PROTESTANT REFORMATION

In England the imposition of protestant religion is related to the history. There were very important political
reason, not religious one like in Germany.
Henry VIII was a fervent catholic, one of the pope’s favorite monarchs. He wasn’t attached by protestant
revolution, but at a certain point he needs to solve a problem and goes protestant.
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The protestant reformation in England goes hand in hand with the transformation of England in a
nation. They decided to have their own version of protestant religion (not like German protestants).
So, in order to be English you need to be Anglican! A national religion is adopted. This is the age of
the beginning and the spread of English language.

Henry VIII was married with Catherin of Aragon (daughter of the king of Spain), very catholic queen, but
they didn’t have a son. Henry became obsessed by the idea of having a male heir, but his wife wasn’t able
to give him one. He wants to get rid of her. On the other hand, there were Anne Boleine, a very ambitious
woman, who was pregnant of 3 months. She was protestant.
Henry decided to divorce and used a technical excuse: she had been married with his dead brother before
being married with Henry. Henry says that in the Bible there’s a sentence that says that no woman can
marry two brothers. Henry says this to the pope. “We’re going against God. This is why my wife doesn’t
produce a child”.
BUT: to get marry they had to go to the pope (julius) to be allowed. Clement VII, whom Henry asks for the
divorce, says that he can’t annul the marriage because it was the pope before him to allow that.
Henry gets furious; he doesn’t accept a “no” as answer. In 1529 he summons the Parliament because he
wants to obtain the annulment through the Parliament. Little by little, the English nation becomes
independent from a religious point of view. It takes 5/6 years to transform England into a protestant
country.
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Which was the real problem??
What was annoying was the fact that the pope could exercise a very strong power in england and
having a catholic church was like having a nation inside the nation.
Pope had the power to decide questions about religion, he had the right to decide about legal
matters connected to the church. He had an enormous power and was difficult to digest for English
politicians and in particular for the king.
1/3 lands of England were property of the Church. They had to pay taxes to the pope and not to the
king!!! Unacceptable. It was a limitation of the king’s power. He was afraid of this.
The pope also had the final word on the appointment of bishops, who were very powerful figures.
The authority of the pope was a real problem for England. The pope who was a foreigner exercised
too much power.

1531: ACT OF SUBMISSION
1534: ACT OF SUPREMACY or Treason act. Abolition of papal authority. The king becomes the supreme
head of church with absolute power.
Little by little the authority of the pope was eliminated, enormous amounts of money and lands passed
from the catholic church to the English crown. It was a political issue, a matter of power. New religious
rules were introduced in England. All these new religious practices were forced to English people. They
were forced to adopt a new religion. It was a shock, a very dramatic event for the population. It was a
violation of identity. 1534-36: Beginning of dissolution and suppression of English monasteries, closed
down in order to raise money.

He invents the word utopia and begin a new literary genre. he had been one of the closest co-worker of Henry the VIII. . He was the most famous English intellectual and a close friend of Erasmus of Rotterdam. he was his 1st minister. Luther’s thesis were read by a lot of people. So. a traveler without nationality. In 1516 (before the reformation!) he published a book. only priests could read it). in Luven. Thanks to the press of Guttemberg. He remained catholic and refused to follow the king in order to preserve his integrity. It is written in a dialogic form (Platonic dialogue: 3 people talking. Belgium. He studied law and had a political career at court. More appears as a character himself: - More A friend of him Raphael Hytholodeus: He went to a bar and met the two friends. Another important point was the fact that each person car read the Bible and interpret by himself (for catholic Bible was in latin or greek. The most important is SOLA FIDE (salvation by faith): from his point of view. great speed of spreading. He protests for the selling of indulgents. Raphael is a strange person: he looks like an outsider. it means that More wanted the book to circulate) with the Erasmus supervision. It is also about philosophy 2nd book: UTOPIA and the intellectual’s role. However. 1538: act of appeals (England as an empire) 1536-1543 acts of union between wales and England. in latin (language of intellectuals. Decapitated in 1535. German Protestant reformation Martin Luther (theology teacher in Wittemberg): 31st October 1517 hang on the door of the Church of Wittemberg his 95 thesis. good deeds does not count. The book is divided in 2 parts.1535: execution of Thomas More 1536-38: most of the traditional catholic feasts were abolished. becoming lord chancellor of the king (the highest political position). Utopia. There are 5 SOLAS. Bible becomes to be translated. UTOPIA Utopia comes from U-TOPOS: a non-place/nowhere. each one gives his opinion). He talks (in latin) about a journey and a place he came across. 1st book: POLITICS (political institutions). THOMAS MORE He was born in 1477 and died prisoned in the tower of London for treason against the king. It is possible to obtain salvation only through faith in Jesus. He had always been against divorce and never accepted Henry’s divorce.

