Gender, Income and Immigration

Differences in Depression in
Canadian Urban Centres
Katherine L.W. Smith, MHSc1
Flora I. Matheson, PhD2,1
Rahim Moineddin, PhD1-3
Richard H. Glazier, MD, MPH1-3
ABSTRACT
Background: Immigrants tend to initially settle in urban centres. It is known that
immigrants have lower rates of depression than the Canadian-born population, with the
lowest rates among those who have arrived recently in Canada. It is established that
women and low-income individuals are more likely to have depression. Given that recent
immigration is a protective factor and female gender and low income are risk factors, the
aim of this study was to explore a recent immigration-low income interaction by gender.
Methods: The study used 2000-01 Canadian Community Health Survey data. The sample
consisted of 41,147 adults living in census metropolitan areas. Logistic regression was
used to examine the effect of the interaction on depression.
Results: The prevalence of depression in urban centres was 9.17% overall, 6.82% for men
and 11.44% for women. The depression rate for recent immigrants was 5.24%, 3.87% for
men and 6.64% for women. The depression rate among low-income individuals was
14.52%, 10.79% for men and 17.07% for women. The lowest-rate of depression was
among low-income recent immigrant males (2.21%), whereas the highest rate was among
low-income non-recent immigrant females (11.05%).
Conclusions: This study supports previous findings about the effects of income,
immigration and gender on depression. The findings are novel in that they suggest a
differential income effect for male and female recent immigrants. These findings have
implications for public health planning, immigration and settlement services and policy
development.
MeSH terms: Canada; depressive disorder; immigrants; gender; socio-economic factors

La traduction du résumé se trouve à la fin de l’article.
1. Department of Public Health Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
2. Centre for Research on Inner City Health, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto
3. Department of Family and Community Medicine, St. Michael’s Hospital and University of Toronto
Correspondence and reprint requests: Dr. Flora Matheson, Centre for Research on Inner City Health,
St Michael’s Hospital, 70 Richmond St. East, Toronto, ON M5C 1N8; Tel: 416-864-6060, ext.2580;
Fax: 416-864-5485; E-mail: mathesonf@smh.toronto.on.ca
Acknowledgements: The authors thank Yu Ding, Marisa Creatore and Piotr Gozdyra for their help
with data preparation and statistical analysis.
Acknowledgement of support: This project was funded by The Centre for Urban Health Initiatives and
The Centre for Research on Inner City Health. The Centre for Research on Inner City Health is supported in part by a grant from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. The research and
analyses are based on data from Statistics Canada and the opinions expressed do not represent the
views of Statistics Canada. The results and conclusions are those of the authors, and no official
endorsement by the above organizations is intended or should be inferred.
MARCH – APRIL 2007

mmigrants constitute a growing proportion of the Canadian population. Since
the early 1990s, between 175,000 and
250,000 immigrants have come to Canada
each year.1 These individuals enter the country as legal immigrants (e.g., skilled workers,
family reunification) and refugees.1 In 2001,
approximately 1.8 million of Canada’s
immigrants had arrived in the previous
10 years, representing 6.2% of the population in 2001.1 This was an increase from
4.3% in 1996. Of the 1.8 million recent
immigrants, 58% arrived from Asia and the
Middle East.1 In 2001, 94% of recent immigrants were living in Canada’s census metropolitan areas, with 73% settling in Toronto,
Vancouver and Montreal.2
Depression is an important mental
health condition. Worldwide, major
depression is the leading cause of years
lived with disability and the fourth cause of
lost disability adjusted life years.3 A recent
review on immigrant health reported that
immigrants have lower rates of mental illness than the Canadian-born population,
with the lowest rates among recent and
non-European immigrants.4 With increasing length of residence in Canada, rates of
immigrant physical and mental health conditions begin to mirror the rates experienced by the Canadian-born population.4-6
It is well established that low-income individuals and women are at a high risk of
depression relative to those with middle/high
income and men, respectively.7 To date,
however, no studies have looked at the effect
of low income on the mental health of immigrants. Given that being a recent immigrant
is a protective factor for depression and having a low-income level is a risk factor and
that there are noted gender differences in
depression, the objective of this study was to
explore a recent immigration-low income
interaction stratified by gender. Since the
proportion of immigrants is increasing, it is
important to understand the health needs of
these individuals in order to provide appropriate health and settlement services.

