THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX

Diversity and Agenda for Inclusive Development

CENTRAL DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY/ANTHROPOLOGY
Tribhuvan University
Kathmandu, Nepal

The Nepal Multidimensional Social Inclusion Index
Diversity and Agenda for Inclusive Development
Copyright @ 2014
Central Department of Sociology/Anthropology
Tribhuvan University
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represent the views of the institutions that supported it.
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Tribhuvan University (TU)
Kirtipur
Kathmandu, NEPAL
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First Published: March 2014
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SOCIAL INCLUSION ATLAS AND ETHNOGRAPHIC PROFILE RESEARCH TEAM
Team of Authors
Arun Kumar Lal Das, Tika Ram Gautam, Chaitanya Subba, Yogendra Gurung, Kusum
Shakya, and Rudra Suwal
Editors
Om Gurung and Mukta S. Tamang

Nepal Social Inclusion Survey (NSIS)
Dr. Yogendra B Gurung (Team Leader), Dr. Bhim R. Suwal, Dr. Meeta S. Pradhan,
Dr. Krishna Bhattachan, Dr. Sangarma Singh Lama, Ms. Neeti Aryal Khanal,
Mr. Bal Krishna Mabuhang, Prof. Krishna Hachhethu,
Prof. Pushpa Lal Joshi, Mr. Mohan Khajum
Nepal Social Inclusion Index (NSII)
Prof. Arun Kumar Lal Das (Team Leader), Dr. Chaitanya Subba, Dr. Rudra Suwal,
Dr. Tika Ram Gautam, Dr. Narendra Mangal Joshi, Dr. Tulsi Ram Pandey,
Dr. Yubaraj Luitel, Dr. Kushum Shakya, Mr. Basanta Thapa
Ethnographic Profiles (EP)
Mr. Dambar Chemjong (Team Leader), Prof. Om Gurung, Dr. Mukta S. Tamang,
Prof. Dilli Ram Dahal, Dr. Binod Pokhrel, Dr. Suresh Dhakal, Mr. Yam Bahadur Kisan,
Mr. Madhusudan Subedi, Mr. Navin Rawal, Dr. Janak Rai
Social Inclusion Atlas
Dr. Prem Sagar Chapagain (Team Leader), Mr. Pawan Ghimire, Mr. Sher Bahadur Gurung,
Mr. Binod Adhikari, Ms. Manisha Rai, Mr. Shyam Krishna Subedi, Mr. Subash Rai,
SIA-EP Research Advisors and Resource Persons
Dr. Mangal Siddhi Manandhar, Prof. Yogendra P. Yadava, Prof. Ram Bahadur Chhetri,
Mr. Hira Bishwokarma, Prof. Pushkar Pradhan, Dr. Asha Lal Tamang,
Prof. Padma Chandra Paudel
Reviewers
NSIS and NSII
Dr. Magnus Hatlebakk and Prof. Astri Suhrke, Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI), Norway
Ethnographic Profiles (EP)
Prof. David Holmberg, Prof. Gérard Toffin, Prof. Kathryn S. March,
Prof. Mark Turin, Dr. Sara Shneiderman

Nepal Social Inclusion Index (NSII) captures several important dimensions of social inclusion in Nepal. We are glad to have been collaborators in bringing forth the results of a very important undertaking. The stark difference in index between the top and bottom groups is appalling. in several dimensions compared to the rest social groups. SIRF Secretariat facilitated processes of research design. Norad Oslo and Tribhuvan University departments taking full advantage of the resources that each partner have been able to bring into the project. In contrast. This sounds alarming to policy makers and practitioners. The SIA EP is a pioneer undertaking by the Central Department of Sociology Anthropology of Tribhuvan University. determination and patience. The Social Inclusion Atlas Ethnographic Profile (SIA EP) is a truly joint collaboration involving all key stakeholders. SNV Nepal was entrusted with the task of managing the fund. Madhesi Dalit and Hill Dalit rank low in almost all dimensions. Newar. policy makers. team work and institutional collaboration in the face of challenges are a sure way to success. which has now a track record of having completed 303 individual researches and two major institutional research collaborations. The late arrival of Census data and the enormous pressure to complete the project in a given timeframe tested the crisis management capacity of the project. Measured by using 39 very important inclusion indicators it shows that each caste/ ethnic groups in Nepal have different levels of inclusion. of institutional research involving a large team of multi-disciplinary team of academic researchers. Seen across the broad social groups it shows that Thakali. Hill Brahman. It can be seen that the social groups that constantly appear at the top ten and bottom ten remain more or less the same. We know that determination. V . the Norwegian Embassy.Foreword The Social Inclusion Research Fund (SIRF) was started in 2005 on the initiative of civil society of Nepal and the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Kathmandu. SIA EP management team earned this experience through hard work. Kayastha and Hill Chhetri have better inclusion status at this point in time. international scholars and government agencies. SIRF Secretariat and SIA EP management team have worked closely with staff in SNV. The SIA EP has arrived at this stage of publication that fills us with great happiness. Government of Nepal welcomed this initiative as highly relevant and endorsed the formation of SIRF Screening Committee represented by civil society. Prof Dr Om Gurung managed the crisis efficiently and with team work. positive outlook. making a public call for proposal. government agencies and civil society stakeholders. and an independent review and award of this research. SIRF Screening Committee provided guidance in defining the strategic focus and priorities of SIA EP research. giving the team leaders full delegation to lead their respective teams.

It is important to measure not only the level of inclusion in some visible aspects or dimension of development such as politics.The report aptly portrays social inclusion as a continuous process of attaining full membership of society and citizenship of a country. We believe the NSII will serve many useful purposes in future. as is happening in Nepal. We hope that civil societies. but also the extent of inclusion in as many and as invisible as possible. PhD Lead Adviser SIRF Secretariat/ SNV Nepal . Kjell Tormod Pettersen Ambassador Royal Norwegian Embassy VI Rem Neefjes Country Director SNV Nepal Manju Thapa Tuladhar. governments and donors all over the world will find this report useful to further their understanding of social inclusion.

The selection of indicators on social inclusion for this work was made based on rounds of consultations and review of relevant literature. economic. perception on recognition of their cultural identity and experience of being not discriminated and inter-group relations are considered relevant for measuring social cohesion or solidarity which is an essential feature for social inclusion. The overall objectives of the SIA-EP research were to promote a more informed understanding of Nepal’s social diversity by producing research based. A section is devoted to analyze the gender status by ethnic and caste groups. The data for the study is drawn from three major sources. This study is innovating in the sense that it has attempted to employ a comprehensive set of indicators to analyze social inclusion. for 97 caste and ethnic groups to build index. The SIA-EP has four interrelated components that include Nepal Social Inclusion Survey (NSIS). In addition to them. Nepal Social Inclusion Survey-2013 and other government sources. the study also includes some new dimensions in repertoire of indicators relevant for Nepal. cultural. on the country’s cultural and linguistic diversity and the status of social inclusion of different social groups. many groups are faring differently in different indicators although some of the ethnic/caste groups are persistently falling behind. Nepal Multidimensional Social Inclusion Index (NSII) is an attempt to synthesize the selected indicators pertaining to social exclusion and inclusion and relative standing of different social groups. The quantitative and qualitative information produced through research is expected to contribute to policy design. economy and poverty are included mainly under social and economic dimensions. On the cultural dimension. issues of recognition of language. Social Inclusion Atlas that plots the caste/ethnicity data of selected indicators on spatial maps and finally Ethnographic Profiles of the 42 highly excluded communities to provide qualitative information. gender and social cohesion. religion and customary politics are taken into account. this study has also included information on the theme. political. analysis could take only 97 groups due to unavailability of required data from all sources. The study is an part and synthesis of a larger research project under the theme of Social Inclusion Atlas and Ethnographic Profile (SIA-EP) carried out by the Central Department of Sociology/ Anthropology at Tribhuvan University. social. Although 2011 census enumerated 125 ethnic and caste groups. The key indicators relevant to human development on education. up to date information. Nepal Multidimensional Social Inclusion Index (NSII) together with further analysis of data from recent surveys and 2011 Census. research as well as education. As the issue of representation in political bodies and bureaucracy is significant in Nepali debate.Preface and Acknowledgements This report provides information to help portray the status of ethnic and caste groups and presents multidimensional social inclusion index for Nepal. 2011 Census. This study has included information on 39 indicators under six dimensions. Finally. As evident in the report. We believe VII . health.

Thanks also go to Prof. Our sincere thanks also go to representatives of Dalit Organizations. TU Coordinator. Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities (NEFIN).that information on individual indicators would be useful for targeted programmes as much as the composite index for the policy and future research. PhD Professor and Head. National Foundation for Development of Indigenous Nationalities (NFDIN). Successful completion of SIA-EP research and NSII was possible with generous support of various institutions and the effort of about 200 individuals who were involved in various capacities. then Rector of Tribhuvan University. for giving permission to undertake the research project. and the intellectuals and professionals who participated in a series of consultation workshops as well as preliminary findings sharing meetings and provided valuable comments and suggestions to enhance the quality of the data as well as the reports. Lead Advisor and Sita Rana and team at SIRF Secretariat who provided invaluable support throughout the research work in many ways. Storholt and Lena Hasle from RNE for their valuable support and insightful feedback in accomplishing the task. if only the composite index is used. Finally. Our heartfelt gratitude and special thanks go to Dr. We express our gratitude and acknowledgment to the National Planning Commission and the Central Bureau of Statistics for making available National Survey and 2011 Census data. CDSA. Tamang. caution must be given to the degree to which index can be used alone as there is chance of giving incomplete picture for some of the groups in question. Manju Thapa Tuladhar. Shiva Kumar Rai. We thank SIRF and SNV for managing the fund and Prof. Surya Lal Amatya. Ganesh Man Gurung Chair of the Screening Committee for supporting the research. PhD Research Director SIA-EP Research. then member of National Planning Commission. TU . Madhesi organizations. However. We would like to express our gratitude to the Royal Norwegian Embassy (RNE) in Nepal for providing the research fund through SIRF/SNV. CDSA. we would like to acknowledge the help of Andrew Steele for meticulously editing the document even within the short span of time. We express our gratitude to Kristine H. without which completion of this study would not have been possible. SIA-EP Research VIII Mukta S. for chairing the Advisory Committee of SIA-EP Research. Heartfelt thanks go to the field enumerators and supervisors who were the part of the survey team in collecting information to make this study possible. Om Gurung. We would also like to thank Prof. women’s organizations and others.

Contents
FOREWORD
PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Social Inclusion
1.2 Nepal Social Inclusion Index
CHAPTER II
METHODOLOGY
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 The Social Dimension
2.1.2 The Economic Dimension
2.1.3 The Political Dimension
2.1.4 The Cultural Dimension
2.1.5 The Gender Dimension
2.1.6 The Social Cohesion Dimension
2.2 Computation of the Nepal Social Inclusion Index
CHAPTER III
SOCIAL DIMENSION INDEX
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Education Index (EI)
3.2.1 Adult Literacy Index (ALI)
3.2.2 Net Enrolment Index (NEI)
3.2.3 Basic Schooling Index (BSI)
3.2.4 Educational Domain Index (EI)
3.3 Health and Sanitation Index (HSI)
3.3.1 Health Service Affordability Index (HSAI)
3.3.2 Child Survival Index (CSI)
3.3.3 Safe Drinking Water Index (SDWI)
3.3.4 Modern Toilet Index (MTI)
3.3.5 Health Domain Index (HI)
3.4 Social Dimension Index (SDI)
3.5 Conclusion
CHAPTER IV
ECONOMIC DIMENSION INDEX
4.1 Economic Opportunity
4.2 Non-poverty

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4.3 Standard of living
4.4 Economic Dimension index
4.5 Conclusion
CHAPTER V
THE POLITICAL DIMENSION INDEX
5.1 Participation/ Representation
5.1.1 Representation on the central committees of political parties
5.1.2 Representation of the broader social/identity groups on the Council of Ministers
5.1.3 Representation in the National Bureaucracy
5.2 Voice and agency
5.3 The Political Dimension
5.4 Conclusion
CHAPTER VI
THE CULTURAL DIMENSION INDEX
6.1 Language
6.2 Religion
6.3 Customary governance
6.4 Cultural Dimensional Index (CDI)
6.5 Conclusion
CHAPTER VII
THE GENDER DIMENSION INDEX
7.1 Non-Violence Index
7.1.1 Non-violence against women
7.1.2 Control over the decision to marry
7.1.3 Control over reproductive decisions
7.1.4 Gender Non-violence Index by broader social group
7.2 Access to Social Services
7.2.1 Gender parity in school enrolment (up to secondary level)
7.2.2 Opportunities for private schooling
7.2.3 Access to Social Services
7.3 Economic autonomy
7.3.1 Land Ownership
7.3.2 Economic Control
7.3.3 Economic Autonomy Index by broader social group
7.4 Participation and Decision Making
7.4.1 Women in professional and technical / skilled job
7.4.2 Political Participation
7.4.3 Representation in the national bureaucracy
7.4.4 Participation and Decision- Making Index by broader social group
7.5 Gender Dimension Index
7.6 Conclusion
CHAPTER VIII
THE SOCIAL COHESION INDEX
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Social Sphere Index (SSI)
8.2.1 Entry into a private house
8.2.2 Entry into religious places
8.2.3 Permitted to participate in the life of the community
8.2.4 Social Sphere Index (SSI)

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8.3 Social Respect and Identity Index (SRII)
8.4 Social Cohesion Dimension Index (SCDI)
8.5 Conclusion
CHAPTER IX
THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX
9.1 Social Dimension Index
9.2 Economic Dimension Index
9.3 Political Dimension Index
9.4 Cultural Dimension Index
9.5 Gender Dimension Index
9.6 Social Cohesion Index
9.7 Nepal Multidimensional Social Inclusion Index (NSII)
9.8 Nepal Multidimensional Social Inclusion Index (NSII) by Broader Social Group
9.9 Conclusion
Annex-1: Definitions of the indicators used in the various dimensions of inclusion
Annex-2 Computation of Indices
Annex 3: Computation of political inclusion index for proportional share
Annex4: Data sources by indicators used in the various dimensions.
Annex 5: Categorization of caste/ethnic groups
References

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6: Mean (percent) and Index of Standard of Living by caste/ethnic group Table 4.6: Social Dimension Index by caste/ethnic groups Table 4.4: Non-poverty mean (percent) and Index by caste/ethnic group Table 4.1: Representation onthe central committees of political parties by broader caste/ ethnic group Table 5.3: Non-poverty mean (percent) and Index by broader social group Table 4.2: Representation on central committees of political parties by caste/ethnic group Table 5.6: Customary Governance Index by caste/ethnic group Table 6.5: Social Dimension Index and domain indices by broader social group Table 3.2: Education Domain: mean (percent) and index scores by broader social group Education Domain: distribution of mean (percent) and index scores by caste / ethnic group Table 3.1: Table 3.5: Mean (percent) and Index of Standard of Living by broader social group Table 4.8: Cultural Dimensional Index by caste/ethnic group 10 10 14 14 17 18 21 22 25 25 28 29 32 32 36 37 39 40 43 43 46 47 49 50 54 54 57 57 60 61 63 64 .9: The Political Dimension Index and other related indices by broader social group Table 5.4: Recognition of Religion Index by caste/ethnic group Table 6.3: Representation on the Council of Ministers by broader social group Table 5.2: Economic Access Index by caste/ethnic group Table 4.5: Customary Governance Index by broader social group Table 6.5: Representation in the national bureaucracy by broader group Table 5.8: Economic Dimension Index by caste/ethnic group Table 5.10: The Political Dimension Index and other related indices by caste/ethnic group Table 6.4: Representation on the Council of Ministers by caste/ethnic group Table 5.8: Percentage of respondents who reported their knowledge on current political/ public issues by caste/ethnicity Table 5.2: Language Domain Index by caste/ethnic group Table 6.4: Health Domain: mean (percent) and index scores for health indicators by caste / ethnic group Table 3.7: Cultural Dimensional Index by broader social group Table 6.7: Distribution of Economic Index by Broader Social Groups Table 4.3: Health Domain: mean (percent) and index scores for health indicators by broader caste/ethnic group Table 3.List of Tables Table 3.1: Economic Access Index by broader social group Table 4.3: Recognition of Religion Index by broader social group Table 6.6: Representation in the national bureaucracy by caste/ethnicity Table 5.7: Percentage of respondents reporting their knowledge on current political/ public issues by broader group Table 5.1 Language Domain Index by broader social group Table 6.

6: Table 9.2: Sexuality and gender based non-violence index by caste/ethnic group Gender non-violence index by broader caste/ethnic group Non-discrimination in social services index by caste/ethnic group Non-discrimination in social services index by broader social group Economic autonomy index by caste/ethnic group Economic autonomy index by broad social group Political Participation and Decision Making index by caste/ethnic group Political Participation and Decision Making index by broad social group Gender Dimension Index by broader social group GenderDimension Index by caste/ethnic group Social Sphere Index by its components by broader social group Social Sphere Index by caste/ethnic group Mean and Index of identity and recognition by broader social group Identity/Recognition Index by caste/ethnic group Social Cohesion Dimension index (social sphere and identity/ recognition index) and non-discrimination dimension index by broader social group Social Cohesion Dimension Index by caste/ethnic group Dimensional and Composite Social Inclusion Index by ethnic group Dimensional and Composite Social Inclusion Index by Broader ethnic group 68 71 72 75 76 79 80 83 83 84 88 89 92 92 96 96 107 111 .1: Table 7.5: Table 7.6: Table 7.3: Table 8.7: Table 7.10: Table 8.5: Table 8.1: Table 8.3: Table 7.1: Table 9.2: Table 8.8: Table 7.Table 7.2: Table 7.4: Table 7.4: Table 8.9: Table 7.

List of Figures Figure 1: Top and Bottom Ten Social Groups in Social Dimensional Index among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups Figure 2: Top and Bottom Ten Social Groups in Economic Dimensional Index among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups Figure 3: Top and Bottom Ten Social Groups in Political Dimensional Index among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups Figure 4: Top and Bottom Ten Social Groups in Cultural Dimensional Index among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups Figure 5: Top and Bottom Ten Social Groups in Gender Dimensional Index among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups Figure 6: Top and Bottom Ten Social Groups in Social Cohesion Dimensional Index among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups Figure 7: Top and Bottom Ten Social Groups in Nepal Multiimensional Social Inclusion Index among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 .

Acronyms & Abbreviations CDI EDI EDI GDI HDI HDR HI NHDR NSII NSIS PDI SCDI SDI SRII SSI = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Culture Dimension Index Education Domain Index Economic Dimension Index Gender Dimension Index Human Development Index Human Development Report Health Domain Index National Human Development Report Nepal Social Inclusion Index Nepal Social Inclusion Survey Political Dimension Index Social Cohesion Dimension Index Social Dimension Index Social Respect and Identity Index Social Sphere Index .

In case of overall inclusion index. The NSII has a number of built in indices which can be used as policy tool in a specific domains. However.Overview Social inclusion is a process towards human development which has emerged as policy tools geared towards people centered development. exceptionally. However. The distribution of the six dimensional indices and one social inclusion index across the 97 ethnic groups of Nepal is unequal. This inequality. The NSII is a composite index of six dimensional indices obtained from their respective domain indices. In contrast. class. Tarai Brahman/Chhetri and Hill Janajati are at the top most positions. Particularly caste/ ethnic groups belonging to Madhesi Dalits and Tarai other castes are lagging behind in most of the dimensions. caste/ethnic groups belonging to Madhesi Dalits and Madhesi other castes rank in bottom ten positions. gender and social cohesion/solidarity. race. Madhesi Dalits and Hill Dalits have low index scores in nearly all of the dimensions. political. Tarai Brahman/Chhetri. in the overall social inclusion index the inequality between top most and bottom most is close to 2:1. However. economic. This study aims to address the gap through development of Nepal Multidimensional Social Inclusion Index (NSII). The distribution of dimensional inclusion indices across 97 caste/ethnic groups shows that caste/ ethnic groups belonging to Hill Brahman/Chhetri. social. differs from one dimension to another and one caste/ethnic group to another indicating that none of the caste/ethnic group dominates in all dimensions. caste/ethnic groups belonging to Hill Janajati in cultural and political dimension and those belonging to Dalits in cohesion dimension are at the bottom. It goes beyond socio-cultural and economic aspects covering political. appear at the top position. The social inclusion debate in Nepal focuses heavily on caste and ethnicity issues. Until the publication of the NSII. including in the overall social inclusion index. In overall NSII. Hill Brahman/ Chhetri. Hill Janajati and Tarai other caste are leading in most of the dimensions. The NSII encompasses six different dimensions. . There are total 16 domains in six dimensions which cover 39 different indicators. Dalits belonging to Hill Dalit in cultural and gender dimensions. on the bases of recent definitions and concepts developed by UNDP and present context of Nepal. Newar. gender and social cohesion dimensions as the latter three need to place people in position to shape their life in the way they desire and so value each other equally irrespective of their caste. religion and so on. The distribution of index values among the broader social groups shows that Hill Brahmans. region. Tarai Brahman/Chhetris and Hill Chhetris experience higher levels of inclusion (including overall social inclusion) than the other groups. cultural. there was no index to reflect levels of social inclusion among the caste/ethnic groups. ethnicity. gender. The inequality between the top most and bottom most is highest (100:1) in political dimension and lowest (2:1) in cultural dimension. however.

social and cultural life. is a multidimensional index of development that recently highlighted issues of sustainability and equity by adding an inequality dimension in 2010 (Human Development Report 2011).” As highlighted by the Australian government. and presents a multidimensional approach to social inclusion that is relevant to Nepal. mean years of schooling (years). and survival mechanisms. belonging and social integration that cannot be defined independently of context” (Silver. 1. The 2007 report on Ghana. 2010). Social inclusion further ensures INTRODUCTION 1 . A recent report on Kosovo. medium.1 Introduction Social inclusion is the process of ensuring the fullest participation of all individuals in all spheres of life. and have developed visions and plans to realize this goal. is one in which all Australians feel valued and have the opportunity to participate fully. Many of the human development reports generated by UNDP focus on an individual country.1 Social Inclusion Many countries in the world today are committed to creating an inclusive society. unequal gender relations. It also highlights the approaches commonly used to measure social inclusion and human development. disability. for example. In Australia. Major components of the Index are life expectancy at birth (years). human rights and citizenship. first developed in 1990.UNDP’s Human Development Index (HDI). poverty and economic exclusion. citing examples of experience from Nepal and around the world. and to enjoy a standard of living and well being that is considered normal in the society in which they live”. The importance of developing the Nepal Social Inclusion Index (NSII) in order to fully understand the state of social inclusion and exclusion in the country is also covered.”The report discusses exclusion and makes reference to insecure livelihoods. the government states that. limited access to public goods and services. This chapter begins with an introduction to the concept of social inclusion. (NHDR-2007). political relations. weak coping strategies. high. geographic disparity. formal educational status. resource degradation. 187 countries are ranked and categorized as having a very high. “a vision of a socially inclusive society. this enables researchers to examine the question of inclusion from a human development perspective. gender-based exclusion. expected years of schooling (years). social inclusion can only be fully understood “if it is related to a particular vision of membership. health status. cultural norms of discrimination. and gross national income per capita (GNI-PI). age related exclusion. or low HDI. (NHDR 2010) defines social inclusion as a “process which ensures that those at risk of poverty and social exclusion gain the opportunities and resources necessary to participate fully in economic. describes a number of indicators under the heading “towards a more inclusive society.

based on foundational values like social justice (fair distribution of inclusion and resources). create conditions for them to live with dignity and fulfill their basic needs and it is also a state of society ‘where all people are given opportunity to participate fully in political. In order to define social inclusion in the context of Nepal. Major concerns highlighted include economic exclusion and exclusion in the labor market. 2011:24). who lack recognition and status in society and have limited opportunities for educational or vocational training. Redress. Reference should also be made to the EU’s definition of social inclusion mentioned earlier. is not simply a reversal of social exclusion in terms of status. There are a number of elements in the process such as participation and involvement that have intrinsic value. NHDR (2007) on Bosnia and Herzegovina discusses social inclusion based primarily on Human Development Indices. access to health care services. Some Ghanaian cultural norms also identify physical disability as a factor that excludes someone from becoming a tribal chief. multidimensional disadvantage inherently experienced by large sections of Nepali society is the prime concern of social inclusion in Nepal. This notion is clearly reflected in Nepal’s Social Inclusion Index (NSII) project. and the world at large. These dimensions are seen as interrelated and mutually reinforcing. It reports on the relationship between social inclusion and human development. The report highlights how discrimination—deliberate or otherwise— affects Kosovo’s socio-economic balance and political processes. a Regional Human Development Report. The notion of inclusion is relative to the notion of exclusion. It involves both amiliorative and tranformative measures. In order to move from exclusion to inclusion. ‘Social inclusion’ as emphasized by Saloojee (cited in Labonte et al. municipality. recognizes human development as the purpose of development. reference can be made to studies and research carried out in other countries. Social inclusion. and indicates social inclusion as an important process for removing the obstacles that prevent people from realizing their capabilities. valuing diversity (recognition and respect. opportunities for choice. social exclusion involves economic. 2011) ‘is the political response to exclusion’ and ‘is about advocacy and transformation’. society. reduction and elimination of cumulative. HDR-Ghana (2007) describes some progressive efforts made to move from exclusion to inclusion. It is assumed that actions. it may not apply to all common people. It is a proactive approach to value all people and groups. clear conceptualization is required. therefore. and spatial exclusion. social. It also affects the achievement of policy goals oriented towards the demands and standards of the European Union. A classic example of the multidimensional manifestation of social exclusion is the case of People with Disabilities. It also offers a road map for policy implementation aimed at the achievement of higher levels of human development. valuing all contributions). their differences are respected and their basic needs are met. civic and economic life because they feel valued. would lead to or improve social inclusion (Shookner 2000:2-3). entitlements to rights and services and working together (common interests and relations. NHDRKosovo (2010) conceptualizes social exclusion as a process/state of being excluded from the life of community. access to education. and highlights the Human Social Exclusion Index (HSEI) developed for the Bosnia-Herzegovina context as away to examine inclusion from the opposite angle. However. A multidimensional concept. Beyond Transitions (2011).that citizens participate in decision-making that affects their lives. so they can live in dignity’ (Labonte et al. 2 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . basis for action). cultural. and exclusion from political participation. and guarantees them access to fundamental rights.

has fueled various types of discrimination including spatial segregation. Even though legal structures may be in place. Changes in such values and beliefs are the drivers of social inclusion that lead to the creation of more inclusive societies. It is not possible to break down such barriers with government intervention alone. for example. such as barriers to participation and access to resources and opportunities. This can be done by accelerating the drivers that favor inclusion – ensuring that legal structures and enabling policies are in place. Addressing such cultural deprivations is intrinsic to the social inclusion process. This entrenched and persistent male domination has created a huge social barrier for women wishing to exercise their fundamental human rights. The second step is to eliminate exclusion risk factors and to change attitudes. Similarly important is the political dimension which provides opportunities to create interventions that change values. the cultural dimension is pivotal. In Nepal. focuses on the development of the Nepal Social Inclusion Index (NSII) as one of the most important pre-requisites for assessing levels of inclusion in the country in terms of caste/ethnicity. This indicates a low level of social cohesion. the right to a mother-tongue education ceased to be upheld. policies need to be actively implemented in order to cultivate solidarity.2 Nepal Social Inclusion Index The Nepal Social Inclusion Index represents the first attempt to define and measure social inclusion in Nepal. This research therefore. for example. The first is removing barriers in the wider sense. counteract entrenched social prejudices. and to measure social inclusion in the broader context. Although the social and economic dimensions of social inclusion are important and widely used measures.Achieving social inclusion requires at least two distinct steps. The belief that Dalit people are “untouchable”. Gender discrimination is another striking feature of Nepali society. Beliefs and values of this kind restrict the freedom of groups to practice their own culture without the risk of exclusion. undertaken bythe Central Department of Sociology/ Anthropology. NSII adds new dimensions essential to understanding inclusion in the context of Nepal. 1. The interaction between the dimensions can create better or worse lives. and measuring levels of inclusion across different social groups. and also interlinked. when Nepali was imposed as the country’s single language. The Social Inclusion Atlas and Ethnographic Profile (SIA-EP) research project. and encourage the participation of individuals facing barriers to inclusion. Tribhuvan University. Micro-level interactions that promote social harmony and integration. as can other elements which help to change attitudes to what is accepted as “normal”. equally relevant. that promote a society where diversity is considered an asset. attempts to define social inclusion using a multidimensional approach. If issues of cultural freedom are not addressed. For example. can also help to speed the process. with men continuing to dominate the socio-economic sphere. This study INTRODUCTION 3 . the number of options and opportunities available to people decreases. All of dimensions of inclusion discussed here are equally important. making the gender dimension all the more relevant to the social inclusion context. However. The patriarchal value system is the root cause of female subordination and social exclusion in the country. there is a great deal of discrimination based on socially constructed values and beliefs which prevents some groups from performing certain activities or from participating in the public arena. The way in which the study defines and measures social inclusion is influenced by other index-based research including UNDP’s Human Development Index.

HDR (2007)-Ghana and NHDR (2010)-Kosovo conceptualized the cultural norms of discrimination and spatial exclusion. changes in value systems that reduce or eliminate social exclusion are also viewed as the drivers of social inclusion. and gender equity as the drivers of the social inclusion process. for example. This rationale has led to the development of this multidimensional social inclusion index that reflects the current inclusion status of the many and varied caste/ethnic groups of Nepal. and cultural dimensions.views political participation. In this study. The social. They could also be considered as indicators of empowerment. The NSII is one of the core components of Nepal Social Inclusion Atlas (SIA) and Ethnographic Profile (EP) Research Project. Indicators for the political. and the Asian Development Bank presented an overview of gender equality and social inclusion in Nepal in its 2010 study. To measure social inclusion in Nepal. Four of these – political. and values. although other studies have featured indicators for some of the dimensions. keeping in mind that the unique sociocultural situation in the country may include additional dimensions of inclusion that in turn may determine/influence the indicators of social inclusion. economic. social cohesion. social cohesion and gender dimensions therefore.are relatively new. and allowing widows to remarry. gender and social cohesion . This research examines these issues in the Nepali context. this is the first time that they have all featured in a single index. Examples of changes in value systems that promote social inclusion include allowing Dalits to enter temples. cultural. are indicators of the drivers of social inclusion in terms of policy. Past EU’s studies have focused on the cultural dimension. institutions. 4 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . six major dimensions of inclusion were identified. on the other hand. have been used to evaluate the inclusion process and to assess the extent to which exclusion risk factors have been eliminated. In addition.

It also provides a base for subsequent refinements to the index in terms of both approach and coverage. health and sanitation facilities necessary for people to lead healthy lives and to communicate effectively in the society in which they live. literacy. This index measures only the current state of inclusion in Nepal. for example. education and health for example. once viewed the exclusion of girls from educational opportunities as normal. secondary and tertiary levels. 2. Following a brief description of the six dimensions (social. the gross enrolment rate at basic. net enrolment rate and basic education completion rate. it provides a baseline that can be used by future studies to assess progress over time. A number of sub-dimensions are also introduced. any index measurements should capture the dynamic nature of social inclusion processes. there was no index to reflect levels of social inclusion among the many caste/ethnic groups. The social dimension examines the level of basic education. the affordability of health services. are domains of the social dimension. new forms of deprivation or privilege may emerge and norms and values change. 2. This study addresses that gap. political. economic. across levels of development. METHODOLOGY 5 . and across time. while today it is viewed as a form of deprivation. As a society moves forward.2 Methodology This chapter begins with a definition of social inclusion that encompasses multiple dimensions. cultural. are indicators for the education domain. access to safe drinking water. and privilege in the form of inclusion vary across local contexts. gender and social cohesion). There are one or more indicators linked to each domain. child mortality. domains and indicators relevant to measuring the level of social inclusion in Nepal. Until the publication of the NSII.1. Indicators defined and measured under the domains of education and health are adult literacy. for example. Deprivation in the form of exclusion. it explains how indicators defined under each dimension were measured. Ideally. and access to modern toilet facilities.1 Introduction The social inclusion / exclusion debate in Nepal focuses heavily on caste and ethnicity issues.1 The Social Dimension Health and education play a vital role in human development as they have a direct impact on the quality of life. access to basic schooling. People in rural Nepal. This chapter further describes methods used to compute the sub-dimensional indices as well as the composite Nepal Social Inclusion Index (NSII). As the first index of its kind.

Survival depends on an individual’s ability to access and perform economic activities. social organizations. Inclusion in economic terms means equal access to the resources and employment opportunities needed to achieve a reasonable standard of living. Nepal has already learned a lesson from the armed insurgency of 19962005 that successfully garnered the support of traditionally excluded groups like Janajatis. Madhesis and women. 2. Chronic exclusion from access to state power is likely to push the excluded groups. beliefs and values. Dalits. the absence of religious discrimination at state level (ensuring equal privileges. The major domains identified under the economic dimension are economic opportunity. uneven development. facilities. food sufficiency.In order to measure these. Culture is inherited and is transmitted from one generation to the next. housing conditions. artifacts. customary governance and religion.1. Major domains that fall under this dimension are language. representation in the national bureaucracy (2013 list). providing a structured set of social conditions for living manifested in the form of arts. representation of social groups on the Council of Ministers from 1991onwards. In the Nepal context. absence of poverty. The index uses 10 key indicators to highlight the main areas of gender disparity and inequality. share of food and non-food expenditure. non-agricultural activities. The key indicators used to assess levels of social inclusion in the political dimension are: representation on the central committee of political parties (the composition of the central committees of the political parties represented in the 2008 constituent assembly). and social unrest. and commonly held ideas. Key indicators include access to basic education in the mother-tongue. dwelling space per person.1. donations etc. recognition of the principles of religious equality at the local level. experience elsewhere shows that political inclusion helps to de-radicalize political groups and to provide opportunities. elementary occupations. the inequitable distribution of resources. and standard of living.2. Conversely. linguistic barriers to access to local government services. Political exclusion is also associated with social conflict. These indicators fall under one of four domains: 6 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .1. the following nine indicators were defined: agricultural landholding.3 The Political Dimension It is widely accepted that political exclusion leads to social disparity. indicators for this dimension seek to measure women’s status within the existing system of patriarchal values. but also determines his or her standard of living. access to commercial fuel for cooking.1. and opportunities to practice customary governance.2 The Economic Dimension Survival is a fundamental human right. and access to electricity. The type of economic activity not only demarcatesan individual’s access to other resources and opportunities. Culture develops over the long-term during the course of its efforts to enhance standards of living and fulfill human needs. towards radicalism which either paralyzes the state apparatus or overthrows the exclusionary regime. and access to power and services (voice and agency).5 The Gender Dimension The gender dimension of social inclusion looks at issues that shape male/female relationships within specific value systems. 2. 2.). if mobilized.4 The Cultural Dimension Culture is the social heritage created by society through generations of practice.

the participation of women in the decision to marry. A full score (or inclusion achieved) is represented by 1. control over the body. and the participation of women in reproductive decisions. Indicators relating specifically to social cohesion include: entry to private houses denied. The optimum level of social inclusion in most of the indicators is 100. with the concept being “untouchable”. public spaces and facilities not shared. For example. as six of the dimensions are included in a composite index. Some groups may score more than 100 percent in terms of proportional share. The determination of the relative weighting for each indicator in order to produce a dimensional index requires deeper investigation. was applied at each stage of aggregation (i. if a reference group represents 10 percent of the total population and occupies 10 METHODOLOGY 7 . land ownership. Other values occur between 0 and 1. economic autonomy. the representation of women on the central working committees of political parties.• • • • Access to public services (primarily educational opportunities) Economic autonomy Participation and decision making in public life Sexuality. It also facilitates valid comparisons over time. and gender based violence The ten indicators are: gender parity in school enrolment. discrimination in schooling. The goal is to overcome these problems during progress monitoring through proportional representation. these in turn reflect the status of an individual in the society in which he or she lives. therefore. and finally to dimensional indices in order to obtain a composite social inclusion index).2 Computation of the Nepal Social Inclusion Index The NSII and its component indices (one per dimension) document the current state of social inclusion in the country. see annex 2. Fixing the maximum threshold at 1 is likely to cause some practical problems. place of origin or color of skin/race and so on. Social cohesion is measured using a composite index which uses domains and indicators from all of other dimensions. the representation of women in the state bureaucracy. For additional details about computation methods.e. this study attempts measurement based on the individual perceptions of respondents. the second definition refers to discriminatory practices that occur due to prevailing social values and norms. resulting in a full inclusion score of 1. this is also regarded as full achievement against the given indicator. for example. sex.6 The Social Cohesion/ Solidarity Dimension The notion of social cohesion/solidarity is connected to the concepts of human dignity and respect.1. 2. to indicator indices in order to compute domain indices. entry to religious places denied. however. The social cohesion dimension defines discrimination in two ways: the first definition includes the bigotry and verbal abuse associated. 2. Although the measurement and indexing of social cohesion poses a number of difficult empirical challenges. and cultural identity not acknowledged or respected. violence against women. This is achieved if any group receives a 100 percent score against each indicator. to domain indices in order to arrive at dimensional indices. Equal weighting. Social cohesion typically refers to an absence of discrimination on the basis of caste/ethnicity. the number of women with professional or technical jobs.

The NSII seeks to give equal importance to all caste/ethnic groups. providing readers with the information needed to make an independent analysis. (and this is considered the maximum threshold with 0 as the minimum). However. the index for those achieving 1 reduces to 0. regardless of their size and type. 8 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . The broader social groups described here consist of many caste/ethnic groups.2 (For more details see annex 3. such tampering with the threshold has serious drawbacks and may heavily penalize those groups with an index of 1. The goal of social inclusion in the political dimension is to achieve proportional representation in all organs of state.percent of the positions in the sector under consideration. Taking the example of a broader group that comprises 24 caste/ethnic groups with a population share of 10 percent and 10 percent of the seats in the constituent assembly. if calculated directly. if there is an over representation of 5. it has a proportional share of 1 resulting in an index score of 1. This can lead to over-representation which suggests that thresholds should be fixed using maximum and minimum scores. if only one of the sub-groups holds all of the seats. it is the least problematic of possible approaches. so therefore broader group indices are calculated using the method described above. Although this does not allow differentiation between those who have achieved scores of one and more than one. An achievable value goal of one for the proportional share is set for all reference categories used by this study.) For this reason. rather the group index is the mean of the indices of the sub-groups that fall under the broader group. For example. For this reason. a common value is attached to all who have achieved the natural threshold of a maximum of 1 in terms of proportional share. the index of the broader group. leads to a situation where the remaining 23 sub-groups do not exist. in the NSII. broader groups are not approached as single categories.

7846) and Newars (0. This means that more than half of the population has not completed basic education.2. It is lowest among Tarai Dalits (0.4) to achieve full adult literacy. Tarai Dalits (0. 3.2.2. followed by Hill Brahmans (0. Hill Brahmans have the highest score (0.4227) in second place.1).1). The national average is only 0. SOCIAL DIMENSION INDEX 9 . The index is highest for Tarai Brahman/Chhetris (0.0948).2 Education Index (EI) Education index is composed of the adult literacy index. followed by Newars (0. and the index of completion of basic education. and Muslims (0.7649).8406).4939) have the lowest index scores indicating that these groups are a long way off achieving 100% enrolment at the different levels of education.8065) who are closely followed by TaraiBrahman/Chhetris.2194 (Table 3.25 indicate that less than a quarter of the total population of the group has completed basic education. Scores are lowest for Hill Dalits (0. There are five groups that have index scores below the national average. Hill Dalits.3 Basic Schooling Index (BSI) This index measures completion of basic schooling (grades 1 – 8).1 Adult Literacy Index (ALI) The adult literacy rate is defined as the percentage of the population aged 15 years and above who can read and write (in any language).4711) and Tarai Dalits (0. Tarai Janajatis. 3.2 Net Enrolment Index (NEI) The index of net enrollment at all levels of education shows a national average of 0.4449) with Hill Brahmans (0. The index is highest among TaraiBrahman/Chhetris (0.3 Social Dimension Index 3. The overall index of adult literacy for Nepal is 0.8005).1087).2312). 3. Index scores of less than 0. other Tarai castes.1). Muslims (0.5957 (Table 3.and TaraiDalits.7107 (Table 3. 3. This indicates that Nepal has a long way to go (approximately 0. These groups include Muslims. the index of net enrollment at all levels of education.0920).1 Introduction The social dimension index is computed as a composite index of two domain indices: the education index and the health and sanitation index.