the doors have no locks and no keys there’s no crime criminals are not put into prison. When Utopos decided to found Utopis. They all wear the same cape of the same color. but they can change. It’s not an ideal society! It’s an hyper rationalistic type of society. There’s an implicit critic of the England and Europe he was living in. If they want to change they have to change family. being adopted by the family who do that job there are slaves: people who don’t respect the rules (if you travel without permission. his first act was to cut Utopia off to the rest of the World. they’re supposed not to have rest. history is static because perfection must be static! Utopia (Raphael explain): - is formed by 54 city-states and all this states are identical (same language. 3 floors. but exposed to the public: idea of shame seems to be the main controlling factor. Before you get married. that at the beginning was a peninsula connected to the rest of the world. they had to say the exact day of return. communism. the 1st king of Utopia. In Utopia freedom is eliminated. Fashion do not change through years possessing gold or silver is a sign of shame any sign of wealth or social power is a shame everybody works 6 hours per day. not by everyone. commit an adultery or a crime). everything is rational. In order to be perfect you need to be apart. Occupation is distributed equally people will do the job of their father. sex is a biological need. Adultery is punished.Utopia was founded by a man named Utopos. there’s no pleasure. emotional feelings seem not to exists. but by an oligarchy (the council of the great and good) there’s no private property. traditions) there’s one king elected. In Utopia there’s no choice! Everything is prescribed. just a physical activity without emotions Families are not seen as a social unit. There’s a very strong moral sense there are many different religions and there’s religious tolerance everybody wears the same clothes. There’s no freedom of movement MARRIAGE are regulated: 22 years for men. it is possible for the bride to see each other naked. It is a sort of dictatorship. nobody owns they’re forced to move to another house after 5 years because they don’t have to attach to a property. 18 for women. Isolationism was done in order to reach perfection. They look after the worst jobs people are invited to apply their time in useful things. pushed to absurd. They’re active all the time people are allowed to travel but they need to get a permission and when they leave. What happens? Utopia doesn’t have history! Utopia doesn’t change. . Exaggerated! More describes a world which is the exact opposite of his contemporary England. All the houses are identical. The only distinction is male/female. costumes.

They were roman catholic. Henry VII and Henry VIII weren’t interested.BRITISH EMPIRE AND COLONIALISM British identity is connected to the creation of the british empire. The first 2 Tudor kings. only to fine. Irish population was celtic. Ireland Ireland was more problematic. He inherited a lot of land from the Church after the Protestant reformation. Strong hand and more power will be used for Ireland. Ireland and Scotland. There were already an imperialistic mentality. Canada. old english catholic. We have a document: the royal patent that Henry VII gave to John Cabot on 5th March 1496 to give him the authority to sail. in 1583 Sir Humpfry Gilbert will claim that piece of land as part of England. This will be done only 100 years later. He wanted to discover Asia sailing the west. (this definition does not work for roman and austro-ungarian empires. Henry VIII wasn’t interested in external expansion because he was too concentrated in the consolidation of his absolutistic internal power. Wales was “assimilated”. Plantation of English colonizer. With Elizabeth 1st things begin to change. so he wanted to create a powerful monarchy. something had changed. so the british empire is the main tool for the spreading of british identity. James I paid people to go there and colonize Ireland. The only exception for England is: - In 1496. britain comes 100 years after. Henry VII (1st Tudor!) decided to commision a trip to a navigator. Wales It was quite easy to colonize. but Cabot didn’t implant banners or flags in Canada. Identity begins to advance as an idea under Elizabeth 1st and especcially under James 1st. - Difference between state and empire: the STATE is formed by contiguous territories the EMPIRE implies that you’re reffering to territories which are separated by oceanic distance. Henry VII didn’t pay any other navigation. Henry VIII He wanted to establish his authority in Wales. greek) and it’s not the first even among the empires of the modern world. There were no stopped rebellion against England. discover and investigate! Not to colonize! There wasn’t the idea of taking possession. establishing with their families. The first english expedition. With the ACT OF UNION of 1536 Wales became part of the English (united) Kingdom. . began in Canada. without difficulties. Cabot went and landed on the coast he called “new found land”. which is not yet imperialistic. Protestan reformation was taken easily to Wales. He was actively involved in internal colonialism. buti t will become the biggest. Portugal and Spain had come first. the empire is that part which is located in far parts of the world. so he focused in England. English monarch never tries to soppress gaelic language. JOHN CABOT. Someone consider this moment as the initial foundation of english empire. Portugal and Spain were the first empires and pioneers of discoveries) At the beginning wasn’t interested in dicoveries and didn’t partecipate. the british empire is no the first one (roman. It was a catholic nation so it was impossible to bring protestant reformation.