I

METHODS
Since immigrants are most likely to settle
in urban areas, the sample was restricted to
individuals living in the 25 Census
Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) across
Canada.2 CMAs consist of one or more
adjacent municipalities situated around a
major urban core.8
CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 149

636 2924 37.54) – (10. Gender Male (r) Female Age group 18-24 25-44 45-64 65-74 (r) Immigrant status Yes No (r) Recent immigrant status Yes No (r) Income adequacy Low income† Middle/High Income (r) Educational attainment Less than high school High school Less than post-secondary Post-secondary (r) Marital status Married/Common Law (r) Separated/Divorced Single Widowed Visible minority status Yes No (r) Live alone Yes No (r) Single parent Yes No (r) Government income Yes No (r) Region Atlantic Quebec (r) Ontario Prairies Alberta British Columbia Variable TABLE I Socio-demographic Profile of CMAs in Canada Stratified by Depression and Sex (CCHS 2000-2001) 729 5383 9060 1152 1990 2593 8169 12.02* 10.75 9.33) (9.64.53 33.53 2238 28.03.90 34.69) 6.21 747 9.58) 8.27) 12. 8.35) 8.<$15.46 7. 13.08.37* (8.12 20.26) – – Men 18-74 Socio-demographics Depression n % n % (r) = reference category * Statistically significant at 0.11 (10. 16. 10.15.31. 6.87 63.31) (8.12.85 19.000 if 3 or 4 people.26.26 12.47 115 91.87 111 17. 8.03) (9.61* (6.02) 7.06* (9.969 1297 5756 206 3408 3904 1874 10.557 26.83) 8.67) (6.84.48) (7.00) Adults 18-74 Socio-demographics Depression n % n % 667 5061 8843 1139 1995 2535 6660 13.31* 12.96* (5.19 (7. 14.38.56* 10.22 (4.444 17.56.07.62* (6.11 6.37* (8.45 1863 8. 7.520 1223 7926 32. 10.36.92 389 87. 6.59 509 71. 9.91) (9.79* (8. 11. NO. 13.23) 6.41 274 51.64 14.51 5. 4.32 29.66 6.07* (8.89.86.27. 13.48) 10.84. 16. 8. 13.07* 10.45 (6. Percent missing ranged from 0% to 7% (income adequacy).52* 10.72 1073 35.81) 10.62. <$30.68.24) 7. 9.90* (10.55 (8. 6.76) (8. 11. 7. 9. 10.50 16.20) 11. 14. 13.43* 8.85) (10.51.52 279 12.62 66.55 368 90.54 7.16 – 11.75 499 43. 5.66. 12.40 312 40.14.63.5) 12. 12.17. 13.01 43. 12.37.04) 11.42.46 20.241 1971 18.29) (10.829 25.41* (8.19) 7.71) (11.21 64.21) 7.93) 9.93.81 747 4.69* (4.00 2355 12.82) 10.05 using Bootvar 3.59 2.10* 14.74 100.27.43* 12.00.75) 7.32. 11. 15.55.61.28 8.33.239 20.94 8.53 1136 9.05) 10.44 Women 18-74 Socio-demographics Depression n % n % (10.74) 9.23 (2.03 29.36.09 (6.07) 5.32) 7.528 6995 8478 3828 21.18) (13.90 8. 7. 8. 10.99* 14.34) 9.80.29) (10. 12. 13.47* (6.93.29 1106 11.79 80. 13. 8.39* (11. 11. ‡ Coefficient of variation between 16. 7.25.54 15. 6.79 19. 