Equivalent Circuits for Single-Sided
Linear Induction Motors
Wei Xu, Member, IEEE, Jian Guo Zhu, Senior Member, IEEE, Yongchang Zhang, Member, IEEE,
Zixin Li, Student Member, IEEE, Yaohua Li, Yi Wang, Youguang Guo, Senior Member, IEEE, and Yongjian Li

Abstract—Single-sided linear induction motors (SLIMs) have
lately been applied in transportation system traction drives, particularly in the intermediate speed range. This is because they have
merits, such as the ability to exert thrust on the secondary without
mechanical contact, high acceleration or deceleration, less wheel
wear, small turning circle radius, and flexible road line. The theory
of operation for these machines can be directly derived from
rotary induction motors (RIMs). However, while the cut-open
primary magnetic circuit has many inherent characteristics of the
RIM equivalent circuits, several issues involving the transversal
edge and longitudinal end effects and the half-filled slots at the
primary ends need to be investigated. In this paper, a T-model
equivalent circuit is proposed which is based on the 1-D magnetic
equations of the air gap, where half-filled slots are considered
by an equivalent pole number. Among the main five parameters,
namely, the primary resistance, primary leakage inductance, mutual inductance, secondary resistance, and secondary inductance,
the mutual inductance and the secondary resistance are influenced
by the edge and end effects greatly, which can be revised by
four relative coefficients, i.e., Kr , Kx , Cr , and Cx . Moreover,
two-axis equivalent circuits (dq or αβ) according to the T-model
equivalent circuit are obtained using the power conversion rule,
which are analogous with those of the RIM in a two-axis coordinate system. The linear induction motor dynamic performance,
particularly the mutual inductance and the secondary resistance,
can be analyzed by the four coefficients. Experimental verification
indicates that both the T-model and the new two-axis circuits are
reasonable for describing the steady and dynamic performance
of the SLIM. These two models can provide good guidance for
the electromagnetic design and control scheme implementation for
SLIM applications.
Index Terms—Coefficient, control scheme, dynamic performance, equivalent circuit, longitudinal end effect, mutual inductance, secondary resistance, single-sided linear induction motor
(SLIM), steady performance, transversal edge effect.

Manuscript received February 9, 2010; revised March 31, 2010; accepted
April 9, 2010. Date of publication September 7, 2010; date of current version
November 19, 2010. Paper 2010-EMC-042.R1, presented at the 2009 IEEE
Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, San Jose, CA, September 20–24,
and approved for publication in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY
APPLICATIONS by the Electric Machines Committee of the IEEE Industry
Applications Society. This work was supported in part by the Chinese Academy
of Sciences, China, under Grant 400012414-4.
W. Xu, J. G. Zhu, Y. C. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. G. Guo, and Y. J. Li
are with the School of Electrical, Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems,
University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, N.S.W. 2007, Australia
(e-mail: weixuhappy@ieee.org; Wei.Xu@eng.uts.edu.au; joe@eng.uts.edu.au;
zhangdavid37@gmail.com; yiwang@eng.uts.edu.au; youguang@eng.uts.
edu.au; yoli@eng.uts.edu.au).
Z. X. Li and Y. H. Li are with the Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864, China (e-mail: yhli@mail.iee.ac.cn).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIA.2010.2073434



Length of the entry-end-effect wave penetration
Length of the exit-end-effect wave penetration
Volume conductivity of the secondary sheet.
Surface conductivity of the secondary sheet.
Primary winding short pitch.
Copper resistivity.
Iron resistivity.
Air permeability.
Iron permeability.
Angular frequency of the power supply.
Angular frequency of the rotor.
Slip angular frequency.
Flux root-mean-square value per pole pair.
Pole pitch.
Half-wave length of the end-effect wave.
Half the width of the primary lamination.
Half the width of the secondary sheet overhanging the
primary lamination.
Width of the secondary sheet.
Secondary sheet thickness.
Depth of the flux density into the back iron.
Primary frequency.
Equivalent air-gap length.
Mechanical air-gap length.
Height of the secondary back iron.
Primary height.
Primary lamination width.
Half the average length of the primary winding coil.
Phase number.
Actual number of primary pole pairs.
Equivalent number of primary pole pairs.
Number of coil sides per phase per pole.
Per-unit slip.
Slip frequency.
Pitch of the primary teeth.
Width of the primary teeth.
Magnetic flux density.
Air-gap flux density.
Transversal-edge-effect coefficient to the secondary
Transversal-edge-effect coefficient to the mutual
Electrical field intensity.