Encharged by James I. 15th and 16th century was the age of discoveries. wanted to restablish an ancient mythological unity. Some sailors went back to england and when they return to America. The way she begins to act externally is a kind of competition with Spain. 1584: first english colony. Sir Walter Raleigh. Spanish colonizer. Elizabeth only gives a patent. 1492 Colombo discoveries America. After his daughter Elizabeth. 1607: by Virgina Company. There was the Stuart monarchy. all connected with families relations). They looks for regions and territory where they can follow and practice their religion freely. . Elizabeth I Is under Elizabeth that England begins to be interested in external expansion. the “placet” but not money. boats. He collected different legends and came up with this history of britain: - Britain takes its name by an ancient king named Brutus (1st king of Britain). people who took part. There had been a famous writer in the XII century. Pirates: Elizabeth paid pirates to attack and steal to spanish and portugues ships. Spain and France imperialism. It was not the parliament who gives money. She was heir of a very solid monarchy but England was 100 years late from Portugal.Scotland Scotland was an indipendent kingdom. in North Carolina. but private people who thought it would be a good business to finance. Kamber. as one of the refugeers of the Troy war. Empire was not sponsored by the crown beacuse it was very expensive. i twill become king James VI of Scotland who married Henry’s sister. Albanakt (Scotland). It was an aggressive occupation with warriors and army. ROANOAKE. everything was paid by kings. JAMESTOWN. El Drago. discovery of far away land) COLONIALISM: occupy an other land which may not be populated in order to explote it economically. Very har life conditions. It was used a marriage policy. Money is the first reason. religious diversification. The main difference between spanish and english empire was the type of participation. When he dies. He came from Troy like Eneas. Mythological argument One of the most used arguments was a mythological one. a political protection. They were called the SEA DOGS (Sir Francis Drake. 1571: all Africa to Far east and Asia. he leaves his kingdom divided into his 3 sons: Locri (England). Aim: find new rutes to trade spices and silk. JOEFFREY of MONMOUTH who wrote the Historia Rerum Britannia. the youngest (Wales). explorations. The idea behind this myth is that whoever tries to reunite the kingdom. all the other colonizer were dissapeared. Henry VIII hadn’t had a heir. it wasn’t successfull. Religious reasons: there were also people who decided to leave England in order not to change religion. Sir John Hawkins. Modernity begins in this period (science. so it was called Jamestown. England adopted companies to finance money for the establishment of the empire. Only males went there.

they belongs to an inferior level of humanity Spenser was one of the most active supporters of the imperialistic form of british in Ireland. There are different levels of reading this poem: allegorical. He was secretary of the queen in Ireland. feudal one. Taking insipration from Virgil he writes “The shepheards calendar” a collection of 12 eclogues (short pastoral poems) with different topics for each month of the year. The first 3 books were published in 1590. - View of the present state of Ireland (published in 1633): he proclames the english government as superior then the irish. His project was to write 12 books but he actually wrote only 6 and a 7th unfinshed. The Fairy Queen is the first english epic poem dedicated completely to the queen.2 companies most famous: - Virginia company of London (to North America) East indian company (to india) Writers are important because they take part to the creation of the imperialistic ideology! EDMUND SPENSER Contributes to the construction of the ideology of the nation. THE FAIRY QUEENE Spenser wrote this poem because england did not had a poem like Eneide for the foundation of the nation. Justice . Sanctity 2. All knights are united by one event: they met eachother at the court of Gloriana. the fairy queen. It is shown as a mission to civilize and subdue a land of barbarious. - POETRY: he was highly ambitious in poetry. This poemi s a sort of “act of foundation” for english history. one of the most horrorifying document of the imperialistic practice. He was secretary of men such as the bishop of Rochester. moral. He wanted to bring England at the same level of the powerful states in Europe. Chastity The last 3 ones. Temperance 3. Friendship 5. It describes the mythological origins of the nation. It’s a frightening text. He had to show his talent as a literate man to have commisions in public career. The kingdom where they live is called Fairy land and it is the allegory for England. Spenser was the first national poet of England. political. Virtues are impersonized allegorically by 12 knights whose adventures are narrated in each single book. He writes that irish language has to be eliminated because they were an inferior race. The most famous is April which is dedicated to Elizabeth and which will be developed in the Fairy queen. published in 1596: 4. religion. Every book should to be dedicated to a christian virtue. he took part to the colonization of Iraland and stayed there until he was chased by rebels who fired his house. 12 is the number of the virtues established by Aristotele and then christianized by Tommaso D’Aquino. 1. Spenser talks about a national literature as identity of the nation.