1 0.8065 82. Table 3. Hill Dalits and other Tarai castes also have index scores of below the national average.6450 0.7788 84.7873 77.7213 71.4227 24.4 0.7090 72.6765 78.7 0.2 0.1 0.9 0.2 0. the net enrollment index.3113.7 0.Table 3.6838 66.6826 0.5551 .8274 67.2488 45.5603 0.3113 0.7681 70.5086.4 0.4 0.9 0.2707 38.8 0.2395 24.8406 83.5961 0.4 0.3 0.7847 76.3 0.7941 75.7 0.3 0.0 0.9 0.7682 76.4716 0.4294 0.6024 0.8375 79.7084 47.3525 21.4227 43.3637 27.6710 0.2.6544 0.8 0. Table 3.0920 9.4 0.4939 80.3884 25.1: EducaƟon Domain: mean (percent) and index scoresby broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri Tarai Brahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Adult Literacy Rate Mean Index 78. and Newars (0.8 0.7796 59.4 Educational Domain Index (EDI) Education domain index is a composite of the adult literacy index.N Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 10 KAYASTHA MARWADI HILL BRAHMAN THAKALI TARAI BRAHMAN RAJPUT NEWARII DURA LEPCHA THAKURI LIMBU RAI GURUNG CHHETRI BANIYA Adult Literacy Rate Mean Index 86.7748 78.6805).8 0.0948 36.7049 0.8134 77. Tarai Janajatis.6408 67.5957 Net Enrolment Rate Mean Index 84.9 0.6873 68.4711 72.9 0.6631 67.5631 0.9 0.5 0.2068 9.2408 24.1 0.7 0.4 0.1817 16.0 0.4 0.1 0.7740 76.0 0.5 0.0 0.2417 24.5 0.6152 54.3 0.6721 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Net Enrolment Rate Mean Index 81.1 0.7335 0.7107 Basic Schooling Completion Rate Mean Index 42.5406 35.8644 86.Tarai Dalits are in bottom position with an index of 0.1 0.8406 76.2 0.4303 36.1 0.2487 29.4680 42.6635 80.1 0.6826 0.3 0.5227 46.7012 Basic Schooling Completion Rate Mean Index 52.5086 3.6178 0.6805 0.4 0.1 0.8005 45.2312 76.1087 35.6814 69.4 0.9 0.4309 43.8 0.8678 78.3637 18.4326 0.7232 70.5 0.1 0.4 0.5067 0.6826)closely followed Tarai Brahman/Chhetris (0.2194 Educational Domain Index 0.6 0.9 0.3 0.9 0.1 0.4 0.5673 0.0 0.2529 23.4 0.5730 0.7913 64.6 0.6811 0.7649 61.7846 77.5 0.1659 10.8 0.5641 0.6450 0.7687 79.7 0.2733 while Muslims have an index of 0.5180 23.1 0.6 0.1 0.8 0.8 0.2 0.6942 68.3543 78.1 shows that Hill Brahmans have the highest EI scores (0.3 0.7846 66.7232 68. All three of these groups are far ahead of the national average of 0.4315 43.5 0.2733 0.7640 76.7649 70.5600 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.6783 49. and the basic education completion rate index.6 0.1 0.8 0.2 0.3 0.8065 72.6450).7588 80.2921 Educational Domain Index 0.4499 20.1 0.2: EducaƟon Domain: distribuƟon of mean (percent) and index scores by caste / ethnicity S.4502 51.7641 76.

0 0.0 0.6973 60.0 0.4831 46.6 0.5481 46.1523 18.6 0.2 0.7058 71.3 0.4335 0.1 0.7 0.6 0..1269 19.4860 0.4793 0.2960 24.6928 76.7 0.5383 48.7031 74.3 0.0935 Educational Domain Index 0.0850 14.6 0.2138 17.7491 70.5 0.4797 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.5904 54.8 0.2 0.6021 65.5380 54.2 0.7 0.6058 51.6071 63.8 0.7 0.1 0.4 0.6450 57.1 0.2028 27.7461 77.6235 59.5192 46.2778 15.1664 16.2071 11.5929 53.7615 71.9 0.2570 25.1681 7.4979 0.4312 SOCIAL DIMENSION INDEX 11 .7 0.6227 65.4354 0.4 0.9 0.5388 46.3 0.4545 0.1546 16.7 0.6048 56.7428 74.5123 0.5395 0.5193 0.5705 60.5433 0.4 0.7792 74.4327 0.3 0.6413 62.2697 12.4 0.1 0.5461 0.1 0.0 0.2527 19.8 0.8 0.2 0.5528 48.3 0.1859 20.6980 72.N Caste/Ethnicity 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 KALWAR DHIMAL SUDHI SANYASI CHHANTYAL JIREL HALUWAI PUNJABI/SIKH MAGAR WALUNG GHARTI/BHUJEL HAYU MECHE DARAI RAJBANSI TELI HYOLMO SUNUWAR BYANGSI YAKKHA THARU SHERPA BANGALI BARAE GANGAI KOCHE KAMAR BRAHMU/BARAMU TAMANG GAINE SONAR KOIRI KUMAL DANUWAR TAJPURIYA KANU BADI BADHAE YADAV KAMI Adult Literacy Rate Mean Index 63.5519 0.4 0.6 0.6826 68.0733 21.8 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.6704 58.6999 62.2060 15.6 0.7 0.6868 71.3 0.0 0.4460 0.3 0.4617 53.5188 Net Enrolment Rate Mean Index 72.5827 60.5444 59.7342 82.6269 47.5051 60.5051 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6261 64.6399 67.8 0.4 0.5241 0.7 0.6 0.5259 0.6392 62.6245 67.7480 73.2236 9.3001 29.7114 69.7372 71.3 0.4220 51. S..7655 68.4843 0.2355 29.8 0.6080 68.0 0.7 0.4566 0.6 0.5 0.4607 0.9 0.4405 0.8 0.6 0.7230 69.2 0.2928 23.7171 60.1445 7.4492 0.8 0.1804 27.1 0.1981 18.1269 30.4625 0.2418 21.5 0.9 0.4656 0.1 0.6793 68.2011 25.0 0.1957 25.6525 68.0 0.6811 Basic Schooling Completion Rate Mean Index 29.5242 0.7162 70.3 0.6571 64.2098 22.6875 68.5 0.1205 21.7 0.1684 20.4940 0.0738 21.2183 12.5634 57.2504 12.7238 77.7 0.9 0.4331 0.5209 0.6840 62.4 0.6310 76.0 0.7155 74.5182 0.9 0.6 0..7 0.5110 0.8 0.6848 70.4796 54.7747 67.5 0.3 0.4760 0.5733 62..6074 50.5 0.4715 55.6081 62.5 0.Cont.4666 42.2102 20.8208 69.6 0.1 0.4442 0.9 0.0 0.1 0.4513 0.0 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.4650 53.4858 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.6747 76.8 0.3 0.5459 0.4634 0.5989 64.8 0.2 0.8 0.2913 8.5377 60.7630 73.6270 59.7 0.3 0.4972 0.5016 0.1743 27.5406 60.4 0.8 0.5315 53.1 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.2719 20.4612 53.1171 16.1 0.

4928 0. HARIJAN.3176 0.4756 46.4 0.8 0.4927 0.4 0.3729 38.0814 0.2855 27.4626 34.5589 50.6449 60.7 0.3857 0.3 55.4 0.1301 12.2 0.4 0.0 0.5086 62..1227 14.1 0.6 31.2236 0.1004 10.3822 0.4010 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.3892 0.4070 43.9 0.6 0.0 6.4642 49.8 0.5988 62.7 0.4016 0.1810 13.8 41.4023 0.0 0.6526 63.6891 63.9 0.3038 0.0 0.5282 10.1 0.1 23.7 52.2636 42.0 0.6287 60.3918 0.3036 0.0731 19.7 0.2 0.4726 46.8 0.9 0.4954 0.3489 0.9 0.2 0.3100 0.0824 0.4251 0.4877 0.1134 0.5 0.4044 38.3969 0.2 0.4 31.1752 8.6395 62.0000 6.3113 0.3 26.3795 0.0943 12.6654 65. S.4 0.3 0.4231 0.5675 61.8 0.5910 64.6 0.0221 0.7 0.2361 49.3 0.3779 0.6217 59.0967 13.0661 9.5722 60.7 0.3885 48.5 0.3 0.6055 62.4104 0.5 0.1 0.6 0.6193 50.9 0.4711 0.2 0.6099 57.4 0.3454 0.1310 0.5 24.9 0.4346 42.5 48.6207 61.4985 47.0 0.6 0.3964 0.5035 Basic Schooling Completion Rate Mean Index 9.3699 0.1955 18.3804 0.8 0.4 0..1 49.6 46.2511 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .0818 10.N Caste/Ethnicity 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 12 DAMAI/DHOLI BHOTE HAJAM/THAKUR SARKI MAJHI KISAN BOTE KURMI PAHARI LOHAR RAJI DHANUK KUMHAR NURANG BHEDIYAR/GADERI MALI DHAGAR/JHAGAR KEWAT THAMI MUNDA RAJBHAR SANTHAL/SATAR DHOBI KAHAR BANTAR TATMA PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA MUSLIM CHEPANG (PRAJA) LODHA KHATWE HALKHOR CHAMAR.0108 Educational Domain Index 0.5028 40.0899 0.8 0.1 0.0938 12.0 11.5736 57.1231 13.2803 0.9 0.4 0.1764 24.6200 63.1135 0.4273 45.9 0.0 54.4024 37.3 0.3344 37.1 0.6 0.3736 37.1386 9.2 0.0599 0.3968 0.3 8.1785 17.3 0.1445 3.4 0.2615 49.0 8.4 39.2460 47..3 50.3909 0.6372 56.1208 17.3718 40.1 11.1 0.6359 63.8 0.0 24.1 0.3 0.5498 0.7 22.1 0.3859 40.0 0.5 0.0000 0.1074 7.4513 37.5462 0.5035 9.4 0.1303 1.4601 50.3483 33.3 0.0 0.3471 0.3 0.3481 0.6 0.9 2.2 4. RAM MALLAH DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI RAUTE NUNIYA DHUNIA Adult Literacy Rate Mean Index 52.5750 63.2844 0.2 0.6 0.4 13.3654 0.0 0.2634 0.0 0.Cont.3138 26.6 0.3 0.6 0.4292 0.1254 17.6 0.5 0.2705 0.2441 13.0319 0.5 0.5057 46.4263 0.3779 31.4818 47.6 0.2 0.7 0.6328 59.3543 0.3 0.1476 12.3139 35.3802 0.3003 0.3516 0.4040 0.1087 0.6359 68.2844 34.2969 0.4672 0.6044 55..9 0.5283 50.4273 Net Enrolment Rate Mean Index 66.0441 0.8 0.3168 0.2427 0.1391 14.4 0.6005 57.4 0.

.3. and Chamar/Harijan/Ram).3 0.0 0. Muslims (0.2162 0.5 Health Domain Index (HI) The health domain index comprises indices for health service affordability..3.2778 12.3 0.Cont.3.9 0.2654 71.5 0.. and Chhetris (Table 3. Rautes also feature in the bottom ten.0 0.3.0531 21.3 Health and Sanitation Index (HSI) The health and sanitation domain index is composed of the health service affordability index. Nuniya and Mallah.0555).1233 13. Doms and Musahars followed by Chidimars.1729 27.7107 Basic Schooling Completion Rate Mean Index 7. 3.9211). Chidimar.7511).5086 Kayasthas and Marwadis top the education index followed by Hill Brahmans. child survival.0268 5. The Kayastha. The bottom ten are mostly Tarai Dalit groups (including the Dom.2).3 0.1 0. and Thakuri groups. Tarai Brahman. Muslims. 3. Dhuniya.1 Health Service Affordability Index (HSAI) The health service affordability index is highest for Newars (0. the child survival index. Thakalis and Tarai Brahmans. Marwadi.4059 36.7 0.0 0.7237) have the lowest scores. Musahar. along with some Mountain/Hill Janajati groups including Thakali.2132 0. followed by Tarai Brahmans (0. Rajput.2194 Educational Domain Index 0.3294 26. 3. Dusadh/Paswan/Pasi. Newars and Hill Dalits have the highest scores (around 0.2 0. Newari.6776) and Hill Dalits (0. feature in the top ten of the education domain index (Table 3. The national average score of 0.3.1599 0. The safe drinking water index is lowest for Tarai Dalits.6996) (Table 3.2 Child Survival Index (CSI) The index for infant mortality has been transformed here into the child survival index. Dura.N Caste/Ethnicity 94 95 96 97 BING/BINDA CHIDIMAR MUSAHAR DOM Total Adult Literacy Rate Mean Index 17. Hill Brahman. This indicates that the majority of households from these groups have access to safe drinking water. the access to safe drinking water index and the access to modern toilet facilities index. 3.8 0. followed by Hill Brahmans (0. The index is lowest for Tarai Dalits (0. S.3).9 0.6 0.5957 Net Enrolment Rate Mean Index 40.3).6045).1303 59. and other Tarai castes also have low scores. Tarai Janajatis and Mountain/Hill Janajatis including Muslims are lower than the national average (0.4).5473). Index scores for Hill Dalits. and other Tarai caste groups including the Bin. although these are way above the score for Tarai Dalits.1496 0.8989) (Table 3.4). and Lepcha. Newars have SOCIAL DIMENSION INDEX 13 . Hill Brahmans. 3.3620 32.0698 0. Bins and Dhuniyas have the lowest scores. safe drinking water and modern toilet facilities.5632 means that Nepal is less than half way to achieving universal access to health services and sanitation.3 Safe Drinking Water Index (SDWI) The safe drinking water index shows that Hill Janajatis. Tarai Janajatis..6 0.6) (Table 3.0000 2. 3. “Others” have the highest score (0.4 Modern Toilet Index (MTI) Newars have the highest index score (0. followed by other Tarai castes.

3062 Tarai Dalit 56.7172 77.8188 16.7 0.4: Health Domain: mean (percent) and index scores for health indicators by caste /ethnic group S.the highest domain index score (0.6938 70.3 0. The bottom ten includes the Tajpuriya.6 0.5799 19. In addition.6448 75.6 0.8684 64.4883 TaraiBrahman/Chhetri 53.0 0.5179 20. the Dhobi.8989 16.4172 Health domain Index 0. Gurung.5706 18.4905 Tarai Other Caste 57.6996 Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri 55. Tarai Dalitsscore lowest (0.3 0.6776 18.9211 58.6377 53.9276 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX HH using safe HH using Health water modern toilet domain Mean Index Mean Index Index 76.6319 65.5537 18.4719 7.9 0.6488 40.2 0.9 0.7 0.8289 59.8553 47.2 0.5337 10.1 0.4 0.4 0.8080 20.6283 0. Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 THAKALI NEWARI CHHANTYAL GURUNG HILL BRAHMAN MARWADI GHARTI/BHUJEL DARAI BOTE HYOLMO 14 Health service Child affordability survival Mean Index Mean Index 52.5917 3.8 0. Yelhmo.4375 0.4778 41.8 0.5928 17.2 0.6201 67.5540 11.5 0.6087).4002 0.1612 49.2076 23.7237 61.6524 37.7774 53.2 0.5211 0.6448 75. Table 3. and Bantar groups also feature in the bottom ten.5642 19.6780 40.4 0.7945 64.1 0.6 0.2 0.4467 0.4 0.3927).8 0.2 0.1799 20. Bhehihar/Gadehi.0 0.7172). N.1 0.5390 19. and Nuniya groups.7 0.6108 0. Dom Chamar/ Harijan/Ram.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 0. Gharti/Bhujel.9474 60.5472 7.5214 27.8816 59.9211 24.5733 70.6793 57.5747 48.6771 27.4001 0. Muslims and other Tarai castes have a similar index to Tarai Dalits.8103 14.1 0.5733 70.5 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.2472 67.5 0.6194 .9 0.8 0.6996 0.5357 32.8 0.3 0. and Madwari. Looking at individual groups.6758 Total 54.1 0.8816 57.8684 54.4 0. Khatwe.4 0.1 0.5632 Table 3.9 0.5926 0. Darai and Bote) (Table 3.7 0.8092 55.1664 19.0555 Newari 60.6559 65.3: Health Domain: mean (percent) and index scores for health indicators by broad caste/ ethnic group Caste/Ethnicity Health Child Household Household service survival access to safe access to modern affordability water toilet facilities Index Mean Index Mean Index Mean Index Mean 55.4 0.9605 60.2 0.7907 0.1 0.2073 Others 59.0 0. Newari.0 0.1 0.6 0.3 0.4093 Tarai Janajati 53. Hill Brahman.2 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.2717 80.2 0. Lodha.5296 0.9 0.8684 59.4).8 0.0 0.7685 79.2 0.7172 0.7 0.1 0. Gangai.6 0.9 0.5976 14.5540 11.1 0.7 0.6556 42.6 0.5273 5.8 0.8 0. in addition to Thakali.3927 0.5325 57.6045 13. some other Mountain/Hill Janajati groups feature in the top ten for this domain index (Chhantyal.5414 0.2 0.7 0.2322 Muslim 53.0 0.6144 30.3752 0.7511 0.1 0.5473 18.0 0.1410 5.4 0.8180 57.7511 Mountain/Hill Janajati 51.5 0.7997 0.0 0.1 0.7585 64.5990 7.8 0.6059 13.4209 0.5733 0.6771 0.1942 Hill Dalit 52.9 0.6087 0. closely followed by Hill Brahmans (0.6045 13.8106 47.6771) and Hill Chhetris (0.5 0.6998 62.9 0.

0 0.8 0.6 0.1 0.2392 0.5248 55.3 0.9 0.4618 0.1 0.3309 0...5 0.3 0.5500 64.8 0.Cont.3595 0.2712 0.2 0.7632 54.1 0.0 0.8882 53.0 0.1 0.6472 32.8224 57.6286 44.5320 59.1 0.5534 9.4837 15.7 0.0 0.7303 58.7 0.5991 74.5366 19.9 0.5525 29.9 0.9 0.2 0.8224 54.7763 52.2958 0.7 0.5609 63.5 0.4838 43.3077 29.5371 57.9 0.6374 39.1 0.1 0.4 0.5566 68.5298 10.2 0.9 0.7895 54.8 0.4406 0.5071 0.5 0.5559 26.8 0.7 0.3216 37.3414 0.6016 0.5441 4.4 0.3 0.6241 17.2 0.9 0.6162 74.4938 0.5748 36.7 0.5556 30.2 0.3 0.5561 22.2952 0..5 0.5407 57.5067 12.1 0.4814 SOCIAL DIMENSION INDEX 15 .5 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.5816 62.5291 30.3 0.6369 14.7086 56.2974 0.5195 62.5 0.8 0.3030 0.4 0.8947 51.5472 17.3145 0.6129 23.1 0.2425 50.3823 0.8224 47.2883 0.5249 18. N.5 0.1851 42.5200 35.7368 44.1 0.6211 33.5000 27.5358 20.3 0.7 0.0 0.9 0.7697 58.9013 63.0 0.7 0.2076 0.3634 0.0 0.5054 0.8 0.5924 7.3014 0.3 0.8553 50.7 0. Caste/Ethnicity 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 BYANGSI SHERPA DURA SANYASI CHHETRI PAHARI TAMANG GAINE THAKURI RAI SUNUWAR MAGAR KAYASTHA KISAN PUNJABI/SIKH MAJHI KUMAL SARKI LIMBU YAKKHA DAMAI/DHOLI BADI JIREL KAMAR BANGALI RAJPUT KAMI BRAHMU/BARAMU BANIYA KALWAR BHOTE DANUWAR THAMI HALUWAI DHIMAL BRAHMAN – TARAI HAYU LEPCHA NURANG TELI Health service Child affordability survival Mean Index Mean Index 51.2 0.4946 37.1612 44.6776 51.4 0.6486 22.4 0.5 0.6056 30.3 0.5429 57.5345 12.3 0.3 0.5938 67.6974 54.7 0.6134 52.3570 20.5182 76.7 0.6908 55.2 0.0 0.7 0.2 0.4218 0.5299 61.4545 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.1 0.5779 49.7481 36.3 0.8 0.1944 45.6061 57.5778 7.3884 0.5109 27.3782 20.4 0.2 0.2 0.9205 HH using safe HH using Health water modern toilet domain Mean Index Mean Index Index 77.5152 11.5352 30.4 0.8 0.1228 50.8750 55.6 0.6974 51.0 0.8026 53.5843 9.5739 24.8 0.7434 50.9539 53.8 0.1 0.5 0.2248 0.6 0.5 0.5385 21.8 0.5 0.2 0.3946 0.2 0.7 0.8 0.6754 38.1581 27.1767 38.6 0.5916 63.2045 60.5181 31.5161 28.0 0.7 0.4911 30.0 0.9 0.4350 0.6068 17.8947 55.8092 55.8 0.4333 27.3606 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.3195 0.5262 19.5616 10.9 0.5658 55.5686 7.9 0.6 0.6808 31.6099 53.5 0.5813 25.5785 20.2043 0.8 0.2024 0.3775 0.6234 0.7434 56.5616 46.1 0.2630 0.6 0.4 0.0 0.9079 62.7437 31.3 0.6 0.5495 60.9211 54.2 0.9 0.8 0.5383 43.2012 0.4487 0.5470 32.1 0.5898 56.7734 28.5503 64.4 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.7171 58.7303 59.7 0.7 0.3 0.6153 34.2 0.5548 23.0 0.5088 19.4 0.5535 29.0 0.4737 10.5000 23.6250 55.6 0.5801 26.5 0.4404 13.2784 0.4 0.5 0.8026 60.8 0.5075 0.8092 50.5066 32.9 0.3180 0.5533 25.5788 43.5493 9.4 0.8684 52.6842 51.. S.5000 13.5801 62.9205 52.3 0.2 0.5982 30.8684 50.5545 19.7623 20.7 0.2 0.5745 55.5098 37.5180 17.5217 29.2036 50.8 0.5 0.5429 43.8 0.5043 16.5248 19.5776 20.4297 0.7 0.5 0.8947 53.5620 55.9 0.3 0.5878 61.6334 36.9079 50.2 0.

7 14. N.4114 0.8618 0.6 14.8 0.3 8.0 14.8 12.0514 0.4776 39.7697 14.9 14.1480 0.8 0.0 42.5231 0.4 0.1 25.4 0.3 20.2903 0.8 8.4132 0.8882 0..7697 0.0400 0.7697 59.0 0.0 0.2197 0.2552 23.7 5.4378 0.5 56.4409 0.1610 0.9 21.8 15.1450 37.2 0.4 20.1078 0.1399 0.7566 0.0433 0.2217 25.4193 0.4702 29.8 7.2 15.2910 17.4065 0.1666 0.0384 0.2470 0.1402 0.4251 0.5294 0.8039 HH using safe HH using Health water modern toilet domain Mean Index Mean Index Index 62.7 16.7500 58.8882 0.2 53.6 0.0830 0.4136 0.9 50.3 25.3 0.9 20.1715 0.4492 0.0 14.2556 0.8158 0.2248 0.4565 50.8 16.8355 15.5484 19.7697 0.5 4.2388 0.3 0.4634 40.8 64.7829 0.6542 13.8 25.5 0.1 23.7500 64.8 8.3 16.7 60.9013 0.7500 0.3 0.1 0.4 15.5776 0.4258 0.7 0.1513 0.8 23.1300 0.0 56.5410 16.0 10.7171 0.1799 0.1382 0.6 25.1628 0.Cont.1596 16.4380 0.6513 54.0 15.2 22.2054 0.6457 25.5488 25.1871 0.3735 0.2500 0.8344 0.8 17.4 0.1237 0.2073 0.0881 0.8 55.8684 54.1416 0.5000 0.7 0.5 50.4667 34.5200 15.1761 0.0760 0.0 7.8 8.3893 0.0 18.3 53.0 11.7 25.0 16.1 24.8 0.4 0.0 63.6463 15.1047 0.4657 22.2 0.3 28.5352 0.4 0.3892 0.8224 0.5 0.4736 14.1424 0.5829 8.2 19.0 56.3945 0.0 13.4337 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.1524 0.3 13.4011 0.4027 52.4001 0.5 15.8 0.5000 0.1436 0.7 10.7 0.2933 0.2868 0.2554 0.8421 64.0862 0.2 3.4081 0.5 0.5684 0.0 18.5299 0.5425 23.4 62.2562 0.6 0.7 17.1434 30.1014 0.5175 11.2 10..8026 0.4305 0.5000 0.6 0.6438 13.4327 0.1430 0.4918 0.6272 0.9 0.4 14.0 55.6 17.4 0.8355 54.6207 17.0 14.9605 0.1 23.0 0.0 0.4 0.9 0.3051 0.9 11.3890 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .1711 0.5 11.3892 0.6000 0.8487 0.2 14. S.4596 16.6 17.8 47.0 0.9 49.0805 0.0 50.6 7.5943 25.4114 0.7881 0.9145 52.5 10.2 7.6 0.5469 0.1 0.4755 10.8 52.4066 0.6 50.1500 0.5547 0.1767 0.0 0.1 13.5597 0. Caste/Ethnicity 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 RAUTE CHEPANG (PRAJA) KOCHE MECHE SUDHI LOHAR THARU RAJBHAR HALKHOR KOIRI PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA SONAR RAJI KANU KEWAT BADHAE RAJBANSI HAJAM/THAKUR KAHAR KURMI YADAV MALI KUMHAR CHIDIMAR DHANUK TATMA DHAGAR/JHAGAR SANTHAL/SATAR BARAE DHUNIA MUNDA DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI BING/BINDA MUSLIM MUSAHAR MALLAH WALUNG BHEDIYAR/GADERI BANTAR 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 16 Health service Child affordability survival Mean Index Mean Index 36.0 0.7 52.5357 0.6390 0.1160 0.7 29.1 22.0 22.2084 0.4 23.0776 0.9 0.4195 0.6 54.4270 0.7 9.2329 0.8882 0.1393 0.5 17.0 19.0782 0.6776 0.1 28.1 0.7500 54.2269 24.5041 0.5679 0.0 51.2133 0.4038 13.3600 23.2277 0.0 53.5200 0..0 0.5000 0.3 0.3 21.4779 0.1571 0.7500 0.8 56.8 0.8421 0.1343 0.9 52.5676 0.1487 0.8 18.0 57.8026 0.1038 29.5263 0.2 32.4582 22.4 0.7 21.5 0.1 0.1 15.7 3.4799 65.8947 0.5496 0.1 0.8487 0..4286 0.1568 0.7671 46.7895 0.6 12.3901 21.2 0.4626 25.0733 0.1440 0.0775 0.1246 4.4041 0.3 0.3 7.8289 0.1719 0.0 0.0 14.

4294 0.5414 0.0850 0. Table 3..5 3.6087 0. HARIJAN. Caste/Ethnicity 90 91 DHOBI CHAMAR.6).4375 0.3513 0.0389 0. Hill Janajati. Table 3.7961 0.0502 0.5 shows the SDI along with the two domain indices.7 47.6645 0.3698 0.6 0. The SDI measures human capability in terms of the two factors that impact on the overall quality of life – health and education.9 7.4778 13.5200 23.6711 0.1 45.6811 0.6974 0.1342 0.1345 0.4001 0. Newars.5067 0.Cont. Among the 11 broader social groups.4756 0.3687 0.4571 0. In addition.2 0.5: Social Dimension Index and domain indices by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Educational Domain Index Health Domain Index Social Dimension Index Others 0.7632 17. Tarai Dalits have the lowest index score (0. indicating that Nepal has a fairly long way to go to achieve universal access to health and education.5632 0.5217 0. Newari..6 20.9 54.1883 0.3805 0. The national average for the SDI is 0.4326 0.8 0.6008 0. the highest social dimension index can be found among the Thakalis (0.8106 18.2733 0. N.0 61.9 0. S.4762 13.5497 0.3724 0.6108 0.5 2.3557 0.5359 Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Looking at individual caste/ethnic groups.5845 0.4 41.7 0. Rajputs.1725 9.4467 0. TaraiBrahman/Chhetri.3290 0.4889 0.4716 0.. five score below and six (Hill Brahman.4592 0. Newars have the highest index score (0.5926 0.9 33.8 13.3330 0.4 Social Dimension Index (SDI) The SDI is a composite of two domain indices: education and health/sanitation.9 0.4 18.6805 0. Kayasthas. Of the six.5211 0.4 23. RAM TAJPURIYA NUNIYA LODHA DOM KHATWE GANGAI Total 92 93 94 95 96 97 Health service Child HH using safe HH using Health affordability survival water modern toilet domain Index Mean Index Mean Index Mean Index Mean Index 52.0 0.3 0.3113 0.6143 0.6799 0.4172 0.6826 0.3865 47.3754 0.1362 0. Hill Brahmans..6 47.0 0.9 5.4 32. Gurung.1421 4.5632 3.4854 0.3 32.6 8.6 52.3819 50.1140 0.3927 0.2 22.5473 30.8609 14.2 48.0794 0.8 13. and Chantel) feature SOCIAL DIMENSION INDEX 17 .7198)(table 3.5359.8 0.7 0.0261 0.5000 0. Marwadis.0902 0.0482 0.3330).7763 0.4350 0. Hill Chhetri and Others) score above the national average.6178 Total 0.1281 0.6450 0.7 0.5603 0. Tarai Brahmans and some Mountain/Hill Janajatis (including Dura.9 12.6115 0.5086 0.6811) with Hill Brahmans in second place.7172 0. which is far below the national average.6771 0.0 11.7682 0.

5551 0.6377 0.5685 0.6938 0.6024 0.5795 0.5492 0.7049 0.6: Social Dimension and domain Index by caste/ethnic groups S.5433 0.6201 0.6212 0.5242 0. and some other Tarai caste groups such as Bin.5745 0.6771 0.7198 0.5384 0.6061 0. Chamar/Harijan/Ram.5511 0.6194 0.5804 0.5801 0.5586 0.5816 0.5051 0.6804 0.6799 0.6559 0.6811 0.5182 0.6450 0.5730 0. Some Janajatis have higher indices while others have lower indices.6826 0.5673 0.5222 0.5961 0.5252 0.4545 0.5395 0.N.4940 0.6811 0. Table 3.5776 0.5241 0.6166 0.TARAI THAKURI CHHETRI GHARTI/BHUJEL SANYASI RAI DARAI LIMBU HYOLMO BYANGSI MAGAR SHERPA PUNJABI/SIKH BANIYA LEPCHA KALWAR SUNUWAR JIREL DHIMAL TAMANG GAINE YAKKHA HALUWAI BOTE SUDHI Educational Domain Index 0.4972 0.4566 0.6099 0. In contrast.5878 0.6319 0.5108 0.4702 Social Dimension Index 0.7335 0.5459 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Health Domain Index 0.5898 0. Chidimar and Khatwe. Hill Brahmans and Newars have the best social dimension indices while Tarai Dalits have the worst.5519 0.6544 0.in the top ten.4797 0.5315 0.5249 0.6540 0.5043 0. lodha.5400 0.5495 0.7585 0.5828 0. most Tarai Dalit groups such as Dom.4858 0.6134 0.5154 0.5177 0.6061 0.5371 0.5747 0.5583 0.5209 0.4860 0.5620 0.5461 0.5631 0.7172 0.5371 0. Mallah. Musahar.5241 0.6162 0.5991 0.5400 0.4946 0.5932 0.5779 0.5066 0.5080 .6793 0.5320 0.5248 0.4016 0.6710 0.5259 0.5465 0. and Nuniya feature in the bottom ten.5641 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 18 Caste/Ethnicity THAKALI NEWARI MARWADI HILL BRAHMAN KAYASTHA GURUNG CHHANTYAL DURA RAJPUT BRAHMAN .5728 0.5600 0. In summary.5431 0. Dhuniya .5500 0.4838 0.5916 0.

5609 0.5503 0.4327 0.4378 0.4814 0.4991 0.4335 0.4331 0.5069 0.4367 0.4657 0.3968 0.4755 0.4732 0.4132 0.3779 0.5938 0.3795 0.4258 0.5016 0.N.3892 0.4292 0.5299 0.4582 0.4843 0.5407 0.4812 0.4867 0.3958 0.4231 0.4354 0.4134 0.4695 0.5180 0.4251 0.3802 0.4824 0.4736 0.4656 0.5017 0.5739 0.4289 0.5358 0.4347 0.4105 0. S.5429 0.4881 0.4738 0.4502 0.4634 0.5193 0.5200 0.4405 0.3909 0.4911 0.3969 0.4066 0.3513 0.4871 0.4195 0.4442 0.4626 0..3038 Health Domain Index 0.4305 0.4492 0.5013 0.3918 0.4140 0.4953 0.5345 0.4513 0.3654 0.5123 0.4861 0.4278 0..3804 0.4010 0.4634 0.4776 Social Dimension Index 0.4607 0..3999 0.4492 0.4337 0.4085 0.4543 0.5182 0.4114 0.4312 0.5262 0.4671 0.4263 0.Cont.4087 0.4334 0.4409 0.4460 0.4312 0.4043 0.5566 0.4935 0.4251 0.4023 0.4923 0.4021 0.3907 SOCIAL DIMENSION INDEX 19 ..4760 0.4413 0.3857 0.4793 0.3892 0. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 Caste/Ethnicity BANGALI HAYU KUMAL KAMAR PAHARI BRAHMU/BARAMU MECHE TELI KISAN BADI SARKI DAMAI/DHOLI MAJHI DANUWAR KAMI THARU BHOTE KOCHE RAJBANSI WALUNG KOIRI SONAR THAMI BARAE KANU NURANG BADHAE LOHAR YADAV HAJAM/THAKUR RAJI RAJBHAR KURMI TAJPURIYA KEWAT GANGAI KUMHAR DHANUK MALI DHAGAR/JHAGAR CHEPANG (PRAJA) Educational Domain Index 0.4164 0.4897 0.4327 0.5110 0.4380 0.4837 0.4625 0.3805 0.4040 0.4537 0.4805 0.4193 0.4979 0.4480 0.

3819 0.3368 0.3139 Health Domain Index 0.6826 among Hill Brahman in education domain index.7585 among Thakali in health domain index and 0.2855 0.Cont.4065 0.3870 0.3087 0. 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Caste/Ethnicity KAHAR MUNDA BHEDIYAR/GADERI PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA RAUTE SANTHAL/SATAR HALKHOR BANTAR DHOBI TATMA MUSLIM DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI LODHA MALLAH KHATWE CHAMAR.3435 0.3687 0.5086 0.3481 0.2969 0.3380 0. level of social inclusion of various caste/ethnic group in different indicators of social dimension varies from one indicator to another and one caste/ethnic group to another.N..3557 0.3516 0.5 Conclusion The overall domain indices under social dimension are fairly low.3782 0.3699 0.3890 0.3698 0.3471 0.2132 0. RAM DHUNIA NUNIYA CHIDIMAR BING/BINDA MUSAHAR DOM Total Educational Domain Index 0. 20 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .2844 0.4011 0.4027 0.2597 0. about half of the full inclusion index.2844 0.4596 0.4799 0. HARIJAN.3489 0.2772 0.3288 0. it varies ranging from 0.3003 0. S.3516 among Gangai to 0.4136 0. Thus.3113 0.4081 0.2162 0.3857 0.3945 0.4041 0.2597 among Dom to 0.3337 0.5632 0.4565 Social Dimension Index 0.4114 0..2634 0...5359 3.4001 0.3892 0.4270 0.1599 0.3724 0.3134 0.3798 0.3194 0.3865 0.7198 among Thakali in social dimension index.3852 0.3876 0.3893 0. However.3036 0.1496 among Dom to 0.3345 0.3680 0.2803 0. 0.3677 0.1496 0.3822 0.3645 0.3176 0.3754 0.3801 0.2511 0.

5 0. non-poverty.7 0.3434 28. and standards of living.3141 0. encompasses both access to land and to non-agricultural employment. therefore.4695 0.3073 0.3098 0.3304 0.1 Economic Opportunity Economic inclusion implies that people have access to resources of production and are able to fully participate in the labor market.6048 0.4 0.4223 0.6121 0. followed by the other Tarai castes.4110 0. Domain indices are presented in this section along with the economic dimension index which presents a mean of the domain indices.Employment in the agriculture sector in Nepal is.6057 30.3702 33. 4.1895 0. Tarai Janajatis and “Others” (which includes Punjabis/Sikhs.1: Economic Access Index by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Average Landholding Non-Agriculture Employment Economic Access Index Index Mean (ha.3750 0.) Index Mean (%) 0.4115 42.3517 0.4 0.3337 0.5800 0. is considered as one of proxies of better employment opportunity.3290 0.7 0.3671 0.3803 0.2 0.4 ECONOMIC DIMENSION INDEX The economic dimension comprises three domains that deal with access toeconomic opportunity.6651 33.2 0. The percentage of the population involved in non-agricultural activities was. Table 4.3554 0.3476 27.2719 0.1486 61.5 0.1822 0.2469 0.5799 0.1951 74.4 0. The non-agricultural economic activity of the population of the working age.2153 0.2310 0.6056 60.1569 30. Hill and Tarai Dalit groups both have similar scores which are lower than those of the other broader groups.3033 0.3051 0. by and large.4977 0.6039 0. on the other hand. average landholding rates are used as evidence of access toproductive resources.6317 0.7440 0.2226 0. subsistence employment.4545 0. Land is also considered to be one of the essential productive assets in the rural agrarian economy. The aggregate index of economic access ranks TaraiBrahman/ Chhetris the highest.3173 41.3 0.1866 30.2 0. Economic opportunity as defined here. Bengalis and Marwadis) also have higher levels of economic access. chosen as an indicator of employment opportunity.2848 0.3519 ECONOMIC DIMENSION INDEX 21 .4169 0.4169 0.0 0.

This may be attributed to relatively larger landholdings and better prospects for non-agricultural employment among these groups.6164 0.5654 0.4973 58.4169 0. with Tarai caste groups having higher levels of economic access. Thami.4583 0. Chamar/Harijan/Ram.4790 0. and Mushar.2178 0.4944 0.7356 0.6909 0. Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 RAJPUT YADAV BRAHMAN .4614 0.2661 0.0 0. Kurmi.9 0.2878 0.6671 0.3754 0.5447 0.4534 0. Kisan.3 0.8 0.0913 0.2633 76.5826 37.6322 17.6475 29. Brahmu.2437 0.7 0.2426 60.4 0.4115 42.5721 0. There is a great deal of variation.5697 45. Bing/Banda.4414 0.4914 0. The bottom ten groups have almost no economic access.5314 45.4731 0.7177 0. Gangai. Yadav.1 0.1 0. Kamar.4093 47.2172 0.9231 1. These include Kami.6037 0.0 0.4110 0.4369 0.6001 0.2 0.5 0.5153 0.7208 18.4792 0.7846 30.6 0.4638 0.4104 0.1 0.4214 0.3513 0.6 0.5486 0.3414 48.6635 29.2913 0.4921 55. Raji.5672 0.4514 0.4716 0.3500 0.8228 55.5323 0.4223 0. The top ten groups in rank order (starting with the highest score) are Rajput.4906 0.4722 43.TARAI GANGAI TELI KURMI KALWAR PUNJABI/SIKH KAMAR KAYASTHA NURANG SUDHI LEPCHA KOIRI RAJBANSI BHEDIYAR/GADERI BANIYA TAJPURIYA BARAE THARU LODHA BADHAE MARWADI SANTHAL/SATAR BANGALI KANU KOCHE HALUWAI MUSLIM HAJAM/THAKUR KUMHAR DOM BYANGSI 22 Average Landholding Non-Agriculture Employment Economic Access Index Index Mean (ha.1 0.3 0.4812 56.8782 26.8 0.2640 0.4052 0.8 0.7 0.4989 0.7258 36.4398 0.7689 0. Khatwe. N.6330 36. Dushad.5778 0.4413 0. and Kayastha. Punjabi/Sikh.The Economic Access Domain Index for all caste and ethnic groups derives from average landholding and non-agricultural employment index scores.6221 0.5151 0.1 0.4694 35.7663 0.7640 21.4091 0. Kalwar.2192 66.3 0.6 0.4134 0.3 0.2950 0.8205 0.3151 0.3013 66.4857 0.5590 0.4551 0.1709 0.) Index Mean (%) 0.5437 0.4842 0.0000 21.5140 0.5 0.6845 0.5890 29.4854 0.5 0.4694 0.6801 0.7331 25.5598 0.4811 0. Teli.4016 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .4239 0.1280 0.6084 0.2: Economic Access Index by caste/ethnic group S.5242 0.4704 0.0863 82.7668 0.5236 0.4 0.2820 0.5 0.7 0. Table 4.5827 0.6634 0.4545 0.1894 0.7 0.5400 0.7 0.2556 0.9 0. Tarai Brahman.0441 76.5550 0.6030 0.3029 0.6909 0.2939 0.5120 0.8171 0.6541 56.3648 0.6303 0.6089 0.5 0.3 0.2699 57.3635 0.5627 0.5509 47.

