# Department of Mechanical Engineering

Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction

Lecture 1
INTRODUCTION

MEHB223

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction

Tornado ~ a violently rotating column of
air in contact with the ground underneath
a cumuliform cloud often visible as a
funnel cloud… wikipedia

MEHB223

Liquids and Gasses Fluid Continuum Concept General Classifications of Flow Significance of Fluid Mechanics Brief History of Fluid Mechanics Modern Trends in Fluid Mechanics .Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 Contents n n n n n n n Definitions of Fluids Distinction Between Solids.

Science that deals with the ACTION OF FORCES on fluids regardless of whether the fluid is stationary or moving MEHB223 Fluid ? .1 Definitions … n n Fluids . Constitutes of Liquids and Gasses Fluid Mechanics .Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction 1.A substance which deforms continuously under the action of shearing forces however small they may be .

1 Definitions … n Fluids .Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction 1. MEHB223 .A substance which deforms continuously under the action of shearing forces however small they may be .

Gas n Molecular structure ~ solid fix shape ~ Liquid assume shape of container Solid Liquid Gas n Gas fill up its container. Liquid form a free surface . Liquid.Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1.2 Distinctions : Solid.

Gas n n Solid : stress proportional to strain. Liquid.Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1. In Fluids : stress proportional to rate of shear strain Solid is elastic (return to original shape when stress is removed.2 Distinctions : Solid. fluid will not recover) Solid : ~ Fluid : ~ .

Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1. the number of molecules are very large and the effect of the molecules can be considered on average basis. This leads to overall fluid properties such as pressure. This is FLUID CONTINUUM CONCEPT and molecules can be regarded as continuous NOT discreet. Thus even for smallest length scale. density etc . Fluid Continuum Concept n n n n The length scale of interest in engineering >> intermolecular distance.3.

Fluid Continuum Concept Intermolecular distance . lmol ~ 35 x 10-10 m Smallest engineering length scale .3. leng ~ 10-6m Consider a cube of length leng :~ leng MEHB223 .Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction 1.

drag.4. compressible flow (appreciable density change) e.Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1. General Flow Classifications n n n Hydrodynamics .Low speed. lubrications Gas Dynamics . high speed turbomachinery etc Aerodynamics . hydraulics. airfoil. no density change (incompressible) e.High speed.g.g. water distribution network.Flow pass aircraft. flow in ram jet. lift etc .

Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1. Significance of Fluid Mechanics n n n Extremely important ~ All Engineers need to master Covers wide range of applications Examples : ~ – Buildings ~ water network. engine. fuel flows. hydraulics brake.5. ventilations systems. Propulsion. shock absorber – Aircraft ~ Aerodynamics. pollutant flows in atmosphere . jet engine – Environment ~ sewage systems. drainage. fire fighting ~ forces on building structures – Car ~ Aerodynamics. air conditioning systems. suspensions. coastal current.

Significance of Fluid Mechanics The collapse of Tacoma-Narrow Bridge .Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1.5.

Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1.5. Significance of Fluid Mechanics The collapse of Tacoma-Narrow Bridge .

Euler. Laval (1906) .Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1. Bernoulli. Navier.6. Mach (1896). engineers use empirical equations ~ Experimental hydraulics Prandtl and boundary layer theory (early 20th century) Gas dynamics ~ Riemann (1876). Stokes ~ Navier-Stokes equation ~ 17th and 18th century Classical Hydrodynamics ~ inviscid fluids ~ highly mathematical ~ not applicable in practice ~ Hence. Brief History of Fluid Mechanics n n n n n n Early applications ~ ancient Egypt ~ irrigation systems First quantitative relationship ~ Archemides (250 BC) ~ birth of experimental fluid mechanics ~ trials and errors Fundamental principles of fluid ~ Newton.

Professor of Physics and Mathematics. Euler formalized the equation we now call Bernoulli’s. Brief History of Fluid Mechanics Leonhard Euler (1707–1783) (left). Daniel Bernoulli (1700–1782) (middle). Euler developed the basic equations of fluid motion. Professor of Mathematics. Bernoulli published works on the statics and dynamics of fluids and made the first observations and notes relating to the equation that bears his name. Ludwig Prandtl (1875-1953) (right)– father of modern fluid mechanics. He and his students are pioneers in flow visualization techniques .Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1. developed boundary layer theory and many other innovative analyses.6. Euler had a greater interest in mathematics than Bernoulli and. in fact.

7.Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1. Nanotechnology (NEMS) . Modern Trends in Fluid Mechanics n n n n n n Involve uses of high speed computers Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Essentially numerical solutions of 3 basic laws of nature applied to fluid particles using computer : – Law of Conservation of mass – Law of conservation of momentum – Law of conservation of energy Replace the need for experimental measurements as the behaviour can be predicted before hand Being used as design tool in industry Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1.7. Modern Trends in Fluid Mechanics .

Modern Trends in Fluid Mechanics .7.Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1.

7.Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1. Modern Trends in Fluid Mechanics .

7.Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1. Modern Trends in Fluid Mechanics Weather predictions Flow around river estuary Hurricane predictions .

Modern Trends in Fluid Mechanics .7.Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction MEHB223 1.

Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanics of Fluids 1 : Lecture 1: Introduction End of Lecture 1 MEHB223 .