0093-9994/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE

with a solid back iron acting as the return path for the magnetic flux. [6]. Primary synchronous velocity. Longitudinal-end-effect coefficient to the mutual inductance.: EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR SINGLE-SIDED LINEAR INDUCTION MOTORS Fig. The secondary is flatted on the railway track. Goodness factor. Primary phase current. 2. Primary inductance in the two-axis circuit. Secondary inductance in the two-axis circuit. A train driven by a SLIM. Secondary active power. Iron resistance. Rectified mutual inductance in the two-axis circuit. Iron loss. It can be seen that the SLIM primary is hanged below the redirector. Effective cross-sectional area of the winding conductor. which is supplied by a three-phase inverter on the vehicle. Current density. Primary resistance. Mutual inductance in the per-phase circuit. the linear metro in Japan. I NTRODUCTION T 2411 HE STRUCTURE diagram of a single-sided linear induction motor (SLIM) is shown in Fig. the Kuala Lumpur rapid train in Malaysia. 1. 2. [5]. I. (a) LIM installed under vehicle redirector. such as the Kennedy airline in America. similar with the rotary induction motor (RIM) rotor. Primary leakage inductance. and for its stronger climbing ability compared with that of the RIM [4]. they can build up air flux linkage and induce eddy current in the secondary sheet. Secondary resistance. Unfortunately. 20 years for its direct propulsive thrust which is dependent of the friction between the wheel and the rail. Field current in the T-model circuit. The thrust corresponding to the RIM torque can be produced by the reaction between the air-gap flux density and the eddy current in the secondary sheet [2]. Thrust current in two-axis circuits. there are more than 20 commercial linear metro lines with more than 400 km in the world. and the Guangzhou subway line 4 and Beijing airport rapid transport line in China. Secondary leakage inductance. 1) As the SLIM primary moves along the secondary sheet. [3]. such as copper or aluminum. for its larger acceleration. an accurate equivalent circuit model can be derived easily by simplifying the geometry per pole. Simple vehicle system diagrams propelled by the SLIM. As we know. has been paid attention by academia and industry for more than Fig. This eddy current will react with the aforementioned air-gap flux linkage so as to produce horizontal electromagnetic thrust that can drive the vehicle forward directly without friction between the wheel and the track [5]. The typical drive SLIM structure and system diagrams are illustrated in Fig. for its smaller crosssectional area for the requirement of a tunnel. 1. often consists of a sheet conductor. The secondary. it is not as straightforward to gain the equivalent circuit for a SLIM mainly for the following three causes [7]–[22]. for its smaller turning radius. When the primary three-phase windings are inputted to an ac from a vehicular converter. Field current in two-axis circuits. G H Ie Ids Iqs Is J Klam Kr Kx Kw1 Llr Lls Lm Lm1 Lmc Lr Ls P2 PFe Q3 RFe Rr Rrc Rs SCu Vs W1 Structure of a SLIM. Rectified secondary resistance. Magnetic field intensity. Primary winding coefficient.XU et al. Air-gap reactive power. The SLIM special structure means that its performance is a little different from that of an RIM. By now. which often consists of a 5-mm-thick copper/aluminum conductance sheet and almost 20-mm-thick back iron. Mutual inductance in the two-axis circuit. Number of primary winding turns in series. in the RIM. the Vancouver light train in Canada. also called as a linear metro. Silicon-steel stacking factor. Longitudinal-end-effect coefficient to the secondary resistance. The SLIM primary can be simply regarded as a rotary cut-open stator and then rolled flat [1]. a new flux is continuously developed at the primary entrance side while the air-gap flux disappears quickly . (b) Drive system.

Gieras et al. the resultant lumped-parameter models look very complicated for the practical use of modeling and control. 4. Fig. One set of tenth-order differential equations is derived to describe a basic model for a four-pole machine. However. based on the RIM T-model equivalent circuit. 3) For the cut-open primary magnetic circuit. 6. 3 [3]. the expressions of the secondary winding function distributions are achieved by some approximate hypothesis. Reference [10] derived an equivalent circuit model from the pole-by-pole method based on the winding functions of the SLIM primary windings. and so on. and secondary eddy-current parts. The phenomenon is named as the “transversal edge effect. and dynamic performance. 3. provided one simple and useful function expression f (q) according to the secondary eddy current average value by an energy conversion balance theorem. such as mutual variance. i. NO. Bx0 is the flux density amplitude with an equal width between the primary and the secondary. It only considers the mutual inductance influenced by the eddy current. NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2010 Fig. and a higher order system of equations can be provided as the pole number goes up. developed an equivalent circuit by supposing that the synchronous wave and the pulsating wave were caused by the end effect [7].e. efficiency. Air-gap flux density amplitude along z-axis. the effective electromagnetic thrust will decrease a little because of the attenuating air-gap average flux linkage. the skin effect. 4. there exist half-filled slots in the primary ends. an amount of eddy current in antidirection to the primary current will occur in the secondary sheet. more experience should be made to verify the simulation investigation. Several different models were developed from the electromagnetic . This phenomenon is called the “longitudinal end effect. it is affected by the SLIM operating speed. secondary resistance. Then. and Bx is the flux density amplitude with a different width between the primary and the secondary. VOL. divided the SLIM air-gap flux density into three components. During the past several decades. it derived these three-group function expressions and further achieved inductance. 2) The different width between the primary lamination and the secondary sheet can result in nonuniform flux density distribution. A field theory was utilized in developing the lumped-parameter linear induction motor (LIM) model [6] in which the end effect. and other parameters so as to analyze the SLIM performance. primary fundamental. and secondary equivalent resistance. have been available. Supposing that the air-gap flux linkage increased in one exponential function form from the entrance end to the exit end. leakage inductance. The three-phase currents are not completely balanced even when excited by three-phase balanced voltages. plenty of papers on the SLIM performance analysis. which correspondingly affects the air-gap flux profile along the longitudinal direction (x-axis) as illustrated in Fig. at the exit side. not similar to the constant flux linkage in the RIM which is equal to the value of the exit position in Fig. Reference [11]. The analytic results. and the back-iron saturation were considered. Hence. transient. secondary inductance. In the end. the field diffusion in the secondary sheet. which can be applied in vector control or direct torque control to predict the SLIM dynamic performance. and some other structure parameters. The half-filled slots will affect the air-gap flux density distribution so as to result in some alteration in the mutual inductance. deduced the two-axis models (dq or αβ). where c is a half of the primary width less the secondary. based on the winding function method. By the influence from the sudden generation and disappearance of the air-gap penetrating flux density. However. The winding function method can study the steady. suffer increasing error compared with the measurement as the velocity goes up.. i. secondary resistance. lδ is the primary lamination thickness. secondary fundamental. involving steady and dynamic states. and power factor conveniently. the derivation process of the revised function f (q) is very coarse on the assumption that the eddy current in the secondary sheet decreases from maximum to zero by exponential attenuation only in the primary length range. 3.” which would cause extra copper loss and reduce the effective mutual inductance as the velocity goes up.” which may increase the secondary equivalent resistivity and bring an inverse effect to the neat thrust. However. Profiles of secondary eddy current and air-gap flux linkage. disregarding its effect on the secondary resistance. Reference [1]. The per-phase simplified model can be used to predict the SLIM output thrust.e. Reference [3]. However. such as the primary length.. 46. the middle area flux density along the z-axis is smaller than that of the terminal as indicated in Fig. according to the result in [1]. the threephase magnetic circuits are not symmetric with each other.2412 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS.