2974 0.3425 0.5819 0.3610 0.3640 29.5223 0.3294 0.4607 0.3816 0.3904 0.4546 0.3171 0.2816 0.4702 0.4658 22.3082 0.3085 0.2388 0.0508 63.4840 15.3718 0.2951 0.3243 0.3136 0.3571 0.3221 0.1148 0.Cont.0711 52..4583 0.3016 0.3970 0.3458 28.3265 0.4043 0.4617 31.5395 14.2965 0.2966 0.2985 30.9 0.2209 0.0403 75.7 0.3204 47.0971 0.3366 0.3752 0.3144 27.2737 44.3279 0.4087 27.3890 0.3538 0..2783 34.4038 26.5065 0.3954 27.3155 0.3490 0.1067 63.2943 0.3685 0.4 0.6368 0.3434 0.9 0.3843 0.4169 0.4332 0.3613 0.6 0.2729 0.3828 0.3540 28.3721 0.2694 0.3702 0.3587 0.3791 31.3368 0.4713 27.2904 0.3613 0.3001 0.2781 0.3050 0.3783 0.2992 0.3878 0.1 0.7 0.3019 0.7524 0.2764 0.3544 23.0880 0.3318 0.2 0.2 0.3410 0.2917 0.2801 0.2880 0.4716 25.0 0.3189 0.3448 0.2564 0.3489 0.4515 0.9 0.2511 0.3596 0.6311 0.5231 0.3803 0.4119 0.4370 27.3620 0.2785 0.3525 36.4086 0.3200 0.7 0.2971 0.3127 0.1822 0.3671 0.9 0.1457 0.3953 0.2771 0.2829 0.3646 29.2895 ECONOMIC DIMENSION INDEX 23 .3605 0.1 0.9 0.3514 41.3613 0.0 0.9 0.8 0.3957 0. S.2950 0.2 0.4489 0.2 0.2622 50.7 0.1995 0.6121 0.3 0. N.2852 0.2 0.3040 0.3939 33.1 0.3140 0.3173 41.2 0.3964 0.4581 32.5 0.3444 0.1685 58.2 0.2539 32.3697 0. Caste/Ethnicity 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 HALKHOR MECHE LIMBU SHERPA RAUTE DHIMAL NEWARI KAHAR SONAR SUNUWAR THAKALI HILL BRAHMAN BHOTE KEWAT BANTAR DHUNIA HYOLMO DHANUK WALUNG YAKKHA DHOBI CHIDIMAR RAJBHAR RAI MUNDA DHAGAR/JHAGAR DANUWAR HAYU SANYASI CHHETRI MALI TAMANG TATMA DARAI THAKURI GAINE MAGAR GHARTI/BHUJEL KUMAL MALLAH MAJHI Average Landholding Non-Agriculture Employment Economic Access Index Index Mean (ha.3354 28.0 0.2956 29.4 0.3101 0.4632 0.4 0.) Index Mean (%) 0.2930 0.1486 61.0 0.4741 0.5 0.2934 30.1565 0.4687 28.1494 0.2911 0..3203 0.3251 0.6 0.0 0.3119 28.3 0.5 0.2862 30.2811 0..6 0.9 0.3879 25.3300 0.9 0.3 0.8 0.3290 0.2738 0.4631 0.

Hill Brahmans have the highest index score of 0.8 32.2697 0.2401 0.2 28.2507 0.1557 0.2632 0.2830 0. This means that Hill Brahmans are in a better position as regards food consumption.2185 0.4224 0.2181 0.2203 0.2768 0.9235.1708 0.2406 0.1993 0. Tarai Dalits are in last place with an index of 0.8 0. S.1550 41.) Index Mean (%) 0.3216 0.9 20.1575 0.8 0.2266 0.2953 0. The aggregate non-poverty index is presented in the table below..0 22.2194 0.1502 0.2384 0.2132 0. HARIJAN.2 24.2622 0.3337 0.2785 0. It is a general assumption that of the more spent on food consumption as a proportion of total household expenditure.2978 0.2396 0.2573 0. food sufficiency and elementary occupations than any of the other groups.3201 0.1725 0. Newars and Hill Chhetris rank second and third respectively.2794 0.2048 0.3803.1502 0.2790 0.Cont.1487 15.3519 4. N.4 0.2386 0.2 Non-poverty The results of a poverty head count computed using the cost of basic necessities reveal that one in every four Nepalis is poor.2711 0.4 21.2 0.2981 0...2711 0.2642 0.0529 0.1836 0.0 32.3085 0.2938 0.1181 0.2705 0. food sufficiency status..2817 0. all of these are proxies of poverty.3291 0.4 26. Among the broader social groups.3006 0.0239 54.1878 0.1355 0.1682 0.3481 0. 24 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .2388 0.2438 0. RAM MUSAHAR Total Average Landholding Non-Agriculture Employment Economic Access Index Index Mean (ha.2327 0.2847 0.2711 0.0737 0.0 32.2025 0. Similarly.2219 0. and employment in an elementary occupation.1374 26. Caste/Ethnicity 75 PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA LOHAR DAMAI/DHOLI BADI DURA NUNIYA PAHARI GURUNG BOTE SARKI JIREL CHEPANG (PRAJA) CHHANTYAL KAMI THAMI RAJI DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI BRAHMU/BARAMU KISAN 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 KHATWE BING/BINDA CHAMAR.2 0.1925 0.2233 0.2048 0.4138 0.2386 0.1781 0.3238 0.2311 0.0 33.8 29. elementary (unskilled) occupations are likely to generate low incomes leading to increased chances of poverty.5421 0.2283 0.4245 0.1719 0.5 17.2797 0.2607 0.2 27.2713 0.0000 0.2149 0.3004 0.2256 0. The poverty level here has been assessed using three indicators: food expenditure as a percentage of total household expenditure. the higher the level of poverty. Higher index values imply a more favorable situation.9 29.8 19.1380 0.2820 0.4 42.7 29.3347 0.2616 0.3392 0.0 13.3702 30.3750 0.1823 0.2902 0.1942 0.2 42.2096 0.2368 0.

Patharkatta/Kuswadia (0.4: Non-poverty mean (percent) and Index by caste/ethnic group S.9 0.7 0.6312 44.9668 77.9 0.3: Non-poverty mean (percent) and Index by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Food Expenditure Mean Index 35.6 0.9211 82.9 0. Byangsis (0.8441 72.1 0.9172 11.7031 42.9204 36.8 0.7642 39.7755 47. Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 THAKALI HILL BRAHMAN MARWADI BYANGSI HYOLMO JIREL KAYASTHA SHERPA NEWARI RAI CHHETRI DARAI BHOTE GHARTI/BHUJEL SANYASI GURUNG DURA Food Expenditure Mean Index 32.5 0.9297 2.Table 4.8529 0.8674 Non-Poverty Index 0.9682 2.N.8271 0.9086).7237 96.9235).8834) and Hyolmos (0.9437 5.7 0.8444 10.0 0.8300 0.6 0.0000 98.8168 56.0 0.3 0. Halkhor (0.4 0.3683 6.8692 0.9079 79.5598 53.9335 4.8397 0.9 0.9 0.4 0.7000 45.4956 64.6970 0.1 0.3 0.8618 78.7938 84.9276 98.7947 44.0 0.3 0. Hill Brahmans (0.7 0.8348 Food Sufficiency Mean Index 99.8834 0.8947 100.9125 4.8052 11.9389 10.7059 Food Sufficiency Mean Index 89.4 0.9079 75.7 0.3221) and Musahar (0.0 0.9350 6.9553 5.8289 86.5 0.9904 Non-Poverty Domain Index 0.2 0.6645 82.3 0.4 0.9164 6.7 0.7797 18. Table 4.5 0.8295 0.6 0.8947 68.9868 90.4 0.7767 41.2 0.4 0.8072 0.8410 7.7000 38.8461 0.7 0.7 0.8510 0.1 0.5 0.9686 0.9 0.7500 67.9925 4.5 0.3803 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.6711 87.7 0.6 0.7178 0.7475 44.8255 ECONOMIC DIMENSION INDEX 25 .6815 89.8593 7.6 0.9868 92.7829 65.2 0.9686).9335 5.0 1. The Chamar/ Harijan/ Ram (0.5369 90.9235 0.7706 Elementary Occupations Mean Index 4.4 0.9934 89.8159 0.1 0.8471 0. Dusadh/ Paswan/ Pasi (0. Marwadis (0.9396 12.6857 51.6 0.8256 0.7 0.8550 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.3256).1 0.0000 35.7450 12.5 0.9 0.0 0.7 0.8617 6.8991 2.6607 54.9 0.9069 40.7741 36.5 0.4689 53.9204 39.1 0.4 0.9682 16.9220 41.8268 45.1 0.2357 44.9235 0.3 0.8664 0.3 0.9 0.1 0.8675 14.6513 Elementary Occupations Mean Index 7.8934 81.7183 41.8471 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.8447 35.8277 0.9553 8.5 0.8224 92.8692).9086 0.6337 0.3263).5 0.0 0.0 1.6709 43.4863 42.5 0.8442 0.1 1.1672) groups have lowest rankings.8750 66.8987 46.5 0.7813 There is significant variation among caste / ethnic groups in the non-poverty domain index.9 0.7 0.3880).5 0.6517 0.0000 10.8457 42. The top five positions are held by Thakalis (0.5296 53.0 0.

4901 55..5 0.4 0.0 0.5456 53.3 0.5740 43.0 0.4 0.5778 49.3 0.5 0.7448 0.0 0.8 0.8289 82.6 0.8553 82.7417 80.5724 90.8 0.7840 7.4 0.3265 50.1 0.7698 0.4 0.7054 0.8750 86.4752 60.1 0. S.8684 87.6504 44.6840 17.3 0.1 0.7427 0.6560 .6581 0.7121 0.0 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.4623 52.7746 0.2 0.8024 0.6118 74.2 0.7 0.2 0.5 0.6842 64. Caste/Ethnicity 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 26 BRAHMAN .6548 49.7316 12.3 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7009 0.8882 80.8392 21.7 0.7 0.8282 13.7829 57.6908 18.8 0.9552 24.4 0.6817 0.7729 0.4 0.6447 93.2469 54.8413 20..9865 12.6908 0.8129 0.8217 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.9013 83.3196 53.7156 0.8402 6.4622 49.8758 5.0 0.8329 12.7474 0.7786 40.5 0.9255 4.9212 16.7697 71.8 0.9539 90.8493 15.9444 5.7756 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5225 46.7829 86.3 0.9 0.9222 5.8578 12.7 0.8159 9.4492 63.5 0.8684 91.2 0.8839 14.6 0.7719 41..7364 41.7987 0.5604 52.3 0.9 0.8631 14.7142 50.9 0.2 0.3 0.5888 60.1 0.6367 51.8618 78.6 0.1 0.2 0.9190 7.8026 92.7642 17.5567 50.4728 60.8004 13.9145 86.9 0.4 0.8026 86.3 0.5132 74.6997 47.8 0.4750 44.4 0.6656 0.2 0.8008 0.8046 13.2 0.7 0.5 0.7415 0.7566 78.2 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.3364 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Food Sufficiency Mean Index 93.7457 0.4971 50.8618 90.8044 48.4 0.6 0.0 0.8 0.3 0.9145 77.6696 54.2 0.8 0.6144 46.7 0.0 0.5000 54.8428 10.7944 0.6951 0.7 0.7632 19.8813 10.2 0.7176 0.8158 88.8026 88.4 0.6823 0.9 0.6838 0.7237 81.9342 87.8 0.1 0.7434 80.9533 11.9342 95.7900 2.N.8212 86.8618 61.8162 19.0 0.7 0.2 0.4358 47.7320 14.8 0.8 0.7720 11.TARAI PAHARI BRAHMU/BARAMU MAGAR SUNUWAR THAKURI CHHANTYAL BANIYA PUNJABI/SIKH TAMANG BANGALI MECHE TELI YADAV KUMAL LODHA BARAE THARU CHEPANG (PRAJA) SUDHI HAYU WALUNG BOTE DHIMAL LEPCHA RAJPUT KALWAR GANGAI DHOBI KANU SONAR MAJHI DANUWAR THAMI HALUWAI KOIRI KAMAR BADHAE DHANUK MALI Food Expenditure Mean Index 46.9501 7.5414 54.6 0.6774 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.5630 54.8220 0.5607 44.0 0.2 0.1 0.6767 0.6900 0.6371 46.6562 0.8750 91.8037 0.Cont.9013 85.7171 68.0 0.2 0.2 0.7021 0.4 0.6581 50.8355 98.3 0.6534 15.8255 13.2 0.6 0.5 0.9803 75.3 0.2 0.5752 51.9079 72.7245 0.8846 12.2 0.8016 9.1 0.7993 0.9211 51.6968 55.3 0.7357 0.8808 Elementary Occupations Mean Index 9.1 0.5252 53..8084 0.7507 Non-Poverty Domain Index 0.7502 0.1 0.1 0.7156 22.8 0.

2 0.7524 15.3 0. RAM DUSADH/PASWAN/PASI HALKHOR Food Expenditure Mean Index 53.7 0.2 0.4083 59.1054 58.2261 67.5526 73.5897 32.5132 83.6579 63.7 0.6284 0.2864 38.8074 12.4825 0.4 0.4341 37.3256 ECONOMIC DIMENSION INDEX 27 .0 0.8779 38.3413 61.6403 4.8 0.7351 57.8 64.9 0.4441 0.3 0.5 0.5063 0.3 0.2 0.6118 75.3433 30.8 0.4439 0.7566 44.7 0.3778 59.2 0.6138 21.9 0.6670 17.9 0.3 53.9098 23.2259 66.8 0.2 0.6352 0.9 0.3 0.6 0.5552 28.0 0.7954 17.8 0.6776 71.6540 23.6379 0.2657 59.6382 65. HARIJAN.5365 47.5085 0.8 0.4 0.7 0.7237 61.8550 7.8 0.9 0.7285 77.4472 0.3 0.6901 9.9 0.4363 36.1536 62.4 0.9 0.7303 55.0 0.6081 0.6593 11.5815 36.7942 28.1 0.1 0.0 0.6382 56.5 0.1 0.4948 0.4613 59..8323 11.4 0.9 0.4600 26.0 0.5 0.8408 19.5522 0.5 0.N.8355 72.4 0.1 0.1 0.5583 0.1 0.7 0.4724 0.4094 65.8 0.2 0.9 0.4340 44.2 0.3322 56.4035 61.7450 14.5789 66.5872 0.2128 69.3990 57.1 0.5395 51.3037 52.4 0.1 0.6250 67.4159 0. S.7632 57.5921 53.6489 0.3104 57.Cont.8 0.0000 62.5616 72.6859 11.8 0.2 0.8527 25.3880 0.9 0.2911 61.7697 55.6517 0.5 0.4 0.2685 0.5395 Elementary Occupations Mean Index 18.9 0.4677 30.8158 25.6 0.6198 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.1192 74.5781 0.4498 0.8487 19.6490 76.6444 0.6645 62.2632 0.0 0.6020 0.2538 64.9 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.7333 15.5987 81.8 0.2566 60.6 0.3552 55.1 0. Caste/Ethnicity 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 MUSLIM KOCHE DAMAI/DHOLI KAMI YAKKHA RAJBANSI HAJAM/THAKUR TAJPURIYA LIMBU RAJBHAR LOHAR KEWAT SARKI KAHAR BHEDIYAR/GADERI KUMHAR MALLAH GAINE KURMI BADI MUNDA DHAGAR/JHAGAR DHUNIA CHIDIMAR RAUTE SANTHAL/SATAR KISAN TATMA RAJI NUNIYA KHATWE BANTAR DOM BING/BINDA NURANG CHAMAR.5193 53.6 0.6089 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.7105 59.4694 0.2215 57.7237 83.6 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3041 54.2 0.1 0.5789 56.0883 54.5526 86.1 0.5624 31.3376 63.6 0.4408 48.6 0.8 0.4863 61.3422 69.8 0.4432 56.2 0..3 0.4 0.7 0.4752 0.7 0.5025 0.4747 60.5573 0.8355 59.4064 70.4739 0.1904 67.6328 0.7 0.7 0..4868 64.4 0.1 0.1 0.6229 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.5089 52.5762 26.7344 12.4456 0.4204 0.6053 63.5251 38.2 0.6 0.7 0..5658 73.2365 Food Sufficiency Mean Index 72.1590 64.9607 22.7655 24.4825 57.8684 57.6063 0.4253 64.4799 0.2 0.3 0.4 53.2008 Non-Poverty Domain Index 0.3263 0.1 0.6238 0.

7024 0.6138) followed by Hill Brahmans (0.45 0.8330 0.5477 16.3157 2.3 83. Hayus and Chidimars have the lowest standards of living scoring 0.1887 Tarai Dalit 11.2638 Total 28.5857 0.2078.3 0.2457 28 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX 34.6132 26.0 0.9 58.2141 15.6 67.5 71.03 0. the Chidimar. Table 4.1708 Others 67.1123 1.4928 3.4 0. Hayu.These four indicators were indexed and then aggregated to obtain the standard of living index.3 0.4486 2.1705 and 0. Newars hold the top position (0.0 0.4704 Mountain/Hill Janajati 21. Among the 97 caste/ethnic groups.5 0..1 10.6 0.9 Mean (bedrooms) 0.6726 Standard of Living Domain Index 0.6981 0.40 0. Chepang. Newari.6 0.1889 2.6028 0. Byansi.0 0.4131 .0000 0. Kamar.2386 0.7813 4.1672 0.1 60.1 0.2296 TaraiBrahman/Chhetri 57. Among the broader social groups.4056 23.7 0.4335 27.3928 0.6 66..3826 0.4 0.5: Mean (percent) and Index of Standard of Living by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Housing conditions Living conditions Access to commercial cooking fuel Access to household electricity Index Mean Index Mean Index Mean Index Hill Brahman 44.2296 Muslim 31.1 44.6914) followed by Marwadis (0.9 0.6411 0.6731 3.6430 0.2802) and have a lower standard of living than any of the other broad groups.1603 Tarai Other Caste 32.6138). Marwardi.5783 2.6 0.1569 26. Kamars.2 0.3944 0. Raute.3 70.5567 Hill Chhetri 26.3 77.2802 2.1 0.8 0.3 Standard of Living Standard of living is assessed using four indicators: type of house.1114 PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA MUSAHAR Total 64.2664 2.4904 23.2189 2.5237).4198 17.1 0. access to household electricity.7706 66.83 0.3 64.6399) and Newars (0.6513 0.17 0. Thami.7 0.0 0.1165 1.8674 Non-Poverty Domain Index 0.4 0.7059 Food Sufficiency Mean Index 15. Hyolmo and Dura.1 0.2737 Tarai Janajati 18.6588 47..66 0.3930 0. the ten with the highest standards of living are the Thakali.9 0.7065 0.2895 0.5 0.4541 24.1 65.0 0.Cont. Musahar. Nuniya and Yakhkha have the lowest standards of living.6649 0.1369 respectively. Raji.7164 0.6 64. S.2 70.4071 0.3 0. Gurung.3410 74.55 0.1 Elementary Occupations Mean Index 21.1406 Hill Dalit 11.6138 0.4 0.N. Baniya.9 0.1515 Newari 49. Kayastha.2802 0.2501 18. 0. use of cooking fuel.49 0.4818 0. Tarai Dalits come in last place (0.82 0.6 0.4589 14. Hill Brahman.57 0.2632 0.5237 0.5666 0.7486 0..3268 2.86 0.93 0. Thakalis have the highest standard of living (0. In contrast. Caste/Ethnicity 96 97 Food Expenditure Mean Index 69.3221 0. and living conditions (measured in terms of the number of bedrooms in the family home).

6445 0.9 14.3546 0.5197 0.4212 0.8 21.6230 0.72 2.4263 0.9 22.5980 0.6 16.6 44.5739 0.5 37.9655 0.72 1.07 2.8453 0.3257 0.7305 0.9 78.4 7.2 41.4524 0.2049 0.6 85.1 20.2 28.4173 0.3075 0.7 11.62 2.6914 0.2205 0.4704 0.38 2.4404 0.9 61.7 84.2 39.9293 0.2635 0.9 45.6 23.4252 0.5523 0.8 21.6762 0.4298 0.5659 0.80 2.56 2.8 96.6269 0.4824 0.5 92.01 Access to Access to commercial household cooking fuel electricity Index Mean Index Mean Index 1.3 67.9 80.6 23.1524 0.2 24.97 2.9 48.3894 0.5 11.1 73.4486 0.4 66.5 71.3 63.9 83.7327 0.0756 0.6685 0.4449 0.7831 0.9 24.4103 0.4526 0.16 2.17 3.20 3.9310 0.8330 0.2267 0.2 62.5118 0.2070 0.4708 0.4 47.5237 0.4048 0.86 2.0 23.3836 0.2137 0.0 45.4778 0.8 62. Caste/Ethnicity Housing conditions Mean Index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 THAKALI MARWADI NEWARI KAYASTHA GURUNG RAUTE BRAHMAN – HILL BANIYA HYOLMO DURA DARAI KALWAR BRAHMAN – TARAI DHIMAL MECHE SUDHI PAHvARI HALUWAI RAJPUT PUNJABI/SIKH LODHA CHHANTYAL BANGALI BHEDIYAR/GADERI TELI BARAE SONAR RAJBHAR KANU JIREL LEPCHA SHERPA KEWAT MAGAR TAMANG GHARTI/BHUJEL HALKHOR 54.5 93.4 56.2842 0.4459 0.4677 0.0787 0.4051 0.4165 0.4292 0.3217 0.7 33.8574 0.0000 0.2959 0.1 7.4032 0.4191 0.7823 0.6 73.1806 0.9 55.6697 0.3981 0.9 12.3342 0.6 40.6138 0.3127 0.6956 0.6399 0.3357 0.Table 4.0367 0.6 74.0 33.1223 0.4457 0.6675 0.2 26.4691 0.4719 0.0 0.5306 0.0 49.4755 0.2156 0.6359 0.5371 0.6 80.0 66.0 64.7180 0.4 69.5263 0.14 2.4587 0.36 2.8 58.91 2.5 22.3 64.4239 0.05 2.45 2.5513 0.2851 0.4928 0.5936 0.3090 0.2657 0.0 57.1719 0.3410 0.6614 0.6480 0.5577 0.9 0.3177 0.2363 0.0 32.9 20.5105 0.5241 0.8587 0.11 2.5545 0.7 9.7 56.4 65.5214 0.1004 0.5567 0.55 3.5680 0.29 2.5 48.4313 0.6 18.86 3.1 20.1389 0.3793 0.7 52.4594 0.7566 0.2 44.4 12.8083 0.2633 0.8462 0.6610 0.40 2.47 3.5797 0.2286 0.6 44. N.4677 0.1 34.5089 0.95 2.2 66.7191 0.3 78.2456 0.6399 0.3 26.1 78.5 22.25 2.5089 0.4893 0.4 14.1 85.2084 0.14 2.53 2.2742 43.7 64.0 83.8472 0.4317 0.7997 0.1474 0.4266 0.7501 0.76 2.99 2.1187 0.2453 0.04 2.3275 0.6: Mean (percent) and Index of Standard of Living by caste/ethnic group S.9198 0.5476 0.7840 0.9 85.4046 0.3690 Living conditions Mean (bedrooms) 4.7191 0.7 80.0 71.5 0.0 42.3903 0.4146 0.6588 0.85 1.5106 0.4 15.3830 0.6 38.6 32.8 84.4022 ECONOMIC DIMENSION INDEX 29 .97 1.72 2.1224 0.6439 0.7849 0.4208 0.6 31.2416 0.4567 0.78 1.0 10.3 24.2546 0.5608 0.2310 0.8 22.2263 0.1 16.0 67.4 28.7486 0.4187 0.8325 0.1 36.2328 0.1 38.8552 Standard of Living Domain Index 0.7 30.5206 0.6504 0.47 2.1103 78.8021 0.6567 0.1 41.3 92.5 71.1645 0.2 32.3 13.4184 0.4068 0.4398 0.6 42.2854 0.4 17.5491 0.1442 0.6150 0.0944 0.4122 0.3 66.8 56.4376 0.4862 0.2872 0.66 2.2472 0.9 84.1597 0.

2807 0.3897 0.0 10.7 17.7 18.1721 0.2698 25.3408 0. Caste/Ethnicity Housing conditions Mean Index 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 30 KAHAR CHHETRI THARU MUSLIM KOIRI KURMI RAJBANSI SANYASI HAJAM/THAKUR MAJHI YADAV RAI MALI DANUWAR BADHAE BRAHMU/BARAMU SANTHAL/SATAR BOTE DHUNIA GAINE SUNUWAR KOCHE TAJPURIYA MALLAH DHOBI KUMAL KUMHAR THAKURI DHANUK BANTAR BADI MUNDA LIMBU TATMA DHAGAR/JHAGAR NURANG LOHAR DAMAI/DHOLI 32.93 1.7 64.0 26..9 21.93 2.1981 0.3403 0.1103 0.4002 0.64 2.8 24.3611 0.78 2.1089 0.9 24.4 66.9 25.6 76.54 1.0 59.6888 0.3 64.4645 0.7566 0.33 2.1187 0.3354 0.3 7.1 77.3068 0.1960 0.6974 0.5971 0.1648 0.6 70.2 25.91 2..3143 0.1708 0.2 14.3916 0.9 56.7 68.7 71.2502 0.2 0.Cont.6 27.76 2.1 26.1723 0.0 27.6441 0.3141 0.3290 0.7 25.5 32.2376 0.2371 0.3198 0.8 15.61 2.4 17.2509 0.3508 0. N.4 25.4980 0.18 2.8014 0.3 22.6117 0.5241 0.34 2.3233 0.3 22.1 31.2670 0.80 2.1969 0.3 10.2167 0.2587 0.7 21.3167 0.1689 0.2767 0.3 20.5939 0.26 2.5599 0.45 2.6 80.4741 0.68 2.4307 0.1290 Living conditions Mean (bedrooms) 2.3712 0.1 11.03 2.99 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Access to Access to household commercial cooking fuel electricity Index Mean Index Mean Index 0.3 69.7 65.7 6.98 2.1 20.42 2.0 60.1853 0.3420 0.6 59.3 64.2753 0.1777 0.7727 0. S.2035 0.2165 0.0 21.2498 0.3214 0.3130 0.2825 0.3329 0.6484 0.8 23.0 27.0680 0.0 44.1442 0.7167 0.48 1.1667 0.7062 0.2286 0.2110 0.70 1.4111 0.2 67.3116 0.3823 0.9 16.3750 0.2553 0.6 82.1 13.5 9..2705 0.3190 0.1573 0.3807 0.3582 0.2481 0.3136 0.4198 0.9 31.2019 75.1545 0.3537 0.0941 0.6 81.1454 0.9 70.6495 0.7143 0.1789 0.5963 0.9 27.9 27.6762 0.1740 0.6961 0.3298 0.3443 0.7 16.38 1.1 59.2771 0.41 1.9 14.51 2.68 2.4 14.3 11.3056 ..2010 0.2230 0.0 21.2 15.2516 0.1504 0.3393 0.14 2.1732 0.8161 0.1688 0.7 15.4828 0.2402 0.0 72.3654 0.1 23.3784 0.27 1.0 17.3390 0.4 21.9 19.9 25.7 11.5 13.2068 0.2408 0.2135 0.3959 0.5 28.3 21.24 2.3762 0.6 6.7098 0.2140 0.7590 0.6168 0.0635 0.4 4.3928 0.65 2.9 0.5698 0.2416 0.87 1.5229 0.58 2.3 33.3828 0.4285 0.2632 0.7 61.1319 0.1072 0.7674 0.8 19.11 2.1199 0.4872 0.7268 0.1781 0.2203 0.4 75.4 71.38 1.0 17.6429 0.6422 0.8 17.2680 0.3981 0.3828 0.6 12.2000 0.3636 0.0 52.33 1.3942 0.47 2.2137 0.8 17.47 2.3807 0.8201 0.6217 Standard of Living Domain Index 0.4263 0.3724 0.6742 0.1585 0.5 33.6649 0.4 69.1 16.4021 0.5 64.7 31.2 5.34 1.4089 0.2416 0.3320 0.0767 0.3774 0.3432 0.1266 0.7 11.0 61.6034 0.4482 0.1189 0.91 1.3589 0.7 57.7414 0.0 17.3157 0.7 20.0453 0.3 62.2503 0.7555 0.2773 0.4 8.2655 0.9 17.8 67.0526 0.8 55.3176 0.7000 0.7 26.3701 0.1377 0.7 75.1700 0.3498 0.2 0.5589 0.3078 0.1426 0.3304 0.4 12.0 15.4415 0.2 74.4 20.3548 0.9 71.0815 0.1139 0.

1 12.7253 0.5 0.2 72.2286 0.2 12. HARIJAN.2503 0.6008 0. components from these three indices were calculated separately and then averaged.3 0.0930 0.6 65.0000 0.6313) of all of the broad social groups.2947 0.1093 0.6547 0.1 14.2394 17.54 1.95 1.09 2.6 0.8 0. Tarai Brahman/Chhetris enjoy the best economic status (0.01 1.2678 0.2807 0.0960 0.1194 0.3 19.91 1.0 24.83 2.9 3.2547 0.0865 0.2785 0.2873 0.2748 11.5419 0.1 5.2972).2614 0.7 15.2821 4.03 1.67 1.2 55.55 2.2416 0.8 56.3 47.5863 0.6217 0.1634 0.4131 0.81 11.5 14.3 5.9 60.8 22.1 17.5 4.7 0.1 23.2 13.4285 0.1170 Mean (bedrooms) 1.9 12.8 64. while Newars are in the second position.2155 0.5 34. S.7 28.1190 0.0 13.6 62.0307 0.1 9.6054 0.0560 0.2227 72.1203 58.7 71.2086 21.9 11.6420 0.3 10.1308 0.8 0.4759 0.57 1.77 1.1345 0.3005 0.2546 0.1931 0.0 0.4 Economic Dimension index The Economic Dimension index is a composite index incorporating results from the economic access index.2147 0.3 0.1768 1.2857 0.3 0.1360 0.5613 0.6774 0.0302 0.2666 0.0747 0.4541 11.1479 62. ECONOMIC DIMENSION INDEX 31 ..1 67.6 60.4 16.0738 0.1705 0. N.4 21.Cont.5576 0.6 0. To arrive at the overall Economic Dimension Index.0539 0.2742 0.2798 0.1473 0.4 16.3414 0.2457 54.2305 0..1312 0.1179 1.47 1.0835 0.82 2.1960 0.2 0. the non-poverty index and the standard of living index.1067 0.0000 12.12 1.2 13.4 9.2 4.1626 0.2218 0.6726 0. Caste/Ethnicity Housing conditions Mean Index 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 SARKI BING/BINDA BHOTE WALUNG KISAN GANGAI CHAMAR.90 0.1218 0.1420 0.4 67.1244 0.2346 0.3111 0.6531 0.93 2.2573 0.0 67.0321 0.2802 2.1503 0.3 3.1388 0.1199 0.4 8.1240 0.02 1.7 0.6 3.0427 0.0409 0.2901 0.2928 0.55 0.2078 0.0529 0.5 7.87 1.6890 0.1591 0.2690 10.9 7.5 65.0942 0.1281 0.4 12.6464 0.2708 0.9 68.1114 0.7239 0.1722 0. Tarai Dalits have the worst economic status (0.18 0.6 11.4 14..47 1.2133 0.6765 0.1369 0.1613 0.7177 0.1 64.1221 0.6289 0.6 25.2500 0.1 13.7 9.0912 0.2167 0.2335 0.2949 0. RAM KAMI DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI DOM PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA KHATWE YAKKHA NUNIYA CHEPANG (PRAJA) THAMI MUSAHAR BYANGSI RAJI KAMAR HAYU CHIDIMAR Total Living conditions Access to Access to household commercial cooking fuel electricity Index Mean Index Mean Index Standard of Living Domain Index 8. preceded by Hill Dalits and Muslims.0 0.63 2.9 5..

7457 0.8692 0.4413 0.5242 0.5511 0.8529 0.6341) and Rajput (0.6137 0. Patharkatta/Kuswadia.7729 0.5738 0.3878 0. Table 4.5846 0.9235 0.3065 respectively.6404 0.6341 0.6673 0.6673).8471 0.7813 Standard of Living Index 0.6138 0.8220 0.5237 0.2802 0.4842 0. 0.2914.5893 0.3141 0.5513 0.8159 0.6138 0.5106 0.5447 0.6404 ).3928 0.1840.7474 0.5151 0.2972 0.6399 0.After Thakalis.7993 0.5237 0.8256 0.7746 Standard of Living Index 0.6089 0.4719 0.6140).4131 Economic Dimension Index 0.4545 0.3750 0.8072 0. 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 32 Caste/Ethnicity THAKALI MARWADI KAYASTHA BRAHMAN–TARAI RAJPUT NEWARI HILL BRAHMAN BANIYA PUNJABI/SIKH YADAV HYOLMO TELI SUDHI KALWAR SHERPA BARAE BANGALI GURUNG LODHA DARAI MECHE Economic Access Index 0.9086 0.3953 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Non-poverty Index 0.5155 The Economic Dimension index measures the economic status of people and households fromthe different caste / ethnic groups.5206 0.6048 0.5476 0.7: DistribuƟon of Economic dimension Index by Broad Social Groups Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newar Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Economic Access Index 0.3826 0.3930 0.1840 (Musahar).5467 0.5156 0. with index values ranging from 0.7415 0.2469 0.5400 0.4071 0.4818 0.5820 0.6048 0.4298 0.6313 0.9686 0.5183 0. N.4871 0.3803 0.3571 0.6297 0.5489 0. and Raji have the worst economic status. 0.Table 4.8: Economic Dimension Index by caste/ethnic group S.8510 0. Chamar/Harijan/Ram.2697 0.5476 0.2932 and 0. scoring 0. The Musahar.3803 0.4778 0.4169 0.8550 0.5466 0.2310 0.6517 0.4790 0.6970 0.5733 0.3900 0.7698 0.5297 0.5814 0.6137 0.2992 0.6048 0. other groups that rank in the top five are Marwadi(0. Kayastha (0.6140 0.4534 0.3671 0.6773 (Thakali) to 0.4449 0.5120 0.6084 0.6014 0.3098 0.3671 0.3944 0.4695 0.7987 0.4977 0.8397 0.4146 0.3803 0.6914 0.4376 0. A comparative analysis reveals high levels of variation.5495 0.5463 .7756 0.5666 0.2759.9235 0. TaraiBrahman (0.7054 0.7178 0.2895 0.4677 0.4551 0.8471 0. Dusadh/Paswan/Pasi.4266 0.7021 0.6909 0.5197 0.6337 0.3519 Non-poverty Index 0.5109 0.6773 0.4691 Economic Dimension Index 0.4239 0.8300 0.3718 0.4457 0.

4947 0.5067 0.2711 0.4799 0.3425 0.5118 0.3393 0.6774 0.3816 0.3085 0.4585 0.6908 0.8084 0.2388 0..4016 0.2857 0.2386 0.8277 0.4239 0.3432 0.4165 0.5091 0.3320 0.3784 0.6020 0.4914 0.2928 0.6581 0.4606 0.3403 0.3942 0.4906 0.4122 0.8295 0.2305 0.5263 0.3620 0.8217 0.8271 0.4021 0.4292 0.6838 0.3221 0.4530 0.4720 0.6951 0.2951 0.3636 0.4694 0.4902 0.6900 0.6560 Standard of Living Index 0.3928 0.4068 0.3701 0.3916 0.4208 0.2705 0.4187 0.2966 0.3762 0.5052 0.6238 0.6489 0.8461 0.6517 0.3783 0.5039 0.6198 0.5024 0.5362 0.3136 Non-poverty Index 0.4593 0.8442 0.7502 0.8037 0.3420 0.5171 0.7245 0.5362 0.8834 0.3613 0.Cont.5022 0.4674 0.3654 0.3366 0.4184 0.5196 0.4398 0.5425 0.6823 0.5522 0.4545 0.4708 0.4191 0.6284 0.6328 0.4051 0.5200 0.2901 0.7121 0.4635 0.6767 0.8008 0.2965 0. N..4952 0.4169 0.4134 0..7944 0.3724 0.3712 Economic Dimension Index 0.4731 0.7156 0.4214 0.4989 0.5184 0.3774 0.5079 0.5200 0.4927 0.5027 0.4032 0.4792 0.7009 0.4526 0.3444 0.3843 0.4871 0.3155 0.3368 0.3721 0.5075 0. S.4469 ECONOMIC DIMENSION INDEX 33 .5227 0.5872 0.4002 0.3752 0.4677 0.2895 0.3897 0.4817 0.4773 0.3443 0.8129 0.2078 0.6081 0.4499 0.5437 0. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Caste/Ethnicity LEPCHA DURA THARU DHIMAL KOIRI CHHETRI PAHARI GANGAI RAI HALUWAI KANU GHARTI/BHUJEL JIREL SANYASI SUNUWAR BYANGSI MAGAR TAMANG BHEDIYAR/GADERI RAJBANSI SONAR KURMI BHOTE BADHAE CHHANTYAL MUSLIM TAJPURIYA THAKURI HAJAM/THAKUR KOCHE BRAHMU/BARAMU KAMAR RAUTE KUMAL KAHAR KEWAT DHOBI RAJBHAR DANUWAR WALUNG MAJHI MALI Economic Access Index 0.4944 0.4615 0.4313 0.4608 0.8664 0.6656 0.2974 0.5721 0.3171 0.7448 0.4656 0.4953 0.3823 0.4582 0.5236 0.8255 0..8024 0.5165 0.2256 0.5209 0.

3582 0.3141 0.3762 0.3279 0.6229 0.2711 0.Cont.2327 0.3167 0.3130 0.4452 0.2971 0.3658 0. HARIJAN.3001 0.2346 0.3256 0.5140 0.5155 4.1840 0.2830 Non-poverty Index 0.5025 0.3890 0.2873 0. on the other hand.2266 0.4694 0.4825 0.3304 0.2283 0.3747 0.3056 0.2678 0.4143 0.2914 0.3605 0.3176 0.4088 0. 34 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .5573 0.3434 0.3233 0.3490 0.7813 0.2748 0.2632 0.4456 0.3519 0.4104 0.2790 0.3354 0. Hill Brahman and Newar among broader social groups.3880 0. N.6817 0.6352 0.4022 0. 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Caste/Ethnicity BOTE DHANUK LIMBU KUMHAR SANTHAL/SATAR YAKKHA NURANG CHEPANG (PRAJA) DAMAI/DHOLI HAYU DHUNIA GAINE LOHAR MALLAH THAMI KAMI MUNDA DHAGAR/JHAGAR SARKI BANTAR HALKHOR DOM BADI TATMA KISAN NUNIYA CHIDIMAR KHATWE BING/BINDA RAJI CHAMAR.3275 0.2386 0.4129 0.3408 0.4452 0.5063 0.2947 0. S.3201 0.6444 0.2218 0.4413 0.5781 0.4159 0.4948 0.1672 0.3622 0.4097 0.4498 0.4739 0.4441 0.2096 0.4030 0.2614 0.3294 0.. however.3848 0.3263 0.4131 0.6089 0.2930 0. The Dalits of both Hill and Tarai origin.2820 0.2401 0.3105 0.3282 0.6379 0.3897 0.3221 Standard of Living Index 0.2573 0.4204 0..2149 0..2798 0. the better off groups in top ten positions mainly comprise of non-Janajatis with exception of Thakali at the top..3078 0.3974 0.2708 0.3995 0.4439 0.2233 0.4421 0.2181 0.4150 0.5583 0.5 Conclusion The economic dimension index is in favour of Madhesi Brahman/Chhetri.4752 0.3733 0.7176 0.2368 0.1502 0.1369 0.6063 0.3964 0.3136 0.3203 0.3548 0.5085 0.6562 0.2949 0.4014 0. Among 97 caste/ethnic groups.2932 0. RAM PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA DUSADH/PASWAN/PASI MUSAHAR Total Economic Access Index 0.3613 0.4724 0.2690 Economic Dimension Index 0.4414 0.3143 0.2547 0.3100 0.2821 0.3498 0.3842 0.2666 0.4250 0.3065 0.2759 0. Most of the Dalits are.3804 0. are quite behind in economic dimension.3813 0.1705 0.2713 0.3537 0. facing low level of economic inclusion.7427 0.3410 0.4052 0.7357 0.

health. and a denial of basic political freedom and civil rights directly impoverishes our lives. Literature about this subject abounds. the Political Dimension has a decisive influence over all of the other processes of multi-dimensionality related to exclusion /inclusion. Burchardt et al. and representation in the national bureaucracy. identified four dimensions of participation with which to measure social exclusion/ inclusion by scrutinizing the longitudinal data of the British Household Panel survey: (i) consumption (the capacity to participate in the purchase of goods and services).5 The Political Dimension This chapter begins with a brief discussion of the relevance of the political dimension of social inclusion/exclusion. (iii) political engagement (participation in local or national decision-making). 2011. Exclusion from the process of governance and political participation is indeed an impoverishment of human lives. For a critical review. 2008. friends and neighbors)3.1 Participation/ Representation Representation on policy/decision making bodies and in decision making processes is a highly contested issue in multicultural and multiethnic countries such as Nepal. enfranchisement. political participation. One of the domains is political and civic participationwhich includes citizenship status. (ii) production (the capacity to participate in economically or socially valued activity). For Nepal. THE POLITICAL DIMESION 35 . which in turn is reflectedin the existence of a generally fair. “Social exclusion from political participation”. 5. access to goods and services) and social (education. 4. ‘is itself a deprivation. 2007:86-97. justice and inclusion are pre-conditions for the strengthening of political democracy. Itconsists of 10 domains under three headings (resources. civic efficacy and civic participation. Burchardt et al. Political parties are key instruments in the 1.These. elements of this include representation on the central committees of the major political parties. see Labonte et al. social cohesion) dimensions in widely acclaimed social exclusion/inclusion literature1. Mathieson et al. employment. and Levitas et al. Levitas and other researchers have proposed the Bristol Social Exclusion Matrix (B-SEM) as a tool for measuring exclusion/inclusion. 2008.’2 Political inclusion expands people’s capabilities and provides opportunities for participation in decision-making processes and for influencing the outcomes that shape their lives. and (iv) social interaction (integration with families. representation on the Council of Ministers. 2007:68-70. which is less prominently dealt with than the economic (poverty. When measuring inclusion in Nepal. along with perceptions of voice and agency used as a proxy. representative and accountable system. housing. Sen 2000:38 3. Levitas et al. Political inclusion serves to widen and deepen democratic processes and practices and helps to entrench democratic norms and values. no matter what our per capita income may be. to borrow the words ofNobel laureate Amartya Sen. equality. In developing countries like Nepal. equitable political and civic participation is a major issue. Freedom. and voluntary activity/club membership4. represent the major indicators of inclusion in the Political Dimension. 41. participation and quality of life). 2002 cited in Mathieson et al. 2007 2. Levitas et al.

development of a secure democratic future.1 do not add up to 100.4 1.1: RepresentaƟon on the central commiƩees of poliƟcal parƟes by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Party Central Committee Member % in central committee Index 24. and sustaining the country’s newlyemerging democracy. giving a subjective gauge of participation in public affairs. It is worth noting that 24 caste/ethnic groups were represented on the central working committees of the parties making up the first constituent assembly in line with their overall share of the population (Table 5.1).0000 18.1880 2. Electoral participation is crucial for popularizing the representative system.1 Representation on the central committees of political parties Central committees are party-political bodies responsible for agenda setting and input into party policies and party politics.6 0.0 0.5.1 0.3 1.5995 0.3260 7.8 0. These caste groups are generally over-represented on the apex political bodies in relation to their population share(Table 5. by the percentage share of the same group in the total population (for details see chapter 2 and annexes 2 and 3).Another 12 groups have index scores of more than 0. Such is the caste/ethnic composition of the key party-political decision-making bodies. Hill Brahman and Tarai Brahman Chhetri castes dominate the central working committees of political parties in addition to occupying the majority of key positions. The representation of caste/ethnic groups in national bureaucracy is also examined.3199 2.2).2860 2.7 0. A total of 25 political parties were studied for this purpose.3079 6. It is disappointing to note that around fifty caste groups have zero representation on central committees. In addition. The index is calculated by dividing the percentage of representatives from a particular caste/ethnic group / broader social/identity group who are sitting on the central committee of a political party. Table 5. Therefore the percentages that appear in Table 5.3804 Note: People from unidentified ethnicities/castes make up around 1% of the population. that about two-thirds of the caste/ ethnic groups in Nepal have no political influence and are therefore politically powerless.9373 4. This chapterconcentrates on representation at various levels.1.6667 0. this group was not indexed due to a dearth of information available about them for several indicators. perceptions of voice and agency are measured.6 0. 5.0000 15.3 0. 36 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . from political parties to the Council of Ministers. Tarai and Hill Dalits and Muslims have the lowest levels of central committee representation (just under 3%) Hill Janajatis are also under-represented and Tarai Janajatis are more so. In order to assess the relative political influence held bythe broader caste/ethnic groups.1 1. the proportional share of each group in central committees was measured.4 0.0000 13. parties were selected on the basis of their representation in the first Constituent Assembly (2008).