18.69 70.908 5549 17. 12.80.60* (5.238 3785 34.82) (12.80.93) 13.78* (7.39) (11.38) (11.48* 13.81 18.78.72.81* (7.823 14. 8. 10.01) 3.000 if 1 or 2 people.46. 7.09) 5.33 54.28 9.36.18 91.45 1959 12.68 12.31 8.81 (3.95.54) 12.87* (7. 9.38 (5.42. 7.98 1314 9.21) 8.983 3975 16.00 – 41 271 577 85 202 183 514 831 103 1244 283 1064 222 1124 612 165 562 20 303 245 164 636 164 1129 69 1285 316 1043 242 650 411 56 1359 – 95% CI 6.31 13.903 2291 3985 5128 129 770 1605 235 480 495 1528 2145 471 3203 672 3003 548 3129 1748 525 1309 131 726 786 437 1742 542 2992 184 3523 826 2888 652 1723 1158 181 1359 2355 95% CI (4.63.653 3951 16.46) (6.36 (5.6 and 33.39 11.15 8.94.26) 11.12) 9.36) (9.13 3.898 28.18.67) 7.05 11.56) 5. 10.12 25.90 (5.67) 3.43) (11. 5.63.05* 12. 8.57.10.81 13. 7.13) (12.04* (8.89) 11.82 36.30 34.02 1014 59. 20.37.651 2236 17. 8.77) 4.04) (9.55 378 88.55) (7.79) 8. 16.972 5932 14.84. 10. 8.20) 16. <$20.058 2043 4764 1017 3588 4574 1953 10.19.64* 11.43 9.74 95.55.70.96 19. 7.24* 9.38.66.72 (8.96) 8.15 87.51 149 9.53) (4. 17.58) 14.54 17. 13.59 (8. 12.143 2442 17.92.11* (7.98 19.61* (10. 11.13.97* 11.02 16.54 87.818 2757 8723 7362 2065 – 20.54 80.78) (9.21* 9.67* (11.81*‡(6.52* (13.71) (11.65. 13.637 5110 35. 10.37.402 1801 18.17.70* 12.89. 11.78 (4.30 25.33.56) 4.93) 9.07) 6.03) (14. 14.29.49 42.55.30* 6.99) 5.06.20.389 1396 10.38 4. 8.42* 12.239 – 3.10) (8.46 12. 13. 10.57 9.19 50. 7. 13.46.21) (13. 5.906 1550 17.65) 6.03 541 9.64.19 410 41.00) 10.82 8.44* (10.42) (10.000 if 5+ people.015 12.148 952 19.49 89 25.87*‡(2. 13.88. 11.62) 6. 11.52* (14.00) 95% CI IMMIGRANT DIFFERENCES IN DEPRESSION VOLUME 98.126 1756 18.66.54) 9.37) (10. 13.92.78 360 22.01* 9.97 91.07.45* (12.16* 10.10* 12.60 (6.05.39) (10.36* (4. 10.12* 15.76 63.17.46 1.026 3339 10.67) 7.64) (11.72 91. 7.82 (6.10* (14.90.81 (6.89.0 (Statistics Canada). 12.32) 8.13 70.87*(10.18* (7.266 5967 14. 9.53.150 REVUE CANADIENNE DE SANTÉ PUBLIQUE 49.42) 6. 6.88 125 – – 100.57.79.92) 7.126 2792 8682 6996 1769 20.63 9.944 3557 37.85.88* (8.28 423 22.39* (9. 21.34) 6.33 1028 5.95 6.53 (6.89 9. 16. 10. 15.44 (6.94*(10.00 11. 12.40 (4.44. 17.44) 10.55) 5.87 8.85 12.04) 9.908 3.23* 10.63) 10.37 52.45) (16.88 90.53) 6.25.08 1938 19.02) (8.358 3835 11.74. 9.50.3. 7.28) 5. 18.23) (4.69 5.41 28. † Low income . Estimates are considered marginal and are associated with high sampling variability.92.06 (6. 7.70 2005 62.405 14. 12.89* 10.52) (17.680 2668 17.82 (6. 7.623 13.04.38 43.16) (10.25) (15.41 1845 13.64.28.83.60* (9.58.94* (8. 11.57 8.97* (9.11.53) (11.30.82.41. 6. 6. 2 .24.35.30 326 80.20.42. 9. 7.79 42.39 25.18 92.12 17.