i. In Fig. Finally. and secondary resistance can be deduced by taking the half-filled slots into consideration. primary leakage inductance Lls . Fig. a1 is the half width of the primary lamination.. we can calculate the phase currents and the excitation voltages. we can obtain several circuit parameters. whose accuracy depends closely on many initially given parameters. Structure and 1-D analytical model of SLIM. 6. Then. The simulation and experimental verifications of the two-axis circuits are given out in Section VI. Then. analysis. Using the equal complex power relationship between the magnetic field and the electrical circuit. mutual inductance. and transversal-edge-effect coefficients Cr and Cx . (a) Physical structure. relation in the air gap through a Fourier-series approach [4]. The longitudinal-end-effect coefficients Kr and Kx are denoted by Kr = Kx = C12 + C22 sG  C1 2pe τ 1 + (sG)2 (1) C12 + C22 C2 1 + (sG)2 (2) 2pe τ 1 where C1 and C2 are the functions of slip s and goodness factor G. the expression of the primary equivalent current sheet J 1 can be divided into three regions. y-. [16]. . y is the imaginary part. According to the electric machinery theory and complex power conversion algorithm. The comprehensive derivations of the four coefficients can be referred to in the Appendix. and pe is the number of equivalent pole pairs.XU et al. In Fig. where x is the real part. It is organized as follows. The derivations on how to get the four coefficients are indicated in the Appendix. Then. For the existence of half-filled slots in the primary ends. The SLIM T-model equivalent circuit is described in Section II. it requires more substantial computing time to gain some useful data. the expressions of the air-gap flux density can be gained. However. 5(a). and its verification is described in Section III. The vector = ix + jy + kz. The air-gap flux linkage can be obtained using Maxwell’s field equations and solved using the complex power method with a conformal transformation which considers the effects of the half-filled slots. is expressed in the form of A and k are the notations of the x-. In Fig. 5(c). [9]. T-M ODEL E QUIVALENT C IRCUIT Fig.: EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR SINGLE-SIDED LINEAR INDUCTION MOTORS 2413 Fig. 5(b). secondary resistance Rr . 5 shows the SLIM longitudinal side view. secondary leakage inductance Llr . the transversal side view. and j2 is the secondary equivalent current. The complex number is expressed in the form of A = x + jy. and the 1-D analytical model. magnetic saturation. and j is the notation of the imaginary part. Section V discusses four coefficients in detail. entrance half-filled. j. τ is the primary pole pitch. The notation used in this paper is fairly standard. this paper is summarized in Section VII. longitudinal-end-effect coefficients Kr and Kx . [9]. air-gap reactive power Q3 . (b) Longitudinal side view. where i. where the secondary equivalent resistance Rr consists of the secondary conducting sheet resistance R2Sheet and the secondary back iron R2Back . j1 is the primary equivalent current. By the careful comparison of those expressions without half-filled slots.e. (c) Transversal side view. q is the number of coil sides per phase per pole. In terms of 1-D  pe = (2p − 1)2 4p − 3 + ε/(m1 q) (3) where p is the actual number of the pole pairs. the air-gap effective electromotive force E m . and z-axis directions. and backiron resistance. m1 is the number of primary phases. the number of equivalent pole pairs pe is expressed by II. Some brief conclusions are summarized in the following paragraphs [2]. 5. it deduces twoaxis equivalent circuits based on the per-phase equations so as to study the SLIM dynamic performance. based on the per-phase T-model equivalent circuit derived from 1-D flux density equations in [2]. v2 is the primary moving speed. respectively. 6. and exit half-filled slots. T-model equivalent circuit of SLIM. The T-model equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. secondary active power P2 . the two-axis equivalent circuits are explained in Section IV. full-filled. the final solution cannot be succeeded for nonconvergence. If some key values are not initialized rationally. such as mutual inductance Lm1 . makes a steady performance analysis of several SLIMs. and ε is the length of the short pitch. This paper.

goodness factor.2414 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. Wt . Bg . The primary resistance Rs is Rs = ρCu × 2lav W1 /SCu (9) where ρCu is the resistivity of copper. By . R2Sheet + R2Back (14) The secondary leakage reactance is Llr = Rr B1 sh(2Kd) 2πfs s (15) where fs is the primary frequency and B1 is the function of the slip. 46. Klam is the silicon-steel stacking factor. Here. secondary leakage inductance Llr . namely. PFet = P10/50 Bt 50 The secondary back-iron loss PFeb is  1. and Wb are the primary yoke.3 fs 2 PFey = P10/50 By Wy . VOL. (20) In (16)–(19). W1 is the number of turns of the primary per phase winding in series.5lδ α where α is the ratio of c to τ and γ and λ can be obtained by λ= R2 = 1 1 + γ1 th(0. NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2010 The transversal-edge-effect coefficients Cr and Cx are given by   2 sG Re2 [T ] + Im [T ] (4) Cr = Re [T ] 2 [T ] R2 [T ] + Im Cx = e Im [T ] (5) where T is the function of the slip. According to the electromagnetic design methods in [23] and [24]. primary frequency. and machine structure parameters.0 T and 50 Hz. The exciting inductance is Lm1 = 4m1 μ0 (W1 Kw1 )2 lδ V s 4π 2 fs ge pe (16) where Vs is the synchronous velocity of the primary side and ge is the equivalent air-gap width.3 fs 2 Wt . Bt . and motor structure parameters and Re and Im are the real and imaginary parts of the complex T . NO. and secondary back-iron losses. The primary yoke iron loss PFey is  1. The iron loss in the SLIM is composed of the primary yoke. secondary resistance Rr . The resistance of the secondary back iron R2Back is R2Back = 4m1 ρFe (W1 Kw1 )2 lδ . the total iron loss PFe is PFe = PFet + PFey + PFeb . and sf is the slip frequency in the secondary.025W1 (10) q p pe where λs is the primary slot leakage magnetic conductance. and secondary back-iron flux densities. and exciting inductance Lm1 can be calculated as follows. T is expressed by   λ 2 2 th(0. Wy . λe is the primary winding end leakage magnetic conductance. P10/50 is the iron loss value under 1. These three parts can be calculated as follows. The resistance of the secondary conducting sheet R2Sheet is R2Sheet = 4m1 ρSheet (W1 Kw1 )2 lδ 2pe dτ (12) where ρSheet is the resistivity of the secondary conductance sheet and Kw1 is the primary winding coefficient. lav is half the average length of the primary winding coil. primary tooth. The secondary resistance is composed of those of the conducting sheet and back iron because the flux can penetrate through the aluminum or copper sheet [6] and then enter the back iron.5lδ α)th [0. 2pe dFe τ (13) Therefore. μFe is the permeability of the back iron. Bt .5lδ α) (6) T = j γ + (1 − γ ) 0. respectively. The five parameters in the T-circuit.3 sf PFeb = P10/50 Bb2 Wb . and λd is the primary harmonic leakage magnetic conductance. and SCu is the effective cross-sectional area of the primary winding conductor. hy is the primary height. λt is the primary tooth leakage magnetic conductance. and secondary back-iron weights. and Bb are the primary yoke. respectively. The depth of the flux density into the back iron dFe is 2ρFe (11) dFe = sωe μFe where ρFe is the back-iron resistivity. By . the secondary equivalent resistance Rr is Rr = R2Sheet R2Back . (17) 50 The primary tooth iron loss PFet is  1. 6. 50 (18) (19) Hence.5K(c2 − lδ )] (7) 1 1 + jsG (8) where K is the function of the slip and motor structure parameters and c2 is the width of the secondary sheet in the value of (lδ + 2c). respectively. The primary leakage inductance Lls is   λt + λe + λd λs 2 lδ + Lls = 0. primary leakage inductance Lls . primary tooth. and Bb can be calculated as follows: √ By = 2φg /(2lδ Klam hy ) (21) Bt = Bg t1 /(Klam t2 ) (22) Bb = φg /(c2 Klam hb ) (23) where φg is the flux root-mean-square value per pole pair. and ωe is the primary synchronous angular frequency. the primary resistance Rs . primary tooth.