HARIJAN.2 2.9 0.2: RepresentaƟon on central commiƩees of poliƟcal parƟes by caste/ethnic group S.1 0.2 0.3 0.6 6.4 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0 0.5 3.8 3.6 16.8 0.0 0.3 6.2 0.0000 1.1 0.5 4.2 1.8 0.3 2.0 0.TARAI GURUNG HALUWAI DUSADH/PASWAN/PASI SANYASI DHANUK SUDHI KAYASTHA RAJPUT RAJBANSI THAKALI MECHE KUMHAR MARWADI BANGALI CHHANTYAL DARAI RAJI SUNUWAR HAJAM/THAKUR RAI CHHETRI THARU KOIRI DHOBI TAMANG KALWAR MUSLIM BANIYA CHAMAR.2 0.5 4.7 0.6574 0.1 1.3570 0.0000 1.5594 0.2 5.5 5.8 0.0000 1.0000 1.5 0.8 0.9 0.0 0.9 0.5720 0.0000 1.0 1.2 0.8118 0.3 % in party central committee 24.8 0.9637 0.Table 5.8 2.6716 0.2 0.6 1.6 0.4266 0.0 2.0000 1.3 1.1 1.5 1.7 Index 1.4 0.9118 0.1 0. N.4 5.8 0.4124 0.6 0.2 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.2 0.3 0.6 1. RAM SHERPA KAMI MAGAR BING/BINDA MUSAHAR % of Population 12.1 0.0000 1.3 3.1 0.8 0.4 0.0 2.5 4.4 0.8910 0.0000 1.4 2.0000 1.0000 1.5 2.0 0.4 2.0 4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Caste/Ethnic group HILL BRAHMAN NEWARI YADAV THAKURI LIMBU TELI BRAHMAN .3 0.3 0.0000 1.2 0.5995 0.7185 0.0000 1.0000 1.1 0.6280 0.3405 THE POLITICAL DIMESION 37 .1 0.1 0.7 0.8 7.5 1.4331 0.1 0.0000 1.4 0.6450 0.0000 1.3 13.9 0.4 2.

0 0.3191 0.2560 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 1.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.0000 0.0 0..1 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.0000 0.1 0.0000 0.0000 0..0000 0.5 0.Cont.4 0.0 0.0000 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2647 0.0 0.0000 0.2323 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0000 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0000 0.0 0.0000 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0000 0.0000 0.9 1.0 Index 0.0 0.2271 0.3 0.2215 0..0000 0.0 0.4 0. N.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0. S.0000 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0000 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0000 .0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.8 0.1 0.1 0.0000 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.0 0..0 0.0 0.0000 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.3 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX % in party central committee 0.6 0.2660 0.0 0.2262 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.2865 0.1 0.3 0.1 0. 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 38 Caste/Ethnic group DANUWAR SARKI KHATWE LOHAR TATMA KURMI DAMAI/DHOLI GHARTI/BHUJEL KUMAL BADHAE BADI BANTAR BARAE BHEDIYAR/GADERI BHOTE BOTE BRAHMU/BARAMU BYANGSI CHEPANG (PRAJA) CHIDIMAR DHAGAR/JHAGAR DHIMAL DHUNIA DOM DURA GAINE GANGAI HALKHOR HAYU JIREL KAHAR KAMAR KANU KEWAT KISAN KOCHE LEPCHA LODHA MAJHI MALI MALLAH MUNDA NUNIYA % of Population 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.

0 0.3: RepresentaƟon on the Council of Ministers by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Minister Of Council % in central committee 32. Muslims also have a relatively high index score.2 do not add up to 100.0000 0.1 0.0 0.1 6.0000 0.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.3804 Note: People from unidentified ethnicities/castes make up around 1% of the population.0 % in party central committee 0. 5Brahmans from both the Hills and the Tarai along with Chhetris and Newars are best represented on the Council of Ministers (Table 5..0 0.0000 0.0 0.7 0.0 Index 1.0 0. Dalits from the Tarai origin have the lowest level of representation on the Council of Ministers.1.0 0.0 0. Yadav 2007 and UNDP 2009 for detailed discussion on this subject.7 11.2 0.0 0.2 Representation of the broader social/identity groups on the Council of Ministers The Council of Ministers is the highest level government executive body..0 0. This reflects traditional patterns of caste domination in governance.Cont. 5.0 0.2093 0.1821 0. Therefore the percentages that appear in Table 5..0000 0. The Brahman/Chhetri domination of the Council of Ministers has remained unchanged since 1951.0 0.0 2.0 0. N. this group was not indexed due to a dearth of information available about them for several indicators.1 12.2270 5.0 0.7919 1. THE POLITICAL DIMESION 39 .0000 0. marking a failure of democratic practice..0000 0. S.0000 0.0332 1.3).2 0.0000 0.2 4.0000 0.1408 0.0000 0.1 21.0 0.0 0. Table 5.0 0.0 0.1 0.0000 0. 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Caste/Ethnic group NURANG PAHARI PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA PUNJABI/SIKH RAJBHAR RAUTE SANTHAL/SATAR SONAR TAJPURIYA THAMI WALUNG YAKKHA HYOLMO Total % of Population 0.0 Index 0.6250 0.0000 0.0 1.1 0.9 0.3 7.1636 0. See Neupane 2005.0000 0.0000 0.1 0.0000 0.

2007.TARAI LIMBU HALUWAI KAYASTHA RAJPUT THAKALI SUDHI KISAN KOIRI TELI THARU RAI MUSLIM DHANUK BARAE SANYASI RAJBANSI SARKI KANU BANIYA MAGAR DAMAI/DHOLI TAMANG DUSADH/PASWAN/PASI Population % 12.008 3.2049 .4).415 0.2 1.351 0.600 5.7800 0.1 2. Table 5.628 2.3042 0.472 0.0000 1. the Sudhi and Haluai castes of the Tarai are also fairly well represented. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 Caste/Ethnicity HILL BRAHMAN CHHETRI NEWARI YADAV GURUNG THAKURI BRAHMAN .0000 1. The Thakali.3 do not add up to 100. Seven ethnic/caste groups are rated at between 0.0000 1.0000 1.2716 0.9 (Teli. Limbu and Kisan Janajati groups also have high index scores. Around three quarters of caste/ethnic groups have no representation on the Council of Ministers (see Table 5.0000 1. this group was not indexed due to a dearth of information available about them for several indicators.5 0.4).3 0.125 1.812 0.6 3.0000 1.2 Index 1.8 0.0 1.6250 0.531 7.158 0.6795 0.3 1.8 7. Rai.5 0.851 0.2 0.1 17. The caste/ethnic groups with the highest levels of representation are those generally considered ‘privileged’ (Table 5.3423 0.0 0. The effectiveness of their roles and influence in the Council of Ministers needs further exploration.462 0.5311 0.3714 0.1 6. N.3426 0.606 0.2948 0.2502 0.8107 0. despite the huge size of the Cabinet formed in mid 2008.789 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Total % in Ministry 32.5 and 0.0000 1.506 1.050 0.0000 1.394 0.7 2.Note: People from unidentified ethnicities/castes make up around 1% of the population.5693 0. In addition to Tarai Brahman/Chhetris.167 0. Muslim.0000 1. Dhanuk.1 5.1 1.2 0.0000 0.207 1.435 1.6 3.007 1.2 0.615 4.5 1. Tharu.2 1.980 2.1 0.304 0.9369 0.8 2.0000 1.785 5. This improved representation of traditionally excluded groups on the Council of Ministers can be attributed to the inclusive provisions of the Interim Constitution of Nepal.180 16.3758 0.395 6. Koiri and Barae).059 1.0000 1.0000 1.860 0.0 1.2 2.317 0. Therefore the percentages that appear in Table 5.5 0.0 1.0000 1.4: RepresentaƟon on the Council of Ministers by broader social group S.7 0.

236 0.124 0.Cont.0 0.007 0.050 0.0000 0.140 0.0000 0.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.0 0.099 0.0000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.317 0.0000 0.0000 0.141 0.0 0.022 0.0 0.0000 0.005 0.484 0.268 Total % in Ministry 1.056 0.0000 0.0 0.100 0.0000 0.006 0. HARIJAN..0000 0.462 0.284 0.2 Index 0.0 0.0000 0.258 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0000 0.0 0. RAM BADHAE BADI BANGALI BANTAR BHEDIYAR/GADERI BHOTE BING/BINDA BOTE BRAHMU/BARAMU BYANGSI CHEPANG (PRAJA) CHHANTYAL CHIDIMAR DANUWAR DARAI DHAGAR/JHAGAR DHIMAL DHOBI DHUNIA DOM DURA GAINE GANGAI GHARTI/BHUJEL HAJAM/THAKUR HALKHOR HAYU JIREL KAHAR KALWAR KAMAR KEWAT KHATWE KOCHE KUMAL KUMHAR KURMI LEPCHA LODHA LOHAR Population % 4.0 0..444 0.448 0.0 0..0 0. N.0 0. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 Caste/Ethnicity KAMI CHAMAR.201 0.0 0.0 0.0000 0.580 0.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.1274 0.0000 0.0 0.0 0.750 1.0000 0.051 0.208 0.0 0.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.381 0.0 0.457 0.0 0.020 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.0000 0.0 0.0 0.039 0.013 0.. S.0000 0.045 0.0 0.011 0.0000 THE POLITICAL DIMESION 41 .0000 0.0000 0.109 0.0 0.031 0.063 0.015 0.026 0.0 0.015 0.0 0.146 0.0000 0.100 0.0 0.2041 0.0000 0.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.383 0.872 0.0 0.0 0.0000 0.

012 Total % in Ministry 0.0000 0.210 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.092 0.0 0.073 0.0 0.0000 0.0 0.0000 0.2270 Note: People from unidentified ethnicities/castes make up around 1% of the population.0000 0.0000 0.0 0. Consequently their proportional share is higher.0 0.194 0..002 0.1.0 0.893 0.001 0.0 0.0000 0. Therefore the percentages that appear in Table 5..0 Index 0.0 0.0 0..0 0. and Newars) (see Table 5.0 0.0 0. this group was not indexed due to a dearth of information available about them for several indicators.0000 0.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0. with Hill Dalits in the lowest position and Muslims only slightly above them.0 0.396 0.243 0.0 0. N.0000 0. S.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.018 0.266 0. It can therefore be concluded that the civil service is the most exclusionary state institution in Nepal.036 0.0000 0.016 0.0 0.057 0.Cont.0 0. 5.005 0.654 0.041 0.108 0.0000 0.0 0.0 0.0000 0.0000 0. 42 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .316 0.468 0.0 0. 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Caste/Ethnicity MAJHI MALI MALLAH MARWADI MECHE MUNDA MUSAHAR NUNIYA NURANG PAHARI PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA PUNJABI/SIKH RAJBHAR RAJI RAUTE SANTHAL/SATAR SHERPA SONAR SUNUWAR TAJPURIYA TATMA THAMI WALUNG YAKKHA HYOLMO Total Population % 0.0000 0.0000 0. The other broader groups are much less well represented in the bureaucracy.195 0.009 0. Tarai Brahman/Chhetris also have a maximum index of 1..0000 0.0000 0.051 0.0 0.3 Representation in the National Bureaucracy The majority of the positions in the national bureaucracy (civil service) appear to be occupied by three of the broader groups (Brahmans.0000 0.027 0.4 do not add up to 100.0000 0. Chhetris.0 0.5).

Pahari.723 0. Rajput.0000 9. Around four dozen groups are highly underrepresented and eight groups have no representation at all. N.0000 1.860 0.1574 0.257 0.4227 0.889 0. Tarai Brahman.100 0.0000 1.158 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.Table 5. Jirel.5: RepresentaƟon in the naƟonal bureaucracy by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Civil Service Employees Employee % Index 39. Sudhi. Kisan. Chidimar. The majority of groups with low index values are Janajati or Dalit. and Koche have achieved proportional representation in the civil service.0000 1.0000 1.484 0.5 0.2474 7.288 0.0000 1.0000 22.226 19. It is encouraging to note that some of the groups with small population shares that are perceived as disadvantaged such as the Meche.0 0. The twenty caste/ethnic groups with higher levels of representation include Brahman.2 1.008 0.3 1.0000 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Caste/Ethnicity HILL BRAHMAN CHHETRI NEWARI BRAHMAN .9 1.5 do not add up to 100.018 0.6: RepresentaƟon in the naƟonal bureaucracy by caste/ethnicity S. Sanyasi/Dasnami. Kayastha.503 0.3 0.741 0.TARAI SANYASI RAJPUT KAYASTHA HAJAM/THAKUR GHARTI/BHUJEL KALWAR SUDHI BANGALI MECHE PAHARI KISAN Population % 12.0976 0.585 0. Dura.351 0.7 0.9719 3.3851 0.4 0. Chhetri.592 7.122 0.6).4382 4.543 0.0000 1.6 0. Newari.0000 1.444 0.0000 1.180 16.9 0. this group was not indexed due to a dearth of information available about them for several indicators.0000 THE POLITICAL DIMESION 43 .899 1.7 0.448 0.4505 Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Note: People from unidentified ethnicities/castes make up around 1% of the population.506 0.167 0.007 Employee % 39. and some others (see Table 5.051 0.0000 1.6073 0.0000 9.600 5.699 1.243 0. Table 5. Therefore the percentages that appear in Table 5.110 Index 1.

050 0.2469 ..9382 0.003 0.118 0.3248 0.553 2.114 Index 1.0000 1.5732 0. N..008 0.0000 1.838 0.531 1.052 0.066 0.0000 1.395 0.4366 0.344 0.812 0.3454 0.060 0.2647 0.316 2.0000 0.6476 0.472 3.2874 0.019 0.4875 0.471 0. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 44 Caste/Ethnicity THAKALI JIREL DURA CHIDIMAR KOCHE TELI DHANUK MALI KANU YADAV THAKURI HALUWAI KUMHAR SUNUWAR BANIYA KOIRI DOM BRAHMU/BARAMU DARAI GURUNG DHIMAL MARWADI BOTE THARU BHOTE MAJHI RAI CHHANTYAL KUMAL KAMAR LIMBU MAGAR BARAE KAHAR YAKKHA RAJI TAMANG KURMI PUNJABI/SIKH BYANGSI SHERPA DHOBI Population % 0.153 1.266 0.5359 0.9635 0.104 0.009 1.675 1.030 0.3781 0.261 0.304 0.3847 0.059 0.5345 0.045 0.099 0.851 0.8238 0.615 0.7835 0.125 0.457 0.015 0.092 0.443 3.806 0.872 0.032 0.618 0.007 1.9158 0.4479 0.019 0.004 0.841 0.4844 0.8152 0.136 0.053 0.053 0.980 1.063 2.4917 0.9235 0.005 1.021 3.462 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Employee % 0.210 0.020 0.006 1.201 0.236 0.171 0.6944 0.031 0.039 6.468 0.628 0.259 0.050 0.027 0..165 0.375 0.4254 0.057 0.105 0.3674 0.025 0.022 0.194 0.195 0.5290 0.192 0.317 0.005 0. S.0000 1.009 0.9398 0.022 0.3298 0.051 0..462 7.2523 0.016 5.3049 0.3246 0.6334 0.Cont.7056 0.5519 0.207 0.9463 0.3167 0.036 1.606 0.

013 0.124 0.1017 0.191 0.0000 0.1333 0.009 0.048 0.013 0.195 0.003 0.0000 0.003 0. 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Caste/Ethnicity HAYU RAJBANSI BHEDIYAR/GADERI DANUWAR MUSLIM GAINE MALLAH RAJBHAR CHAMAR.141 0.0463 0.0341 0.0341 0.109 0.0704 0.036 1.0733 0.004 0.317 4.258 0.041 0.039 0.178 Index 0.056 0. N.009 0.1448 0.000 0.1518 0.0133 0.1122 0.000 0.140 0. RAM DHAGAR/JHAGAR DUSADH/PASWAN/PASI KAMI SONAR SARKI DAMAI/DHOLI LOHAR THAMI GANGAI BANTAR HALKHOR BADHAE KEWAT LODHA CHEPANG (PRAJA) TATMA TAJPURIYA DHUNIA MUSAHAR NUNIYA KHATWE BING/BINDA SANTHAL/SATAR BADI LEPCHA MUNDA NURANG PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA RAUTE WALUNG HYOLMO Total Population % 0.0873 0.0827 0.268 Employee % 0.1635 0.415 1.1378 0.0000 0.0000 0.000 0.435 0.1213 0.004 0.0000 0.1069 0.035 0.000 0.0929 0.095 0.4505 THE POLITICAL DIMESION 45 .2237 0.381 0.0000 0.Cont.0959 0.001 0.073 0.1082 0.750 0.146 0.0832 0.0590 0.0859 0.002 0.005 0.000 0.019 0.383 0.003 0.284 0.000 0.015 0.1441 0.691 0.018 0.018 0.023 0.000 0.027 0.011 0.654 0.266 0.243 1.2350 0.580 0.005 0..1574 0.0000 0.208 0.001 0.0537 0.100 0.396 0..785 0.0392 0.0274 0.026 0.153 0.789 4.009 0..576 0.105 0.394 0.0000 0.097 0.893 0..018 0.1824 0.052 0.012 0.013 0.010 0.1402 0. S.108 0.000 0. HARIJAN.008 0.009 0.

Therefore the percentages that appear in Table 5. Knowledge of the respondents about these current issues of public concerns. 7Thus.2207 . 2011:10. and stage organized or spontaneous protests.1 13. Raising voice is the manifestation of exercising agency.Note: People from unidentified ethnicities/castes make up around 1% of the population. Andjelkovic et al. 5. the action of which results in an outcome ranging from exclusion to inclusion. a level of empowerment and knowledge gained on public/political issues and responding to the voices of people by responsible agents.2776 .5938 .1710 .8 33. and Thakali.1 27. it is an intention and ability to use endowments to act on the part of agent to grasp opprtunities for achieving desired outcomes. state demands and grievances. Baniya. 6.6 do not add up to 100.1319 .8).7). Current issues under public debate reflect the voices and agencies of citizen of the country. ‘Agency’ also refers to the set of characteristics by which the existence and purposeful action of the agent can be inferred. “Agency” (agents. the six groups at the top of the index are Kayastha.2 7. Table 5. TaraiBrahman.5 24. Among the broader groups theTaraiBrahman /Chhetris.2422 In terms of variation across caste/ethnic groups. Rajput.1 22.7: Percentage of respondents reporƟng their knowledge on current poliƟcal/public issues by broader social group Social Groups Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Percentage 40.2411 . groups and institutions is a broader indirect indicator of social inclusion.9 17. and Newarsreported enough knowledge of contemporary political issues to enable them to make their voices heard (see Table 5. groups and institutions)defined from process perspectiveis a mechanism.1 59. 7. MacNeill 2006:271 46 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .2 Voice and Agency Index .4 24.2413 .2 Voice and agency “Voice” is defined as the being able to make claims. The voices of both Dalits and Hill Janajatis are less likely to be heard. and Dhanuk also feature in the top ten (Table 5. Marwadi.Sudhi. and which explains why some people are included and some are excluded6.3395 .Hill Brahmans.5852 . a foundation of civic efficacy leading to increased voice and agency has been used here as an indicator of voice and agency to measure political inclusion/exclusion. Hill Brahmans rank seventh.0783 . this group was not indexed due to a dearth of information available about them for several indicators.4 24.4039 . Thakuri.8 58.

1 57.2776 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Caste /Ethnicity KAYASTHA MARWADI RAJPUT BANIYA BRAHMAN .2513 .1842 .3 38.6 24.2556 .8: Percentage of respondents who reported their knowledge on current poliƟcal/public issues by caste/ethnicity S.5697 .3145 .9 24.8 62.1763 .0 52.2158 . Mushar.7184 .2 17.5289 .6 17.7 21.5 22.3395 .9 71.2053 .8 27.3987 .1987 . Dhusad/Paswan/Pasi.1855 .TARAI THAKALI HILL BRAHMAN SUDHI THAKURI DHANUK BYANGSI NEWARI BHEDIYAR/GADERI PUNJABI/SIKH YADAV KUMAL MUSLIM KALWAR MALI HALUWAI HAJAM/THAKUR TELI BANGALI CHHETRI SONAR SANYASI THARU RAJBHAR KURMI KANU HAYU GURUNG DURA RAI SUNUWAR RAJBANSI WALUNG DHUNIA Percentage 75.6 18.1 24.5 Voice and Agency Index .3934 .8 33.2447 .4 21.3079 .2464 .9 36.6 25.9 18.The ten groups at the bottom of the index are mainly Tarai Dalits and Hill Janajatis.6 21.9 44.3 40.1750 THE POLITICAL DIMESION 47 .0 31. Table 5.7592 .3197 .7 31.2490 .4 30.2763 .7 20. The Chepang.4039 .2158 . The Dalit groups are Bantar.9 32.5 19.2066 .2066 .8 27.N.4 18.2237 .4434 .7 20.3895 .3 18.2289 .2171 .9 22. Kisan and Raute groups also feature here.1816 .1829 .6 25.9 39.6212 . Koche.6 20. and Dom.3171 .3684 .4 39.

1526 .3 11.7 10.1 12.5 15.3 14.1697 ..0842 .1 11.2 11. RAM LEPCHA PAHARI CHHANTYAL BADHAE DHIMAL KHATWE TAJPURIYA KEWAT NUNIYA MUNDA HALKHOR SANTHAL/SATAR DHAGAR/JHAGAR NURANG THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Percentage 17.1513 ..0808 .1105 .1013 .3 15.9 12.5 10.1 15.6 9.7 10.1197 .0934 .4 8.0961 .1289 .1066 .6 11.7 9.1066 .1158 .4 11.1211 .1211 .9 13.1605 .1408 .1618 .8 15.0 14.1579 .1118 .3 16.4 10.2 16.1046 .0 16.1 Voice and Agency Index .N.5 12.. HARIJAN.1618 .1303 .2 13.1434 .1750 .3 8.1126 .1 9.1026 . S.1 15.0 11.5 17.1263 .1250 .1105 .5 12.1250 .1500 .2 16.1145 .6 12.1395 .7 14.Cont.1474 .1 12.4 11..1039 . 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 48 Caste /Ethnicity GAINE TAMANG MAGAR DAMAI/DHOLI GANGAI SHERPA MECHE YAKKHA BARAE LIMBU DANUWAR HYOLMO BRAHMU/BARAMU DARAI MALLAH GHARTI/BHUJEL LOHAR BHOTE KUMHAR RAJI BADI KAMI BING/BINDA TATMA MAJHI JIREL SARKI KOIRI CHAMAR.1145 .1 10.1 13.0974 .3 10.1592 .1632 .1316 .1553 .9 15.0 12.

Yadav. Dalits and several Janajati groups have extremely low index scores THE POLITICAL DIMESION 49 ..4606 0. Hill Chhetris and ‘Others’ also rank above average.8 2.1409 0.2684 0.1498 0.9 3.2363 0. Rajput. Hill Brahmans andNewars enjoy much higher levels of political inclusion than other groups.6697 0.3060 0.4039 . with Dalits at the bottom of the index Table 5. Telis.0000 0.3691 0.5049 0.1962 1.2957 0.Hill Brahman.1373 0.0000 0. and Baniyas and a number of other groups with mid-level index scores.0500 .5938 .0579 .0382 . TaraiBrahman/Chhetris.0395 ..The remainder of the broad groups however.3017 0.. Sanyasis. Thakuri.TaraiBrahman.0783 .6 6.3526 Voice and Agency Index .10).2 5.4 6.0235 .0618 .9 3.0224 .N.0737 .3 5.Cont.2776 .and Marwadi (Table 5.0184 .2422 Political Dimension Index 0.5709 0.0750 . Sudhi.2413 .9004 1.3 5. There are also some newcomers including the Gurungs.2 1.1319 .Newari.7969 0.3395 .6 24.0658 . 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Caste /Ethnicity KAHAR DHOBI THAMI LODHA CHIDIMAR BOTE DOM DUSADH/PASWAN/PASI KAMAR CHEPANG (PRAJA) MUSAHAR BANTAR PATHARKATA/KUSWADIYA KOCHE KISAN RAUTE Total Percentage 7. Dhanuks.9 3.7020 0.2634 0.0164 .1710 . lags behind in the political dimension.4 2.Thakali. S.5 7.0526 .8 1.0395 .8 5.0 4.2 Voice and Agency Index .2207 .4247 0.9 below.2422 5.2974 The traditionally privileged groups that feature at the top of the indexinclude Kayastha.2411 ..5852 .9: The PoliƟcal Dimension Index and other related indices by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Political Representation Index 1.0487 .0526 .0000 0.3 The Political Dimension The overall Political Dimension Index for the broader groups appears inTable 5.

2066 0.2156 0.6667 0.3425 0.2741 0. N.8506 0.0000 1.8385 0.1105 0. Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 KAYASTHA RAJPUT BRAHMAN .4039 0.7184 0.6634 0.7217 0.8796 0.1289 0.10: The PoliƟcal Dimension Index and other related indices by caste/ethnic group S.4396 0.7677 0.2447 0.2763 0.4431 0.4129 0.1395 0.1434 0.4411 0.2171 0.TARAI THAKALI HILL BRAHMAN SUDHI THAKURI NEWARI YADAV MARWADI DHANUK HALUWAI TELI CHHETRI BANIYA GURUNG SANYASI LIMBU BANGALI HAJAM/THAKUR KOIRI THARU RAI MECHE KALWAR SUNUWAR MUSLIM KUMHAR RAJBANSI KISAN DARAI KANU CHHANTYAL TAMANG MALI RAJI GHARTI/BHUJEL KUMAL MAGAR DURA 50 Political Representation index 1.3895 0.9745 0.4557 0.1842 0.2776 0.3395 0.4040 0.6667 0.4095 0.3670 0.0000 0.0000 1.2839 0.1526 0.3333 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Voice and Agency Index 0.0184 0.5045 0.5697 0.3987 0.7645 0.6212 0.3691 0.6697 0.4087 0.5427 0.6445 0.5289 0.6140 0.9247 0.2607 0.2556 0.2464 0.5831 0.5244 0.7020 0.1632 0.6728 0.3934 0.5273 0.3079 0.Table 5.4727 0.2490 0.7592 0.3339 0.2618 0.6667 0.5115 0.4434 0.5963 0.2513 0.4789 0.1816 0.5317 0.1855 Political Dimension Index 0.3167 0.8106 0.3826 0.2844 0.2869 0.3566 0.3582 0.5485 0.4285 0.5824 0.7927 0.2594 .6051 0.2947 0.2158 0.6150 0.6993 0.4415 0.0000 1.2289 0.1697 0.5855 0.1987 0.9413 0.1829 0.6827 0.0000 1.0000 1.1592 0.3145 0.9719 1.7919 0.6373 0.0000 0.3133 0.5247 0.9373 0.1145 0.4606 0.1263 0.4268 0.

1268 0.2053 0.1941 0.1023 0.2219 0.2159 0.1211 0.1130 0.2018 0.2480 0.1126 Political Dimension Index 0.1928 0.2506 0.1750 0.3333 0.1878 0.1145 0.1050 0. N.1750 0.0506 0.1099 0.3197 0.0885 0.0964 0.1786 0.0608 0.1281 0.0526 0.2066 0.1763 0..0958 0.1316 0. Caste/Ethnicity 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 DUSADH/PASWAN/PASI BYANGSI JIREL BARAE PAHARI PUNJABI/SIKH CHIDIMAR SHERPA CHAMAR.1266 0.2065 0.1066 0. HARIJAN.0500 0.0737 0.1790 0.1105 0.1408 0.1625 0.2158 0.2283 0.3333 0.1792 0.2458 0.1406 0.3333 0..0830 0.1343 0.0395 0.0480 0..1246 0.0000 0.0952 0.Cont.3333 0.1464 0.1331 0.1426 0.2237 0.2111 0.0526 0.3171 0.1500 0.0224 0.2246 0.0483 0.0000 0.1128 0.1197 0.1303 0.0925 0.1145 0.0750 0.1801 0.1553 0.0945 0.1046 0.0487 0.2285 0.1319 0.1561 0.0579 0.1818 0.1956 0.1250 0.1000 0.1609 0.3684 0.0374 0..1618 0.0783 0.1305 0.0750 THE POLITICAL DIMESION 51 .1903 0. RAM KURMI BHEDIYAR/GADERI KAMI DHOBI DAMAI/DHOLI SARKI BRAHMU/BARAMU KOCHE DANUWAR BHOTE DHIMAL HAYU MAJHI DOM YAKKHA RAJBHAR SONAR LOHAR BING/BINDA BOTE TATMA GAINE KHATWE GANGAI DHUNIA MALLAH KAHAR KAMAR WALUNG MUSAHAR HYOLMO 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 Political Representation index 0.1083 0.0882 0. S.1605 0.1418 0.1945 0.1474 0.1763 0.1221 0.1282 0.1615 0.1513 0.3014 0.1579 0.0310 0.2237 0.1158 0.1876 0.1779 0.0882 0.0154 0.1211 0.2757 Voice and Agency Index 0.1618 0.2922 0.4461 0.

N.0000 among Kayastha.1066 0. hill Brahman and Thakuri indicating that there is wider variation among caste/ethnic group regarding political inclusion.0235 0..2974 5. Hyolmo.0563 0.0382 0.0934 0.0489 0.0000 0.0044 0.0000 Voice and Agency Index 0.0291 0.0623 0.0404 0. 52 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . Caste/Ethnicity 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 BADHAE KEWAT DHAGAR/JHAGAR BADI HALKHOR TAJPURIYA NUNIYA LEPCHA SANTHAL/SATAR THAMI MUNDA LODHA NURANG BANTAR CHEPANG (PRAJA) PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA RAUTE Total 97 Political Representation index 0.0320 0.Cont.0651 0. Rajput.0618 0.0842 0..3526 0.0114 0. Thakali.0961 0.0000 among Raute.1013 0.1026 0.0625 0.0000 0.0395 0.0489 0.0082 0.1039 0.1118 0. Lepcha.1250 0. It is less than one third of the full inclusion index.0179 0.0336 0.4 Conclusion Overall political inclusion index is fairly low when it is compared to other dimensional indices.0315 0.0000 0. S.0651 0.0808 0.0118 0.0164 .0244 0.0277 0.0559 0.0487 0. Tarai Brahman.0974 0.0671 0.0000 0.0235 Political Dimension Index 0.0658 0.0459 0.0286 0.0276 0. Walung to 1.. Thus level of political inclusion widely varies across 97 caste/ethnic groups of Nepal.0000 0. More important point here is that it ranges from 0. Kusbadiya.0609 0..2422 0.0431 0.

Language is a key element of culture and a marker of identity. plays a significant role in social inclusion. and expressed through specific behaviours.providing in-ways into power structures. and affects individual and group identity as well as creativity and artistic appreciation. Culture is also the social heritage created by humans through generations of practice and transmitted from one generation to the next. boys and girls should be given the opportunity to get a basic school education in their mother tongue.1 Language The recognition of the mother-tongue is one of the most important elements of cultural freedom. andcommonly held ideas.Both Hill and TaraiJanajatis and Newars lag behind the other broader groups. social organizations. it shapes access to education and employment.by delineating the cultural domains and indicators relevant to measuring cultural inclusion in Nepal. The Language index is computed as a composite of the mother tongue education index and the linguistic access index. it becomes invisible. The official recognition of languages. It defines culture as ‘a framework for interpreting the world that marks a distinctive way of life. Language provides individuals with a structured set of social conditions for living. a nonmaterial resource (language) can be converted into a material resource. Official recognition of language empowers linguistic communities and contributes to higher levels of social inclusion. including customs and rituals. though several elements/aspects of culture are equally pertinent for the leading a dignified life. manifested in the form of arts and artifacts. language is therefore directly related to human dignity and human rights. as pointed out by Kabeer (2010:30) with reference to Nepal. that connect people across time and space’ (Ross 2007:18). This chapter focuses on language and religion as the two most important aspects of cultural inclusion/exclusion. 6. and is a handicap for its speakers (Skutnabb-Kangas. This chapter enhances our understanding of such mechanisms (known as processes of exclusion/inclusion). accumulated knowledge. beliefs and values. On the one hand.and other forms of expression. are ‘key mechanisms through which social exclusion was perpetuated over time’. Hill Brahmans are at the top of the table followed by Hill Dalits and Hill Chhetris. therefore. language should not be a barrier to accessing life opportunities.6 The Cultural Dimension Index This chapter examines cultural participation from exclusion/inclusion perspective. When a language is recognized or validated. characterized in subjective “we-feelings” among group members. but on the other hand. THE CULTURAL DIMENSION INDEX 53 . When a language is not recognized or is invalidated. ‘Processes of cultural devaluation’. 2000:405-408).

0 . Chhetri. Sarki.2: Language Domain Index by caste/ethnic group S.5 .1018 3.4586 0.2848 32.8916 92.0000 10.9710 96.0379 1.9800 88.0 .2 .0000 99.2 .4 .3895 0.5085 0.0 1. These are all non-Janajati groups but include Brahmans and Dalits.4 0.5290 9.1 .2 .9809 0. Dura.9868 0.4 .0122 0.8 .4802 0.2 .0509 45.0 1.6 .7543 Language Domain Index 0.0 1.0933 7.1479 3.3287 74.8421 71.9157 52.0 1.2152 0.Majhi. Those groups in the bottom ten are: Lepcha.0255 3.5143 0. Pahari.9789 0. Hayu. Sanyasi.6040 The Language Index for the 97 caste/ethnic groups is presented in Table 6.3 .3 .0 1.6230 0.9959 0. Brahmu/Baramu.3 .5 .5231 0. The top ten groups include the Damai.9978 94.9741 0.0000 100.1 . Table 6.2 .9483 91.9709 94.9967 0.0323 97.8 .0000 100.6230 0.0 1. Kami.1 .0 1.0 1.9451 28.Kisan.0000 98. The disaggregated language index is uneven in that it shows varying levels of social inclusion in terms of linguistic opportunity (basic education in the mother tongue / access to local government services in the mother tongue). Thakuri. Gaine. Badi.7 . Hill Brahman.5361 0.7 .9855 0.9918 100.9841 0.0000 84.0000 98. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 54 DAMAI/DHOLI SARKI THAKURI BADI HILL BRAHMAN CHHETRI SANYASI KAMI GAINE MUSLIM SONAR RAJPUT KHATWE DHANUK TELI BING/BINDA TATMA KALWAR SUDHI Education In Mother Tongue Mean (%) Index 100.0 .4787 0.1 .4537 Linguistic Access Mean (%) Index 100.9710 96. The indices are ranked in descending order.0462 6.0183 1.8 .0 1.9934 100. Disadvantaged Janajati groups have the lowest index scores.3 .7 .0 .7456 71.0 .9803 100.9803 97.7171 4.0 .9855 0.5 .7 . Caste/Ethnicity N.0000 100.2 .0000 97. and Dhimal.2 .6 .8 .0484 0.0171 1.2.9978 89.0334 52.9651 2.6 .9280 99.0625 14.0459 75.0 1.9704 1.9934 100. Munda.0 1.Table 6.8 .0000 Language Domain Index 0.3 .9 .8789 0.5048 .1 .5213 0.6 .5467 0. Kumal.9618 97. and Muslim.0000 98.0 1.7171 100.0000 100.9 .8 .0000 99.5059 0.1 Language Domain Index by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Mother Tongue Education Mean (%) Index 97.1424 0.9 .9737 100.0 1.0722 4.0095 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Linguistic Access Mean (%) Index 99.5290 5.5 .5091 0.8808 98.0000 99.9814 0.9868 100.9901 0.2 .8 .

4137 0.7 98.4178 0.6 96.9404 .7 81.9338 .8 47.0 98.4243 0.0059 .7 46.4523 0.4541 0.0000 .4904 0.9605 .0 69.0088 .1 88.0175 .8553 .0000 .4106 .1646 93.0074 0.9145 .4 92.4060 0.4948 0.0 .0 93.0 0.4909 0.8816 .2517 .0291 .5029 0.8750 .2 87.8882 .0 1.9868 .0 1.0 1..6 78.1 93.4747 0.3738 0.8882 .4874 0.9342 .7 2.3 1.7 96.5033 0.5000 0.8 0.3816 .9211 .9868 0.0190 .4833 1.3672 0.6382 .0201 .3 0.4153 0.8 0.0066 Linguistic Access Mean (%) Index 100.4782 0.6 0.7961 .2 88.7 3.4638 .9 3.4356 0.5 .0339 .9667 0.9671 .4836 0..4 16.7 1.0 2.3184 THE CULTURAL DIMENSION INDEX 55 ..2 36.0407 .8026 .0 0.9 4.0099 .4722 0. 20 KANU 21 BHEDIYAR/GADERI 22 LOHAR 23 CHAMAR.0 0.8 88.3441 0.5 85.4033 0.8158 .5 41.0000 .3 79.3855 0.0313 .7 1.9671 .9 83.4661 0.0000 .0226 .0 1.8355 .0000 .9474 .9868 .0174 .5 .9 0.9671 .8 88.5037 0.0000 .4 91.4898 0.4250 .1 2.4 1.5 1.1 73.0177 .0000 .0000 . HARIJAN.4 96.7 25.0194 .0231 .0 0.9 1.0 1.0 3.3 42.4836 0.0 2.8487 .9 94.7303 .3360 0.4 16.TARAI 48 THARU 49 CHIDIMAR 50 BANTAR 51 GHARTI/BHUJEL 52 LIMBU 53 HALUWAI 54 GANGAI 55 HYOLMO 56 KAMAR 57 BYANGSI 58 WALUNG Education In Mother Tongue Mean (%) Index 0.8 3. RAM 24 HAJAM/THAKUR 25 KUMHAR 26 MALLAH 27 MALI 28 KAYASTHA 29 DHUNIA 30 HALKHOR 31 BADHAE 32 BANIYA 33 KOIRI 34 DUSADH/PASWAN/PASI 35 LODHA 36 NURANG 37 BARAE 38 YADAV 39 MUSAHAR 40 RAJBHAR 41 NUNIYA 42 KURMI 43 KAHAR 44 DHOBI 45 DOM 46 KEWAT 47 BRAHMAN .4486 0.7 96.9 38.1649 .0091 .4375 0.0000 100.2 .Cont.8816 .2 66.0 2.4713 0.0000 100.7829 .5008 0.5 84.4934 0.7 96.0000 ..1 0. S.6689 .7 .0 98.0156 . Caste/Ethnicity N.6 0.9388 .0159 .0000 .4968 0.7 94.0148 100.9 63.0068 .4605 0.0370 .3577 0.6 1.7 .0345 .0000 Language Domain Index 0.3604 .6974 .4490 0.0280 .6 80.