it comunicates the idea that in England there were people from all social classes. a sophisticated and artificial language. He covers more or less 1600 years of english navigations: he writes a “history of sea adventures of the english nation”. A book which promotes the expansion of english territories. Very long book! 2 editions: in the 1st celebrates about 100 voyages. It has an Ahistorical setting: supernatural elements. It’s also political and moral. to become better. archaic words because he wanted to comunicate that these stories had taken place in a remote past. voyages and discoveries of the english nation (1588) This is the mos famous text useful to focus on the ideological elements of english imperialism and colonization. It wasn’t uncommon to have clergymen who gave sermons. His intention was to collect. more than 200 voyages. It is a collection of documents. RICHARD HAKLUYT He was a clergy man who supported english imperialism. the discoveries and the settlments of english sea travellers. Spenser uses a very archaic type of style. It is important because. the entire population contributed to the creation of the empire. reach perfection. allegorical writing. - This is a book that contributed to the formation of the sense of english nation. Epic. It creates the idea of being somewhere else. dreamy world. poems which concerned the explorations. but he wants to promote english navigation: courage. Language is intentionally artificial. Romance knights fight to prove their own honour. It’s a nationalistic enterprise because 15th and 16th centuries were ages of discoveries all over Europe and many others writers wrote books about discoveries. Epic heroes fight to defend the nation. He published several volumes of reports by travellers to foreign countries. narrate and celebrate the grat voyages of english sailors. in the 2nd one he increases the number. like Virgil Eneide. Principal navigations. this is a specifical english collection. Elizabeth is impersonized by Gloriana. Colonization was presented as a right thing. Courtesy 7.6. glory and skillfullness of english sailors. But it doesen’t have a social function. without thinking in terms of nationality. unlike the other stories. narrations. is the first and only one who has a nationalistic intent. This text inspired Johnatan Swift. save somebody else life. Constance (unfinished) Every book is divided into 12 poems. - Hakluyt. Verse are called: Spensarian stanzas: iambic pentameter rhymed with the last longer verse (ababbcbc) It has different genres: it’s a hybrid. In Spenser there’s an ideological function. A text were england begins to emerge as an aggressive commercial nation. romance (poema cavalleresco). He doesn’t want to celebrate navigation. it i salso important because unlike other books. it become it become one of the ideological “must” during the victorian period. letters. . He sais: “hard love for my country” Comes out a very admirable image of England: a country of very brave and experienced people. Each knight rappresent allegorically a virtue. the Fairy queen (regina delle fate). - There was also a religious idea: english travellers had success because they were protected by God himself and by the Providence.

.- Common experience of the foundation of the english empire.

financiation tended to concentrate on east (India. Hakluyt talks about native american sas sauvage and infidels. “We’re going to save their souls”. For example. Merchants. Very articulated justification of colonization that underlines necessity and utility of colonization. A strong anticatholic feeling comes out from this book and it’s with him that England becomes the “Chosen Nation”. Gentlemen (nobility). What do we need to have is the perfect community. Spain believe to be entitled by the pope to domain South America. Sufficentia omnium rerum necessarium et vita beata. - If England wants to become a communitas perfecta and have a vita beata. financed by gentlemen who tended to travel to west (America). The other element he brings into his argument in favour of colonization is the spreading of the word of christ: diffusion of protestant religion. become also the administrators of the colonies 2.An other important thing is that there were 2 major groups who were responsible for the organization and for financing these imperial adventures: 1. It was the pope who donate lands to the spanish crown. Russia. In his vision the mission was not only to convert the infidels to protestant religion but it was also a mission to fight against paganism and catholics. It has a very log subtitle: “A particular discourse concerning the great necessitiy and many fold comodities that are like to grow to this realm os England by the western discoveries…”. and the mission was the spreading of protestant religion. Discourse of western planting (1585) Written under Elizabeth reign. one way to find the self sufficiency is the establishment of colonies! The necessity of colonies was in order to become self sufficiency. - Sense of superiority comes out from Purchas. who were devils for him and for english protestants of 1600. This is an ideological justification of colonization. taken out from Aristotele. Difference with the ideological base of the spanish empire. The commercial side. English people were saving their souls. the East Indian Company is a commercial company. less commercial! Gentlemen wanted to make their nation full of glory. - Convertion of infidels and barbarian people was an act of clemency. The pope was the embodiement of the AntiChrist. There’s an exasperation of british imperialism in an anticatholic vision. Purchas and his pilgrims (1617) Deeply anti-catholic. Idea taken from Aristotele: idea of self sufficiency. This was the other face of english empire. find new markets and raw materials. this businessmen litttle by little. cultural enterprise by gentlemen. The history of England is connected to the salvation of humanity. COMMUNITAS PERFECTA. England has a sacred place in history. . Exploration and colonization in Britain had 2 faces: Commercial enterprise by merchants. Then. commercial colonies). Virginia Company.