P≤0.147 adults age 18-74 living in the 25 CMAs (20. the depression rate was 14. There were 41. widowed and single). USA) was used for the analysis. For this study. and health system utilization for Canada’s 136 health regions.IMMIGRANT DIFFERENCES IN DEPRESSION The 2000-01 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS 1.87% for men and 6. and by gender.70) for men and 1.9 CCHS respondents ages 18-74 were included in the analysis.94%) or those living alone (11. Ethics approval was obtained from the St. 6. all variables were significantly associated with depression. Women had higher rates of depression than men across all socio-demographic indicators. Child Tax Benefit. Cary.17% overall. Region was a 6-level variable representing the Atlantic Provinces. 2. living alone. Ontario. in order to account for the design effects of the CCHS. The interaction was explored graphically by estimating the probability of depression by income adequacy for recent and nonrecent immigrants. SAS version 9. socio-economic status (income. Cross-tabular analyMARCH – APRIL 2007 ses were done to determine if there were differences in the prevalence of depression.21) appear to have the lowest rates of depression whereas female low-income non-recent immigrants (11. For men.07% for women. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview – Short Form for Major Depression (CIDI-SF MD) is a reliable and valid instrument developed by Kessler which provides a probability from 0. Table III shows the unadjusted and adjusted probability of depression and relative risks stratified by the 4-level immigration income variable. Statistics Canada’s data publication guidelines were followed throughout the analysis.32 (0.908 women).9 of receiving a diagnosis of depression if the respondent had been given the complete CIDI questionnaire.786 individuals with low income (1. In all models.11 The scale has 7 questions. the highest rates appear to be among individuals who were separated or divorced (12. depression rates were high among individuals who were single. single parent) and region. living alone.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Statistical significance was defined at the level of p≤0. Several control variables were included in the analyses.801 men and 1. Male low-income recent immigrants were 30% less likely to have depression than those of a middle-/ high-income status. Recent immigration was defined as individuals not Canadian by birth and having immigrated to Canada within the past 10 years.12 Recent immigration and income adequacy were the variables of primary interest in this study.236 women). Table I shows the socio-demographic profile and the weighted prevalence of depression. all variables were significantly associated with depression. with the latter necessary to account for the non-linear relationship between age and depression. post-secondary).05. separated or divorced.52% overall. The model testing the interaction between immigration and income was stratified by gender and adjusted for the above variables. the prevalence of depression in the sample was 9. The depression rate among recent immigrants was 5.7 among non-recent immigrants. Age and age squared were included in all models.73.239 men and 20.12%).16%) or those who were separated or divorced (18. with the exception of visible minority and single-parent status.10 was used for an exploratory analysis to examine interaction effects. Income adequacy was a dichotomous variable (low. high school. corresponding to a 0. Statistical comparisons were made against reference categories. Female low-income recent immigrants were approximately four times more likely to have depression than their male counterparts. A socio-demographic profile describing Canadian CMAs was done using frequencies of the study variables for the entire sample. single parents. the Prairies. 3. Also shown in Table I. educational attainment.8 probability of depression. was used to estimate the prevalence of depression. not visible minorities.64% for women. living in Alberta urban centres and in the 18-24 age group. The variables in Table II were used to adjust for the interaction term. 1. or social assistance. gender.87%).756 women) and 3. Alberta and British Columbia. Marital status was coded in 4 categories (married/common law.557 recent immigrants in the sample (1.24% overall. Quebec.38) for women. 2) Recent immigrant–Middle/high income. Among recent immigrants.0 to 0.10. Canada Pension Plan/Quebec Pension Plan.15. Tests for multicollinearity were not significant. health status. visible minority status). The odds ratio for the income by immigration interaction term was 0. Variables were entered into the model in the following sequence: age and age squared. Michael’s Hospital Research Ethics Review Board.82% for men and 11. This relative risk is only 1. In our sample. middle/high income) defined as individuals whose household income is below a Statistics Canada threshold based on the number of occupants per household. For women.44% for women. The highest rates of depression among women appear to be in those who were single parents (19. family composition (marital status. receiving government sources of income. Table II presents results from the multivariate logistic analyses. All statistical tests were two-tailed.79% for men and 17. NC. Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement.. ethnic diversity (recent immigrant status. Logistic regression was used to examine the effects of the study variables on depression. less than post-secondary. Micro data were accessed at the Toronto Region Statistics Canada Research Data Centre. Respondents who were younger than 18 or older than 74 were excluded due to high rates of proxy interviews.550 men and 2.13 All analyses were weighted using the sampling weight. the variance was estimated using the bootstrap technique with 500 replications. and by creating a fourlevel variable according to recent immigration status and income adequacy: 1) Recent immigrant–Low income. There were 3. Government source of income was defined as individuals receiving Employment Insurance. separated/divorced.5 (0. there was a significant difference in CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 151 . 10.2%. 3) Non-recent immigrant–Low income. The multivariate results confirm independent effects of the study variables on rates of depression. Educational attainment was coded in 4 categories (less than high school.05) appear to have the highest rates of depression. RESULTS The response rate for the entire CCHS sample was 80. For men. a cut-off of 4. In the adjusted model. male low-income recent immigrants (2. government income). Among individuals with low income. 4) Non-recent immigrant–Middle/high income.1) is a general population survey designed to provide timely cross-sectional estimates of health determinants.