0220 5.0 0.1 0.Cont.3026 37.0339 0.2 33.9 3.0197 0.2743 .2 9.2527 0.2796 0.1427 0.1711 .8 .1714 0.1224 .0192 .7543 0.0533 .3 0.2 17.7 1.2867 48.0349 0.0000 .1349 0.0 .8 0.0526 .5 .0000 .1118 .0476 .2 1.3 .4803 45.4 1.0 2..7 5.0329 .0132 .7 0.9 1.1283 0.0 0.0118 .0086 .1333 .1 .3 3.6040 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .2697 .0 5.0 0.0580 7.7 .8 0.1087 .3 2.9 13.1544 0.0132 .0000 .0000 .0 0.0352 0.0000 0.4 .0 45.0000 2.0197 ..3 3.0066 .3 0.4 .2527 0.0000 0.3304 .2 27.4537 0.2237 . S.0066 .0495 0.0 13.0395 .0 .2523 0..0314 0.5503 28.0000 .0 25.8 .0000 .6 2.7 1.0644 0.4 25.0127 0. 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 56 THAMI DANUWAR SHERPA BHOTE RAJBANSI TAMANG JIREL TAJPURIYA MAGAR PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA RAI GURUNG YAKKHA BOTE NEWARI CHHANTYAL DARAI KOCHE SUNUWAR SANTHAL/SATAR PUNJABI/SIKH BANGALI DHAGAR/JHAGAR CHEPANG (PRAJA) RAUTE RAJI MARWADI MECHE THAKALI LEPCHA HAYU KUMAL BRAHMU/BARAMU MAJHI DURA PAHARI KISAN MUNDA DHIMAL Total Education In Mother Tongue Mean (%) Index 1.0810 0.0235 .0155 0.9 7.0000 0.0110 .1316 .7 0.0089 23.0249 0.3 .0066 .1283 0.0 1.0183 .0 0.3 0.2416 .0 .0000 .6 22.5921 55.0137 0.0330 .0 1.0033 0.4 .0 .0 75.0260 9.2002 0.0329 .7 .3 4.2 .0990 .0315 24.0099 0.0263 0.1 3.0263 .7 0.0 .0 1.0831 0. Caste/Ethnicity N.2566 .2 .4474 43.9 3.0271 0.4 1.3029 0..0244 .0157 2.4305 48.3725 Language Domain Index 0.0 4.0123 .0486 .1340 0.0 .0741 0.7 2.4 .5 27.4 28.0066 0.4539 30.3 .1424 0.0165 .0000 .0978 0.0898 0.0000 .9 .6 0.1772 .2353 2.3 12.7 17.9 11.1752 0.0 0.2610 0.0000 Linguistic Access Mean (%) Index 59.4834 44.0071 .0169 .4 .2 3.0704 .0263 .2848 .6 .2562 .0299 .1863 10.2400 0.2401 0.0000 .

0000 1.7 .0 1.9792 .9211 . Thakuri.8673 .The recognition of religion index measures the extent to which religions are treated equally.0 100.0000 1. Kumhar.9600 Recognition of Religion Index . See CBS 2012:184-200.8991 . Table 6.3 .9324 . An inclusive society should be able to accommodate people of all religions on an equal footing. Dhuniya.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0 1. and not all religions get equal treatment.9610 .9236 90.3 .0000 1.2 Religion National statistics show that more than ten religions exist in the country with followers ranging in number from a few hundreds to 21 million8.9967 THE CULTURAL DIMENSION INDEX 57 . Nepal’s transition from being a Hindu Kingdom to secular republic (declared on 18 May 2006) is still incomplete in the sense that laws and state practices are not yet fully secularized.0000 100.1 TaraiBrahman/Chhetri 77.9 Muslim 90.8 Others 96. Patharkatta.9818 96.5 . and Chhantyal have the highest index values. and the recognition of religions by the state.9633 97. Sherpa. Dhangar.9443 Absence of religious discrimination Mean (%) Index 100.0000 100.9 Hill Dalit 97. It is computed as the mean of the equality and recognition indices.9889 96. Social Categories Religion recognized 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mean (%) 100.0 1.0 BRAHMU/BARAMU HALUWAI KUMHAR NURANG SONAR THAKURI CHEPANG (PRAJA) 8.9340 .9744 92.0000 98.0 100.0 1.0000 1.1 Newari 92. Sudhi. The index is presented in Tables 6.4 Index .9331 .0 . Nurang.9342 . These groups perceive lower levels of inclusion due to their religious beliefs.0000 100.9770 92.0 1. The distribution shows that the majority of the broader caste/ethnic groups appear toexperience similar levels of inclusion in terms of religion and ritual with Hill Brahmans and Hill Chhetris ranking highest.9145 .9766 .9514 .4 . TaraiBrahman. the Bing/Binda.0 100.9038 94.4.9647 .1 .9713 .3 Tarai Janajati 91.3 and 6. Dhobi.0000 1.4 .6.9 .9195 .9380 .9211 98.0 100. Sonar.0000 1. Haluai.9521 The disaggregatedindex reveals that Brahmu.1 Tarai Other Caste 89.0 1. Chepang. Table 6.7 Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri 97.9350 97.9868 .9469 .0000 99.0 100.2 .N.0000 1. In contrast.4: RecogniƟon of Religion Index by caste/ethnic group S.9474 93. and Bhote feature at the bottom of theindex. Rajput.9079 .4 .0000 100.1 Mountain/Hill Janajati 93.0000 100.5 Total 94.9934 Recognition of Religion Index 1. It is surprising to note that TaraiBrahman/Chhetris have the lowest index value.7712 .9934 .0000 1.0000 1.0000 Absence of religious discrimination Mean (%) Index 100.7 . Limbu.0 100. Danuwar.3: RecogniƟon of Religion Index by broader social group Social Categories Religion recognized Mean (%) 98.1 Index 1.9 Tarai Dalit 96.9768 .0 1.

0000 1.7 .9803 98.7 96.9704 0.0 99.9868 1.3 .9868 99.9934 1.0000 .3 98.9737 100.9934 0.9539 .9597 95.9934 0.9737 0.9868 0.9934 0.0 1.0000 .0000 1.9306 94.7 100.7 .3 96.9868 98.9901 0.9966 0.9868 96.9868 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Absence of religious discrimination Mean (%) Index 100.7 .4 98.9638 .9795 96.0 1.7 98.6 97.0 99.9801 0.9934 0.9803 93.9732 0.7 .9868 .9737 .0 .9836 0.0 .6 ..0 97.9868 100.9967 0.9803 98.9934 98.7 .9868 0.9868 1.0 100.9868 0.9638 0.9868 1.7 100.9868 1.9671 98.9934 1.9737 0.9836 0.7 .0 96.9901 0.9934 ..1 .7 .7 98.3 .0 .0000 .4 95.4 .9868 1.9671 0.0000 1.3 .9671 .9967 0.9803 98.0 .9832 0.0 98.9801 96.3 100.0 .0000 .9803 .9868 .0 98.0 99.9704 0.9803 98.9836 0.0 1.7 .9868 99.7 98.9836 0.4 98.7 100.9803 98.9901 0.9934 0.7 99.9671 98.7 ..N.0 100.9934 0.9527 97.7 58 DANUWAR DHOBI CHHANTYAL BANTAR BARAE HILL BRAHMAN CHIDIMAR KAMAR THAKALI HAYU KOIRI GHARTI/BHUJEL SANYASI DURA MAJHI RAJBHAR KALWAR BOTE NUNIYA DARAI TATMA GURUNG TAMANG KEWAT TELI KUMAL DAMAI/DHOLI LODHA KAYASTHA CHHETRI GAINE MAGAR RAJBANSI GANGAI LEPCHA LOHAR BANGALI KOCHE RAUTE BADHAE KURMI Index .9866 .0000 .9730 0. S.9868 98.7 .9664 97.0000 98.0 98.0 .9539 1.3 100.0 .0000 98.9735 .9868 98.7 .9834 0.9868 98.9868 .7 100.7 .4 .0000 .3 100.0 .9868 0.4 ..0000 99.9408 Recognition of Religion Index 0.0 .0000 .9735 97.9653 0.0 99.Cont.6 .1 .9737 98.0000 .0000 .0 98.7 98.0 .9864 98.9934 98.9737 .9934 98.7 100.9 .9671 .0 97.3 .4 95.7 .9932 .9934 0.4 95.9932 1.9803 96.9726 0.4 97.9539 .9803 .9803 96.9474 94.4 100.9868 97.9671 0.9658 . Social Categories Religion recognized 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Mean (%) 99.9671 99.3 98.3 .9803 98.9898 0.9836 0.0000 98.9934 100.9932 .9770 0.9737 .9868 .9704 0.0 .0 1.7 98.0 100.9901 0.

4 88.4 .9342 .4 96.1 Index .7 96.N.9533 97.9803 94..8355 .8609 .3 84.9572 0.9441 0.Cont.8940 .9801 .9205 0.7 .1 90.9735 91.9597 0.8477 0.9633 0.9426 0.9408 .9079 .6 98.9013 0.4 91.2 .8158 .5 90.9800 95.4 .9408 0.9664 .7368 .9636 0.7829 .8553 .9737 .9112 0.8750 .9276 90.8933 94.9467 .7 81..9737 .5 88.6 97.8 83.9408 Recognition of Religion Index 0.8487 0.9122 98.8882 .8421 .9470 98.8 .8750 0.9276 .0 94.9539 0.7 .9211 0.2 94.7 97.9737 97.4 86.9408 0.9735 92.9309 0.4 91.9079 98.9801 . S.9106 84.1 93.6 78.9145 . RAM JIREL MUSAHAR PUNJABI/SIKH DOM BHEDIYAR/GADERI BYANGSI KHATWE WALUNG YADAV RAI DHANUK YAKKHA BING/BINDA Absence of religious discrimination Mean (%) Index 94.4 79.9013 .9211 0..9 77. Social Categories Religion recognized 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 Mean (%) 98.8 89.4 82.8947 .0 90.8289 .9408 0.9342 .9145 0.8947 .7 .2 81.8947 0.7 95.8816 0.6 94.9868 .9276 0.4 97.6 77.0000 .9868 95.9867 .8487 0.4 97.9467 0.9139 .8 94.3 .9211 93..9474 89.7 84.5 97.7 100.4 98.9530 92.6 99.9474 .9539 .9437 0.8 98.7763 97.7 .9400 0.1 91.9400 .9342 .7 93.9730 .8421 . HARIJAN.8 .9079 .9934 .9474 94.7763 .0 98.8 94.6 89.8947 0.0 .9474 .8158 .0 .0 92.4 85.2 86.8 .4 97.6 .7755 .9868 .0 91.8874 .9211 .4 .4 96.9079 0.1 98.5 87.9868 1.9079 0.8 90.7 77.7961 .8469 0.9737 .8684 .8947 0.8421 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 PAHARI THARU BADI SUNUWAR HALKHOR MUNDA THAMI KISAN HAJAM/THAKUR KAMI DHIMAL MALLAH TAJPURIYA SARKI NEWARI DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI RAJI BANIYA KAHAR KANU HYOLMO SANTHAL/SATAR MARWADI MALI MUSLIM MECHE CHAMAR.7 .9184 .9145 .9342 0.9474 0.7 92.9868 98.9737 .3 89.1 .1 99.9605 .9211 .9737 .9901 .8947 0.9605 .3 .1 90.9243 0.3 .9309 THE CULTURAL DIMENSION INDEX 59 .9013 .9243 0.1 85.3 73.8907 0.8 .9243 0.8520 .1 92.

N.9600 Recognition of Religion Index 0.9167 96. from the social inclusion/ exclusion perspective.8487 .3 0. customary governance was identified as an indicator of social inclusion 60 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .1 0. caste/ethnicity.7697 0.0 84.6118 . and the community’s ability to retain and maintain social cohesion.0 .2 0.TARAI SHERPA RAJPUT PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA DHAGAR/JHAGAR SUDHI DHUNIA LIMBU BHOTE Total Absence of religious discrimination Mean (%) Index 94. 6.8804 98. social networks and social relationships. S. and location) exacerbate inequality. levels of inclusion vary among the caste/ethnic groups.1 74.3 ..4 . and the distribution of social capital.3 96.9307 90.Cont.6908 .9320 93.. networks and connections are described as social capital and it is postulated that social capital and inclusion are strongly correlated.6 0.0 0.3 53.7961 0.9408 .9059 91. Table 6.9828 98. This may indicate the vitality and utility of customary institutions.9443 93 94 95 96 97 BRAHMAN . However.5724 .6 0. The customary governance indicator also measures the level of participation in cultural activities and membership of cultural institutions.9521 In terms of recognition of religion. injustice and social exclusion (Andjelkovic et al.0 1.6800 .7 ..8431 70.2 69. Social Categories Religion recognized 89 90 91 92 Mean (%) 73.7105 . 2011: 31-32).9671 99.2 . For these reasons.1 68.9420 9.7 71.2 76.7632 . Social relationships.4 .8388 0. exclusive social capital is more decisive and pervasive. Many Janajati groups experience high levels of inclusion while other ethnic groups such as the Bhote and Limbu lag behind.7368 .3 94.3 Customary governance Customary governance is measured by examining respondents’ perceptions of barriers erected by the state that hinder a community’s ability to pursue customary governance practices.3 Index .0 84.8039 94.1 98. Closed networks based on social attributes and linkages related to the individual and to the family (including clan.9803 .7039 . is assumed to be equitable.5: Customary Governance Index by broader social group Social Categories Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalits Tarai Dalits Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Customary governance Mean (%) Index 92.7 .2 0.8224 0.7 0.8235 0.9 57. customary governance is common to all.9841 88.6579 0.9231 100.9665 94.9474 96.3 0.9818 93.4 0.4 61..9933 80.5329 .6480 .8421 0.7434 .0000 98.8367 0. Social participation of this kind (social capital) is thought to contribute to levels of social inclusion/exclusion9. As Nepal is a caste-based society. It is also claimed that social capital can be further broken down into inclusive social capital and exclusive social capital.

0 1.0 1.0 1.TARAI BRAHMU/BARAMU CHHANTYAL CHHETRI DANUWAR DHUNIA DUSADH/PASWAN/PASI GURUNG HALKHOR HALUWAI HAYU KEWAT KOIRI KUMAL LIMBU MAJHI MECHE PATHARKATA/KUSWADIYA RAJBHAR SANYASI SARKI SONAR SUDHI THAKURI THAMI HYOLMO BYANGSI DAMAI/DHOLI KAYASTHA KHATWE MALLAH SANTHAL/SATAR TELI Customary governance Mean (%) Index 100.0 1.0000 100.0000 100.0000 100.0 1. Hill Dalit and Muslim groups lag behind on this indicator.0 1.3 0.0 1.0000 100.0000 100.0000 100.0000 100.0000 100.0000 100.0 1.0000 100.0 1.0 1. The TaraiBrahman/Chhetri.0 1.0000 100.0 1.0000 100.Table 6.0000 100.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1. Tarai Dalit and other Taraicaste groups also rank relatively highly.0 1.6: Customary Governance Index by caste/ethnic group S.0000 100. Social Categories 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 BADHAE BADI BANGALI BANIYA BRAHMAN .0000 100.0 1.0000 100.0 1.0 1.0 1.N.0 1.0 1.0000 100.0000 100.0000 100.0000 100.0000 99.0000 100.0 1.0000 100.0 1.0000 100.0000 100. Table 6.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0000 100.0000 100.0 1.0 1.0000 100.0000 100.0000 100.0000 100.0 1.9931 THE CULTURAL DIMENSION INDEX 61 . This suggests that none of the Hill Chhetri respondents has experienced any state-created constraints to practicing customary governance or to participating in the activities of customary institutions.0000 100.0 1.0000 100.0000 100.0000 100.5 shows Hill Chhetris topping the index.0000 100.0 1.0 1.0 1.

9615 95.9180 91.5 0.9785 97.9706 97.4 0.2 0.9737 97.9320 92.1 0.3 0.9811 97.9912 99.6 0.9449 93.9375 93.9704 96.2 0.7 0.3 0.9898 98.1 0.3 0.8 0.9630 96.8 0.9773 97.4 0.3 0.9474 94.9848 98.0 0.5 0.9 0.7 0.6 0. HARIJAN.9861 98.9767 97.2 0.8 0.9750 97.9365 93..9643 96.9859 98.6 0.9821 98.9474 94.4 0.9924 99.9661 96..9 0.9831 98.1 0.8 0.2 0.9 0.2 0.6 0.9684 96.9737 97.7 0.7 0.5 0.9683 96.7 0.2 0.8 0. Social Categories 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 TATMA DHIMAL KOCHE BING/BINDA MALI RAJI BANTAR SUNUWAR BARAE KURMI TAJPURIYA NUNIYA CHAMAR.9875 98.9494 94.9231 91.9888 98.9231 92.N.9760 97. S..0 0.6 0.7 0.9661 96.9730 97.8 0.Cont. RAM DHAGAR/JHAGAR GANGAI KISAN LOHAR BHOTE KAHAR DHANUK MUSAHAR SHERPA MARWADI HAJAM/THAKUR MUNDA YADAV CHIDIMAR BHEDIYAR/GADERI RAJBANSI BOTE DHOBI KANU KUMHAR PUNJABI/SIKH THAKALI KAMAR MAGAR NEWARI HILL BRAHMAN RAJPUT DARAI MUSLIM 62 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Customary governance Mean (%) Index 99.9167 .9524 94.3 0.9787 97..9722 97.

0 0.6933 .7 0.9 0.8835 87.6695 .9320 .7 0.9860 . Social Categories 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 TAMANG PAHARI GAINE WALUNG GHARTI/BHUJEL THARU YAKKHA LODHA RAI DOM DURA RAUTE LEPCHA KAMI CHEPANG (PRAJA) JIREL KALWAR NURANG Total Customary governance Mean (%) Index 91.9386 .7).9167 90. S.4586 ..8000 78..7475 THE CULTURAL DIMENSION INDEX 63 .9855 .this is reflected in an index value of 1.9231 .8 0.5 0. Kami.8947 89.0 0.2 0.7695 .2 .9307 .9673 1.4787 .2152 .8750 80. Muslims score close to the national average while the remaining groups experience lower levels of cultural inclusion.9059 .9340 .7368 0.8919 88. the Raute.4802 .Cont..9342 .9324 .7778 76. Table 6.7813 77. and Chepang groups face lower levels of inclusion in terms of customary governance but still score 0.3895 Recognition of Religion Index .0 0.7 out of a possible maximum of 1. Lepcha.9514 . In contrast.0 0.8804 .9814 .9818 .8 0.7692 75.2 0.9380 .9469 Customary Governance Cultural Index Dimensions Index .8673 .8919 89.9420 More than one third of all caste/ethnic groups are fully satisfied with customary governance and other social practices.9934 .3 0.9828 .0 0.0000 .9841 .N. Hill Brahmans and Hill Chhetris rank highest on the cultural dimension index while Janajatis and Newars both lag behind (Table 6.0000 0.7: Cultural Dimensional Index by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Language index .5 0.7976 . 6.8008 .1 0.1424 .7500 73.4 Cultural Dimensional Index (CDI) The cultural dimension index was computed as an average of the three domains considered above..9841 .0 0.9766 .0 94.9077 89.

the Thakuri.9834 0. theChepang.4836 0.9868 0. N.9156 0..0000 0.9868 0. Lepcha.8159 0.5085 0. In contrast.9868 0.8161 0. Sarki.4874 0. Badi.9276 0.5029 0.9167 . Sanyasi.6040 Recognition of Religion Index .9673 0.0000 1.9768 .Cont.8246 0.0484 . None of these groups are Janajati.0000 1.8046 0.8119 0.8048 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 64 Caste/Ethnicity THAKURI DAMAI/DHOLI SANYASI CHHETRI BADI SARKI HILL BRAHMAN GAINE SONAR TELI TATMA KOIRI KAYASTHA MUSLIM BADHAE LOHAR BARAE KUMHAR HALKHOR RAJBHAR MALLAH NUNIYA DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI KHATWE HAJAM/THAKUR BANIYA KEWAT MALI Language index 0.9420 .9167 1.0000 1.8 Cultural Dimensional Index by caste/ethnic group S.8059 0.8040 0.9145 .9437 0.9855 0.0000 0.0000 0.9786 0.4968 0.4523 0.9831 0.8005 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .9145 0.9597 0.8327 Among the caste/ethnic groups.8147 0.4833 Recognition of Religion Index 1. Dura.8789 0..8947 1.9665 .9836 0.5143 0.9923 0. The index shows a substantial amount of variation among the groups. Damai/Dholi. Dhagad. Table 6.9849 0.9934 0.9924 1..9539 0.0000 0.4541 0.9934 1. Yakhkha and Pahari groups experience less cultural inclusion and have lower index values. Jirel.9809 0.9638 0.5231 0. Raute.9737 0.9901 0.8282 0.0000 1.8907 0.9704 0.4713 0.8137 0.9789 0. Sonar and Teli groups enjoy the highest levels of cultural freedom (Table 6.9875 0.9408 0.9787 1.0000 0.0000 1.9967 0..8).4934 0.4243 0.9684 1. Gaine.0000 1.8215 0.0000 0.9732 1.9474 1.4898 0.4836 0.5467 0.8146 0.9822 0.8181 0. Chhetri.9750 0.9400 0.0000 1.9931 0.9897 0.9901 0.6230 .8303 0.6230 0.0000 0.9521 Customary Governance Cultural Index Dimensions Index .9959 0.9967 0.0000 1.9737 0.8181 .0000 0.9231 0.5000 0.8489 0.8171 0.9801 0.9836 0.0000 0. Bhote.8037 0.9205 1.9901 0.0000 1.6639 .4909 0. Hill Brahman.9309 Customary Governance Index 1.0000 0. Rai. Caste/Ethnicity Muslim Others Total Language index .0000 Cultural Dimensions Index 0.8026 0. All groups in the bottom 10 are Hill Janajatis.4948 0.

9106 Customary Governance Index 0.4486 0.4747 0.7206 0.0000 0.9726 0.7105 0.8947 0.7955 0.1427 0.5361 0.0000 0.2002 0.9638 0.9633 0.4033 0.3360 0.9572 0.8816 0.4661 0.8487 0.7183 0.5059 0.7714 0..9888 0.8421 0.9243 0.7175 0.9013 0.9730 0.7966 0.8947 0.4904 0.4490 0.9966 0.7874 0.6951 0.7911 0.0000 0.9848 0.9770 0. RAM DHOBI BANTAR KANU HALUWAI CHIDIMAR BHEDIYAR/GADERI KAHAR DHANUK BING/BINDA MUSAHAR GANGAI YADAV SUDHI RAJPUT GHARTI/BHUJEL HYOLMO DANUWAR KAMAR THARU DHUNIA BRAHMAN–TARAI LODHA THAMI KALWAR BYANGSI NURANG RAJBANSI TAJPURIYA GURUNG TAMANG CHHANTYAL MAGAR DOM WALUNG BOTE KOCHE SHERPA SUNUWAR Language index 0.9821 0.3672 0.9811 1.9494 1.9231 0.2796 0.9467 0.2610 0.5048 0. S.7464 0.7027 0.9722 0.5033 0.6901 0.5091 0.7517 0.4605 0.9934 0.7541 0.7533 0.0000 0.7913 0.7534 0.9898 0.6973 0..5213 0.0000 0.4137 0.7780 0.0000 0.9167 1.8947 1.8000 1.8835 1.0000 0.9859 0.9706 0.7374 0.7499 0.9524 0.9661 1.7588 0.9408 0.2523 0.4782 0.7925 0.4178 0.9615 0.0000 0.8919 0. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 Caste/Ethnicity KURMI CHAMAR.5008 Recognition of Religion Index 0.7618 0.9730 0.7951 0.1283 0.9661 0. HARIJAN.6901 THE CULTURAL DIMENSION INDEX 65 .0000 1.8750 0..9967 0.0000 0.3184 0.0000 0.9836 0.Cont.0000 1.9901 0.7778 0.9767 0.7294 0.4356 0.7436 0.3577 0.9375 0.3441 0..7983 0.9365 0.9934 0.9967 0.9836 0.8388 0.3029 0. N.7961 0.7697 0.8919 1.7810 0.9785 Cultural Dimensions Index 0.9934 0.7669 0.1349 0.2400 0.9643 0.1283 0.9630 0.0000 0.4060 0.9671 0.8421 0.1714 0.7653 0.6970 0.7800 0.3738 0.9868 0.5037 0.9243 1.4153 0.7584 0.4375 0.9704 0.7607 0.9737 0.0000 1.7032 0.9868 0.2527 0.7822 0.8367 0.7691 0.9243 0.

0249 0.6728 0.9836 0.8224 0..0898 0.6480 0.9861 1.0644 0.9901 0.6579 0.6695 0. Thakuri and Sanayasi groups is also quite high.9342 0.9180 1.0000 1.8235 Customary Governance Index 1.8750 0.6507 0. N.0000 1.9309 0..0000 0.6417 0.6422 0.9077 0.8947 0.9737 0.5 Conclusion The cultural inclusion index highlights some of the key aspects of cultural recognition and cultural freedom of this multicultural country and shows a number of marked variations between caste/ ethnic groups.1863 Recognition of Religion Index 0.9211 0.0000 0.9773 0.0099 0.9653 0.6551 0.6040 0.0000 .2401 0.8327 6.3855 0. S.9441 0.6418 0.0831 0.9741 0.6475 0.5740 0.Cont.8469 0.9934 1. Chepang and Lepcha score lower.0197 0.6254 0.9683 0.5907 0.0127 0.0155 0.7813 0.9704 0.1424 0.6719 0.6248 0.6270 0.9211 0.6827 0.9521 0.5231 .9760 0.5835 0.9449 0. the level of cultural inclusion among the Chhetri.0810 0. Groups such as the Jirel.9832 0.7692 0.0066 0.6017 0.0349 0.0000 1. The opposite is true for Newars and other Janajati groups.0271 0.6389 0.9426 0.0263 0.9671 0..1340 0.1752 0. Hill Brahmans and Hill Chhetris have the highest cultural inclusion scores.0000 Cultural Dimensions Index 0.0000 1.6699 0. Among the broader social groups.6785 0.0157 0.9967 .0000 1.9320 1.9474 0.9112 0.0000 0.6811 0.7368 0.0000 0..9420 0.1544 0. Although some Dalit groups have a high index score.6677 0.6703 0.6684 0.8487 0.6440 0. 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Caste/Ethnicity BANGALI LIMBU DARAI HAYU BRAHMU/BARAMU SANTHAL/SATAR PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA NEWARI MAJHI KUMAL THAKALI RAJI MECHE DHIMAL KISAN MARWADI PUNJABI/SIKH MUNDA KAMI PAHARI YAKKHA BHOTE DHAGAR/JHAGAR RAI DURA RAUTE LEPCHA JIREL CHEPANG (PRAJA) NEPAL Language index 0.0352 0.9934 0.0000 0.0339 0.9079 0.0000 0.0033 0.7500 0.6396 0.9408 0.5779 0.6213 0.0495 .0000 0.9636 0.9474 0.2527 0.9912 0. 66 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .9898 0.9704 0.0314 0.

THE GENDER DIMENSION INDEX 67 .the control over the decision to marry index. This index looks at violence against women from the perspective of non-violence (inclusion). only about one fifth of women have any control over the decision to marry. Thakali. Disaggregation reveals that Hill Chhetri women are less likely to be victims of violence both in the household and in the public arena. followed by Muslim and Hill Brahman women. Khatwe and Patharkata/Kuswadiya. Among these two groups. Chhantyal. none of the ethnic groups have uniformly high or low scores across the domains – levels of inclusion vary for each domain index. Bing/Binda. 7. Kayastha. followed by Newariwomen and Mountain/Hill Janajati women. Women who face lower levels of public/household violence are from the Baramu/Brahmu. Bangali. control over the decision to marry. Halkor.There is significant variation among groups in both the domain and dimensional indices. Kewat. indicating that many Newari women are victims of household or community based violence. 7. so control over the decision to marry is hugely important.2 Control over the decision to marry Control over the decision to marry is another important domain linked to sexuality. 7. Badhae. Getting married impacts on a woman for the rest of her life. Punjabi. and in aspects of public life. and the control over reproductive decisions index.1 Non-violence against women Nepali women face the threat of violence in the household. and gender based violence. Musahar. Dhagar/Jhgar. Control over the decision to marry is also an indicator of women’s rights. Tarai Dalit women and women from other Taraicastes are less likely to be included in decisions about their marriage. This is a form of exclusion as it fails to uphold the right to a dignified life. Analysis of the domains focuses on groups (from the 97 caste/ ethnic groups) that rank in the top or bottom ten for each domain index.1. This type of distribution indicates that in real terms. Tatma. Hyolmo and Dhobi groups. The groups with the lowest levels of non-violence are the Dom. Index values show that Hill Dalit women have more control over the decision to marry than any of the other groups. Chepang. the community. non-violence is reported by one in three Newari women.1. and control over reproductive decisions. Access to educational opportunity and economic autonomy are the other important aspects of gender inclusion discussed in this chapter.7 The Gender Dimension Index This chapter describes the four major domains of the gender dimension. Rajbansi. control over the body. In contrast. These includenonviolence.1 Non-Violence Index The non-violence index is a composite of the non-violence against women index.

1 0.7 59.5559 46.6933 0.3 39.0 92.7961 75.1 0.6413 0.9 75.6 73.7697 0.6080 0.3947 0.8 Index 0.7177 0.8 0.9792 0.8800 0.7500 0.6424 0.4868 0.8874 0.8 71.9536 0.7 64.6 0. Bhote.5 52.5263 58.6579 Control over reproductive decisions Mean Index (%) 79. Chepang.6382 0. Barae.7171 0.4671 40.6432 0.6579 0.4671 48.6645 0.0 94.3421 42.5132 57.9 84.5789 0.2 69.5658 0.9324 0.6118 0.7333 0.9 0.8836 0. Kewat.5724 0.7703 0.7961 0.4079 57.6111 0.9 54.5899 0.1 37.3421 34.1 65.8 57.6410 0.2 90.5768 .6 0.5461 46.6501 0.6162 0.8 61.9362 0. Kumal. and Lepcha groups.7500 0.4474 40.7083 0.7724 0.7 62.6652 0.6698 0.7 0. Kahar and Halkhor groups.7566 0.8 79.6711 0.N.6488 0.4145 44.6579 0.5461 46.3816 51.7542 0.8882 0. Musahar.6263 0.6408 0.2 90.8725 0.6 0.6423 0.5 52. Sonar.1 53.3 90.5329 0.2 80.8933 0.Women with higher index scores are from the Byansi.9 0.6 65.5197 0.6 0.7 94.6215 0.4 0.2 0. Brahmu/Baramu. Table 7.4079 54.4539 34.4474 0.9 65.6 0.8 0.3 96.9 94.6303 0.5789 65.9041 0.6946 0.9408 0.5461 38.6 67.3 0.7518 0.4 0.0 48. Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 68 BYANGSI PUNJABI/SIKH BRAHMU/BARAMU CHHANTYAL CHEPANG (PRAJA) THAKALI PAHARI MECHE KUMAL THAKURI DAMAI/DHOLI GHARTI/BHUJEL SANYASI LEPCHA YAKKHA DARAI GAINE HYOLMO BADI MARWADI JIREL SARKI BANGALI HILL BRAHMAN MAJHI GURUNG HAYU SHERPA BOTE KAMI RAJBANSI BHOTE MAGAR CHHETRI Non-Violence Against Women Control over the decision to marry Mean (%) 67.6 0.0 70.6 71.4 73.9408 0.2 75.5461 0.5 57.8 69.5 75.5915 0.3158 38. Those groups with lower scores include women from the Lodha.6447 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Index 0.9452 0.6250 0.5263 0.9671 0.7 0.2 75.9091 0.6014 0.4605 45.9 0.8 77.1 93.6886 0.8 64.4 57.6198 0.2 0.3 77.7 0. Tatma.5 Mean (%) 97.9 88.2 0.7338 0.7 0.5987 0. Badi.6513 48.6473 0.0 65.6880 0.1 93.3750 0.4803 31.2 0.5789 51. Mallah.4 86.7 63.3 87.5855 53.7500 41.9667 0.6022 0.0 0.5 56.7 60. Teli.5263 46.1 88.8639 0.9211 0.8367 0.5855 54.4605 46.7 0.5835 0.6776 0.7351 0.6 92.9 66.6 0.0 61.5789 0.7153 0.8489 0.4671 52.7896 0.7 88.3816 52.7741 0.5 73.9054 0.7 44.6 0.3 0.6 0.1: Sexuality and gender based non-violence index by caste/ethnic group S.4 95.7368 0.6 0.5395 55.7 82.8 77.8 0.6 83.6513 0.4276 Gender NonViolence Index 0.0 0.8000 0.1 89.6243 0.7605 0.4 88.1 0.5132 58. Darai.4868 54.6184 0.9231 0.8176 0.0 96. Hayu.5840 0.6908 0.8264 0. Thakuri.

Cont.....

S.N. Caste/Ethnicity

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72

KISAN
WALUNG
SUNUWAR
KAYASTHA
RAJI
TAMANG
THAMI
DHIMAL
DANUWAR
RAI
MUSLIM
RAUTE
LIMBU
MUNDA
NEWARI
SANTHAL/SATAR
KOCHE
DURA
RAJPUT
THARU
LOHAR
KALWAR
BANIYA
BRAHMAN - TARAI
SUDHI
KUMHAR
TAJPURIYA
BHEDIYAR/GADERI
KOIRI
KANU
TELI
HAJAM/THAKUR
RAJBHAR
GANGAI
BANTAR
DHAGAR/JHAGAR
HALUWAI
KAMAR

Non-Violence
Against Women

Control over the
decision to marry

Mean
(%)
51.3
40.1
47.4
80.3
51.3
58.6
67.1
45.4
52.6
52.0
64.5
49.3
37.5
38.8
33.6
46.1
64.5
46.7
57.0
67.8
53.9
42.8
56.6
53.9
62.5
46.1
54.6
57.9

0.5132
0.4013
0.4737
0.8026
0.5132
0.5855
0.6711
0.4539
0.5263
0.5197
0.6447
0.4932
0.3750
0.3882
0.3355
0.4605
0.6447
0.4671
0.5695
0.6776
0.5395
0.4276
0.5658
0.5395
0.6250
0.4605
0.5461
0.5789

Mean
(%)
79.3
87.5
81.1
36.2
80.7
70.3
58.3
79.2
57.9
78.2
59.9
69.6
84.6
67.6
77.5
75.5
51.0
72.2
29.9
38.2
31.1
49.0
45.6
34.2
24.2
35.3
41.2
16.9

0.7931
0.8750
0.8112
0.3618
0.8069
0.7027
0.5833
0.7919
0.5789
0.7823
0.5987
0.6957
0.8462
0.6761
0.7748
0.7550
0.5101
0.7222
0.2993
0.3816
0.3113
0.4899
0.4564
0.3425
0.2416
0.3533
0.4122
0.1689

54.6
46.1
61.6
62.9
48.7
57.9
50.7
26.3
27.6
63.8

0.5461
0.4605
0.6159
0.6291
0.4868
0.5789
0.5066
0.2632
0.2763
0.6382

29.5
32.0
12.0
15.2
40.9
29.1
32.5
30.9
28.9
26.4

0.2953
0.3200
0.1200
0.1523
0.4094
0.2914
0.3245
0.3087
0.2895
0.2643

Index

Index

Control over
reproductive
decisions
Mean
Index
(%)
41.4
0.4145
44.1
0.4408
39.5
0.3947
51.3
0.5132
34.2
0.3421
36.2
0.3618
38.8
0.3882
38.2
0.3816
51.3
0.5132
31.6
0.3158
36.8
0.3684
41.1
0.4110
36.2
0.3618
51.3
0.5132
46.1
0.4605
32.2
0.3224
36.2
0.3618
32.2
0.3224
62.9
0.6291
41.4
0.4145
61.8
0.6184
48.7
0.4868
38.2
0.3816
50.7
0.5066
48.7
0.4868
48.7
0.4868
33.6
0.3355
52.6
0.5263
42.8
47.4
51.7
47.0
34.9
32.2
35.5
56.6
53.9
18.4

0.4276
0.4737
0.5166
0.4702
0.3487
0.3224
0.3553
0.5658
0.5395
0.1842

Gender NonViolence
Index
0.5736
0.5724
0.5599
0.5592
0.5541
0.5500
0.5475
0.5425
0.5395
0.5393
0.5373
0.5333
0.5277
0.5258
0.5236
0.5126
0.5055
0.5039
0.4993
0.4912
0.4897
0.4681
0.4679
0.4628
0.4512
0.4336
0.4312
0.4247
0.4230
0.4181
0.4175
0.4172
0.4150
0.3976
0.3954
0.3792
0.3684
0.3622

THE GENDER DIMENSION INDEX

69

Cont.....

S.N. Caste/Ethnicity

73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97

DHUNIA
DHOBI
CHIDIMAR
NUNIYA
YADAV
MALI
DUSADH/PASWAN/
PASI
DHANUK
NURANG
SONAR
CHAMAR, HARIJAN, RAM
MALLAH
BARAE
LODHA
KHATWE
BING/BINDA
KURMI
KAHAR
BADHAE
KEWAT
PATHARKATA/
KUSWADIYA
DOM
TATMA
MUSAHAR
HALKHOR
Total

Non-Violence
Against Women

Control over the
decision to marry

Mean
(%)
42.1
71.7
62.5
52.0
40.8
37.7
30.3

0.4211
0.7171
0.6250
0.5197
0.4079
0.3775
0.3026

Mean
(%)
34.9
14.1
20.1
15.5
18.8
30.5
33.8

0.3487
0.1408
0.2013
0.1554
0.1879
0.3046
0.3377

38.2
60.9
40.8
57.0

0.3816
0.6093
0.4079
0.5695

19.1
19.4
9.9
17.0

0.1908
0.1944
0.0987
0.1701

40.8
14.6
42.1
18.5

0.4079
0.1457
0.4211
0.1854

0.3268
0.3165
0.3092
0.3083

46.1
40.8
55.3
27.2
22.4
36.8
32.9
22.4
21.7
27.5

0.4605
0.4079
0.5526
0.2715
0.2237
0.3684
0.3289
0.2237
0.2171
0.2745

11.2
10.6
2.7
20.0
19.6
13.9
12.8
14.3
12.1
20.4

0.1118
0.1060
0.0267
0.2000
0.1959
0.1389
0.1275
0.1429
0.1208
0.2041

34.2
30.3
17.8
28.5
33.6
17.8
16.4
22.4
24.3
9.8

0.3421
0.3026
0.1776
0.2848
0.3355
0.1776
0.1645
0.2237
0.2434
0.0980

0.3048
0.2722
0.2523
0.2521
0.2517
0.2283
0.2070
0.1967
0.1938
0.1922

13.8
23.7
17.1
15.1
57.1

0.1382
0.2368
0.1711
0.1513
0.5710

21.6
6.6
8.1
13.4
60.8

0.2162
0.0658
0.0811
0.1342
0.6076

21.1
20.4
19.7
9.9
42.7

0.2105
0.2039
0.1974
0.0987
0.4273

0.1883
0.1689
0.1498
0.1281
0.5353

Index

Index

Control over
reproductive
decisions
Mean
Index
(%)
31.6
0.3158
21.1
0.2105
21.7
0.2171
35.5
0.3553
42.1
0.4211
31.8
0.3179
34.9
0.3487

Gender NonViolence
Index
0.3618
0.3562
0.3478
0.3435
0.3390
0.3333
0.3297

7.1.3 Control over reproductive decisions
The reproductive rights of women include not only the decision to conceive, but also decisions
about delivery, the number of children to have, the interval between births, and the use of
contraceptives. The involvement of women in these decisions is crucial, as the decisions have
a profound impact on a woman’s life. The control over reproductive decisions index shows
that Hill Brahman women experience higher levels of inclusion than other groups, followed by
TaraiBrahman/Chhetri women. Hill Dalit women have more control over reproductive decisions
than any of the other broad social groups. This is just the opposite for Tarai Dalit women.
Of the caste/ethnic groups, those that rank at the top of the index are Byansi, Punjabi, Pahari,
Rajput, Lohar, Gharti/Bhujel, Hyelmo, Thakali, Darai, and Dhagar/Jhangar. Women from the
70

THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX

Patharkata, Halkhor, Nurang, Kahar, Lodha, Kurmi, Chamar, Musahar and Tatma groups have the
least control over reproductive decisions.
7.1.4 Gender Non-violence Index by broader social group
Looking at the composite index, Table 7.2 shows that Hill Brahman and Hill Dalit women
experience the highest levels of non-violence, followed by Chhetri women and women from Hill/
Mountain Janajati groups. Tarai Dalit women and women from other Tarai castes have the lowest
index scores.
Table 7.2: Gender non-violence index by broader social group
Caste/Ethnicity

Hill Brahman
Hill Chhetri
TaraiBrahman/
Chhetri
Tarai Other Caste
Hill Dalit
Tarai Dalit
Newari
Mountain/Hill
Janajati
Tarai Janajati
Muslim
Others
Total

ViolenceAgainst
Women
Mean
Index
(%)
62.5
0.6250
64.8
0.6476
59.8
0.5981

Control over the
decision to marry
Mean
Index
(%)
69.3
0.6933
68.3
0.6827
33.8
0.3376

Control over
reproductive decisions
Mean
Index
(%)
54.6
0.5461
43.7
0.4366
53.3
0.5331

Gender NonViolence
Index
0.6215
0.5890
0.4896

45.9
58.5
41.1
33.6
58.5

0.4593
0.5852
0.4105
0.3355
0.5853

20.9
78.9
17.7
77.5
76.6

0.2094
0.7894
0.1770
0.7748
0.7664

40.3
47.8
23.4
46.1
38.0

0.4030
0.4782
0.2339
0.4605
0.3796

0.3572
0.6176
0.2738
0.5236
0.5771

63.0
64.5
57.4
57.1

0.6298
0.6447
0.5742
0.5710

38.7
59.9
71.3
60.8

0.3870
0.5987
0.7129
0.6076

41.5
36.8
54.6
42.7

0.4147
0.3684
0.5463
0.4273

0.4772
0.5373
0.6112
0.5353

Among the 97 caste/ethnic groups, women from the Byansi, Punjabi Shikh, Baramu/Bramu,
Chhantyal, Chepang, Thakali, Pahari, Meche, Kumal, and Thakuri groups rank in the top ten.
Most of these groups are Hill Janajatis. Tarai Dalit women from the Halkhor, Musahar, Tatma,
Dom, Patharkata, Kewat, Badhae, Kahar, Kurmi and Bin groups rank lowest, indicating lower
levels of gender inclusion.