respectively. two kinds of SLIM performance evaluations are given out.97%. [9]. This phenomenon can be described by one magnetic saturation coefficient Ks defined as Ks = MMFsum /MMFg (25) where MMFsum is the total magnetomotive force (MMF) in one pole pair. It can be seen obviously that the thrust will decrease gradually by the influence of longitudinal end and transversal edge effects. Normally. where Kc is the Cater coefficient relative with different slot structures [25]. power factor. [15]. i. By the error analysis of both the simulation and measured values. when the longitudinal and transversal effects are neglected. and phase current are approximately in harmony with the measurements in [4]. whose primary is fed by a converter. and current. and thrust [9]. and hb is the height of the secondary back iron.XU et al. The Ks is about 1. particularly in the low velocity or large slip region. the 12 000 Japanese SLIM [4] and one arc SLIM [9]. 10(b) decreases more quickly . i. the thrust excited by constant voltage in Fig. III. 3. for example. efficiency. the “constant current” below the base speed and the “constant voltage” beyond the base one. road conditions.01 above the base speed.. the length of ge decreases approximately from 20 to 16. 8(b)–(d). 6 is similar to that of the RIM. the air gap MMFg . After the approximate regulation by the four coefficients and the equivalent number of pole pairs. 8(a) are mainly decided by the vehicle operating requirements. Magnetic saturation coefficient versus velocity. 7. and 2. When Kr = Kx = Cr = Cx = 1. Therefore. load power. 6. There are two working modes in the operating regions.: EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR SINGLE-SIDED LINEAR INDUCTION MOTORS 2415 TABLE I DIMENSIONS OF THE SLIM is the air-gap flux density. the primary teeth MMFt . [14]. The characteristics of the SLIM are reasonably considered in the circuit. the SLIM T-model equivalent circuit indicated in Fig. The revised SLIM model based on the equivalent pole pairs can be regarded as a three-phase magnetic circuit symmetry structure.41%. 9 is the arc SLIM prototype experimental bench. the average errors of the power factor. which is shown in Fig. which are rational to engineering applications. Moreover. it is necessary to increase the phase current to compensate for the fading thrust [4]. and phase current are 4. the simulation results about the power factor. the equivalent air-gap length ge will become larger. t1 is the pitch of the primary teeth. 10 presents different thrust curves with constant current constant frequency or constant voltage constant frequency. As the level of the magnetic saturation increases. The thrust and slip frequency in Fig. V ERIFICATION OF T-M ODEL E QUIVALENT C IRCUIT In order to validate the T-model equivalent circuit in Fig. From Fig. The load cell is a dc machine which is connected to the shaft of the SLIM rig by belts. the thrust below the base under a constant phase current will decrease gradually for the longitudinal end effect. deceleration.46%.e. a lot of steady state performance analyses have been made in [9]. it is very convenient to analyze the performance of the SLIM in a similar way as that of the RIM based on the T-model circuit [2]. including the primary yoke MMFy . windage resistance.2 mm between 5 and 70 km/h. The influence by the longitudinal and transversal end effects and half-filled slots can be estimated by the corresponding coefficients. The base speed is 40 km/h. slip frequency. might affect the equivalent length of the electromagnetic air gap and further bring influence on some parameters. 7. particularly in the high speed region. Their main dimensions are shown in Table I. Take the 12 000 SLIM.. In order to achieve a greater thrust by the drive requirement. and the secondary back iron MMFb . such as the mutual inductance. efficiency. involving the thrust.e. Fig. efficiency. It is close to 1. etc. t2 is the width of the primary teeth. The equivalent length of the electromagnetic air gap ge can be calculated by ge = Ks Kc (gm + d) (26) Fig. i. It has a rotor which is formed on the rim of the large-radius flywheel. The iron loss resistance RFe in series with the excitation branch can be calculated by RFe = PFe /Ie2 (24) where Ie is the field current. the magnetic saturation. In linear metro drive machines. The dc machine can operate at any desired speed and load below their rating values to provide different working points. 8 shows the 12 000 SLIM performance curves. Fig. Here. Fig. such as the acceleration. etc. The measurement sensors located between the SLIM and the dc load can record the SLIM velocity.. Hence. the circuit can be simplified as the same as that of the RIM.26 at 5 km/h and gradually decreased as the velocity goes up.e.