20. None) Less than post-secondary (vs.24 (1. Quebec) Adults Men 1.71† (0.21) 1. The healthy migrant hypothesis posits that healthier individuals are more likely to immigrate.19-1. age squared.16.86) 0.86) 1.77 (1.67) 0.41. 1.81.05 1.49) 1.68 (1. being a single parent and region. 1.83) 0.25 1.49 11.32 (1.69) 1.41 (1. 1.190) Variable Gender Female (vs.25 (1. Married) Region Atlantic provinces (vs.45.38.15 Reporting patterns of depression may be different among recent immigrants compared to the Canadian-born population due to cultural interpretation of questions.43. 1.34† (1. high-risk subgroups like women. 1. 2.04. the relative risk for income between men and women. 1.17.86) 3. 2 .0 (Statistics Canada).81. 1. 0.50 RR (Low income: Middle/high income) 0.11 (0. 1.65) 1. Findings like these have implications for public health policy and health promotion programming for vulnerable subgroups of the population.56) 2. This study has some limitations.51) *Adjusted for age. 14 Acculturation is the process by which immigrants change their attitudes. Non-recent immigrant) Visible minority (vs.21 8.79) 0. 0.82 (0.01.40.40 (1.72) 1.48 (1.24. 1.9) 1. 1.39 (1. 1.13 (0.72 (1.75 (1. 0.23 (1.95 (1. Not a single parent) Separated/divorced (vs. 1.59. 1.75-3.88 (1.26-13.94) Women – – 1.20. 1.63. single-parent status.06. 2.24-1.14) 1. socio-economic and immigration status.61 (1. Married) Single (vs.55 Middle/high income 6.10 4.40.35) 1. available evidence suggests two hypotheses that may explain lower rates of depression among recent immigrants.75† (1.23 (1. Non-visible minority) Family composition Living alone (vs.20 (1.12.53 (1. DISCUSSION The results of this study support previous findings that depression is more prevalent among women.60.14. but this difference was not significant for non-recent immigrants. 2.05 but were significant at p<0. Different demographic groups may require different programming to accommodate gender.35 (1.28) 0.61) 1.37.97) 2. The novel finding is a differential income effect whereby male low-income recent immigrants appear to have lower rates of depression than male middle-/high-income recent immigrants.55 (1. 1.34 (1. Currently there are no extensions to these hypotheses that account for differential income effects.31 (1. Figure 1 shows the adjusted interaction of income and immigration by gender.33.44 10.59 (0.28) 1.99.19 (0.05) 1. 2.60.57) 1.13.10. but that health deteriorates with length of residence in Canada. Post-secondary) High school education (vs. Canada’s immigrants are extremely heterogeneous VOLUME 98.13) 1. visible minority status.11 Recent immigrants may be more likely to be non-respondents than the Canadian-born population due to linguistic and cultural factors.57 (0.77) 1.73) 1.24-1. 1.66.28-2.19) 1.86) 0.49 (1.61 (1.95) Non-recent immigrant Low income 12. 1. Not living alone) Single parent (vs.63† (1.70 (0.31 (1.28 (1.18.33) 1.40. 1.68 (1.28 (1. Quebec) British Columbia (vs.18 (1.25) 2. TABLE III Probability of Depression and Relative Risk (RR. 1.05.26. living alone. non-recent immigrants and individuals with low income.25) 1.04.02. All models were bootstrapped using Bootvar 3.79.68) 1. 1.190) Category Male Unadjusted Female Recent immigrant Low income 3. which precludes causal inference.48-1.43) 1. education.76 (1.73) 1.33 3.36 RR (Low income: Middle/high income) 1.19. 1.74 (0. 1.2.67) 1. marital status.71 (0.73 8.69) 1.56) 1. 1.88 (1. 1.61 (0. 2. 2.93) 1.11.12 (1.74 (1.42) 1. 1. demonstrating a differential income effect between genders.42 (1.38. 2.52 (1.41 (1.79) 1. 0.83) 6.65) 1. 0.09 (1.IMMIGRANT DIFFERENCES IN DEPRESSION TABLE II Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals for Depression (N=37. Quebec) Prairies (vs.26.71) 0.79) 4.68) 1.59.80) RR (F:M) Male Adjusted* Female RR (F:M) 3. 1.51.69† (1. NO.29-1. While literature on mental health among immigrant populations is limited.99. Due to a limited sample. government income.17 5.90† (1.34. 