7.2 Access to Social Services
Access to social services enhances an individual’s capability,which in turn shapes the opportunities
available to that individual. In Nepal, there is unequal access to social services with men enjoying
more privileges than women. This is an indicator of women’s exclusion. In this chapter, access to
social services refers to gender parity in school enrolment, and gender parity in private schooling.
7.2.1 Gender parity in school enrolment (up to secondary level)
Nepal’s education policy ensures equal opportunities for girls and boys. This has influenced social
values with most parents agreeing that both sons and daughters should have equal access to
education. In practice, however, discrimination persists up to secondary level. The gender parity
in school enrolment index shows that girls from the Newari community are more likely to be
educated up to secondary level than girls from other groups. They are followed by Hill Brahman
THE GENDER DIMENSION INDEX

71

Raji.3: Non-discriminaƟon in social services index by caste/ethnic group S.00 1. Mountain/Hill Janajati girls and Tarai Janajati girls.8725 0.85 1. Dura.9162 0.8982 0. Gangai and Nurungagroups experience higher levels of inclusion than girls from other groups.0000 0.0000 1.91 0. High levels of gender disparity can be seen among girls from the Dhunia.0000 0.9608 0.8874 0.9260 0.87 0.9292 0.93 0.83 0. Muslim groups.0000 1.9896 1.N. Bote.9763 0.9692 0.9926 0.8978 0. Dusadhar/Paswani.95 0.9747 0.8514 1.93 0.99 0.7792 0.8937 0.9751 0.98 0.9780 0. Lepcha.9486 0. Musahar.97 0.8899 0.94 0.06 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9185 0.9577 0.83 0.86 0.99 0.9518 0.93 0.8912 0. The parity in enrolment index shows that girls from the Walung.95 0.01 1.99 0.96 0.7824 0.The lowest levels of school enrolment up to secondary level can be seen among Tarai Dalit and Muslim girls. Kisan.9287 0.01 1. Table 7.89 0.8767 0.TARAI BOTE SHERPA CHIDIMAR MALI HILL BRAHMAN HALUWAI BANIYA Gender Parity in Enrolment Ratio Index 1.8127 0.9397 1.9696 0.8700 0.9150 0.9326 0.9855 0. Many of the groups in the bottom ten are from the Tarai.94 0.83 Index 1.8273 0.7985 0.91 0.95 0. Mallah.07 1.8302 Non-Discrimination in Social Services Index 1.95 0.9500 0.9112 0.00 1.33 1.93 0.94 0.27 0.girls.99 0.9254 0.95 0.9581 0.42 0.9670 1.0000 1.80 0.24 0.9881 1.36 1. Kamar.9548 0.0000 1.0000 0.81 0.78 0.9701 0.0000 0.9830 0.9392 0.9107 0.9875 0. Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 72 MARWADI THAMI TAMANG PUNJABI/SIKH DARAI PAHARI RAJBANSI YAKKHA BADI SARKI GURUNG TELI BHOTE SANYASI NEWARI HYOLMO CHHETRI WALUNG RAI RAUTE THAKALI KAYASTHA BARAE BRAHMAN .8300 0.9965 0.9646 0.87 0. Bangali.9518 0.9519 0.9344 0.0000 0.0000 1. Chidimar.8896 0.9398 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Private Schooling Ratio 1.0000 1.9931 0.9375 0.8463 0.0000 0.8850 .8854 0.98 0.98 0.99 1.94 0. Nuniya.8852 0. Dhobi.8896 0.92 0. Halkhor.04 0.8919 0.93 0.00 1.94 0.12 1.8573 0. Lodha.9318 0.9495 0.9350 0.9364 0.84 1.78 0.8446 1.9401 0.9774 0.8733 0.0000 0.9457 0.97 0.9659 0.97 0.87 0.07 1.85 0.8997 0.88 0.90 0.

8815 Private Schooling Ratio 0.91 0.7887 0.85 0.9280 0.6801 0.8436 0.66 0.8233 0.74 0.8056 0.8406 0.8523 0.9275 0.00 0.8367 0.5673 0.9270 0.57 0.75 0.6585 0.7748 0.9620 0.9496 0.7396 0.7999 0.57 0.8665 1.86 0.72 0.01 1.93 0.08 1.63 0.66 0.9827 1..82 0.6092 0.8712 0.9963 0.6393 0.8587 0.87 0.7437 0.61 0.0000 0.7198 THE GENDER DIMENSION INDEX 73 .7708 0.87 0.9314 0.93 0.97 0.65 0.7502 0.7979 0.7905 0.86 0.90 0.57 0.8647 0.8561 0.56 Index 0.84 0.5381 0.77 0.5580 Non-Discrimination in Social Services Index 0.95 0.9292 0.96 0.6629 0.6845 0.8133 0.8620 1.8912 0.89 0.8562 0.0000 0.7693 0.07 1.9614 0.96 0.68 0.8824 0.78 0.5691 0.9503 0.8522 0.6087 0.9582 1.8696 0.7085 0.7811 0.7267 0.93 0.0000 0.77 0.8186 0..85 0.9104 0.78 0.8744 0.7208 0.88 0.7985 1.80 1.87 0.98 0.8735 0.71 0.7295 0.71 0.94 0.9682 0.60 0.54 0.74 0.6467 0.7576 0.85 0.7659 0.03 1.7411 0.9289 0.60 0.97 0.11 1.6541 0.8228 0.7759 0..7875 0.95 0. S.9744 0.79 0.9431 0.7425 0.7842 0. Caste/Ethnicity 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 BYANGSI DHIMAL THAKURI NUNIYA KUMAL LIMBU SUNUWAR SUDHI KALWAR SONAR MUSLIM LEPCHA MAGAR KANU DURA KOIRI JIREL RAJPUT BRAHMU/BARAMU YADAV HAJAM/THAKUR LOHAR THARU BADHAE RAJI GANGAI MECHE DANUWAR HAYU BANGALI MALLAH GHARTI/BHUJEL MAJHI SANTHAL/SATAR TATMA DAMAI/DHOLI KOCHE MUNDA KURMI KEWAT Gender Parity in Enrolment Ratio Index 0.65 0.88 0.02 1.5702 0.64 0.67 0.8840 0.7644 0.8644 0.8481 0.N.9736 0.81 0..93 0.88 0.5956 0.78 0.61 0.7953 0.8091 0.93 0.5712 0.7810 0.8789 0.7978 0.73 0.8582 1.97 0.96 0.7851 0.8026 0.0000 0.8082 1.7672 0.0000 1.8491 0.7759 0.8352 0.7903 0.8235 0.8196 0.8699 0.79 0.7059 0.93 0.68 0.57 0.73 0.77 0.8979 0.8846 0.7379 0.0000 0.13 0.8119 0.5958 0.8067 0.0000 0.6316 0.7545 0.77 0.85 0.6734 0.77 0.Cont.7668 0.

83 0.6118 0.91 0.0000 0.5141 0.36 0..5948 Non-Discrimination in Social Services Index 0.59 0.8103 0.27 0. Other caste/ethnic groups with higher levels of inclusion for this indicator are Bote. Yakkha.4382 0. Badi.5500 0.87 0.30 0.36 0.7391 0.4878 0.5648 0.6375 0.7065 0. There are few opportunities for private schooling for girls from Hill and TaraiBrahman groups.67 0.5996 0.2716 0.87 0.52 0. Raute and Marwadi.86 1.7673 0.74 0.75 1.5409 0.6449 0. Although parents would prefer to send all of their children to private schools.02 0.9267 0. Pahari.6711 0.44 0.81 0.7139 0.3555 0.3036 0.99 0.33 0. Darai.3571 0.6433 0.6133 0.71 0.36 0.6710 0.6798 0.8562 1.Cont.5496 0.81 0..46 0.2.6982 0.5606 0.6786 0.N.7176 0.2417 0.2 Opportunities for private schooling Access to opportunities to study in a private school. Hill and Tarai Dalit girls have almost no chance of studying in a private boarding school.8437 0.8335 0.2692 0.39 0.24 0.6897 0.3328 0. 74 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . what often happens is that boys are sent to private schools while girls are sent to state schools. S.0000 0. Caste/Ethnicity 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 KAMI KAHAR DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI DHOBI DHANUK KAMAR BING/BINDA GAINE HALKHOR KISAN TAJPURIYA DHAGAR/JHAGAR RAJBHAR CHHANTYAL DOM NURANG PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA BHEDIYAR/GADERI CHEPANG (PRAJA) KUMHAR DHUNIA KHATWE CHAMAR.79 1. Equal private schooling opportunities for girls are common among the Newari and Hill Chhetri groups and rare among Tarai Dalit groups.0000 1.9389 0.06 0.83 0. Nuniya. Sarki.51 0..7533 1.7000 0.00 0.1082 0.93 0.3696 0. particularly an English medium boarding school.9406 0.7947 1.56 0.6895 0.8664 0.8284 0.6418 0.5118 0.5893 0.6885 0.4092 0.11 0.3937 0.59 Index 0. This indicator reveals the disparity of opportunity for private schooling between boys and girls.3571 0.41 0.8194 0.92 0.4156 0.82 0.8674 0.9233 0. RAM LODHA BANTAR MUSAHAR Total Gender Parity in Enrolment Ratio Index 0.42 0.9406 0.39 0. is one of the most important social inclusion indicators.6208 0..8072 0.38 0.9863 0.77 0.6888 0.52 0.83 0. Tamang.7276 0.87 0.3932 0.8800 7.0000 0.09 0.3791 0.8343 0.9137 0.73 0.81 0. HARIJAN.84 0.94 0.27 0.0000 0.2650 0.6346 0.4582 0.8052 Private Schooling Ratio 0.8744 0.5232 0.51 0.5217 0.02 1.27 0.

8035 0.96 0.93 0.88 0. Badis and Sarkis all have index scores of above 0.8082 0. including the Badi and Sarki. Some Hill Dalit groups.9790 0.9896 0.8751 0. Table 7.8194 Non-Discrimination in Social Services Index 0.8727 0.8225 0.3 Economic autonomy Economic autonomy empowers women in many respects. Women’s economic empowerment is measured in terms of access to land ownership and control over economic resources. Newari and Hill Chhetri girls have the highest levels of access. In Nepal.89 0.8516 0.9674 0. Tamangs.2.8854 0. less than 25% of women own land. Yakhkhas.8874 0. there is disparity among the broader social groups.9415 0. Chepang.7. 7. Fewer women of hill origin own land than women of Tarai origin.77 0. Among the broader ethnic groups.9235 0. experience higher levels of inclusion.9095 0.49 0. Punjabis.8057 0.4: Non-discriminaƟon in Social Services index by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Gender Parity in Enrolment Ratio Index 0.59 0. The Musahar.8727 0. Dhuniya.0000 0. Bhediyar/Ghaderi and Patharkata groups have the lowest scores.80 0. Marwadis. Land ownership. Overall. therefore.8800 Of the 97 caste/ethnic groups.9235 0.5878 0. and Tarai Dalit women experience higher levels of inclusion.6422 0.9283 0.8789 0.8082 1. These groups are followed by Tarai Janajati and Muslim women. Bantar.7724 0.0093 1.9349 0. Darais.6466 0. Paharis.8026 0.9763 0. Lodha.9763 0. THE GENDER DIMENSION INDEX 75 .95.3.3 Access to Social Services Access to social services is measured here in terms of gender balance in schooling opportunities and enrolment. The lowest rates of land ownership for women are found among Hill Chhetri and Hill Dalit women.9467 0. however.9467 0.85 0. This indicates that women from the Tarai are more likely to own land. including access to loans from banks and other financial institutions. Rajbansis. Hill Janajatis have the best levels of access to social services while Tarai Dalits have the lowest.9406 0. while Tarai and Hill Dalit girls have the lowest.7557 0.8057 0. Women who are economically autonomous are able to play a greater role in household decision making and tend to participate more in the public arena.8436 0. women from other Tarai castes.9674 0.4874 0. Kumhar.9581 0.9896 0. Chamar/Harijan/Ram. Overall.1 Land Ownership Land provides a ready source of income. Thamis.64 0.9415 0.9630 0.7985 0.9630 0.9406 Private Schooling Ratio 0. can bring many positive changes to a woman’s life. 7. Khatwe.9375 0. Tarai Brahman/Chhetri women.82 Index 0.80 0.

1894 0.3810 0. Jirel.8 36.2 50.6667 58.4 0.5 39.5: Economic Autonomy Index by caste/ethnic group S.7 0.9 18.6 22.4000 0.2716 0.9 21.3333 0.4 33.0 1.0 33.1842 0.2854 0.3279 0.3157 0.Among the caste/ethnic groups.4772 0. Kisan. Rajbansi and Patharkatagroups have the best access to land ownership.7069 0.8 0.7 22.3478 0.3667 0.3030 0.N.2549 0.3750 0.3467 0.5 31.2863 0.4 19.3404 0.2242 0.0 60.2806 0.6000 0.2941 0. Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 76 RAUTE PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA BADI KAYASTHA MUSAHAR DHIMAL PUNJABI/SIKH MARWADI CHEPANG (PRAJA) RAJBANSI TAJPURIYA BYANGSI RAJPUT CHHANTYAL LODHA KAHAR GURUNG BHOTE RAI BANGALI MECHE NURANG JIREL BANIYA GAINE THAKALI WALUNG GANGAI THAKURI BOTE THAMI BRAHMAN .0 23.2 11.9 26.3 26.1 33.3208 0.3 17. Raji.3217 0. Lohar.3 36.4 27.1686 0. Nurang.1 37.7 21.0000 66.1 38.2360 0.3778 0.2989 0.3659 0.2736 .2987 0.2193 0.0 21.2900 0.4231 0.0 30.3846 0.3 0.2740 0.9 22.3 19.TARAI DHOBI DURA KALWAR Land Ownership Mean (%) Index 41.4390 0.3333 Economic Autonomy Index 0.1771 0.2027 0.2800 0.4 23.5833 0.3729 0.2693 0.3 33.8 36.0 18.2351 0.3333 0.3217 0.3 28. Chepang.2138 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Economic Control Mean (%) Index 100.5 31. Women from the Chidimar.2587 0.3611 0.7 26.1495 0.2878 16.4000 0.5 40.7 14. Lepcha.0 43.3 20.2667 0.1974 0.5000 0.1104 0.6 19.3193 0.8 25.3611 0.1935 0.2948 0.2174 0.1895 0.7 23.2763 0.8 28.3333 0.1 43.4 31.3929 0.2754 0.2285 0.3684 0.0 38.0 38.4444 0.0434 0.2810 0. Thakuri.5 37. women from the Raute.9 16.8 21.3311 0.9 44.5217 0.2143 0.0 36.4348 0. Meche.3636 0.9 21.6 34.2852 0.3810 0.3307 0.3182 0.2313 0.0 36. Kami and Chhetri groups have the least access.2771 0.3 50.2679 0. Santhal/Satar.9 46.1614 0.1 21.4 0. Dhimal Tajpuriya.4138 28.5 25.4 42.1 29.5 36.3 4.3152 0.3759 0.5000 0.2905 0. Byansi.3 52. Table 7.2909 0. Munda.3675 0.2766 0.2 40.2895 0.3002 0.4615 0.2158 0.2097 0.3146 0.2774 0.2228 0.2810 0.

2643 0.2076 0.1 20.2112 0.3 25.3 20.2136 0.2220 0.2222 0.2473 0.2006 0.2006 0..0 13.4 15.0 25.2340 0.2151 0.9 26.2 27.2500 0.2800 0.0 21. Caste/Ethnicity 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 CHAMAR.2527 0.2917 0.0 25.3 21.2766 0.1969 0.7 21. HARIJAN.0 22.1883 0.7 21.9 20.2330 0.1 20.1 21.9 21.2616 0.4 20.1996 0.2031 0.1813 0.8 18.2434 0.2067 0.1972 0.2 29.2157 0.2307 0.2727 0.2 24.9 25.2916 0.2222 0.2172 0.2115 Economic Control Mean (%) Index 33.2500 0.1 26.2 25.8 21.2941 0.2204 0.2188 0.1000 0.2 18.1765 0.2420 0.2500 0.0 28.2608 10.2 17.1849 26.3 16.2269 0.2543 0.1 25.2586 0.1429 0. RAM SANYASI YAKKHA PAHARI DARAI KUMHAR MAJHI KURMI THARU BANTAR BARAE KOCHE NEWARI SUDHI DHUNIA GHARTI/BHUJEL SANTHAL/SATAR MUNDA BHEDIYAR/GADERI HYOLMO HILL BRAHMAN SHERPA CHHETRI LIMBU DAMAI/DHOLI NUNIYA DANUWAR DHANUK MALLAH MALI BING/BINDA TAMANG DHAGAR/JHAGAR LEPCHA DOM MUSLIM HAYU DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI RAJBHAR Land Ownership Mean (%) Index 21...9 25.2 31.4 21.8 0.2692 0.1739 0.2286 0.2086 0.2576 0.7 21.5 25.3421 0.8 18.8 21.2605 0.2 19.9 27.1081 0.7 17.4 16.Cont.4 20.2152 0.0 28.2093 0.2400 0.0 14.2991 0. S.1844 THE GENDER DIMENSION INDEX 77 .3 29.2000 0.9 20.2 0.2143 0.2039 0.1865 0.2011 0.3333 Economic Autonomy Index 0.2270 0.6 27.2340 0.2724 0.2376 0.2 22.4 27.2500 0.8 10.1 20.2076 0.0 26.7 20.2724 18.2500 0.1667 0.0 19.2119 34.2000 0.1 0.1818 0.1997 0.2154 0.6 21.2857 0.2727 0.2064 0.4 30.2515 0.2128 0.2136 0.2501 0.1 0.2402 0.7 29.2273 0.1935 0.8 0.2581 0.3000 0.3 29.4 20..7 20.2031 0.2000 0.2127 0.1944 0.3000 0.3143 0.2039 0.1854 0.2376 0.3 20.2137 0.4 23.2609 0.2103 0.2934 0.1379 0.2113 0.1579 0.3 0.2432 0.2218 0.N.0 20.2038 0.0 22.2123 0.4 22.4 30.4 21.0 29.2 21.1 22.1637 0.6 20.2001 0.2414 0.2496 0.2493 0.

1333 16.2123 20.1372 0.1605 14.4 0.1838 15. Khatwe.1364 16. save or invest in ways which will serve them best. They are followed by Newari women.8 0.6 0.1839 0.1667 13.1563 13.9 0.1500 8.1290 13.2275 25.6 shows that among the broader social groups.2473 Economic Autonomy Index 0.0357 5.1 0.0857 6. Koiri.0667 5.0000 0.2269 0.1843 21..8 0.1377 0. Tarai Brahman/Chhetri women have the highest levels of economic control followed by Chhetri and Tarai Janajati.2475 16.0803 0.3 0.6 0.2077 21.1667 16.2 0.2115 23. Chepang.1566 0.3. Byansi. Badi.8 0.0 0.1538 0.0 0.N.1844 18.7 0.1667 12. Women who have control over domestic expenditure. Table 7.2044 18.2552 22.5 0.7 0. Badhae and Kewat women.7 0.1249 0.1317 0.0476 7.1774 0.2222 7.1897 20.7 0. and Muslim women score lowest.2326 18.6 0..5).1755 0. Sarki.3 0.4 0.4 0.0737 0.7 0.0 0.7 0. women from other Tarai castes.0 0.1333 15.2152 21.9 0. Patharkata.1707 0.0 0.1638 0.1765 8.7 0.7 0.4 0.6 0. 78 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .6).Cont. The situation is less positive for Hill Dalit.0 0.1429 0.1517 24.1729 16.4 0. Sonar.3.1370 0. women from the Raute.0588 28.0769 0.2157 17.1882 21.0 0.. Hill Dalit women.6 0. Raji.2 0.3 0. The bottom ten groups are Kisan. Chhantyal and Thakurigroups hold the top ten index positions (table 7. Looking at the 97 caste/ethnic groups. Musahar.0000 19.2 Economic Control Control over assets and productive resources are other important aspects of social inclusion.3 Economic Autonomy Index by broad social group TaraiBrahman/Chhetri and Tarai Janajati women score highest on the economic autonomy index (Table 7. Haluwai. Tarai other caste and Muslim women.2168 18. Caste/Ethnicity 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 YADAV KAMAR MAGAR TELI BRAHMU/BARAMU KANU HAJAM/THAKUR SUNUWAR KUMAL LOHAR KEWAT KAMI BADHAE HALKHOR HALUWAI CHIDIMAR TATMA KHATWE KOIRI SONAR SARKI KISAN RAJI Total Land Ownership Mean (%) Index 21. S.6 0. Kayastha.9 0.7 0.1632 22.8 0.1538 17.3 0.1474 19.0800 15.0000 24. have the freedom to spend.2 0.1971 Economic Control Mean (%) Index 15.3 0.1641 0..0588 4.6 0.1688 0.1755 0.7 0.1429 0.1689 0.2857 8. 7.1830 0.5 0. Rajput.1454 0.0800 3.1766 0.8 0.

7 0.2137 Mountain/Hill Janajati 20.3924 17.0 0.2270 0. Kisan. Chidimar.2296 Muslim 22.2 0.2516 0.2639 Total 19.2 Political Participation Political participation gives women the opportunity to directly influence national and local decision making processes. Kumhar. Dom. Among the 97 caste/ethnic groups.2473 Economic Autonomy Index 0. political participation. women from the Walung. Muslim women have the lowest index scores indicating low levels of political inclusion.9 0. levels of women’s participation are low. Women from the Hayu. Gurung.2735 16.0 0. Chamar.2 0. Marwadi.2414 0. Access levels are highest for Newari women followed by Mountain/Hill Janajati women. Muslim women have the lowest levels of access.1 Women in professional and technical / skilled job Women’s levels of access to professional/technical jobs differ among the broader groups.0 0.2247 0.0 0.2222 7. and Chhetri women.2707 0. Badi. The highest levels of inclusion are experienced by Newari women. Tajpuriya and Raigroups have the highestlevels of access. Lepcha. Women with the lowest index values are from the Raji. Sonar.6: Economic Autonomy Index by broad social group Caste/Ethnicity Land Ownership Mean (%) Index 20.2222 Others 26.2026 Tarai Janajati 23.4 0.2692 26. Punjabi Shikh.7 0.2896 39.2500 29.1663 0.4 Participation and Decision Making The participation and decision-making index shows levels of inclusion of women across three domains: women with professional/technical jobs. Women who participate in these sectors are likely to enjoy a higher standard of living. Santhal/Satar.4 0. Haluwai and Halkhor groups.7 0. Dura. Sarki. Sunuwar.4.7 0. Pattharkata.2617 27.1763 16. Among the 97 ethnic groups Garti/Bhujel.2096 26.1635 21.1599 TaraiBrahman/Chhetri 21. 7.3 0.4 0.9 0.6 0. Nuniya. There is a wide economic autonomy gap across caste/ethnic groups. Khatwe.1944 0. However. Bing/Bind. Halkhor.4. and Newari women enjoy the high levels of political inclusion.2125 Hill Dalit 16.1944 0. and Hyolmogroups have the lowest levels of access. Kamar. Raj.2169 Tarai Other Caste 21. Tatma.9 0.4 0.1691 Tarai Dalit 21. Gaine.2 0.7 0.1971 Economic Control Mean (%) Index 25. Dhimal. Musahar.0 0.Economic autonomy measured in terms of landownership and economic control is highest for Raute.2774 24. and representation in the national bureaucracy.2321 0. Chepang and Rajbansi women. 7. Koiri. followed by women from other Tarai castes.1667 27. Yakkha.2 0.3046 0.3 0.It is heartening to note that the women with the highest level of political THE GENDER DIMENSION INDEX 79 . Badhae.2144 0. Kayastha. Table 7.2192 Newari 21.2039 Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri 16.

4 12.7: PoliƟcal ParƟcipaƟon and Decision Making index by caste/ethnic group S.5599 31.0 0.3 30.5599 18.5397 0.0000 0.6714 0.0 1. are very low.9 1.4486 0.7921 31.5 0.1905 0.5 21.2 1.3743 0.4494 0.7421 46.5 36.3 38.9203 18.5 16.6753 0.3 13.0 14.9065 0.6667 0.0 1.3636 0.0 1.0 26.8 32.0 27.3500 0.7 0.2542 0.7646 0.2572 0. Many of the women from the caste/ethnic groups listed in Table 7.7821 45.5275 0.4776 0.4 45.4517 0.2858 0.1956 0.4272 0.6178 0.7402 50.0000 0.6395 0.4348 1.inclusion come from one of the other Tarai caste groups.3 0.7 0.5 24.6957 0.0 18.0000 0.6455 0.1 0.0000 51.5652 0.6364 0.6230 24.1 17.4 9.9 11.6377 12.6119 39.9 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.1488 0.6667 0.2 0.6667 10.6299 0.2306 0.0 0.6621 0.2857 0.1 0.0000 1.0 14.3 33.3 0.5578 0.6809 32.0 16.8800 0.1 0.3 1.6667 0.4765 0.3308 Representation Political in the National Participation and Bureaucracy Decision Making Mean Index Index (%) 52.7 17.0000 1.9 32.8 33.3618 41.5600 0.3333 33.1 0.4 0.1 0.4211 0. however.5858 28. Table 7.3419 0.6282 0.0 9.5333 0.0000 0.7378 0.4815 0.4237 0.0000 0.8 0.0 0.5 44.8250 30.3 22.3 0.9 7.0000 21. Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 80 DURA LEPCHA WALUNG HALKHOR YAKKHA SUNUWAR BADI DOM DHUNIA RAI GHARTI/BHUJEL NEWARI GURUNG THAKALI PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA MUSAHAR BHOTE JIREL LIMBU THAMI SARKI MAGAR KOCHE BYANGSI LODHA PUNJABI/SIKH TAJPURIYA MECHE GAINE SANYASI KALWAR BRAHMU/BARAMU CHHANTYAL CHHETRI Women in Professional/ Technical Jobs Mean Index (%) 56.4272 0.2000 25.6011 33.2857 20.8 38.0000 100.3704 0.4569 0.4400 0.4883 0.4000 18.5 35.5690 0.2 33.7696 0.0000 89.4978 0.7829 0.5462 0.6534 0.7 100.0000 0.0 0.6481 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Political Participation Mean (%) Index 50.7421 28.9049 40.7187 37.3 0.3 0.4860 0.4 0.4312 0.7 do not participate in politics or in political decision making.2 1.8808 44.9404 34.8085 28.2 31.8886 35.6 0.2786 0.7 14.4 20.0000 1.4216 .0 23.0 26.5000 0.0 0.4641 0.4662 0.3 33.2857 0.7051 0.2500 0.7 33.0 0.0000 44.4 0.4247 0.4339 0.4533 0.N.1 14. Inclusion levels for Tarai Dalit and Muslim women.9 0.2 0.5 12.4000 0.6 32.

1404 0.0 4.3910 12.3464 25.5 0.2763 25.2144 0.2182 3.3333 7.7 0.4618 0.7 0.4000 0.1817 0.0 0.2667 0..3782 14.2083 0.4835 0.8 0.8 0.2686 0.0 0.4 0.2784 2.3902 0.1314 0.7 0.3251 5.2286 0.2374 37.3168 13.9 0.8 0.2 0.3650 13.0000 0.7 0.2500 0.0465 0.1807 THE GENDER DIMENSION INDEX 81 .9 0.1 6.0 25.5118 13.2166 14.3 0.6 0.5681 0.4195 19.9 0.3923 26.7 16.2857 0.3 0.8 0.2857 0.3938 21.0 14.5000 0.4 0.2500 0.3904 0. Caste/Ethnicity 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 GANGAI TAMANG DHIMAL THAKURI SHERPA DHAGAR/JHAGAR TELI DAMAI/DHOLI DANUWAR HILL BRAHMAN KAMI KAYASTHA RAJBANSI CHEPANG (PRAJA) BANTAR MAJHI KOIRI PAHARI RAJPUT THARU DARAI MALI BOTE KAHAR SUDHI SANTHAL/SATAR KUMAL KUMHAR BRAHMAN–TARAI NUNIYA DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI BADHAE HYOLMO BANGALI CHAMAR.0 7.3831 17.6 0.1702 0.4286 0.6 0.7 0.5782 31.0 0.3351 0.4 23.1193 0.2511 0.3 0.5000 0.0 0.3779 12.1508 12.6945 21.1 22.3277 0.3 0.1430 0.5 0.0741 0.3191 0.0 0.0 6.4374 33..2082 0.1622 11.4 0.2738 27.N.4 0.3547 21.7 0.3999 13.5 0.3036 10.3 0.4 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.0 0.4134 24.3 0.5 0.5 8.4218 0.9 0.3990 7.0 0.2948 0.0135 0.6147 22.5 0.6 0.4390 34.2 0.0 25.5125 30.3998 0.3 0.Cont.4 0.0 0.1622 0.0 0.2424 Political Participation Mean (%) Index 8.1569 0.2857 25.0000 0. HARIJAN.4588 0.7 0.7 0.5163 28.3 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.7160 39.5000 12.9 0.0 0.3 0.2000 0.5322 30.4 10.0 0.5 0.3 0.2 10. S.1967 0.1 0.4637 17.0 28.3001 7.0000 42.8 0.2939 7.7513 25.7970 11.2 0.2973 0.2743 0.4138 16..0 0.6766 35.4519 16.3484 9.1463 0.2213 14.2562 7.0000 0.1467 0.4157 19.0 Representation Political in the National Participation and Bureaucracy Decision Making Mean Index Index (%) 20. RAM KHATWE YADAV BANIYA Women in Professional/ Technical Jobs Mean Index (%) 22.1 0.0000 0.0000 0.0869 0.5539 23.0000 0.9 0.6067 10.3 0.2080 0.3145 19.3 0.3512 7.0000 10.2082 0.4 14.3985 4.6 0.0000 25.2145 0.1 0.1429 0.6363 17.1 0.0000 0.7 0.0833 16.2857 0.4 0.7 0.1 0.3192 16.2406 9.2991 12.0 10.1864 0.1894 0.6 0.2070 0.6 0.9 0.2500 0.3479 0.2084 20.1146 0..3031 14.1848 0.3430 15.0000 8.3378 20.8571 0.9 0.2487 0.5000 0.

This information is important in the assessment of gender inclusion in the national bureaucracy. Bhediar.1711 0.0000 0.0 0.1240 0.1750 0.1393 0.0 0.0 0.1647 0.7 0.4 Participation and Decision.5000 0.2429 0. Halkhor.. 82 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .0 0.0000 15.0000 0.1489 0. Dhuniya.2843 0.0 0. Sunuwar. and Santhal/Satar women are the worst represented. Dura.5 17.4.4.1437 0.1054 0.0000 0.5 0.0 0.0 8..0 0.0000 0..0000 4.0 0.5 20.0000 0. Muslim women have the lowest levels of representation.2 0.9 0.0000 0.3 0.1800 0. S.0000 0.0000 0.0934 0.2326 0.1555 0. Caste/Ethnicity 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 BARAE BHEDIYAR/GADERI BING/BINDA RAJI KISAN KEWAT MUSLIM MARWADI LOHAR DHANUK MALLAH TATMA MUNDA DHOBI HALUWAI SONAR HAJAM/THAKUR KURMI RAJBHAR KANU CHIDIMAR HAYU KAMAR RAUTE NURANG Total Women in Professional/ Technical Jobs Mean Index (%) 14.3012 0.5 7.0 0..3 Representation in the national bureaucracy Far fewer women work for Nepal’s civil service than men – only one in seven bureaucrats is female. 7.8 0.2719 0.8 2.0 4.0000 13. Barai.0 0.0000 0.0541 0.0000 30. levels of political participation are highest for Newari women.N.0638 0.0 0.6 12. Chidimar.0909 0.3534 0. Sonar.0 0.7 3.2 8.0969 0.0 0.8 6. The lowest levels of participation can be seen among Muslim women.1434 0.1333 0.1307 0.0 0. Kamar.3308 0.2109 0.1214 0. Among the 97 caste/ethnic groups.0000 0.0 0.0548 0.Cont. and Musahar women are the best represented while Tatma.1143 0.1581 0.0000 13.4077 0.0000 0.1667 0. Gaine. Panjabi.1647 0.5 14.7 4.0 0.0 0. Gurung.7 2.3333 0.0 10.0 0. Rai.2625 0.2869 17.0 0.1712 16.0741 0.1 14.5 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.6 21.3423 9.1600 0.0000 0.6 16.1 0.2327 0.2 2.Making Index by broad social group Among the broad social groups.0 0. and women from other Tarai caste groups. Hayu.1 13.3166 0.0 0.3391 0.0000 0. Rajnhar.0000 0.4 15.1359 0.6097 Political Participation Mean (%) Index 0.0585 0.3966 7. Dom. Yakka.0000 0.2504 0.7 11.2634 Representation Political in the National Participation and Bureaucracy Decision Making Mean Index Index (%) 3. Khatwe.1198 0.1 11.1805 0.4301 0.0000 8.0000 0.1630 0.7 0.1547 0.0 0.7 25.1130 0. The highest levels of representation are found among Newari and Hill/Mountain Janajati women.2 17. followed by Mountain/Hill Janajati women.0 0.6 12.0000 0.0 0.2914 0.

5759 0.8225 0.3166 0.1979 0.2738 0.2247 0.7 0.4772 0.6657 21.8751 0.1581 8.0 0.8800 Economic Political Participation Autonomy and Decision Making Index 0.3479 0.5140 12.5236 0.2886 0.1696 15.2222 0. Hill Janajatis.6215 0.4 15.5415 0. Sonar.2516 0.2953 0.3829 14.3991 7.5373 0. Dom.7 0.2321 0.3782 14.2 0.5397 0.5771 0. Hajam.1 0.4 0.6505 19.1 27.4333 0.5516 0.9095 0.3966 Gender Dimension Index 0.5 0. Badi.7 10.8874 0.4173 0.3505 0.5 0.6176 0.0638 0.4815 0. Sunuwar.5353 Access to Social Services Index 0. Walung.8 0.3572 0.1753 0.6466 0.9349 0.8: PoliƟcal ParƟcipaƟon and Decision Making index by broad social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Women withProfessional/ Technical Jobs Mean Index (%) 28.2670 0.8 0.2443 0.5285 0.2198 0.6011 22. Kamar. Kurmi.1739 0.4046 0.2414 0. 7.6 0. Among the broader groups.6112 0. Halwai. Dhobi and Munda women have the lowest levels.5 Gender Dimension Index The Gender Dimension Index is a composite index reflecting levels of gender inclusion for women from Nepal’s caste/ethnic groups.6 10.3333 30.2676 0. Rajbhar.8436 0.1471 0.4896 0.0 16.3174 0.2270 0. Yakhkha.2676 5.4842 0.2000 0.2926 33.0 13.3782 0.5085 THE GENDER DIMENSION INDEX 83 .9: Gender Dimension Index by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Gender NonViolence Index 0.2 Index 0.0000 0.6 0.3966 Among the 97 caste/ethnic groups.4566 0.2504 16.4 0. Dhuniya and Rai women enjoy the highest levels of political participation while Raute.7821 38.2670 24.5890 0.1069 0.2143 0.7 8.4847 0.3333 0.1 0.5782 32.3128 0.6097 Political Participation Mean (%) 10.4 0.7557 0.4173 11. Dura.1581 0.9 0.2597 0.2953 3. Kanu.5 0.3 0.8026 0.2144 0.9 0.9375 0. Lepcha.2083 0.4400 0.3991 0.9790 0.1944 0. Table 7.2222 Index 0.2707 0.Newars.3 0.2634 Representation Political in the National Participation and Bureaucracy Decision Making Mean Index Index (%) 17.Table 7.0 13.7632 25.1944 0.7 11.0 8.3046 0.4877 0.2443 15.5076 0.1 0. Hayu.0 0.2 0.0 0.1600 0.4877 9. Halkhor. Hill Brahmans and Hill Chhetris enjoy the highest levels of inclusion and have gender index scores.9 0.1663 0.6011 0.4319 39.1696 0. Tarai Dalits have the lowest index score among these groups.

5120 0.6432 0.9774 0.5285 0.8840 0.2269 0.5466 0.9747 0.6230 0.4486 0.6408 0.2376 0.5661 0.3547 0.6503 0.6377 0.5724 0.4641 0.5633 0.9326 0.5835 0.6263 0.5363 0.2771 0.2643 0.7921 1.6303 0.5726 0.4247 0.8982 0.5333 0.6473 0.5537 0.4765 0.4138 0.8186 0.2414 0.5161 0.1996 0.6955 0.2576 0.8352 0.3467 0.3650 0.5247 0.3998 0.2204 0.5312 0.6215 0.8874 0.9965 0.4216 0.4272 0.9486 0.5466 0.2939 0.8367 0.3782 0.2909 0.3001 0.5858 0.8824 0.9150 0.8644 0.8912 0.4860 0.2852 0.4776 0.2605 0.6652 0.2774 0.2270 0.5690 0.5840 0.1555 0.5393 0.5952 0.2543 0.9577 0.0000 0.2810 0.5385 0.6698 Access to Social Services Index 0.Table 7.5277 0.5425 0.9287 0.7605 0.1774 0.9875 0.3311 0.7741 0.2863 0.6709 0.3168 0.4978 0.6885 0.6424 0.1755 0.5118 0. Caste/Ethnicity N.9830 0.5382 0.3217 0.7502 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Economic Autonomy Index 0.3512 0.5067 .7421 1.3759 0.2989 0.6118 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 84 WALUNG BADI LEPCHA YAKKHA DURA PUNJABI/SIKH THAKALI BYANGSI GURUNG RAI BHOTE SUNUWAR NEWARI GHARTI/BHUJEL THAMI SANYASI PAHARI THAKURI RAJBANSI JIREL MECHE KAYASTHA DHIMAL BRAHMU/BARAMU SARKI DARAI RAUTE TAMANG CHHETRI CHHANTYAL MARWADI SHERPA HILL BRAHMAN LIMBU BOTE MAGAR CHEPANG (PRAJA) GAINE DAMAI/DHOLI Gender NonViolence Index 0.2740 0.5039 0.7153 0.0000 0.7829 0.5151 0.2006 0.2218 0.6880 0.0000 0.4237 0.4134 0.6011 0.6501 0.5754 0.5599 0.6162 0.9185 0.6147 0.5746 0.9646 0.3193 0.7338 0.6192 0.6410 0.5465 0.2810 0.9701 0.5500 0.9375 0.0000 0.2987 0.5475 0.7896 0.8176 0.0000 0.8899 0.2948 0.5462 0.8233 0.9659 0.3307 0.5318 0.10: GenderDimension Index by caste/ethnic group S.9581 0.5940 0.4533 0.6420 0.3910 Gender Dimension Index 0.4312 0.6423 0.2766 0.5899 0.6418 1.5488 0.6080 0.3729 0.7542 0.8647 0.6946 0.8997 0.6654 0.3279 0.7069 0.7953 0.8119 0.7759 0.5388 0.8744 0.5976 0.1689 0.5759 0.5436 0.6022 0.2157 Political Participation and Decision Making Index 1.5236 0.6809 0.5607 0.5582 0.5592 0.6209 0.4157 0.9518 0.4339 0.1249 0.5768 0.3478 0.