(d) Primary phase current. Fig. than that by constant current in Fig. Fig. Steady performance of Japanese 12 000 SLIM. NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2010 Fig. (c) Efficiency. Experimental setup of the arc SLIM. (a) Constant current constant frequency (real lines are the thrusts without an end effect. 46. (b) Constant voltage constant frequency (real lines are the thrusts with end effects. The thrust simulation agrees with the measurement reasonably in various velocities. VOL. and other shaped lines are the measured ones). 8.2416 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. 9. dashed lines are the thrusts with end effects. NO. . (a) Thrust and slip frequency. 10. and the other shapes are the measured ones). (b) Power factor. Steady thrusts of the arc SLIM prototype. 6. 10(a) for its quicker airgap flux attenuation.

the four flux linkage expressions are further expressed by ⎧ ψds = Ls ids + Lmc idr ⎪ ⎨ ψqs = Ls iqs + Lmc iqr (28) ⎪ ⎩ ψdr = Lmc ids + Lr idr ψqr = Lmc iqs + Lr iqr .e. Fig.425 Ω. Lls = 2.: EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR SINGLE-SIDED LINEAR INDUCTION MOTORS 2417 Fig. A NALYSIS OF F OUR C OEFFICIENTS The T-model circuit parameters for the three-phase arc SLIM experimental prototype are Rs = 0. IV. V. which can be referred to in [9].. The flux linkage matrix is shown by (27) at the bottom of the page. ω11 and ω12 are the angular frequencies of the primary and secondary relative to the dq-axis. ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ψds Kx Cx Lm + Lls 0 ⎢ ψqs ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦=⎣ ψdr Kx Cx Lm ψqr 0 0 Kx Cx Lm + Lls 0 Kx Cx Lm From (28).5Lm1 . (b) q-axis circuit.145 mH.XU et al. The SLIM analysis procedure and algorithm in the two-axis coordinate are also similar with those of the RIM. 12. and [22]. Different from those of the RIM. In order to simplify the flux matrix expression. Then. appear in the mutual inductance and secondary resistance branch circuits. Fig. 13. Cr . 11. (a) d-axis circuit. Kx Cx Lm 0 Kx Cx Lm + Llr 0 ⎤⎡ ⎤ ids 0 Kx Cx Lm ⎥ ⎢ iqs ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 0 idr Kx Cx Lm + Llr iqr (27) . Kx . 11. which is equal to 1. where Lm is the equivalent mutual inductance in the two-axis frame. Fig. 14. In Fig. we suppose that Lmc = Kx Cx Lm . transversal edge effect. Ls = Kx Cx Lm + Lls . Equivalent circuits of SLIM in dq-axis coordinate. four more rectification coefficients. and Lr = Kx Cx Lm + Llr . Cx . T WO -A XIS E QUIVALENT C IRCUITS According to the Park coordinate transformation by the power conversion rule. Four coefficients under different slip frequencies (solid lines denote the simulation. we can obtain the two-axis (dq or αβ) equivalent circuits. Fig. Kr . [21]. Thrust Fx curve under different phase currents and slip frequencies. The special performance traits resulting from the longitudinal end effect. and dashed lines denote the measurement). it can be seen that the four SLIM flux linkage equations are totally similar to those of the RIM. i. and half-filled slots are easily described by the four coefficients and equivalent pole pairs. 10 indicates the SLIM equivalent circuits in the dq-axis frame. Modified mutual inductance Lmc and secondary resistance Rrc under different slip frequencies.

16 shows the simulation and experiment curves of the velocity v2 . 4) The half-filled slots in the primary ends could bring some influence to the air-gap equivalent flux. with respect to the phase current and excited frequency. NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2010 Fig. Kr . and thrust.2418 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. Indirect rotor field orientation control analysis diagram. i. to describe the influence on the mutual inductance and secondary resistance brought by the longitudinal end and transversal edge effects. The slip is one at start-up so that the slip frequency sf is equal to the primary frequency fs .550 mH. the velocity is given by 6. 16(a) validate those of Fig. the proposed circuits have the following traits. Fig.670 mH.28 m/s. The thrust.e. it is convenient to study the SLIM performance in a similar way as that of the RIM. The primary input frequency varies from 1 to 30 Hz. Considering different friction and windage resistances between the theoretical simulation and practical experiment. Based on the equations of the primary equivalent current density. C ONCLUSION Compared with some other models of the SLIM. the average air-gap flux density decreases with growing velocity. The back-iron resistance. For each input frequency. 15. the SLIM special traits brought by the end effects in the dq-axis can be also expressed by the aforementioned four coefficients. When Kx = Kr = Cx = Cr = 1. VOL. VII. Although excited by constant current Ids . is considered in parallel with the sheet resistance. particularly in the starting period. 14. NO. 6. The SLIM is accelerated from 0 to 6. which gets four coefficients.. Rr = 0. the T-model is the same as that of the RIM. 46. 3) For the linear metro application. Hence. the proposed two-axis circuits have similar forms as those of the RIM except for the four coefficients occurring in the mutual inductance and secondary equivalent resistance. VI. Because of the end effects. 1) The T-model circuit is derived based on the 1-D air-gap flux density equation.28 m/s in the first 30 s. 16(b) reasonably. thrust current Iqs . These four coefficients have reasonable accuracy. and Llr = 0. i. . we can analyze the different variable curves in the arc SLIM start-up procedure. and Cr . which are modified by three plus integral regulators.. 13 shows the simulation curves for the rectified mutual inductance Lmc in the amount of Kx Cx Lm1 and for the rectified secondary resistance Rrc that is equal to Kr Cr Rr as the slip frequency goes up. The calculated and measured curves of the four coefficients in different frequencies are shown in Fig. including speed and d. E XPERIMENTAL V ERIFICATION OF T WO -A XIS E QUIVALENT C IRCUITS Fig. the phase current changes from 10 to 30 A. particularly in the cases where the number of the pole pairs is no more than three. Fig. 2) By the Park coordination transformation. These coefficients have clear physical meaning so as to help researchers understand the end effects. 12.and q-axis current loops. All the control schemes of the RIM can be applied in the novel models directly. when neglecting the end and edge effects. the braking torque correspondingly increases for its continuously smaller end-effect influence. There are three closed loops. 15 is the indirect rotor field control scheme of the arc linear induction motor (LIM) which is similar to a RIM control. then operated with constant velocity for approximately 20 s. the performance curves in Fig. By brief simplification. combining both the electromagnetic and numerical analyses. is given in Fig. the number of equivalent pole pairs pe smaller than the actual value p is used to describe the influence by the half-filled slots. In the whole process.221 Ω. and finally decelerated to zero in about 20 s.e. field current Ids . Cx . the thrust is attenuated a little as the speed goes up for its longitudinal end and transversal edge effects. which brings great convenience to the study of the SLIM dynamic performance. which reduces the mutual inductance and increases the secondary resistance [17]–[20]. In order to investigate the end effects on the mutual inductance and secondary resistance conveniently. During the regeneration. Lm1 = 7. the thickness of the secondary back iron placed on the track is always 20–30 mm to avoid the deformation of the conduct sheet which resulted from the vertical force. Kx . and the field current is kept at a constant of 16 A.

