airline. inquire about flight or destination information.

 Provide assistance according to passenger status( be more active for SSR passengers).  Ask for seat preference.  Weigh baggage and ask about the fragile item. Check ticket detailsvalidity of ticket.  Check photo id card of the passenger without any mistake. sector of travel etc.  Issue Boarding Pass and Baggage Tag.13  Request for ticket if not already presented.  Charge for excess baggage( only then passenger baggage weight is more than FBA(Free Baggage Allowance)). .

and consolidated in trolleys and dispatched to the RAMP(Region of Aircraft Movement and Parking) The staff/employee is allocated in the BMA should be vigilant at all time as it is here that a lot of pilferage takes place. seat number and baggage.  Inform passenger about flight status. reconciled by the employee. BAGGAGE MAKE UP AREA Baggage Make Up Area (BMA) is the adjacent place of terminal building where the check-in /registered baggage are segregated as per flight detail. gate numbers. Fig: Airport Baggage Handling .14  Confirm passenger about sector.

 Inform RAMP about missing passenger (if in case).  Pass TOB (Total on Board) to RAMP. mother with infant. BOARDING GATE/SECURITY HOLD AREA: Boarding gate is the place wherefrom passengers move to board the aircraft.  Inform RAMP staff about trolley count. first time traveler.  Check security sticker of the baggage and segregated as per the destination.15 FUNCTIONS OF BMA:  Arrange trolleys according to the flights load. hardcase.) and then align. fragile baggage etc. baggage count and baggage weight.  Reconcile passenger boarding passes. FUNCTIONS OF BG/SHA:  Ensure all passengers’ hand baggage tags are stamped. .  Dispatch baggage to aircraft for loading.  Close door within restricted time.  Check the types of baggage(i.  Inform AAI (Airport Authority of India) about boarding of the particular flight.e.  Take details of all SSR passengers before boarding. UM (Unaccompanied Minor).  Assist senior citizen passengers. soft baggage.  Reconcile baggage and load in trolley.  Make announcement from the PA Booth (Passenger Addressing Booth).

So RAMP is the most sensitive area to work.16 REGION OF AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT AND PARKING (RAMP) There is growing realization in the aviation industry that encouraging prompt reporting of issue actually reduces the number of accidents and incidents. Implementation of just culture begins with commitment and action not just by supervisors. analysis and dissemination of safety information that will be solely to prevent accidents. collection. they by senior managers as well. An environment of “open reporting” is a key element in fostering “just culture” for the systematic reporting. Encouraging RAMP personnel to promptly and fully report incidents and accidents is a key element in just culture. RAMP personnel must be trained to view safety as a much more important priority than meeting schedules. . and they should be encouraged to report immediately to their supervisor the slightest scratch or dent in an aircraft any collision between ground equipments and aircraft. For that staffs need to be more cautious while working. managers on the RAMP.

incoming load. transfer baggage.  Load outgoing baggage.  Announce touchdown.  Load catering.  Get the load and trim signed by the captain.  Offload baggage and cargo.  Tally with boarding gate’s employee about exact load.  Aligned stepladder.  Evacuate passengers.  Refueling.  Ensure anti-sabotage check (interior check of cabin by airlines security staff). baggage weight and count. bay no.  Clean cabin of the aircraft.. SSR passengers details etc.  Report on the RAMP beforehand for checking GSE (Ground Support Equipment).17 FUNCTIONS ON RAMP:  Take all details like ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival).  Pass c/on (chocks on) to all department.  Start embarkation.  Release aircraft. .

Do not operate any unserviceable vehicles. No smoking. Those who have Airside Driving Permit (ADP). . Always wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).  RAMP equipments must be positioned prior to the arrival of the aircraft behind the restraint line with the parking brakes on.18 RAMP SAFETY: The following rules apply to all operations on the RAMP:       Always be aware of your surroundings.  No vehicles should be parked or driven within 15 meters of a moving aircraft. they only operate vehicles. Keep the RAMP area clear of FOD (Foreign Object Debris).  Avoid the intake and exhaust areas of aircraft engines.