3435 0.4625 THE GENDER DIMENSION INDEX 85 .7176 0.3390 0.1755 0.2376 0.1359 0.4681 0.3960 0..8056 0.8067 0.3002 0.TARAI PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA THARU KAMI DHUNIA SUDHI BANIYA SANTHAL/SATAR DOM MUSLIM MALI KOIRI NURANG NUNIYA MUNDA DHAGAR/JHAGAR LOHAR RAJI BARAE HAYU LODHA KUMHAR KANU HALUWAI YADAV HAJAM/THAKUR KAHAR KISAN Gender NonViolence Index 0.6886 0.1429 0.8896 0.5063 0.2527 0.4272 0.2501 0. S.3157 0.7644 0.4408 0.5736 0.4427 0.3036 0.1240 0.2152 0.1647 Index 0.4739 0.8133 0.2340 0.4195 0.3938 0.4561 0.8587 0.1883 0.5038 0.2493 0.2402 0.8850 0.4400 0.7672 0.3192 0.2991 0.6198 0.1198 0.4993 0.3786 0.4255 0.3743 0.3801 0.3981 0.0803 Index 0.4905 0.4608 0. Caste/Ethnicity N.8919 0.5409 0.3806 0.2736 0.7851 0.1370 0.3684 0.4121 0.4512 0.2722 0.4315 0.3779 0.4175 0.6208 Economic Autonomy 0.2432 0.9519 0.7978 0.3792 0.0737 0.2080 0.7875 0.6711 0.4336 0.4772 Political Participation and Decision Making Index 0.1805 0.1281 0.1922 Access to Social Services Index 0.4945 0.0000 0.2400 0.4897 0.4616 0.4631 0..6449 0.4843 0.3749 0.1667 0.1547 0.2038 0.3831 0.1997 0.7437 0.4312 0.5541 0.8712 0.6346 0.4849 0.2213 0.6809 0.2905 0.2806 0.2511 0.5915 0.2763 0.4660 0.2784 0.4821 0.1854 0.Cont.3902 0.3974 0.7979 0.4172 0.1972 0.5055 0.6243 0.7411 0.4912 0.2562 0.3816 0.4628 0.1766 0.3333 0.6798 0.2420 0.5395 0.1944 0.4679 0.7139 0.1054 0.2154 0.2182 0.4230 0.4870 0.2307 0.3208 0.2523 0.6786 0.4569 0.8228 0.3217 0.1641 0. 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 KALWAR HYOLMO KUMAL MAJHI KOCHE TELI RAJPUT DANUWAR BANGALI GANGAI HALKHOR TAJPURIYA BRAHMAN .5599 Gender Dimension 0.8696 0.8562 0.3251 0.1688 0.2941 0.4517 0.4779 0.8937 0.7402 0.6413 0.6375 0.4056 0.2082 0.5258 0.1848 0.3165 0.8026 0.4548 0.4734 0.3618 0.3976 0.1839 0.2406 0.5606 0.3792 0.4139 0.2070 0.8852 0.1454 0.1581 0.4333 0.1566 0.4609 0.2854 0.5373 0.1807 0.8091 0.5996 0.4092 0.4035 0.2743 0.4181 0.7905 0.5126 0.9404 0.9350 0.6111 0.3985 0.1707 0..8436 0.3031 0.8235 0..

Cont.5496 0.3318 0.1498 0. HARIJAN.3048 0. Newars enjoy the highest levels of gender inclusion.1638 0.. Punjabi.2330 0. gender inclusion rates for women are still relatively low.3546 0.1849 Political Participation and Decision Making Index 0.2724 0.1967 0.1844 0.1538 0. Badi.8896 0.2064 0.3287 0.3439 0.0000 0.6982 0.1214 0.1130 0.4878 0.8561 0.1894 0. 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 BANTAR DHOBI MUSAHAR BHEDIYAR/GADERI DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI MALLAH SONAR CHIDIMAR DHANUK BADHAE RAJBHAR KURMI CHAMAR. yansi.3562 0.3954 0.2521 0. S. Bing/Binda.1938 0.3412 0. Badi and Lepchagroups are the most gender inclusive while the Kamar.7759 0.. Caste/Ethnicity N.3622 0.7576 0.6897 0. Tatma.1143 0.5500 0.3577 0. Chamar/Harijan/ Ram. Tatma.2283 0. The index shows that none of the caste/ethnic groups scores highly across all gender inclusion indicators suggesting that none of the groups is totally gender inclusive.5085 Index 0. Kamar.3478 0. Among the broader groups. Thakali.10 shows the gender inclusion index for the 97 caste/ethnic groups.1712 0.3268 0.8800 0. 7.3696 0.7396 0.3606 0.4247 0. Groups with the highest index values are the Walung.3484 0.1372 0. Kurmi..7999 0.3083 0.3092 0.6895 0. Gurung and Rai.3101 0. Rajbhar.3087 0.3675 0.1830 0.2822 0.2031 0.3687 0.1967 0.2166 0. and Khatwe.6433 0.3451 0.3297 Access to Social Services Index 0.3330 0. Lepcha.2496 0.2434 0.3612 0.1317 0.3966 0.1711 0.4150 0.2517 0.1434 0. RAM BING/BINDA KEWAT KAMAR TATMA KHATWE Total Gender NonViolence Index 0.3651 0. Badhae.6888 0.7000 Economic Autonomy Gender Dimension Index 0.5353 0.1307 0.2144 0. 86 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .1630 0. Yakhkha.1489 0. Dura.1429 0.3389 0. Kewat. Those with the lowest index values are the Dhanuk.Despite its apparent importance.2103 0.2222 0.3578 Table 7.1377 0.6133 0. while Tarai Dalits have the lowest.1437 0.5578 0.7198 0. Disaggregated data shows thatthe Walung.3019 0.2754 0.1689 0. and Khatwe are the least gender inclusive groups..0000 0.6 Conclusion Gender inclusion encompasses a number of elements related to the empowerment of women and is one of the most important aspects of social inclusion in the current national debate.

Government of Nepal. ethnicity/race. 8. the broader social groups. Living mode exclusion occurs when the state or social custom denigrates or suppresses a group’s culture. Indices developed to measure degrees of social cohesion are presented as a composite social cohesion dimension index (SCDI).1 Entry into a private house This index reveals two unsurprising extremes: firstly. traditional practices or lifestyle. The Tenth Plan (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper) 2003-2007. An index is computed for each element separately.1 Introduction The UNDP Human Development Report of 2004 frames social exclusion as cultural exclusion. These elements are measured in terms of non-discrimination. that Hill Brahmans have an index of 0. and proposes inclusive policy measures to address the situation (NPC. gender. A 2006 World Bank and DfID report identifies social exclusion in Nepal that is based on gender. All indices are based on experiences reported by respondents. religion. THE SOCIAL COHESION INDEX 87 . Much of this discrimination concerns caste and the concept of being ‘untouchable’.2 Social Sphere Index (SSI) This dimensional index deals with denial of entry based on identity as a form of discrimination. Denial of entry is defined as: a) denial of entry into a private house. and geo-politics. and geographical location as the dimensions of social exclusion. and social practices based on past discrimination that have not been addressed (such as the concept that some people are ‘untouchable’ in Nepal’s caste system). b) denial of entry into a religious place. The analysis proceeds on two levels. 2003)10. 8. language. Such discriminatory practices induced by social values and norms are the focus of this chapter. denial. It outlines two forms of cultural exclusion – living mode exclusion and participation exclusion. Exclusion exists in societies that construct prejudices of dominance. secondly that Hill Dalits have an 10. NPC (2003).and color of skin/race. Participation exclusion refers to discrimination or disadvantage based on cultural identity such as ethnicity. and then 97 different caste and ethnic groups.Targets of such prejudices are factors such as ethnicity and caste. The Tenth Plan (2003–2007) recognizes caste and ethnicity. religion. The government of Nepal acknowledges that social exclusion is one of the barriers to social and economic development in the country. or restriction. place of residence. first. c) denial of entry into the life of a community. indicating virtually no one from this group faces discrimination. religion. including its language. and then aggregated into theSocial Sphere Index (SSI). and Social Respect/Identity index (SRII). gender. Kathmandu: National Planning Commission. Discrimination is closely linked to human dignity and respect which in turn reflect the status of human value and self-respect in a society. language or religion. region of residence and economic class is also covered. although other discriminatory behavior based on differences in ethnicity. This composite index is compiled fromthe Social Sphere index (SSI). traditional practices.2.8 THE SOCIAL COHESION INDEX 8. caste.9934. Cultural exclusion is operated through discriminatory policies instituted by the state.

5263 .4 74.9021 0. religion.9306 97.3169 . language.9934 79.8896.3 Permitted to participate in the life of the community Permission to participate in the life of the community is defined as non-discrimination in public places and thoroughfares including markets.7915 and 0.1 .1 31. etc. drinking water sources.8518 96.2.2.4091 andTarai Janajatis 0.9639 .3 .2.4091 0.9978).7914 .9766 .9605 0.9705 0.8754 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . 8.3 79.7 92. Hill Dalits score 0.0 . SSI is highest for Hill Brahmans (0.8896 . OtherTarai castes.9978 0.8 .6496 0.2 79.7147.1 96.9030 0.4 .2 . Table 8.1710 . Hill Dalits face higher levels of discrimination when attempting to gain entry to the religious places of their faith and have an index value of 0. traditional practices.1 90.9328 97.9435 89.0 100.9834 .0 for Hill Brahmans and TaraiBrahman/Chhetris which means that every person from these groups is permitted to participate in community life (Table 8.5 93.3416 indicating that fewer people from this group are permitted to participate in the life of the community in cases when they are different from others in terms of caste/ethnicity. The index score for Hill Dalits is 0.9612 .1 90. Muslims and Tarai Dalits appear towards the bottom of the index.1). public meeting halls and other community meeting spaces. Tarai Dalits have a slightly higher index (0.1710 indicating that nearly everyone from this group faces discrimination (Table 8. These groups are closely followed by Hill Chhetris (0.4 52.9449 0.9179 98.7 34.0000 0.9037 0.0 100. schools.7933 97. The index values for Newars and for TaraiBrahman/Chhetris are similar.3 93.1 . Tarai/Hill Janajatis.9953 .7915 85.index of 0.9737 .3 . The index is 1.8500 Entry Into Religious Place Mean Index (%) 100. and local offices.9934 .9705.6 98.0000 91. 8.3 .9684 . TaraiBrahman/Chhetris and Hill Chhetris have index values that range between 0.0000 .0 .5 84.9211 .4 Social Sphere Index (SSI) The Social Sphere Index is a domain level index that is a composite of the three indices described above (Table 8.7303 0.8 85.3 96.9997 1.2 .8961 96.6496) than Hill Dalits.8403 .8 71.7147 .2 Entry into religious places The index dealing with entry into religious places shows that Hill Brahmans have an index value of 1 indicating that they experience the highest level of social cohesion.9803 Permission to Participate in Community Life Mean (%) Index Social Sphere Domain Index 100.9997). Hill Brahmans are closely followed by Tarai Janajatis (0.9639).3416 . Mountain/Hill and Tarai Janajatis and other Tarai castes have a mid-level Social Sphere index score.1).7434 .0 99.4 92.9276 .9605 .0 17. 8.1).1: Social Sphere Index by its components by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/ Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total 88 Entry Into Private House Mean Index (%) 99.1 99.9740 .0 1.9800 0.0 1.

7 99.3 100.9868 100.3 98.9803 .9671 .9803 .7 95.7 96.9759 0.0 99.7 . Khatwe.7 .9868 .4 94.9825 0.0000 Permission to Participate in Community Mean Index (%) 100.9801 .0 100.N.9803 .7 99.9934 .0 100.3 .7 97.0 1.5 99.9671 .4 .9868 0.9735 0.2: Social Sphere Index by caste/ethnic group S.3 98.9934 1.9934 1.0000 99.9912 0.0000 99.9649 0.9603 . Tajpurias (Tarai Janajati).9934 99.1 100.9934 .2).7 99.7 95.9737 0.0000 .9825 0.9934 100.9715 0.9536 .3 96.9539 . Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 HILL BRAHMAN NUNIYA NURANG BANIYA TAJPURIYA HALUWAI KEWAT THAKURI BANGALI TELI BYANGSI RAJBHAR BHEDIYAR/ GADERI KAYASTHA DARAI DHIMAL PUNJABI/SIKH THARU JIREL SHERPA MALI HYOLMO CHEPANG (PRAJA) SUDHI HAJAM/THAKUR BARAE GHARTI/BHUJEL MECHE MARWADI KANU CHIDIMAR BRAHMU/BARAMU HAYU Entry Into Private House Entry Into Religious Place Mean (%) 99.9868 .9934 1.3 98.3 98.3 97.9825 0.9934 .3 92.9934 .7 89.9272 .7 94.0 95.7 99.9474 .1 Index Index 1.3 100.7 .9649 0.9868 .9868 100.3 .0 98. Groups with the lowest index values are all Dalits from both the hills (Badi.0000 .9737 .0 1.9474 .9868 .9934 1.0 98.0 94.0000 .9737 . Musahar. and Baniyasmake up the top ten (table 8.9912 0.9825 0.3 . Gaine.0 99.4 100.9934 100.3 99.9934 .9693 0.9803 0.9539 Mean (%) 100.1 96.9408 .7 96.4 99.0 98.1 100.9934 .9803 1.0 98.9779 0.0 100.9868 0. Kami.9868 0.3 99.0000 .9934 .7 99.9605 .9682 0. and Sarki) and the Tarai (Halkhor.4 93.9934 .9934 1.4 98.0 99.Among the 97 caste/ethnic groups.3 100.0 1.3 .9934 98.9737 0.3 98.9934 .3 94.0 1.0000 100.7 98.9671 0. Hill Brahmans and Thakuris.7 94.9934 .9474 .9868 .9803 0.9825 0.3 97.8947 .9825 0.0 1.9803 . Damai/Dholi.7 93.4 98.9934 0.0000 .7 99.9934 94.0000 99.9868 .0 90.9474 .9825 0.7 96.9934 .0000 100.4 96.0000 .7 99.9803 .9408 1.9803 .0000 1.0 99. Tatma.9715 0.0 100.9868 100.9474 .3 99.0000 1.9605 .9868 .4 98.9890 0.9934 0.4 98.0000 1.0 95.0 97.0 96.0 .9013 Social Sphere Domain Index 0.0 98.9605 1.0000 .0000 . and Dom).9890 0.0000 .9649 THE SOCIAL COHESION INDEX 89 .9737 .0000 98.0000 .0 100.3 98.9737 . Nuniyas.0 99.9671 . and some other Tarai castes such as Nurangs.9704 .3 100.9737 1.4 100.0 97.0000 .3 100.9978 0.9342 .9342 1.9825 0.3 1.0 96. Table 8.0 99.9801 .0 94.0000 98.7 97.9868 .9539 .9868 .7 94.0 1.0000 1. Kewats.1 99.0 1.9934 .9474 .0 98.9934 .9671 .1 98.9934 .

9737 Permission to Participate in Community Mean Index (%) 98.0000 .7 .0 1.2 89.6711 .4 99.7895 .7829 .9496 0.9671 .7 97.0 76.8609 .4 .8618 .7697 .8969 0.8991 0.9605 100.7 .2 .9514 0.9803 98..0000 96.9276 0.6513 .8750 .8750 .3 .9474 .9868 .7 84.9342 94.7 .9671 .8224 95.7 97.3 84.9934 100.9539 .0 1.1 .8 86.8772 0.0 1.0 93.0 98.3 95.0 .9145 .9211 .9342 0.9408 82.8 87.9539 Social Sphere Domain Index 0.9474 96.9408 96.4 87.3 .5 99.9276 .9013 94.9605 99.8487 .9539 .9934 .8 99.0 96.8728 0.0 1.6 80.0000 98.9934 1.9167 0.9298 0.8684 .0000 98.0000 100.8676 0.0000 99.1 86. Caste/Ethnicity 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 90 SONAR RAJI GURUNG NEWARI KOCHE RAJBANSI SANYASI BANTAR RAJPUT GANGAI LEPCHA DHANUK MUNDA YADAV KUMHAR BOTE SUNUWAR BING/BINDA BRAHMAN .8553 .9496 0.9934 .4 .9934 96.7 98..8 .9 84.9934 .8 92.8816 0.0 .8493 .8947 .9539 .9539 0.7 .8750 0.9035 0.3 .9145 0.9276 90.9408 0.0000 100.9276 .5 67.9671 .Cont.1 82.2 64.3 78.9868 .9079 .0 1.9737 .0 .5 91.7 92.9518 0..8860 0.9605 94.9671 .0 1.3 98. S.3 100.7 96.4 86.9315 95.9627 0.4 95.9474 .9803 .8 94.8925 0.9364 0.8750 .9123 0.9868 92.8 65.9167 0.9276 0.7697 .9605 .8575 .9868 .3 77.8750 .5 95.1 .9539 .8947 .7 90.9934 .3 78.9539 0.0 85.4 95.9539 93.9649 0.0 1.5 93.3 86.7 98.3 96.0 1.9671 100.9211 .0 1.7 96.9 79.0 1.9342 .8947 0.9934 .9386 0.4 .9803 98.4 98.4 87.9474 .4 98.9605 .7632 .1 94.9 97.9868 .1 .9013 0.5 74.4 92.9868 .2 .9671 .9 67.9408 .8618 99.8421 .1 97.9539 0.9737 .6776 .4 .1 95.7434 .0 .9868 100.5 94.7 99.9539 .0 98.8224 .9934 100.0000 99.7 88.5 Mean (%) 92.8947 .9079 0.8487 98.2 77.9934 98.8882 .9430 0.8684 .9803 95.2 .9803 .TARAI KOIRI LODHA MAGAR MALLAH KAMAR TAMANG THAMI KALWAR DURA LOHAR DANUWAR KAHAR CHHETRI SANTHAL/SATAR KURMI THAKALI YAKKHA DHAGAR/JHAGAR RAUTE KISAN Entry Into Private House Entry Into Religious Place Mean (%) 99.9539 100.1 .8 82.7 .8553 .4 96.2 86.1 .7 98.7 .4 Index .9803 93.8026 .7 96.7961 .3 96.7632 ..5 89.9627 0.3 85.1 99.1 .9868 100.9868 98.4 94.9079 0.9605 0.9868 .7 87.9342 0.2 76.N.1 78.0000 86.9 .8618 .7895 .8219 .0000 84.1 98.0000 100.9737 .9342 .6447 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Index .3 .5 89.9803 .

3618 .2 98.9671 .3 Social Respect and Identity Index (SRII) The Social Respect and IdentityIndex is single component domain index dealing with recognition and respect based on identity.3 19.0000 67.4737 1.8754 Index .7961 79.Cont. This indicates that almost no Hill Brahmans experience prejudice or negativity from people who have a different cultural.2 46.7895 0.7566 .7434 .9342 100.7 56.1053 .0987 .1 48.4978 0.8158 .6645 .5298 0.1908 .0000 .7 80.4 52. Caste/Ethnicity 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 KUMAL PAHARI RAI DHOBI BADHAE WALUNG MAJHI BHOTE MUSLIM CHAMAR.7917 0.6 .7 93.6 70.2 80.9342 .6 15.1 .9 96.7171 74.6316 .5 .4 96.6 .7105 0. spatial.4 49.3 32.3).3 76.7105 .8487 .6 .9 36.7059 71.9474 .0000 .7961 93.4079 64.0 84.N.4868 .0 53.7108 8.4 100.9 .9 79.3377 Mean (%) 94.8114 0.4430 0.7 84.0461 .9211 .2 43.5197 ..9868 .8553 0.7434 90.7961 .7237 . THE SOCIAL COHESION INDEX 91 . who routinely receive recognition and respect from other groups.5307 0.1447 93.8465 0.7 .3 90.1 79. on the other hand.4 94.4 100.7616 .0329 .8874 Permission to Participate in Community Mean Index (%) 80.9 63.4 93.9211.5965 0.4605 .8465 0.9342 .3289 .3 .1589 .0 83..5 100. religious. HARIJAN.7697 .4934 .4 74.7 .5 9.0000 40.2 15.9 66.9539 .4342 .6 44.5263 .8 Index .1 88.4539 1.5 .1 .8 .9 10.8947 1. S.7933 93.8816 .4 95.8092 .9073 Social Sphere Domain Index 0.9021 0.7 66. There are very few Dalits.6645 0. for Tarai Dalits it is 0.7039 .9342 .1 98.0855 .6689 .9408 .9 63.9 .0 1.2 47. Other Tarai castes and Muslims have relatively lower indices than the remaining groups.8355 0.6 33.1 96.4583 0.9605 .8487 45.4408 .2481 (Table 8.9608 0. RAM DHUNIA PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA LIMBU CHHANTYAL DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI HALKHOR BADI GAINE KHATWE MUSAHAR DOM TATMA DAMAI/DHOLI KAMI SARKI Total Entry Into Private House Entry Into Religious Place Mean (%) 81.5417 0. The SRII value for Hill Brahmans is 0.4013 0.0 .8399 0.9 37.1 36.1 96.2 .5154 0.9868 .9306 77..1 52.7 .5658 .0 46.8092 .1 4.7 88.4 72.5 26.7303 0.6316 .2632 .8092 79.7 92.1 3.1569 89.3618 .3860 0..4605 .6447 71.3750 .4 .3 .2945 and for Hill Dalits it is 0.6096 8.6996 0.5395 .7917 0. or caste/ethnic identity.6 75.6711 .9605 .6 14.

1 0. Hill Brahman. Badi.9013 89.8348 81.8421 . Sunuwar.5 . Kayastha.1 .7779 72.8487 84.3: Mean and Index of idenƟty and recogniƟon by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Identity/Recognition Mean (%) Index 92.9474 94.9408 92.8 0.8947 89.2 .2 .2481 29.8750 87.0 .9 . and the Sarki.9474 94. Gaine and Kami groups from the hills.Table 8.4 .8947 88.6579 77.5 .8750 86.5 0. Chepang.9211 83.9013 90. Thakali.4: IdenƟty/RecogniƟon Index by caste/ethnic group S.9539 94.7231 73.1 . the Hyolmo. Dom.1 .3 0.8 0.8487 84. Table 8.7229 Looking at individual groups.8816 88.9145 90.5 0. The groups with the ten lowest index values are mainly Dalits – the Musahar. Chhantyal.8146 69.2 .6987 24.2 0.9211 91.7 .9 0.2945 84. Hayu.7 . and Khatwe groups from the Tarai. Many of them are Hill Janajatis. Dhimal and Punjabi Sikh all have relatively high index scores and feature in the top ten.8421 72.1 .5 . Dusadh.5 .9 .3 0.N.4 . Halkhor.8 0.8618 84.8816 87.9803 95.2 .7395 65. Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 HYOLMO CHEPANG (PRAJA) HAYU KAYASTHA THAKALI HILL BRAHMAN CHHANTYAL SUNUWAR DHIMAL PUNJABI/SIKH MECHE RAJBANSI BANIYA THAKURI SANYASI KEWAT GANGAI SHERPA NEWARI 92 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Identity/Recognition Mean (%) Index 98.5 0.9 0.

7895 78.N.8 .2 .6 .7 .6645 66.7237 71.1 .8092 79.1 .8 .8278 82.8289 82.0 .8 .7 .4 .4 .8158 81.4 .7 .9 .6 .7303 72.6513 65.0 .8355 82.7500 74.8158 81. S.1 .9 .6 .2 ..7682 76.6579 65.6974 68.8224 81.2 .3 ..6 .Cont.8158 80.3 .7632 75.7 .6513 61.0 .9 .7434 73.6711 66.8158 81.7 .7632 76.6 . Caste/Ethnicity 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 DARAI CHHETRI TELI HALUWAI RAI DURA BRAHMAN–TARAI GHARTI/BHUJEL YADAV GURUNG LEPCHA YAKKHA KOCHE DANUWAR RAJBHAR KAHAR BANGALI NURANG SONAR MARWADI BARAE KAMAR MAJHI MAGAR THARU TAJPURIYA BANTAR BHOTE PAHARI DHANUK SANTHAL/SATAR RAJPUT DHOBI TAMANG KISAN LODHA MUSLIM KANU BADHAE KURMI THAMI Identity/Recognition Mean (%) Index 83.7697 77.6776 67.7368 73.8224 82.7171 71.9 .8 .7895 78.6118 THE SOCIAL COHESION INDEX 93 .7566 75.7961 78.7697 76.3 .2 .6821 67.7829 77.7105 69.1 .3 .0 .6645 65..7368 73.7 .6579 65.8224 82..6 .2 .7171 71.8 .

4605 45.9 .4539 43.3179 30.2 .5 .0461 72.5364 50.1 .4 .5724 56.3224 31.1 .7229 .3092 26..3 0.6 .4342 41. RAM DHUNIA TATMA BADI KAMI KHATWE GAINE PATHARKATA/KUSWADIYA DUSADH/PASWAN/PASI SARKI HALKHOR DOM MUSAHAR Total 94 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Identity/Recognition Mean (%) Index 60. S.6 .4 . Caste/Ethnicity 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 SUDHI CHIDIMAR BOTE JIREL MALI MUNDA BYANGSI BHEDIYAR/GADERI HAJAM/THAKUR RAJI KALWAR KOIRI MALLAH DHAGAR/JHAGAR NUNIYA WALUNG KUMAL KUMHAR LIMBU BRAHMU/BARAMU RAUTE LOHAR BING/BINDA DAMAI/DHOLI CHAMAR.2 .8 .1 .2 .8 .4 .2566 25.4079 40.2 .5789 57.5855 58..2566 25.9 .3289 32.8 . HARIJAN.7 .7 .4539 45.4605 46.0724 4.0461 4.3 .4145 40.Cont..2237 19.6053 59.5658 53.1579 13.9 .2517 22.8 .4934 46.6 .6 .4013 35.5828 57.9 .2632 25.5000 49.7 .9 .3562 32.6 .5987 58.1961 15..4 .3 .6 .N.3289 32.5 .0 .6053 60.5066 50.1382 7.3 .6 .4 .

6987 0. Damai and Kami groups. Meches and Thakuris.9649 0. Table 8. and Tatma groups.8754 Identity/Recognition Index 0.9419 0. Dom.9890 0.9868 0.7231 0.9254 0. Punjabis. Hill Brahmans.9803 0. Table 8.9449 0.8790 0. Kayasthas.Tarai Dalits including the Musahar.9561 0. Hill Brahmans have the highest index value (0. Hill Chhetris and Newars follow closely.9978 0.7779 0.7229 Social Cohesion Dimension Index 0.7395 0.9211 0.8947 0.9539 Identity/Recognition Index 0.4091 0.9693 0.8689 0. make up the bottom ten.8947 0. Baniyas.8789 0.2481 0.6579 0.8146 0.9912 0.9539 0. Mountain/Hill and Tarai Janajatis have slightly lower levels of inclusion while Tarai and Hill Dalits have a very long way to go before they achieve social cohesion.7303 0.9435 0.9605 0.9781 0. Hayus.9030 0.9594) (Table 8.3286 0.6941 0.7991 Among the 97 caste/ethnic groups. Tarai Brahman/Chhetris. Halkhor.4720 0.9638 0.8.6 Social Cohesion Dimension Index by caste/ethnic group S.6496 0. Khatwe.8961 0.9649 0.9594 0. the 10 highest social cohesion index values are attributed to Hyolmos.5: Social Cohesion Dimension index (social sphere and idenƟty/ recogniƟon index) and social cohesion dimension index by broader social group Caste/Ethnicity Hill Brahman Hill Chhetri TaraiBrahman/Chhetri Tarai Other Caste Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Newari Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Muslim Others Total Social Sphere Index 0.8750 0.9013 0. As in the domain level indices.9737 0. Dhimals.9474 0.9013 0.4 Social Cohesion Dimension Index (SCDI) The Social Cohesion Dimension Index is a composite of the two domain-level indices described above.9978 0.9825 0. Chepangs.9705 0.8816 Social Cohesion Dimension Index 0.9474 0.8618 0.9320 0.8218 0.9800 0. Caste/Ethnicity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 HYOLMO KAYASTHA CHEPANG (PRAJA) HILL BRAHMAN HAYU DHIMAL PUNJABI/SIKH BANIYA MECHE THAKURI KEWAT RAJBANSI Social Sphere Index 0. N.2945 0.9825 0.9364 0. In contrast.9594 0.9309 0.8421 0.9178 THE SOCIAL COHESION INDEX 95 .5).9825 0.9759 0.9386 0.8348 0. Dusadh/Paswan/Pasi. Gaine. and Hill Dalits including the Sarki.9211 0.8550 0.8816 0.8096 0.

8618 0.9518 0.6645 0.9649 0.8487 0.8465 0.8377 0.8289 0.9430 0.9123 0.7895 0.9167 0..8125 0.9073 0.8224 0.8487 0.7697 0.7895 0.9868 0.9079 0.8657 0.6053 0.7237 0.9715 0.9539 0.8947 0.9013 0.8158 0.8268 0.8355 0.9671 0.9627 0.9539 0.8268 0.9803 0.9890 0.8893 0.8827 0.8991 0.8311 0.9013 0.8224 0.9682 0.9342 0.8278 0.7368 0.7632 0.8432 0.8783 0.8750 0.7895 0.9145 0.8355 0.9178 0.7895 0.8092 0. N.9649 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Identity/Recognition Index 0.9408 0.6711 0.7829 0.8969 0.9868 0.9514 0..8224 0.8158 0..8717 0.7632 0.6821 0.7895 0.9090 0.9090 0.8607 0.6053 Social Cohesion Dimension Index 0.9167 0.8158 0. Caste/Ethnicity 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 SUNUWAR SANYASI SHERPA DARAI THAKALI TELI HALUWAI NEWARI GANGAI GHARTI/BHUJEL GURUNG RAJBHAR NURANG LEPCHA BANGALI YADAV KOCHE BRAHMAN .8344 0.7961 0.8794 0.TARAI MARWADI BARAE SONAR DURA CHHETRI TAJPURIYA THARU DANUWAR BANTAR YAKKHA RAI KAHAR KAMAR DHANUK MAGAR RAJPUT KANU SANTHAL/SATAR LODHA CHHANTYAL TAMANG SUDHI CHIDIMAR 96 Social Sphere Index 0.9386 0.7851 .8158 0.7682 0.8421 0.8322 0.8750 0.7500 0.9605 0.9825 0.9934 0.8772 0.8168 0.7697 0.8607 0.6645 0.8936 0.8596 0..9825 0.9912 0.8860 0.7917 0.9496 0.8640 0.6579 0.7105 0.7906 0.8925 0.9276 0.8640 0.8717 0. S.9145 0.9737 0.9057 0.8772 0.9825 0.9715 0.6974 0.9145 0.9496 0.7368 0.7566 0.7303 0.Cont.9013 0.8808 0.

4583 0.6228 0.6579 0.6096 0.4079 0. N.1579 0.7917 0.9408 0.4539 0.6513 0.7105 0.6294 0.5364 0.7664 0.3772 0.7434 0.7171 0.7675 0.7774 0..5417 0.8575 0.7917 0..5066 0.9825 0.3607 THE SOCIAL COHESION INDEX 97 .7818 0.4145 0.Cont.6996 0.7018 0.3179 Social Cohesion Dimension Index 0.7105 0.8399 0.7664 0.6776 0.5724 0.9649 0.3991 0.5099 0.3224 0.2237 0.6754 0.9627 0.2566 0.3289 0.7588 0.2632 0.6645 0.9079 0.7804 0.9145 0.6831 0.7303 0.9298 0.4430 0.5658 0.5987 0.8728 0.6513 0.7829 0.9825 0. HARIJAN.9276 0.3838 0.4013 0.7237 0.9735 0.7059 0.4605 0.7895 0.9779 0..1961 0.5828 0.6875 0.8991 0..9803 0.5855 0.7599 0.7533 0.8553 0.5537 0.9342 0.5143 0.6118 0.6119 0.4934 0.5307 0.9035 0.3562 0.4605 0.6667 0.7550 0.5789 0.8816 0.8465 0.6941 0. Caste/Ethnicity 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 JIREL PAHARI MALI BYANGSI BHEDIYAR/GADERI MAJHI BOTE KURMI KISAN THAMI MUNDA DHOBI HAJAM/THAKUR BHOTE RAJI BADHAE NUNIYA KOIRI KALWAR MUSLIM MALLAH BRAHMU/BARAMU KUMHAR DHAGAR/JHAGAR KUMAL BING/BINDA WALUNG LOHAR RAUTE LIMBU CHAMAR.5000 0.3827 0.7741 0. RAM DHUNIA PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA BADI KHATWE DUSADH/PASWAN/ PASI DAMAI/DHOLI GAINE TATMA 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 Social Sphere Index 0.4510 0. S.7171 0.7610 0.4342 0.7108 Identity/Recognition Index 0.7346 0.5298 0.4539 0.7599 0.8114 0.9364 0.6140 0.3289 0.8676 0.2517 0.6447 0.3907 0.3092 0.9934 0.7314 0.

5 Conclusion Overall social cohesion index is more than three forth of the full inclusion index value..0461 0. 98 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .4013 0. Kayastha and Chepang. Also there is variation in the sub-dimensional indices among both broader and individual caste/ethnic group.3344 0. N.2807 0.5154 0.3289 0. this index value ranges from one fourth among Sarki to about full index among Hyolmo.2621 0.5965 0.1382 0. Caste/Ethnicity 93 94 95 96 97 HALKHOR KAMI MUSAHAR DOM SARKI Total Social Sphere Index 0.0724 0. S.8754 Identity/Recognition Index 0.2566 0.0461 0..7991 8.Cont.7229 Social Cohesion Dimension Index 0.2719 0..4978 0. However.3860 0..

Mallah and Lodha groups have the lowest Social Dimension Index scores. Rajput and TaraiBrahman. of itself. universalism. also produce various forms and degrees of social capital. xiv). These groups originate from all three geographic regions of the country . Hill Chhetri. Tarai Janajati. Bing/Bind. particularly those which are built on the bases of cooperation. highlighting the caste/ethnic groups with the ten highest and ten lowest index values. No Dalit groups appear in the top 10 positions on the index. Distribution in the Social Dimension Index (table 9. In addition. Gurung. sustainability etc. political. We then turn to the overall social inclusion situation as reflected in the composite NSII. The chapter concludes that the level of inclusion in different dimensions varies across the caste/ethnic groups. Ananalysis of the sub-dimensional indices shows that different levels of inclusion are experienced by the different caste/ethnic groups. TaraiBrahman/Chhetri and Mountain/Hill/TaraiJanajati are represented in the top 10. the hills and the plains. Some of the ways of organizing social relationships. Newari. Chidimar. and that inequality prevails. other Tarai caste. is an end for all human endeavor. This indicates that Dalits.Of the broader social groups. Chhantyal.the mountains. economic. more intense promotion and use of capability. THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX 99 . gender and social cohesion) described in previous chapters. which also contains high levels of variation both among the broader social groups (Hill Brahman. Musahar. are fundamentally contingent on continued survival. Nuniya. Dhuniya.9 The Nepal Multidimensional Social Inclusion Index The Nepal Social Inclusion Index (NSII) is a composite index of the six different dimensions (social. are structured in terms of social organizations. Tarai Brahman/Chhetri. Marwadi. Chamar.1) shows that the ten groups with the highest index values are the Thakali. Khatwe. Hill Janajati. Social institutions. Tarai Dalit. are more intrinsic to the promotion of human development than others (p. NHDR (1998) continues: Human social relationships. Muslim and Other). The Dom. Newari. indicating that none of the groups experiences inclusion across all of the dimensions. apart from organizing human relationships in particular ways. Hill Dalit. 9. in turn.. and on the maintenance of good health” (NHDR. Dura. Hill Brahman. Kayastha. This chapter begins with a brief description of each sub-dimensional (domain) index. equity. 1998:56). and the 97 caste/ethnic groups. cultural. which explores current levels of social inclusion in Nepal.1 Social Dimension Index “Good health. Hill Brahman. particularly Tarai Dalits experience very low levels of social inclusion. access to all other human development opportunities and use and enhancement of all other human capabilities.

is intrinsically linked to the standard of living experienced by individuals and households.3000 Musahar 0.6061 Dura 0.6804 Marwadi Gurung 0. Among the 97 caste/ethnic groups. Baniya. The highest level of economic inclusion is experienced by the Thakali.18 to 0..1000 Levels of inclusion vary widely across caste/ethnic groups:the value for the group that appears at the top of the index is around three times greater than the lowest value.Figure 1: Top and BoƩom Ten Social Groups in Social Dimensional Index among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups 1.1) shows a large gap in terms of economic inclusion. Brahman/ Chhetris and Hill Janajatis are most likely to appear at the top of the table.3345 Khatwe 0. Kayastha.4000 0. in addition to enhancing productivity”. Khatwe.5000 Lodha 0. Patharkata. 0. There are also degrees of inequality among the bottom 10 with index values ranging from 0.2000 Total Brahman-Tarai 0. Chidimar. influences access to education. in turn.68. The distribution of the 97 caste/ethnic groups in the composite economic dimension index(table 9.Tarai Brahman. Many of these groups are Madhesi Dalit. the Kisan.7198 0. Harijan.2 Economic Dimension Index NHDR (1998:14) states that “disparity in distribution of both assets and income.3288 Dhunia Dom 0.7000 Newar 0.6166 0.3337 Chamar.. From the broader social groups. Any effort to enhance human development.5828 0.. Punjabi and Yadav groups with index scores of between 0. 9. Dusadh and Musahar experience the lowest levels of economic inclusion. whereas Madhesi other caste and Madhesi Dalits are most likely to appear at the bottom. Brahman. Nuniya. Hill Brahman. health.Newari. Bing/Bin.3368 Mallah 0.8000 0.32. In general.0000 Thakali 0. 100 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . Marwadi. indicating inequality.5932 Rajput 0. No Dalit groups feature in the top 10.9000 0. Chamar.2772 0.2597 0.6540 Kayastha Chhantel 0.3087 Nuniya Chidimar Bing/Binda 0. Rajput.6811 0. Raji. must facilitate asset and income redistribution. Hill Janajati and Tarai caste groups from all three geographical regions of the country are represented..3194 0.6799 Brahman-Hill 0. therefore. Social inclusion that provides opportunities for economic activity therefore.5359 0. Chhetri. nutrition and standards of living.6212 0.58 and 0.6000 0.3380 0.3134 0.0000 0.

Political inclusion describes the degree of political participation at various levels of the power structure.5155 0.1 shows that the Kayastha.6014 Baniya 0.2759 Bing/Binda Raji Chamar. Newar.3105 Khatwe 0. ‘Voice’ and ‘agency’ refer to whether an individual’s voice is likely to be heard or not when he/she is attempting to access services. and representation in the national bureaucracy. THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX 101 . Patharkata/Ku.Figure 2: Top and BoƩom Ten Social Groups in Economic Dimensional Index among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups 1. Harijan.. Rajput. and how meaningful this participation is for human development (NHDR.5000 0.0000 Total 0. 9. Nepal’s bureaucratic structure did not fundamentally change. TaraiBrahman.4000 Kisan 0.3275 0.3201 0.3000 0. Thakuri. Sudhi... Brahmans. 0.. Dusadh and Paththarkatta are less likely experience economic inclusion.6341 Brahman-Tarai 0. Table 9. NHDR (2009:79) further states that “even after the restoration of a multi-party system in 1990. Yadav and Marwadi groups experience the highest levels of political inclusion.6773 0.7000 Thakali 0. representation on the Council of Ministers.. Thakali.3100 0.6000 Kayastha 0. Dusadh/Paswa.0000 0.6048 Brahman-Hill Nuniya 0. However. Nepal has undergone considerable political transformation. especially in the social realm.2932 0..6404 0.2000 0. Much remains to be done.9000 0.6673 Marwadi 0. since the 2006 People’s Movement and the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Accord. Groups such as the Thakalis.6137 Newar 0.3 Political Dimension Index The nature of an electoral system determines to a large extent how inclusively a country’s population is represented in the political system. Marwadis and Kayasthas are more likely to have access to economic opportunity while groups such as the Musahar... 2009: 70).. Hill Brahman.3282 0.1840 0.6140 Rajput 0.2914 0. ‘voice’ and ‘agency’. The representation domain index is computed by measuring representation on the central committees of political parties.1000 Levels of economic inclusion also vary widely with the greatest index value four times higher than the lowest index value.8000 Musahar 0.” The Political Dimension Index deals with levels of political inclusion measured using indicators relevant to the current political context.5846 Yadav 0. and includes the concepts of representation.3065 0.5893 Punjabi/Sikh Chidimar 0..