→ By the introduction of vector potential A . and constant voltage driving. and σ is the conductivity. The analytical model with one dimension is shown in Fig. etc. By the help of the SLIM dynamic mathematic equations in the two-axis equivalent circuits. 1. the simulations of the thrust and velocity in the indirect rotor field orientation control scheme show good correlation with the experiments. including the variable frequency variable voltage. the air gap as Area 3.: EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR SINGLE-SIDED LINEAR INDUCTION MOTORS 2419 A PPENDIX D ERIVATION OF F OUR C OEFFICIENTS A. 0 < x < pτ (A-8) where J1 is the amplitude of the primary equivalent current sheet and k is a constant that equals π/τ . magnetic flux density. (b) Measured. Their influences on the SLIM parameters can be analyzed separately and then gathered up by a superposition theorem. we can get other → → expressions for B and E → Fig. similar to Ampere’s law with reference to the rectangle in Fig. electrical field intensity. and V are vectors for the magnetic field intensity. where the primary is named as Area 1. Moreover. 4) The primary and secondary currents flow in infinitesimally thin sheets. [20]. and primary moving velocity. 16. respectively. → B =∇ × A → E=− (A-6) → ∂A . 2) The skin effect is neglected in the secondary. constant current. Longitudinal-End-Effect Coefficients Kx and Kr Some fundamental electromagnetic equations applied in the SLIM are summarized as → → ∇×H =J (A-1) → → ∂B ∇×E =− ∂t → ∇·B =0 → (A-2) (A-3) → B = μH → → → → J = σ(E + V × B ) → → → → (A-4) (A-5) → where H . and the entrance end as Area 5. ∂t (A-7) The primary equivalent current sheet is supposed to be excited by the following current [20] J 1 = J1 exp [j(ωe t − kx)] . [2]. and the thrust in the arc SLIM variable excited frequency and variable phase current at the starting state are analyzed in detail. μ is the permeability. efficiency. 5) All magnetic variables are sinusoidal time functions. By the simulation and experimentation of the 12 000 and arc SLIMs’ different steady working styles. J . such as the thrust. the exit end as Area 4.XU et al. E . 1) The stator iron has infinite permeability. B . SLIMs have longitudinal end effects which resulted from cut-open primary terminals and transversal edge effects due to the different width between the primary and the secondary. 5(b). power factor. (a) Calculated. the secondary resistance. some assumptions are proposed in the following list [1]. the secondary sheet as Area 2. [9]. For special structures. [26]. From (A-1). Dynamic performance curves. the T-model circuit can describe the SLIM steady performance reasonably. One-Dimensional Physical Model In order to simplify the derivation. current density. 3) Winding space harmonics are negligible. phase current. B. the curves of the four coefficients. the mutual inductance. we can get ge ∂B 3y = J1 + J2 μ0 ∂x (A -9) .

and β = tan−1 (πα1 /τe ). δs = tan−1 (1/sG). we can acquire (A-16) (A-17) E 3z = ωe Bm exp [j(ωe t − kx)]    α1 τe exp(−x/α1 ) −1  cos δs + × k τe2 + (πα1 )2      π π + δs − β + k − × cos x 2 τe + jωe Bm exp [j(ωe t − kx)]    α1 τe exp(−x/α1 ) −1  sin δs + × k τe2 + (πα1 )2      π π + δs − β + k − × sin x (A-18) 2 τe  where Bm = GJ1 /σe Vs 1 + (sG)2 . dA3z ge d2 A3z − jωe σe A3z = −J1 exp(−jkx). The transmitting speeds of the forward and backward waves b1 and b2 are 2f τe . − σ e v2 2 μ0 dx dx (A-14) The solution of (A-14) is    −x π A3z=cs exp[j(ωe t−kx)]+cc1 exp +j ωe t− x α1 τe   x π +cc2 exp +j ωe t+ x α2 τe By inserting (A-15) into (A-10) and (A-11). α1 and α2 are attenuating coefficients of the air-gap entrance. 46. Its attenuation constant is 1/α1 . VOL. respectively. 6. we can acquire  B 3y = Bm  (A-15) where cs . b0 . exp [j(ωe t − kx + δs )]    −x π − exp + j ωe t − x α1 τe  (A-13) Based on (A-8)–(A-13). X= . For the quick attenuation of 1/α2 . we can have  J 2 = −σe ∂A3z ∂A3z + v2 ∂t ∂x  (A-12) More information can be found in [2] and [20]. and τe is the end-effect half-wave length. τe = Y ge 2    2 2 μ0 σe v2  1 + (4ωe ge /μ0 σe v2 ) − 1 . Because only the z-axis component is in the primary current. and b2 [2]. and cc2 are coefficients decided by boundary conditions. By electrical machinery knowledge. and (A-5). NO. complex power S23 transmitted from the primary (Area 1) to the secondary (Area 2) and the air gap (Area 3) is calculated by pτ S23 = 2a1 0. where σe is the surface conductivity in the amount of ge σ and v2 is the primary moving velocity along the x-axis. the third part of (A-15) can be ignored. cc1 .and exit-flux density waves. b1 . where b0 is the normal traveling wave which moves forward in a similar manner to the fundamental flux density wave in a rotating induction machine (the fundamental wave b0 in the same amplitude transmits with synchronous speed 2f τ ) and b1 and b2 are the entrance and exit end-effect waves. (A-11). Equations (A-6) and (A-7) can be further expressed by B 3y = − ∂A3z ∂x (A -10) E 3z = − ∂A3z . The expressions for the main parameters can be summarized as cs = μ0 J1 . b2 travels along the x-axis in the negative direction with an attenuation constant of 1/α2 .5 [−j1∗ E3z ] dx 0 = J1 B  m a1 Vs × pτ cos δs − NL  × α1−1 exp(−pτ /α1 ) sin(δs − β + SL pτ ) + SL exp(−pτ /α1 ) cos(δs − β + SL pτ )  − α1−1 sin(δs − β) − SL cos(δs − β) . Generally speaking. NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2010 where J 2 is in the complex form of the equivalent current sheet in the secondary and B 3y is the y-axis component of the flux density in Area 3. ge X − μ0 σe v2    2 2 μ0 σe v2  1 + (4ωe ge /μ0 σe v2 ) + 1 2π . t) = Az (x) exp(jωe t). [20]. ∂t (A-11) Combining (A-10). ge X + μ0 σe v2 α1 = τ ge . the vector potential (ge /μ0 )(∂B 3y /∂x) = J 2z − J 1 has only a z-axis part. 2 k ge (1 + jsG) α2 = τ ge . The vector potential A3z is relative with the air-gap flux density which includes three parts. The vector potential A3z can be described as one function of time t and position x A3z = A3z (x.2420 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. Y = ge 2 −jkcs  cc1 =  1 π α1 + j τe where s is the slip and G is the goodness factor described by [2] G = 2μ0 σe fs τ 2 /(πge ). b1 is a gradually attenuating wave traveling along the x-axis.