 Check for any special handling message –VIP/CIP/WCHR/UM. Fig: . WCHR-Wheel Chair Till RAMP.  Check out aircraft registration and parking Bay. In case of unserviceability of indicators appropriate action must be taken.  Check ETA and display the same on the FIDS (Flight Information Display System).Carousel Belt  Keep a check on delivery of priority baggage.  Collect all traffic documents from IFM (Inflight Manager).  Arrange for RAMP to RAMP transfer in case MCT (Minimum Connection Time).  Prepare PIR/DPR (Property Irregularity Report/Damage Property Report). UM-Unaccompanied Minor).  Ensure that wheel chair and loaders are available for arrival. CIP-Commercial Important Person.20 FUNCTIONS: Before arrival of the aircraft the arrival staff must check action on the following items:  Review all inbound messages. .  Meet the aircraft and escort passenger to arrival hall. (Where VIP –Very Important Person.  Display indicators at the arrival conveyor belt (Carousel).

presumably because it has been loaded onboard a different flight than the passenger it belongs to. passenger’s surname. Whenever a baggage is found without an owner. For example SINEK19666. such as Qantas. where AAA is the Airport code. It has been in operation for many years and used by many airlines.21 Property Irregularity Report (PIR) A Property Irregularity Report (PIR) is record of any mishandling of a guests baggage on arrival. and content. The fields that are being matched are the baggage's routing. This form must be filled in detail and clearly so that the case can be followed up any stuff on duty (SOD). Without this the form can not be process claims with the insurance company. The system also allows for the rapid determination of mishandled baggage. When a handling agent finds an on-hand that matches one of their AHL's he/she can request the onhand. The staff preparing the PIR must sign this form as well as passenger signature. it can be registered as an on-hand baggage. It is then matched automatically matched with different missing-baggage files (called AHL's) all over the world. what kind of baggage it is. and NNNNN is a 5 digit tracking number. the station whom has registered the missing-baggage gets an alert. tag number. telling them to send it to the requesting station. . which sends a message to whichever station registered the on-hand baggage. The format of the tracking number is AAABBNNNNN. BB is the airline code. Whenever an onhand gets a likely match. World Tracer is a SITA / IATA service provided for the tracking of lost or delayed baggage. Lufthansa and Emirates.

sea food. length of time etc. engineering equipments and unaccompanied or mishandle baggage. which are liable to perish due to change in climate.flowers.company cargo. temperature. CONSIDER ED AS VULNERABLE IN AVIATION:     Vast area so surveillance is minimum.22 CARGO Cargo can be defined as any property which is carried by an aircraft other than mail. Huge number of manpower involved. jewelry etc. TYPES OF CARGO:  PERISHABLE CARGO: Articles of perishable nature. Example: news papers.  VALUABLE /PRECIOUS CARGO(VAL): Precious or valuable(VAL) cargo consist of very high value shipments such as currencies. Sometimes consignment is large to check it property. . billion. Mostly cargo terminal is situated outside of the airport area. medicine. altitude or any other normal exposure inherent to carriage of cargo by air.

which are appear to be in good health and condition. should be accepted for carriage by air. The cages/Boxes having the livestock/animals should be examined to ensure that they do not contain anything which is dangerous to the safety of the aircraft. . The required identification and document as enumerated below death certificate. police clearance and identity of relatives. antiques.  LIVE ANIMALS(AVI): Only animals. paintings. which are vulnerable to theft or pilferage like: cameras.23  VULNERABLE CARGO(VUN): This are the shipments. pagers. watches or parts of watches. mobile phones. electronic goods such as computer and its parts. embalming certificate. other expensive electronic goods.  HUMAN REMAINS(HUM): As per the cargo technology human remains are the dead body of human being.

There would be a requirement of transporting aircraft spares as replacement urgently to the affected station where the aircraft has been grounded. which implies that the aircraft has been grounded due to some technical snag.  INBOUND BONDED CARGO: If the bonded cargo is coming from an international sector and connected to domestic flight as an airside transfer from international warehouse to the domestic side. moved as company stores must be subjected to security checks applicable to company mails.  AOG SPARES CARGO: AOG refers to Aircraft on Ground.  COMPANY CARGO: There may be a requirement of transporting stores of the company from one place to other in aircraft. . All cargo which are used for exporting is called as bonded cargo. This could either be in the form of x-rays or physical checks. then the cargo will be accepted after checking the documents. These.24  BONDED CARGO: All cargo which are custom cleared is called as bonded cargo.

25 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I extend my heartfelt gratitude to our faculties “SKY LARK AVIATION TRAINING SCHOOL” for their guidance. I am grateful to my parents for their support in this work. . I am thankful to my team members and friends for their untiring help throughout this work. timely support and encouragement in completing this project. YouTube. The images & text seen here in figures are derived from a figure by Google. Google images. to all. Thanks. and Wikipedia.