Shakespear was attracted by historical moment of change. Never underestimates irrational elements. not Julius Cesar. Anthony and Cleopatra. REFERENCE TO ENGLAND The first thing JC says in the play is about infertility. But it was an extreme practice… In shakespeare. only 2 but passive. it is the right thing to do for the survival of the republic. In this play female characters are almost absent. - Old lider without heir and in threat.In elizabethian time ritualistic violence was a common practice. He doesn’t care about society and population. (Mcbeth. originated by the achivment of great men. The most heroic way of dying is suicide. Shakespear compresses time: 1 night. VALUES - Ethic’s of death: is not a crime if connected to ethic. He kills the Rex. Coriolanus. dramatic passage. like The rape of Lucretia. Elizabeth was obsessed by plot from 1580 on when a catholic attent to kill the queen. An Elizabethian person will see the play through the lent of their time. - Plutarc’s idea of history: history is moved. bad men die fighting. He is less in doubt from a moral point of view. They don’t determin history. but the figure who began a new cicle are more prepared for their job but less interesting. What to do with Marc Anthony? Elizabeth hasn’t decided her successor yet. Titus Andronicus.. JC’s 4th wife isn’t able to give him a son. but from the personal one is more difficult. One of the most famous roman personality. Both are getting old without an heir. He tries to rappresent what it means to live in a moment of tragic. but Brutus. More complicated than Mcbeth. He himself lives in a moment of change and transformation: the protestant transformation! Bruto is almost a son for Cesar. 2 days. In plutarc’s text time goes to JC’s triumph to his death: gap of 4 months. - Profecy and dreams are very important elements. It is narrated a crucial historic event: the end of the republic and the beginning of the Empire. JC was a very well-known figure. Mistake of Brutus! Cesar becomes even more powerful after his death. SOURCES The translation of “Life of the nobles gree and romans” by Plutarco. The protagonist is not ephonimus. great actions. Political tensions. It was public in ordere to be educational. ascent to power. Death gives you power. Rome=centre of universe! Roman history is rappresented as a history connoted by violence and blood. the leader. He was 65 years old as Elizabeth when the play was written. .) JULIUS CESAR It’s a Roman play. He’s an ambitious character. Obvious paralel! Theme of plotting (complotto). lots of executions that were a sort of public spectacle. There’s a proper way of dying. knowing that is a good thing.