and coefficients SL . (A-30) can be simplified and further solved by   μ0 1 − R2 cosh αz B1y (x. 5(c). t)dzdx 0 −a1   4μ0 τ 1 − R2 λ 2 =− tanh αa1 exp(jωe t). and so on. which are influenced by velocity. .: EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR SINGLE-SIDED LINEAR INDUCTION MOTORS + jJ  1 Bm a1 Vs × pτ sin δs − NL  × − α1−1 exp(−pτ /α1 ) cos(δs − β + SL pτ ) + SL exp(−pτ /α1 ) sin(δs − β + SL pτ )  − α1−1 cos(δs − β) − SL sin(δs − β) = P2 + jQ3 2421 By the rotary induction machinery theory. frequency. + − 2 2 ∂x ∂z ge ∂x ge ∂t ge ∂x (A-30) By supposing that B 1y = B1y (x. The per-pole flux linkage is described as τ a1 φ= B1y (x. slip. and NL are expressed by "2 ! π SL = k − . and then. ML . we can get the following equation according to the complex power conversion theory −m1 I s E m = P2 + jQ3 . and B 3y is the y-axis component of the air-gap flux density in Area 3. z.and z-axis components of the secondary equivalent current in Area 2. t) = −j J1 R2 1 + λ kge R2 cosh αa1 × exp [j(ωe t − kx)] (A-31) where R2 = 1/1 + jsG and α2 = k 2 + j(ωe μ0 σe /ge )s. described as C1 = pτ cos δs − NL # × α1−1 e−pτ /α1 sin(δs − β + SL pτ ) + SL e−pτ /α1 cos(δs − β + SL pτ ) $ − α1−1 sin(δs − β) − SL cos(δs − β) C2 = pτ sin δs − NL # × − α1−1 e−pτ /α1 cos(δs − β + SL pτ ) + SL e sin(δs − β + SL pτ ) pτ pτ  C12 + C22 C1 1 + (sG)2 (A-26)  C12 + C22 . respectively. By substituting (A-28) and (A-29) into (A-5). (A-24) By comparing (A-22) and (A-23) to (A-24) and (A-25). Transversal-Edge-Effect Coefficients Cx and Cr By inserting (A-19) and (A-20) into (A-21). β = tan−1 SL G τe Kr = Kx = (A-22) m1 |E m |2 Q3 1 C12 + C22 16a1 m1 μ0 fs τ (W1 kw1 )2  = ge pπ C2 pτ 1 + (sG)2 (A-23) where C1 and C2 are functions of the slip and machine structure parameters.XU et al. J1 R a1 + πge R2 α (A-32) . it can be seen that Rr and Xm in the SLIM are a little different from those of the RIM. z. we can get the following equation by curl calculation ∂ 2 B 3y ∂ 2 B 3y μ0 σe v2 ∂B 3y μ0 σe ∂B 3y μ0 σe ∂J 1 − =− . the per-phase rotor resistance Rr and mutual reactance Xm can be expressed by Rr = Xm = (A-19) where P2 is the active power in the secondary. C2 1 + (sG)2 (A-27) sG 1 Along the rectangle route in Fig. ML τ τe2 + (πα1 )2     1 πα1 δs = tan−1 . ML = α1−1 + SL2 . machine structures. τe α πτ 1 e NL = . Two coefficients Kr and Kx can be used to describe the influence by the longitudinal end effects The effective value of the primary per-phase current is pτ J1 Is = √ . t) = B(z) exp[j(ωe t − kx)]. ge pπ (A-20) In terms of the air-gap effective electromotive force E m . Q3 is the reactive power in the air gap. the secondary resistance Rr and mutual reactance Xm per phase in reference to the primary can be expressed by m1 |E m |2 Rr = P2 sG C12 + C22 8a1 m1 (W1 kw1 )2  = σe pτ C1 pτ 1 + (sG)2 16a1 m1 μ0 fs τ (W1 kw1 )2 . E m can be solved. the following relationship based on (A-1) can be built by (A-21) Xm = −pτ /α1 (A-25) C. 2 2m1 W1 kw1 8a1 m1 (W1 kw1 )2 σe pτ $ + α1−1 cos(δs − β) − SL sin(δs − β) . ge ∂B 3y = − J 2x μ0 ∂z (A-28) ge ∂B 3y = J 2z − J 1 μ0 ∂x (A-29) where J 2x and J 2z are the x. z.