90%CI) Stratified by Recent Immigration and Income Adequacy (N=37.40 (1. Male) Socio-economic status Low income (vs. values and behaviours as they are exposed to Canadian culture.53 (0.58) 1.08-2. 1. 2.85) 1.13 (0. 1.69.37 (1. 2.88) 1.58-4.75 1.15) 1.59) 1.62-2.45† (1.62) 1. Married) Widowed (vs.03.5 (1. The acculturation hypothesis theorizes that some foreign cultures are protective of health. especially in vulnerable. Post-secondary) Less than high school (vs. The data were cross-sectional in nature.98 (0.36) 1. Quebec) Ontario (vs. 2. Middle/high income) Government income (vs.23.88 (0.24) 1.85-2.72 Middle/high income 4.67) 1.11) 0.22) 1.06. and receiving government sources of income as factors related to depression. The CIDI-SF is a self-reported questionnaire that is a short version of the complete predictive instrument.10 Patten showed that the CIDI-SF slightly overestimates the prevalence of depression. Post-secondary) Ethnic diversity Recent immigrant (vs. † Statistically significant at p≤0.14-1. 2. 1.73 (1.56) 1.73) 1.21. Quebec) Alberta (vs.44 (1.32 (0.46 (1. Longitudinal data would allow changes in health status to be tracked over time.21. 1.71-4.57-1. 4. The results have 152 REVUE CANADIENNE DE SANTÉ PUBLIQUE also shown the importance of examining socio-demographic indicators such as living alone.64-8.01) All models were adjusted for age and age squared. 1. 1.05.42) 1.46) 1. 1.37† (1.35.79 18.77) 1. these differences were not significant at p<0.76 (1. 1. 1.45) 1.13) 2.53.72 11.08.63 (0.58) 1. This is in contrast to female low-income recent immigrants who have higher rates of depression than middle-highincome recent immigrants.46) 1.

Mroczek D. de l’immigration et du sexe sur la dépression. 2005). Public Use Microdata File Documenation. Health Canada. Le taux de dépression des immigrants récents était de 5. Social ties and supportive communities could possibly explain some of these differences. Other factors may contribute to this apparent gain in mental health. Soc Sci Med 2004. ON: Citizenship and Immigration Canada.phacaspc.IMMIGRANT DIFFERENCES IN DEPRESSION Figure 1. 2. 5.44 % chez les femmes). Wittchen HU. 2002.html (Accessed December 4. pdf (Accessed December 4.64 % chez les femmes). length of stay.7(4):171-85.95:I4-I8. 14. McDermott S. 2002.ca/ english/census01/products/analytic/companion/ etoimm/pdf/96F0030XIE2001008.59:1613-27. 12. Mood Disorders: A Report on Mental Illness in Canada.ca/publicat/whsr-rssf/pdf/WHSR_ Chap_18_e. Performance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form for major depression in a community sample.52 % (10. tandis que le taux le plus élevé était enregistré chez les femmes à faible revenu qui n’étaient pas des immigrantes récentes (11.13. Previous research in immigrant and minority communities suggests that there are mental health benefits of social capital. Insights into the ‘healthy immigrant effect’: Health status and health service use of immigrants to Canada. 2003.15 A limited sample size prevents detailed analysis of depression in immigrant subgroups and justified our exploratory analysis using p≤0. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 153 . Canadian Institute for Health Information.who. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Adjusted probability of depression by income adequacy for recent and non-recent immigrants (CCHS 2000-2001) with respect to source country.21:68-72. 13. low-income status for recent immigrants is a transitional state. Kessler R. Despite the limited power. Sedmak B.10.pdf (Accessed December 4. Can J Public Health 2005. Il est prouvé que les femmes et les personnes à faible revenu sont plus susceptibles d’être déprimées.21 %). 2006 Accepted: August 15. Facts and Figures . Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 1998. Statistics Canada. This analysis demonstrated trends in the data that need further exploration. Supplement to Health Rep 2002. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Institue for Health Information. 2005).Immigration Overview. 