7645 0. Sanyasi. The Chepang.0489 0.7020 Brahman-Hill 0.0404 0.5000 Total Marwadi Yadav Brahman-Tarai Rajput Kayastha 0.6150 0. The majority of these groups are Janajatis. The groups that make up the bottom 10 are the Raute. Chepang.2974 0.8786 (Kayastha). It is important to note that Hill Dalits such the Damai. Raute.9000 0.0082 (Raute). levels of political inclusion widely vary among the 97 caste/ethnic groups with index scores ranging from 0.3000 0. Raute 0. Sonar and Teli. Dhagar.8796 1.1000 0. It is viewed as the driver of social inclusion. belonging to Janajatis.4 Cultural Dimension Index The Cultural Dimension is one of the key markers of inclusion/exclusion in Nepal. Dura. to 0. The top index value is about hundred times higher than the bottom index value. Patharkata. Sarki.6827 0.2000 Santhal/Satar 0.7217 0.8106 0.0489 0.0315 0. Groups appearing at the top of the index include the Thakuri. There is also variation amomg the top 10 and bottom 10 groups. Lodha. Bantar. Chhetri.6000 0. Rai. Munda. Table 9.6697 Sudhi Thakuri Newar 0. Santhal and Lepcha. Jirel.0487 0. Among these top ten groups there are mostly Brahman/ Chhetri and Dalits.0082 Thami Munda Lodha Nurang Bantar Chepang (Praja) Patharkata/Ku. Badi and Sarki groups experience high levels of cultural inclusion. Badi.1 presents a clear picture of levels of cultural inclusion across the 97 caste/ethnic groups.8000 0. None of the Dalit groups feature in the top 10. Lepcha.0000 0. Figure 3: Top and BoƩom Ten Social Groups in PoliƟcal Dimensional Index among 97 Caste/ Ethnic Groups 0.0000 Again. Hill Brahman.4000 Lepcha 0. Gaine.6993 0. Yakhkha and Pahari groups occupy the bottom ten positions in the index. Thami. 102 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . Changes in traditional value systems promote social inclusion in the country.0559 0. These groups experience the lowest levels of political inclusion. 9.Hill and Tarai Janajatis and Tarai castes are represented in the top 10. Nurang. Damai.0431 0..7000 Thakali 0. Bhote. This is discussed in more detail in chapters one and two.0118 0.0336 0.6445 0.

The caste/ethnic groups that experience the lowest levels of gender inclusion are the Khatwe. Caste/ ethnic groups with the highest gender inclusion index values are the Walung. control over the decision to marry.8489 0.6213 0. Hill Dalit groups such as the Damai. Although there is some variation between these bottom 10 groups.6248 0.7000 0.9967 1.6270 0.0000 Thakuri Figure 4: Top and BoƩom Ten Social Groups in Cultural Dimensional Index among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups 0. Bing.6254 Yakkha 0.9897 Sanyasi 0.5779 0.8327 0. the Badi) also feature at the top of the index. Byansi. Chanar. Lepcha.0000 Gaine 0. 9.8303 0. and control over reproductive decisions.5907 0. THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX 103 .9923 Damai/Dholi 0.6017 0. Badi.9000 Sonar 0.0.5835 0. Kewat. Thakali. Punjabi. although some Dalit groups (e.523). These include education.9786 Sarki 0.1000 The index reveals a gap in the levels of cultural inclusion experienced by the different caste/ethnic groups. Badhae and Dhanuk.9822 Badi Teli 0. Sarki and Gaine experience high levels of cultural inclusion.6000 0.8000 Pahari 0. Dura. Rajbhar. Only half of Nepali women experience gender inclusion in different aspects of their lives.g.997) scores around than double of the group with the lowest index value (Chepang – 0.9156 0. Gurung and Rai. Yakhkha. The group with the highest index value (Thakuri – 0. Tatma.5740 Bhote Dhagar/Jhagar Rai Dura Raute Lepcha Jirel 0. Kurmi.2000 Chepang (Praja) 0. Kamar.5 Gender Dimension Index The majority of Nepali women still experience degrees of exclusion in a number of areas.5000 0.9673 Brahman-Hill Total 0. Badi.5231 0.4000 0. it is marginal compared to the difference between the highest and lowest index values.9849 Chhetri 0.3000 0. Most of these are Janajati groups.

6420 Punjabi/Sikh Badhae 0.4000 0. Chepang. Kami.6 Social Cohesion/Solidarity Index Social integration and positive social relationships are important indicators of inclusion.Figure 5: Top and BoƩom Ten Social Groups in Gender Dimensional Index among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups 1.3019 0.2822). Musahar.6000 0. These top ten groups include mainly Hill Janajatis and bothHill and Trarai Brahmans/Chhetri.3318 0. Kayastha. Dignity and self-respect. However.6809 Badi 0. Madhesi Dalit and Madhesi other caste feature in the bottom 10.6955 0. The majority of groups with the highest index values are Janajati (such as the Walung. are important elements of social inclusion.6147 Gurung 0.8000 Walung 0. Baniya. Dhimal. Harijan.3330 0. The level of social cohesion among the Sarki.2000 0. Ram Bing/Binda Kewat Kamar Tatma Khatwe 0.6709 Lepcha 0. All of the groups that feature in the bottom ten are Dalit. Tatma.0000 Total 0. Dura and Rai) or Dalit (such as the Badi). therefore.0000 0.3412 0. Lepcha. Among the 97 caste/ethnic groups. Hayu. The highest index value (0. Meche and Thakuri have the highest index values. Dom.2822 Chamar. Social cohesion (or non-discrimination) is also important for development as it increases levels of social harmony and participation. There is some variation among the top ten groups as well.3287 0. the Hyolmo.3087 0.6654 Yakkha 0.3000 0. Punjabi/Shikh.6955) is more than double the lowest index value (0. 104 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . Halkhor.7000 0. Hill Brahman. The Social Cohesion Index focuses on the areas of identity and social respect.6209 Thakali 0.6503 Dura 0.3439 0. Gaine. Damai.3389 0.1000 Levels of gender inclusion also vary widely across caste/ethnic groups.9000 0. 9.5000 Dhanuk 0.3101 0.6192 Byangsi Rajbhar 0.5085 0. Dusadh and Khatwe groups is very low.5976 Rai Kurmi 0.

Figure 6: Top and BoƩom Ten Social Groups in Social Cohesion Dimensional Index among 97
Caste/Ethnic Groups

0.9638

0.9594

0.9561

0.9419

0.9386

0.9364

0.9320

0.9309

Chepang (Praja)

Brahman-Hill

Hayu

Dhimal

Punjabi/Sikh

Baniya

Meche

Thakuri

0.7000

0.7991

0.9649
Kayastha

0.8000

0.9781

0.9000

Hyolmo

1.0000

0.6000

0.2807

0.2719

0.2621

Musahar

Dom

Sarki

0.3607
Tatma

0.3289

0.3772
Gaine

Kami

0.3827
Damai/Dholi

0.3344

0.3838
Dusadh/Paswan/Pasi

0.3000

Halkhor

0.3907

0.4000

Khatwe

0.5000

0.2000

0.0000

Total

0.1000

In the Social Cohesion Index, there is also wide variation among the caste/ethnic groups. The
index for the top scoring group (Hyolmo – 0.97) is around four times higher than the index for the
bottom scoring group (Sarki – 0.26). Janajatis, Brahmans and Chhetris feature in the top ten, while
all the groups in the bottom ten are Dalit.

9.7 Nepal Multidimensional Social Inclusion Index (NSII)
The NSII is a composite index of the six dimensions of social inclusion defined in this study. It
is an average of the indices of the six dimensions. NSII thus computed, shows the level of social
inclusion of caste/ethnic groups in six major dimensions of inclusion relevant in the context of
Nepal. The distribution of values across the 97 caste/ethnic groups shows that there is a wide
variation in the levels of social inclusion experienced by the different groups with index values
ranging from 0.327 (Musahar), to 0.752 (Kayastha).
The caste/ethnic groups with the top ten index values are Kayastha, Hill Brahman, Thakali,
Thakuri, Newar, Rajput, Brahman-Tarai, Chhetri, Sanyasi and Marwadi. The top ten groups except
Marwadi belong to Hill Brahman/Chhetri, Hill Janajati and Madhesi Brahman/Chhetri broader
social groups.
The 10 groups with the lowest index values are the Musahar, Dom, Khatwe, Pathatharkata, Tatma,
Dusadh/Paswan, Halkhor, Chamar, Bing/Binda and Kami. The majority of these groups are Hill or
Tarai Dalits.

THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX

105

Figure 7: Top and BoƩom Ten Social Groups in Nepal MulƟimensional Social Inclusion Index
among 97 Caste/Ethnic Groups
1.0000

0.3708
Khatwe

0.3274

0.3786
Patharkata/Kuswadiya

Musahar

0.3884
Tatma

0.3638

0.4023
Dusadh/Paswan/Pasi

Dom

0.4063

0.6670
Marwadi

Halkhor

0.6772
Sanyasi

0.4106

0.6777
Chhetri

Chamar, Harijan, Ram

0.6782
Brahman-Tarai

0.4136

0.6807
Rajput

Bing/Binda

0.6852
Newar

0.4000

0.4136

0.7052
Thakuri

0.5000

Kami

0.7173
Thakali

0.6000

0.5815

0.7403
Brahman-Hill

0.7000

0.7516

0.8000

Kayastha

0.9000

0.3000
0.2000

0.0000

Total

0.1000

Kayasthas have the highest index score (0.75) while Musahars have the lowest (0.327). Other
groups that experience high levels of social inclusion are Hill and Tarai Brahmans and Chhetris,
and some Janajati groups such as the Thakalis and Newars. Hill and Tarai Dalit groups experience
the lowest levels of social inclusion. The highest value on the index is more than double the lowest.
On the other hand, the top most group is at around three fourth of the optimal level. Only around
one third of Musahars and Doms experience the same.

106

THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX

THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX

107

Caste/Ethnicity

KAYASTHA
HILL BRAHMAN
THAKALI
THAKURI
NEWARI
RAJPUT
BRAHMAN–TARAI
CHHETRI
SANYASI
MARWADI
GURUNG
BANIYA
TELI
SUDHI
HALUWAI
YADAV
SUNUWAR
GHARTI/BHUJEL
MECHE
DARAI
PUNJABI/SIKH
RAI
BANGALI
RAJBANSI
THARU

S.N.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Economic
Dimension
Index
0.6404
0.6048
0.6773
0.4773
0.6137
0.6140
0.6341
0.5200
0.5075
0.6673
0.5476
0.6014
0.5814
0.5738
0.5171
0.5846
0.5067
0.5091
0.5463
0.5466
0.5893
0.5184
0.5489
0.5022
0.5362

Social
Dimension
Index
0.6540
0.6799
0.7198
0.5804
0.6811
0.5932
0.5828
0.5795
0.5747
0.6804
0.6212
0.5400
0.4897
0.5080
0.5154
0.4289
0.5371
0.5779
0.4923
0.5685
0.5431
0.5728
0.5069
0.4671
0.4738

Index
0.8796
0.7020
0.7217
0.6827
0.6697
0.8106
0.7645
0.5831
0.5045
0.6150
0.5247
0.5485
0.5855
0.6993
0.5963
0.6445
0.3826
0.2741
0.4129
0.3339
0.2065
0.4285
0.4557
0.3566
0.4396

Political
Dimension
Index
0.8215
0.9673
0.6551
0.9967
0.6695
0.7653
0.7533
0.9849
0.9897
0.6418
0.7183
0.8037
0.8303
0.7669
0.7913
0.7691
0.6901
0.7618
0.6475
0.6785
0.6417
0.6017
0.6827
0.7294
0.7541

Cultural
Dimension

Table 9.1: Dimensional and Composite Social Inclusion Index by Caste/Ethnic Group
Social
Cohesion
Dimension
Index
0.9649
0.9594
0.9090
0.9309
0.9013
0.8168
0.8717
0.8607
0.9145
0.8657
0.8893
0.9364
0.9073
0.7895
0.9057
0.8772
0.9178
0.8936
0.9320
0.9090
0.9386
0.8344
0.8783
0.9178
0.8596
Index
0.5488
0.5285
0.6209
0.5633
0.5759
0.4843
0.4631
0.5382
0.5726
0.5318
0.6147
0.4548
0.4849
0.4561
0.3801
0.3792
0.5940
0.5754
0.5537
0.5436
0.6420
0.5976
0.4779
0.5607
0.4616

Gender
Dimension
Index
0.7516
0.7403
0.7173
0.7052
0.6852
0.6807
0.6782
0.6777
0.6772
0.6670
0.6526
0.6475
0.6465
0.6323
0.6177
0.6139
0.6047
0.5987
0.5975
0.5967
0.5935
0.5922
0.5917
0.5890
0.5875

Social
Inclusion

5384 0.6140 0.8355 0.5492 0.7018 0.5730 0.8640 0.5289 0.9419 0.7925 0.5239 0.3557 0.5511 0.5733 0.7105 0.4421 0.8246 0.7804 0.5241 0.5315 0.5708 0.8268 0.4727 0.7032 0.5239 0.5354 0.8125 0.5177 0.6248 Cultural Dimension Social Cohesion Dimension Index 0.8717 0.5039 0.4255 0.4947 Economic Dimension Index 0.5661 0.7550 0.5363 0.5583 0.0559 0.3974 0.5425 0.5196 0.4953 0.7774 0.4413 0.5146 Social Inclusion Cont.5820 0.4720 0.5598 0.N.8040 0.5466 0.8268 0. DURA KALWAR HYOLMO CHHANTYAL SHERPA BYANGSI DHANUK KOIRI TAMANG MAGAR DHIMAL BARAE HAJAM/THAKUR LEPCHA KANU LIMBU PAHARI YAKKHA DANUWAR JIREL KOCHE GANGAI MUSLIM SONAR MALI BHOTE Caste/Ethnicity Index 0..5299 0.5252 0.6166 0.5487 0.4411 0.108 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 S.5907 0.5320 0.8159 0.4278 0.7105 0.5495 0.5538 0.1331 0.1464 Political Dimension Index 0.5763 0.3546 0.6654 0.2594 0.4315 0.6503 0.3806 0.3439 0.2283 0.6811 0.2844 0.4502 0.4953 0.4871 0.4150 0.9781 0.1305 0.5586 0.5362 0.4021 0.6061 0.6941 0.7533 Index 0.8640 0.1426 0.2607 0.1561 0.6951 0.7895 0.4537 0.5227 0.5444 0.5298 0.2947 0.5262 0.4582 0.2219 0.4085 0.6709 0.6270 0.4812 0.3691 0.3999 0.7607 0.5426 0.7464 0.. .5740 0.5247 0.5312 0..6192 0.5793 0.1779 0.4870 0.5713 0.4431 0.5385 0.7810 0.5388 0.3167 0.5511 0.5079 0.5537 0.5027 0.5281 0.8794 0.4821 0.5465 0.1945 0.8005 0.8489 0.6901 0.5209 0.4452 0.7895 0.5469 0..5151 0.7829 0.6440 0.7588 0.5038 0.5952 Gender Dimension Index 0.7436 0.0750 0.5200 0.5400 0.7175 0.8181 0.7714 0.5841 0.2237 0.5627 0.5165 0.5688 0.4367 0.6254 0.2246 0.4902 0.5052 0.4695 0.8618 0.5063 0.4469 0.5779 0.5582 0.4732 Social Dimension Index 0.2869 0.4739 0.7818 0.5598 0.4095 0.4333 0.8991 0.3786 0.0964 0.4731 0.8432 0.9145 0.

3101 0.4543 0.6677 0.5467 0.5466 0.4105 0.1928 0.8026 0.1128 0.4674 0.3960 0.4480 0.6809 0.4724 0.8607 0.9561 0.3389 0.9156 0.9786 0.0651 0.3827 0..4884 0.4927 0.3995 Social Dimension Index 0.4140 0.6973 0.4615 0.7206 0.5222 0.5069 0.5066 0.3658 0.6754 0.5161 0.6422 0.4347 0.9254 0..4723 0.1145 0.0315 0.4963 0.3876 0.5053 0.6719 0.4652 Social Inclusion Cont.4735 0.THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX 109 Caste/Ethnicity KUMHAR HAYU BOTE BRAHMU/BARAMU RAJBHAR KUMAL WALUNG BHEDIYAR/GADERI TAJPURIYA MAJHI KURMI BADI KEWAT THAMI DAMAI/DHOLI KAMAR KISAN DHOBI KAHAR NURANG BADHAE LODHA GAINE SARKI CHEPANG (PRAJA) LOHAR S.4014 0.5141 0.0882 0.3749 0.3087 0.4585 0.0625 0.7874 0.4999 0.7499 0.8137 0.4608 0.3606 0.5118 0.6684 0.3380 0.4881 0.7675 0.6728 0.7584 0.5108 0.3743 0.0671 0.1903 0.7588 0.7822 0.6447 0.9822 0.5083 0.7983 0.4905 0.3907 0.1418 0.8171 0.3772 0.4871 0.4861 0.7314 0.4606 0.7664 0.5465 0.8808 0.6970 0.6955 0.7599 0.4867 0.6140 Index 0.4954 0.5017 0.4035 Gender Dimension Index 0.4824 0.4999 0.7610 0.4660 0.4805 0.6228 0.5024 0.5129 0. 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 Economic Dimension Index 0.6831 0.5120 0.0925 0.4452 0.5001 0.4129 0..0885 0.4312 Index 0.4087 0.1792 0.4088 0.4656 0.3282 0.3651 0.4767 0.4952 0.9923 0.N.4894 0.4134 0.0404 0.4334 0.4991 0.4935 0.4413 0.5746 0.4143 0.8147 0.5001 0.3412 0.3330 0.7741 0.4817 0.0431 0.8827 0.1818 0.4097 0.7906 0.0609 0.3425 0.5231 0.4945 0.1268 Political Dimension Index 0.4919 0.8311 0.3902 0.4932 0. .7664 0.4139 0.3677 0.5067 0..2621 0.4951 0.9638 0.4890 0.3670 0.7517 0.8322 0.5018 0.1406 0.1319 0.4499 0.4869 0.4593 0.3804 0.1801 0.3991 0.1876 0.0489 0.3857 0.7374 0.4530 0.8161 Cultural Dimension Social Cohesion Dimension Index 0.3897 0.3816 0.4043 0.7955 0.5013 0.2618 0.

3974 0.4056 0.7534 0.4635 0.2839 0.1840 0.3087 0.3801 0.3435 0.6119 0.2932 Economic Dimension 0.6875 0.3134 0.7851 0.6294 0.110 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX 95 96 97 91 92 93 94 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 S.4250 0.4805 0.3288 0.3578 0.4427 0.0623 0.4650 0.3065 0.4584 0.3638 0.4063 0.6703 0.8327 0.3838 0. HARIJAN.4608 0.7780 0.2974 0.8046 0.6213 0.7951 0.4030 0..5388 0. RAM HALKHOR DUSADH/PASWAN/PASI TATMA PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA KHATWE DOM MUSAHAR Total Caste/Ethnicity 0.0952 0.3747 0.3274 0.0082 0.3337 Social Dimension 0...7991 0.3607 0.3848 0.0118 Index 0.4023 0.3287 0. RAJI BANTAR SANTHAL/SATAR CHIDIMAR MALLAH NUNIYA MUNDA RAUTE DHUNIA DHAGAR/JHAGAR KAMI BING/BINDA CHAMAR.2914 Index 0.3958 0.0651 0.3884 0.3100 0.3852 Index 0.4121 0.5359 0.0563 0.3368 0.7237 0.4597 0.8146 0.7346 0.4164 0.3786 Index 0.3318 Gender Dimension 0.4625 Index 0.5815 0.1343 0.3645 0.0489 0. .0945 0.4136 0.3577 0.5099 0.N.3733 0.7027 0.4510 Social Cohesion Dimension Index 0.3275 0.3813 0.3451 0.6389 0.7917 0.3345 0.3907 0.3622 0.2759 0.1956 0.2480 0..6396 0.0336 0.8119 0.6699 Index 0.1130 0.4252 0.6667 0.8377 0.4092 0.3798 0.2807 0.3680 0.7966 Cultural Dimension 0.4381 0.4136 0.3201 0.7800 0.5835 0.2719 0.4408 0.5155 0.7911 0.3612 0.8048 0.6507 0.3870 0.3105 0.3344 0.4734 0.4476 0.4633 0.2597 0.4106 Social Inclusion Cont.1246 0.7599 0.8059 0.4408 0.0487 0.5085 0.3762 0.2822 0.1023 0.2772 0.3842 0.4226 0.3782 0.1878 0.1941 Political Dimension 0.0830 0.3981 0.3687 0.4609 0.3194 0.3019 0.3289 0.3708 0.8282 0.5143 0.4310 0.

6695 0.9013 0.8096 0.6008 Index Index Above National Average 0.6639 Below National Average 0.2: Dimensional and Composite Social Inclusion Index by Broader Social Group Caste/Ethnicity Social Economic Political Cultural Dimension Dimension Dimension Dimension Index Index Social Cohesion Dimension Index Gender Dimension Social Inclusion Index Index 0.3505 0. However.6297 Mountain/Hill Janajati Tarai Janajati Tarai Other Caste Muslim Hill Dalit Tarai Dalit Total 0.4842 0. Madhesi Brahman/Chhetri.2684 0.1409 0. Madhesi and Hill Brahmans/Chhetri feature at the top of the Political Inclusion Index.8550 0.4350 0.5109 0.6811 0.5497 0.8789 0.5156 0.5434 0. Hill Brahmans.5815 Levels of inclusion vary from indicator to indicator and from one social group to another. Newar and Hill Chhetris are most likely to score high levels of social inclusion while Madhesi and Hill Dalits are the least likely to experience high levels of social inclusion. and women from other Tarai castes.5845 0.5759 0. while Tarai and Hill Dalits feature at the bottom.8689 0.5500 0.3286 0.2634 0.9386 0. For the Economic Dimension.5359 0.4046 0.4566 0.9860 0.7475 0.7969 0. Hill Chhetris and Hill Brahmans have the highest index values while Mountain/Hill Janajatis and Newar have the lowest.2363 0.6048 0.7991 0. The index shows high levels of social cohesion (or non-discrimination) for Hill Brahman and Newari groups but low levels for Tarai and Hill Dalits.6697 0.8790 0.5285 0.6779 0.5076 0.8008 0.7403 0.4592 0.2972 0. In terms of overall levels of social inclusion.5085 0. Newari women and Mountain/Hill Janajati women enjoy the highest levels of gender inclusion.4847 0.8181 0.9.6143 0.8 Nepal Multidimensional Social Inclusion Index (NSII) by Broader Social Group The picture presented by the dimensional inclusion index for the broader social groups shows a slightly different pattern of distribution (Table 9.5586 Hill Brahman TaraiBrahman/ Chhetri Newari Hill Chhetri Others 0.5415 0. Table 9.4720 0.9594 0.6137 0.5297 0. whileTarai Dalits and Muslims are at the bottom.4871 0. Gender Inclusion Index values are generally lower than the values of other indices except political inclusion index.3691 0.6852 0.5049 0.5516 0.3900 0.8327 0. while Madhesi and Hill Dalits come in last place.6313 0.4854 0.5709 0.7020 0.5155 0.7695 0.3330 0.2974 0. The lowest levels of gender inclusion are experienced by Tarai Dalit women.3557 0.4614 0.6799 0.8218 0.3979 0.6933 0.9673 0.1373 0.6941 0.2). Hill Brahmans and Newars are at the top.5183 0. In terms of the Social Dimension index. This is the first time that a social cohesion index has been prepared in Nepal.4333 0.7976 0. For the Cultural Dimension.Tarai Brahman/Chhetris and Newars experience the highest levels of inclusion while Tarai and Hill Dalits experience the lowest.6332 0. Hill Brahmans and Madhesi Brahman/Chhetri top the list.6936 0.5262 0. THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX 111 .

Newar. It can be assessed over a particular time-span by identifying and then measuring specific social indicators relevant to the society. In contrast. is in top place or bottom place in all six dimensions. This inequality. However. Social inclusion is the ongoing process of attaining full and active membership of a society and citizenship of a country. 112 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . economic.9. does not follow particular caste or ethnic lines. Madhesi Dalits and Hill Dalits have low index scores in nearly all of the dimensions. The NSII is a composite index constructed using 39 different indicators that explain social inclusion in the context of Nepal. These indicators are identified under six major dimensions: social. including in the overall social inclusion index. Dimensions and indicators of social inclusion may change over time. the distribution of index values among the broader social groups shows that Hill Brahmans. political. Tarai Brahman/Chhetris and Hill Chhetris experience higher levels of inclusion (including overall social inclusion) than the other groups. gender and non-discrimination (social cohesion). cultural. This means no individual caste/ethnic group is leading or lagging behind in all of the indicators. however.The distribution of the six dimensional indices and one social inclusion index across the 97 ethnic groups of Nepal is unequal. for example. No one caste/ethnic group. The NSII presented here provides a benchmark and baseline for the formulation and monitoring of inclusive policies and programs in years to come.9 Conclusion The distribution of index values across both the broader social groups and the individual caste/ ethnic groups demonstrates that different caste/ethnic groups experience different levels of inclusion for different indicators.

Economic Dimension Landholding: The average landholding size is defined as the ratio of the total agricultural land operated by households. secondary and tertiary level education. taking usual economic activity into consideration. Child mortality rate: Evidence of child death is measured as a percentage of households able to produce evidence that a child between the ages of 0 and 5 has died. A modern toilet is defined as a toilet that can be flushed and that is connected to a septic tank or public sewer. Basic schooling completion rate: The basic schooling completion rate is defined as the ratio of the total number of children (age 13-14) who have completed a full course of basic schooling. Health service affordability: This is defined as the percentage of households that wereable to afford medication for every child in the household in the 12 months preceding the survey. Sanitation level is measured as the percentage of households using their own modern toilet. to the total number of people in the 5-21 age group multiplied by 100. Safe drinking water use is measured as the percentage of households using drinking water that comes from a pipe or tap. throughout the year).Annex-1: Definitions of the indicators used in the various dimensions of inclusion 1. 2. to the total number of children in the same age group multiplied by 100. The adult literacy rate includes all people of 15 years of age and above. to the total number of households. Food expenditure as a proportion of total household expenditure expressed as a percentage is used as a proxy for determining poverty levels. Non-agricultural activities: The percentage of people of working age engaged in non-agricultural was measured over a one year reference period. Food sufficiency levels are measured by calculating the percentage of households that consumes adequate amounts of food (two meals a day. secondary and tertiary level is defined as the ratio of the total number of people aged 5-21 enrolled at basic. Net enrollment rate: The netenrolment rate at basic. These are generally itinerant laborers (as defined in the 2011 ANNEXES 113 . Social Dimension Adult Literacy: Adult literacy is defined as the self-reported ability to both read and write. Elementary occupations: This describes the percentage of the economically active population engaged in elementary occupations.

expressed as a percentage of the total number of children in the given reference group. that enables them to raise their voices to stand up for their rights as and when necessary. divided by the percentage of people from the same group in the total population. 4. such as holidays forreligious festivals. Elementary workers as defined by the ILO includemessengers. It also refers to public recognition. Representation in the National Bureaucracy: Proportional representation in the national bureaucracy refers to the percentage of people from a particular group working in the civil service. and other elementary workers not elsewhere classified. reservation and identity. Linguistic barriers: The percentage of the population experiencing linguistic barriers refers to the perceptions of respondents whose ancestral language is not used at all in local government offices. Access to electricity: The percentage of people living in households with access to electricity. meter readers. (For details see the ISCO Code. luggage porters. Political Dimension Representation in political parties: The proportional representation of the various social/identity groups on the central committees of political parties refers to the percentage of peoplefrom a particular group who are on a central committee. Religious discrimination: The percentage of the population that have been discriminated against on the basis of their religious background. proportional representation. Cooking fuel use: The percentage of people living in households that use commercial fuel for cooking. b) a concrete or tile roof.Census). This is measured in terms of the number of people 114 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . water and firewood collectors. package deliverers. Commercial fuel is defined as kerosene. divided by the percentage of people from the same group in the total population. 3. Cultural Dimension Access to primary education in the mother tongue: The percentage of children who have access to primary education in their mother tongue refers to number of children in schools where their mother tongue is used as the language of instruction. LP gas. biogas. andgovernment support for religious communities. odd-job persons. vending machine stockers. 2008. The housing conditions indicator measures the percentage of householdsliving in“good” houses.) Housing conditions: “Good” houses are defined as having at least two of the following characteristics: a) a concrete or brick foundation. divided by the percentage of people from the same group in the total population. or electricity. ILO. Representation on theCouncil of Ministers: Proportional representation of the various social/ identity groups on the Council of Ministers refers to the percentage of ministers in the last twenty year periodthat belong to a particular group. federalism. Voice and agency:The percentage of households that have up-to-date knowledge of contemporary political terms such as republic. Dwelling space: Living space per person was indirectly assessed by measuring the average number of bedrooms per household. Religious recognition:The percentage of respondents who perceive that their religion is on an equal footing with the other religions in the country. c) brick walls.

by the total number of people of the same group on the same committees. 5. Representation in the national bureaucracy: The percentage of women of a particular group working in the national bureaucracy was obtained by dividing the total number of women of the same groupworking in the bureaucracy. Gender parity in enrolment of a particular group is the ratio of the number girls from that group who are enrolled in school up to secondary level. Representation of women in professional and technical jobs: The percentage of women of a particular group working in professional and technical jobs was obtained by dividing the total ANNEXES 115 . Customary governance describes the freedom of individuals and communities to practice customary social norms without state interference (e. Land ownership: The percentage of women land owners refers to the percentage of women living in households in which land is registered in the name of at least one of the women in the household. to the number of boys enrolled from the same group. Gender Dimension Violence against women: The percentage of women who feel that they have experienced physical/ psychological violence from men in domestic/public life during the previous year is measured based on the responses of adult women in sample households. Decision to marry: The proportion of married women who gave their consent before getting married refers to all married women in the sample households. Party-political representation: The percentage of women from a certain group on the central working committee of a political party was obtained by dividing the total numbers of women of the same groupon the central working committees of political parties. not being able to access government or community services). Economic autonomy: The percentage of women with economic autonomy refers to the percentage of adult women who report having separate funds at their disposal (this may take the form of a bank account or membership of a local savings group. or something more traditional such as a “daijo” or “pewa-pat”). the number of children to have.g. and the interval between births. Gender parity in enrolment in private schools of a particular group is the ratio of the percentage of girls from a particular group in private schools. resolving a community level dispute using the traditional practices of a particular community). Customary governance: The percentage of people who perceive that they have sufficient opportunity to practice customary governance.g. by the total number of people of the same group working in the bureaucracy.reporting discrimination based on religious affiliation (e. Reproductive decision: The percentage of married women able to influence reproductive decisions refers to the married women in a household who have control over the timing of the first birth. divided by the percentage of boys from the same group in private schools.

by the total number of people from the same group working in professional/technical jobs. This was measured using the perceptions of respondents in the sample group. Social Cohesion Dimension Denial of in entry into a private house: The percentage of the population that has been refused entry into the house of someone from another social group (e. for a feast or celebration) due to their caste/ethnic background. 6.number of women from the same group working in professional/technical jobs. 116 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . religion. This was measured using the perceptions of respondents in the sample group. market places. Denial of entry into religious places: The percentage of people who have experienced problems in accessing temples or other religious places established for the use of the religious community to which they belong. tea shops. This was measured using the perceptions of respondents in the sample group. and schools. caste etc. Permission to participate in community life: The percentage of people who feel that they have equity of access to shared facilities such as water sources. This was measured using the perceptions of respondents in the sample group.g. milk collection centres. Social respect/identity: This refers to the percentage of respondents who feel that they are welltreated and respected in the communities in which they live regardless as to their culture.

Literacy index = (Adult literacy rate -0)/ (100-0). Education index= (Literacy Index +Enrolment Index + Education Attainment Index)/3 Social Dimension Index (SDI) = (Health Index + Education Index)/2. Non-Poverty index2 = 1. secondary. Living space index= (mean number of bedrooms . Enrolment index = (Net enrolment rate at basic.Annex-2: Computation of Indices Social Dimension Index 1. Child mortality index=1-(Percentage of people with evidence of child death-0)/ (100-0). Education attainment index= (Percentage of children who have completed a basic level of schooling-0)/ (100-0). Food sufficiency index= (% of persons with adequate food -0)/ (100-0). Housing quality index = (Percentage of households living in house having at least two of three housing quality inficators-0)/ (100-0). 6.minimum)/ (maximum-minimum). Commercial fuel index= (% of people using commercial fuel-0)/ (100-0). Safe water index= (Percentage of people using safe water-0)/ (100-0). (concrete/tile roof. brick/cement wall. 4. 15. 12. 7. 11.Minimum % observed).Minimum % observed). Economic Access Index= (Average area of land holding index+ Non agricultural employment index)/2 Non-Poverty Index= (Poverty index1 + Poverty index2 +Food sufficiency index) /3 Standard of living index= (Quality of house index + Living space index + Commercial Fuel index + Lighting index)/4 ANNEXES 117 .Minimum % observed)/ (Maximum % observed . Lighting index= (% of people living in houses with electricity-0)/ (100-0). 3. 9. Non-Poverty index1 = 1. 2. 5. Heath service accessibility index=1-(percentage of people who could not afford medication for every child in the previous 12 months-0)/ (100-0).Minimum % observed)/ (Maximum % observed . 10. Health index= (Safe Water Index+ Sanitation Index+ Heath Service Accessibility Index+ Child Mortality index)/4. Non-agricultural employment index = (% of persons in non agricultural activity – 0%) / (1000). and tertiary level-0)/ (100-0). 13.(Percentage of food expenditure . Land holding index = (Mean area– Minimum area)/ (Maximum area-Minimum area). brick/concrete foundation) 14. Sanitation index= (Percentage of people using modern toilets-0)/ (100-0). 16.(Percentage of population in elementary occupations . Economic Dimension Index 8.

28. 18. Customary GovernanceIndex= Customary politics index Religion Index= (Religious recognition index1+ Religious recognition index2)/2 Language Index= (Language recognition index1+ Language recognition index2)/2 Cultural Dimension Index (CDI) = (Customary governance index +Religion index+ Language index)/3 Gender Dimension Index 26. Language recognition index1= (Percentage of people who have opportunity to receive primary education in their mother tongues-0)/ (100-0). Bureaucratic representation index = (Proportional share in national bureaucracy-0)/ (100-0). Religious recognition index1= (Percentage of people who perceive that their religion is on an equal footing with other religions in the country-0)/ (100-0). Customary governance index= (Percentage of people who perceive that they have sufficient opportunity to practice customary governance-0)/ (100-0). 23. Political Dimension Index 17. Gender non-violence index3= (Percentage of married women who were consulted about reproductive decisions -0)/ (100-0). 19. Political representation index1= (Proportional share in political parties -0)/ (100-0). Gender non-violence index2= (Percentage of married women who were asked for their consent before getting married-0)/ (100-0). Voice/agency index = (Percent of population who have some knowledge on contemporary political terms-0)/ (100-0). Political representation index2= (Proportional share on Council of Ministers-0)/ (100-0). 118 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX . 22. 27. Political representation index= (Political representation index1+ Political representation index2+Bureaucratic representation index)/3 Voice/agency index = Voice/agency index Political Dimension Index (PDI) = (Political representation index + Voice/ agency index)/2 Cultural Dimensions Index 21. 25. 24. 20. Language Recognition Index2= (Percentage of the population whose ancestral language is spoken in local government offices -0)/ (100-0). Gender non-violence index1= 1-(Percentage of women who feel that they have experienced physical/psychological violence from men in domestic/public life during the previous year -0)/ (100-0). Religious recognition index2=1-(Percentage of the population who have experienced discrimination on the basis of their religious background -0)/ (100-0).Economic Dimension Index EDI= (Economic Access Index + Poverty Index + Standard of living Index)/3.

Spatial segregation index3= (Percentage of people who are permitted equal use of all social facilities -0)/ (100-0) 39. Gender resource balance index1= (Percentage of women owning land -0)/ (100-0). Gender balance index2= (Gender parity in enrolment in private schools-0)/ (100-0). 35. 31. Gender balance index1= (Gender parity in enrolment up to secondary level-0/ (100-0). Gender representation index2= (Percentage of women working in the national bureaucracy-0)/ (50-0). 34. Gender representation index1= (Percentage of women on the working committees of political parties -0)/ (50-0). Social respect and identity index = (Percentage of the population who have experienced positivity and respect in their communities-0)/ (100-0). Gender representation index3= (Percentage of women in professional / technical jobs-0)/ (500). Gender Non-violence Index= (Gender non-violence index1+ Gender non-violence index2+ Gender non-violence index3)/3 Gender Balance Index= (Gender balance index1+ Gender balance index2)/2 Gender Resource Balance Index= (Resource balance index1+ Resource balance index2)/2 Gender Participation Index= (Gender representation index1+ Gender representation index2+ Gender representation index3)/3 Gender Dimension Index (GDI)= (Gender non-violence index + Gender balance index + Gender resource balance index+ Gender participation index)/4 Social Cohesion index 38. 33. Spatial segregation index1= (Percentage of the population who have experiencedthe comfortable and amicable sharing of food in the society in which they live regardless of their caste/ethnic background-0)/ (100-0) 37. Spatial Segregation Index= (Spatial segregation index1+ Spatial segregation index2+ Spatial segregation index3)/3 Social Respect and DignityIndex= Social respect and dignity index Social Cohesion Dimension Index (SCDI)= (Spatial segregation index+ Social respect and dignity index)/2 SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX= (SDI+EDI+PDI+CDI+GDI+SCDI)/6 ANNEXES 119 . Spatial segregation index2= (Percentage of people who enjoy easy access to the religious places or temples of their faith that have been established for the use of the community to which they belong-0)/(100-0) 38. 32. 30.29. Gender resource balance index2= (Percentage of women who report that they have “some” separate funds” at their disposal0)/(100-0).

Good Will Publications NSIS 2012 .Annex-3: Computation of political inclusion index for proportional share Category Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Population % 10 5 2 3 occupancy % 50 10 2 0 Proportional share 5 2 1 0 Index ( 5-0)/(5-0)=1 ( 2-0)/(5-0)=0.C.2 0 Annex-4: Data sources by indicators used in the various dimensions..4 ( 1-0)/(5-0)=0. Dimension Domain Social Education Health Economic Economic access Non-poverty Standard of living Political Representation Indicators Adult literacy rate Net enrolment rate Basic schooling completion rate Health services affordability Child mortality status Access to safe water Access to sanitation Access to land Non agricultural employment Elementary occupations occupation Food expenditure Food sufficiency Housing conditions Access to commercial fuel Access to electricity Dwelling space Representation in political parties Representation in the national bureaucracy Representation on the Council of Ministers Voice and agency 120 Voice and agency THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX Data source Census 2011 Census 2011 Census 2011 NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 Census 2011 Census 2011 Census 2011 Census 2011 Census 2011 NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 Census 2011 Census 2011 Census 2011 NSIS 2012 Election Commission of Nepal Ministry of General Administration/GOV/N Tank K.

Dimension Domain Cultural Language Religion Gender Customary governance Non-violence Social services Economic autonomy Representation Social Cohesion Social sphere Respect/identity Indicators Opportunities for primary education in the mother tongue Linguistic barriers to accessing government services Religion recognized by the state Religious discrimination at the community level Customary governance Gender violence The decision to marry Reproductive decisions Gender parity in enrolment up to secondary level Gender parity in private schooling Land ownership by women Economic Autonomy of women Women in professional/technical jobs Women on central working committees of poltical parties Women in bureaucracy Entry into private houses Entry into temples Permission to share social facilities Respect/Identity Data source NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 Census 2011 NSIS 2012 Census 2011 NSIS 2012 Census 2011 Election commission of Nepal Ministry of General Administration/GOV/N NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 NSIS 2012 ANNEXES 121 .

RAM CHIDIMAR DHOBI DOM DUSADH/ PASWAN/PASI HALKHOR KHATWE MUSAHAR TATMA Newari NEWARI Mountain/Hill Janajati BHOTE BOTE BRAHMU/ BARAMU BYANGSI CHEPANG (PRAJA) CHHANTYAL DANUWAR DARAI DURA GHARTI/ BHUJEL GURUNG HAYU JIREL KUMAL LEPCHA LIMBU MAGAR MAJHI PAHARI RAI RAJI RAUTE SHERPA SUNUWAR TAMANG THAKALI THAMI WALUNG YAKKHA HYOLMO DHAGAR/ JHAGAR DHANUK DHIMAL GANGAI KISAN KOCHE MECHE MUNDA PATHARKATA/ KUSWADIYA RAJBANSI SANTHAL/ SATAR TAJPURIYA THARU MARWADI PUNJABI/SIKH TaraiJanajati Muslim MUSALMAN Others BANGALI 122 THE NEPAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL INCLUSION INDEX .Annex-5: Categorization of caste/ethnic groups Broad Caste/ Ethnicity Caste/Ethnic Groups Hill Brahman HILL BRAHMAN Hill Chhetri THAKURI SANYASHI CHETRI TaraiBrahman/ BRAHMAN– Chhetri TARAI KAYASTHA RAJPUT Other Tarai Castes BADHAE BANIYA BARAE BHEDIYAR/ GADERI BING/BINDA DHUNIA HAJAM/ THAKUR HALUWAI KAHAR KALWAR KAMAR KANU KEWAT KOIRI KUMHAR KURMI LODHA LOHAR MALI MALLAH NUNIYA NURANG RAJBHAR SONAR SUDHI TELI YADAV Hill Dalit BADI DAMAI/DHOLI GAINE KAMI SARKI TaraiDalit BANTAR CHAMAR. HARIJAN.

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