×J1 j R2 + (1 − R2 ) a1 α (A-34) The complex power transmitted from the primary to the air gap and secondary is − m1 I s E m = P2 + jQ3 = 2μ0 a1 fs pτ 3 πge  %   λ tanh a1 α × J1 Re j R2 + (1 − R2 ) a1 α &   λ +jIm j R2 + (1 − R2 ) tanh a1 α .” IEEE Trans. Ind. 128. pp. 2008. (A-39) Cx = Im [T ] ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Prof. Cx can be used to describe the influence by the transversal edge effects ' ( 2 sG Re2 [T ] + Im [T ] (A-38) Cr = Re [T ] ' 2 ( 2 Re [T ] + Im [T ] . 2009. J. 59. Nonaka. pp. Fang. U. vol. Sun. Electromagnetic Design of Electric Machinery (the 2nd version in Chinese). 11. Oxford. Hellinger and P. and Y. 6. Linear Motion Electromagnetic Devices.D. vol. pp. 2./Dec. Jpn. [10] T. Nasar. 97.” Proc. Eastham. for their kind help. Electric Drive and Automatic Control System (the 3rd version in Chinese). A. Torii. Congr. Kang and K. Beijing. Mar. [2] X. Y. Zhang. M. Mori. 2008..” Proc. Wang. VOL. 2006. [11] C.. Y. vol. and J.. S. . and Y. Thompson. 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HUST. China. degree from Shanghai University of Technology. degree in power electronics and power drives from the Institute of Electrical Engineering.E. His research interests include power electronics and the modeling and control of electrical drives. he was with the Department of Electric Power Engineering. degree from Tsinghua University. magnetic properties of materials. the M. China.D. China. Chinese Academy of Sciences. China. Sydney. Li has been the recipient of many honors and awards.E. Yi Wang received the B.E. Faculty of Engineering. electrical machines and drives.D. In these fields. His research interests include measurement of magnetic properties. etc. Since 1997. including the scholarship awarded to the excellent Ph. and Research Fellow in the Center for Electrical Machines and Power Electronics. both in electrical engineering.Eng. where he is currently a Professor and the Director of the Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electrical Drives. in 1966. and renewable energy systems. candidates in the Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences offered by the Australian company BHP Billiton in 2009 and the student scholarship at the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics 2009.D. PWM rectifiers.D degree from the University of Technology Sydney (UTS). Yongjian Li received the B. China. Ph. His research interests include electromagnetics. pulsewidth modulation (PWM). and the Ph. candidate. Sydney. respectively. China. Germany. in 1982. where he is a Professor of electrical engineering and the Head of the School of Electrical. His research interests include the design.Eng. degrees from Hebei University of Technology. including 110 journal articles. His research fields include analysis and control of electrical machines. Wuhan.XU et al. He received the B. Australia. degree in 2005 from Tianjin University (TJU).Sc. and M. He received the B. and power electronic drives and control. China. and advanced digital control with real-time implementation. degrees. modeling of magnetic materials. Australia. Nanjing. Postdoctoral Fellow. and the M. Chinese Academy of Sciences. and the Ph. Berlin. Sydney. His research interests mainly include the electromagnetic design and performance analysis of linear/rotary machines. China. From 1988 to 1998. China. He is currently with UTS. China. in 2004 and 2007. both from UTS. and M. in 2002. degree in the School of Electrical. Beijing.E.D. China. electrical machine design and optimization. where his research is supported in part by an Early Career Researcher Grant and in part by the Chancellor’s Postdoctoral Research Fellowship. Dr. where he was a Visiting Research Fellow. and the Ph. degree jointly at Hebei University of Technology and the University of Technology Sydney. degree from Chongqing University.E. Sydney. control. Sydney. He is currently with UTS. Australia. He is currently a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Technology Sydney. in 2009. all in electrical engineering. China.E. Tianjin. power electronics. he has been with the Institute of Electrical Engineering. degree from the University of Technology Sydney (UTS). in 2010. numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields.E. and analysis of power converters. he has published over 230 refereed technical papers. all in electrical engineering.: EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR SINGLE-SIDED LINEAR INDUCTION MOTORS Wei Xu (M’09) was born in Chongqing. China. permanent-magnet. degree from Jiangsu Institute of Technology. in 1995.S. Beijing. degrees in electrical engineering from Huazhong University of Science and Technology. His research interests include sensorless and highperformance control of ac motor drives. both in 2002. University of Technology Sydney (UTS). he was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Institute of Electrical Machines. and the Ph.E. in 1987. University of Technology Sydney. including induction. and power electronics. From 1995 to 1997. He is currently a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Center for Electrical Machines and Power Electronics. Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems. Youguang Guo (S’02–M’05–SM’06) was born in Hubei. Sydney. He is currently working toward the Ph. Australia. Beijing. in 2002 and 2007.A. Hangzhou.D. and other emerging novel structure machines. He received the B. He is currently working toward the Ph. degree in 2008 from the Institute of Electrical Engineering. Zixin Li (S’08) was born in Hebei Province. the M. Chinese Academy of Sciences. Australia. Technical University of Berlin. Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems. Since 2010.D. where he is currently an Assistant Research Professor. in 1981. 2423 Yaohua Li was born in Henan. power electronics. Shanghai.D. respectively. in 1980.D. Jian Guo Zhu (S’93–M’96–SM’03) received the B. degree in industry automation from North China University of Technology. and the Ph. from March 1998 to July 2008 and where he is currently a Lecturer in the School of Electrical. in 2001.D. He received the Ph. Wuhan. His research fields include measurement and modeling of magnetic properties of magnetic materials. . degree from Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). Beijing. in 2004. in 1985. he has been with the Institute of Electrical Engineering. Australia. particularly in high-power fields. Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems. and B. in 1988. Chongqing. particularly permanent-magnet synchronous machines. degree from Tsinghua University. in 1994. switched reluctance. in 1965. Chinese Academy of Sciences. China. Beijing. control of multilevel converters. China. Yongchang Zhang (M’10) received the B. degree from Zhejiang University.