2005). or earning a low-income wage does not reflect the overall wealth of recent immigrants. Canadian Community Health Survey. Hyman I. Par contre. elle donne à penser que l’effet du revenu est différent chez les hommes et chez les femmes immigrés de fraîche date. 2002. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form (CIDI-SF). Ali JS.79 % chez les hommes et 17. Women’s Health Surveillance Report.pdf (Accessed December 4. 8. 7. Available online at: http://www. 2006 RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Les immigrants ont tendance à s’établir initialement dans les centres urbains. 2005). Kennedy S. Conclusion : Cette étude confirme les résultats antérieurs sur les effets du revenu. 4. Au moyen d’une analyse de régression logistique.html (Accessed December 4. L’échantillon comprenait 41 147 adultes vivant dans les régions métropolitaines de recensement. Nelson CB. 2003. Devji J.82 % chez les hommes et 11. Statistics Canada.gc. 2001 Census Analysis Series.gc. Statistics Canada. Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations. On sait que les immigrants présentent des taux de dépression inférieurs à ceux de la population née au Canada.1. Further research is recommended to explore the relationship within larger samples and explain why low-income recent-immigrant males might be better advantaged than their middle-/high-income and female counterparts.96(Suppl 2):S30-S44. Available online at: http://www3.13: 9-14. 9. Setting the stage: Reviewing current knowledge on the health of Canadian immigrants – What is the evidence and where are the gaps? Can J Public Health 2004. Le plus faible taux de dépression était enregistré chez les immigrants récents à faible revenu de sexe masculin (2. Walters EE. Beland Y. Available online at: http://www12.ca/publicat/miic-mmac/chap_2_e.24 % (3. Recent research on immigrant health from Statistics Canada’s population surveys.cic. Possibly. Méthode : L’étude faisait appel aux données de l’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes de 2000-2001. Scoring the World Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-SF). 2005). les services d’immigration et d’établissement et l’élaboration des politiques. Health Rep 2002. Received: January 3. 11.95:I9-I13. Le taux de dépression chez les personnes à faible revenu était de 14. nous avons voulu étudier l’interaction entre l’immigration récente et le faible revenu selon le sexe. Ottawa: Health Canada. 2002.07 % chez les femmes). Brandon-Christie J. Kessler RC. Beiser M. Statistics Canada Geography Department. Andrews G. et que les taux les plus faibles sont enregistrés chez les personnes récemment arrivées au Canada. Gravel RG. 2005). 3. Available online at: http://www. McDonald JT.statcan. Available online at: http://www. Mroczek D. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 6. 10. MARCH – APRIL 2007 Available online at: http://www. Ali JS. Chron Dis Can 2000.87 % chez les hommes et 6.The Changing Mosaic. REFERENCES 1.gc.17 % globalement (6.05 %).ca/ english/research/92F0138MIE/02001/cma2001.pdf (Accessed December 4. Mental Health of Canada’s Immigrants. category of migration and socioeconomic status. Ottawa. 2004. Patten SB. Ustun B. Canadian community health survey – Methodological overview. Can J Public Health 2004. Canada’s Ethnocultural Portrait .int/cidi/CIDISFScoring Memo12-03-02.statcan. Résultats : La prévalence de la dépression dans les centres urbains était de 9. Étant donné que l’immigration récente est un facteur de protection et que le sexe féminin et le faible revenu sont des facteurs de risque. 15. nous avons examiné l’effet de l’interaction susmentionnée sur la dépression. Ces constatations ont des conséquences pour la planification de la santé publique. the income difference between male and female recent immigrant relative risks suggests that there may be a low-income advantage for recentimmigrant males. The health of immigrants and refugees in Canada.phacaspc. Cycle 1.ca/ english/pub/facts2004/overview/index. or at the very least an absence of risk.