pur non volendo. power of word. premonitions. Bruto vince Ottaviano. Scoppia la guerra. insecurity. a Sarni. . Esercito più grande ma messo peggio dei repubblicani che avevano approvvigionamenti da vicino e aspettano per vedere se il nemico si arrende. you’re gone. courage. ghosts. (STOICISM: control of emotions. The most heroic way of dying is committing suicide. Dreams. They’re functional to the tragedy itself JC don’t listen to premonition.SUPERNATURAL ELEMENTS Is very relevant. aveva permesso ai soldati di rubare. Cassio muore. Honor: ideal of romans. anticipate the profecy. riesce a guadagnare l’appoggio dei soldati e diventa comandante della legione. Both talk abou themselves in 3rd person. Il fantasma in Plutarco e Appiano è anonimo. Dying must have a decency. who makes mistakes of interpretation. - Function of dreams is ambiguous. Maleness and strenght. Lo stoico si allena a non dormire come segno di coraggio. Cassio va in Siria. Modello di integrità e onestà. ignore it. Bruto. si fa uccidere dal suo padrone Pindaro. not bad. it’s a ethical way of dying. ethic. Reason rules passions! Passion should be checked by reason. (MB listens too much. Contrast: JC’s immense power clashes with phisical weackness. There’s something wrong with him. Phisical weakness can’t live with maleness. doesn’t care. not good. Relevance of the way you consider dead person. Rome is the city of rethoric. never fear. pur non avendo esperienza militare. Obsession with names: JC said more than 200 times. Music: if someone doesn’t listen to music is not in harmony. cede al volere dell’esercito e fa un’altra battaglia e viene disastrosamente sconfitto. non come shake. I due si incontrano là (secondo Sheak. His body isn’t an adeguate box for his strenght. maybe it’s hard. discipline. un indizio di colpevolezza) Issue of proper bury. Bruto rimprovera i malversatori di Cassio e alla fine i due fanno pace. LA GUERRA Bruto impersona i valori della Roma repubblicana. nessuna flotta dei repubblicani si accorge di loro. Litigano perché Bruto aveva comandato con grande lealtà ma Cassio no. He has a highly theoretical mind. il suo lato cattivo e buono. Muove verso l’Asia Minore. Brutus is a stoic. They produce the opposite effect. Forse è lo stesso spirito di Bruto. Cassio viene sconfitto da Antonio. Antonio e Ottaviano vanno in oriente per dare la caccia ai due e hanno fortuna perché nell’attraversare l’adriatico. Brutus 137. cahotic. invece a Smirne). They’re both mistake of misinterpretation). Shake dice: “sei angelo o demonio?” THEMES - - unreliability of political opinion. I cesariani soffrono la fame. Everytime there’s a character who is not able to read signs. non è JC. just neutral. Relationship between death and life. Molto stimato. instability of roman society. Pride of being roman. this will bring them into tragedy. but if you don’t change. Modello per eccellenza di romano! Va in macedonia. We always are given a chance to change facts. Relevance of death. viene accolto dall’esercito.

in front of cesar’s corp – death as spectacle - People pass from approvation of Brutus to the want of killing him. incontra Bruto. Quando si dice una cosa. plutarco dice: il giorno del compleanno di Cassio. Brutus’ speech: prose. his desire. He wants to kill him) Distinction between privat life and political life - Brutus does not make Portia part of the plan (different from MB. political crowd. JC is the less latinate of his tragedies. alla fortuna. He thinks that it will be too bloody in public opinion. Romans should be speaking in high rethorical language. FORMAL CHARACTERISTICS Very balanced play. Act I: completely ouside. He’s the lider of the group Is a responsible men. Lui era pronto a morire quando ha ucciso cesare. The letter tells what he wants to hear.- Episodio che manca in Shake. Female characters try to protect their husbands but do not success. CHARACTERS BRUTUS and PORTIA: - He’s a stoic. “Brutus is an honourable men” I due cominciano le orazioni nello stesso modo Simple language. (Cassio è epicureo. in the street – Act II : houses (Brutus’ and JC’s) Act III: 2 orations addressed to plebeians. patriarchal culture. They gives messages from supernatural. Shake choose to do the opposite thing. speech. Plebeians are negative because they change idea very fast. la sorte può essere avversa). pensano di farcela ma non si sa mai. but Portia commit suicide as Lady MB. sophisticated BUT: easy vocabulary. alta e raffinata consapevolezza retorica. JC+Calphurnia) sleep is disturbed: - JC no able to sleep not for inner problem but his wife talks and streams. Doesn’t want to include MarcAnthony in the conspiration. Her suicide is a much more cruel solution: eats fire (ingoia carboni ardenti!) In both houses (brutus+portia. but are ignored. Stratone aiuta Bruto al suicidio. legato al caso. Paradigma di retorica classica: - Una delle chiavi è l’ironia. (Cassius see the danger. rational man Doesn’t ask about the letter authenticity. only according to word. Antonio gli fa il funerale perché ammira il valore di Bruto. Preterizione: non ti dico che…però…. Ha già avuto la possibilità di una seconda vita. non c’è ipotassi. He’s aware of the possibility of MarcAntony to be dangerous. Completely negativized. Bruto dice che non ha paura della sfortuna. . intendendo il contrario. Anthony: poetry. with different reason and modality) Portia internalize principles of society as right.

son of Hieronimo. Andrea's slayer falls prisoner to Lorenzo. Now when Andrea's ghost appears before Pluto to be apportioned its proper place in the world of shadows. Lorenzo. with many plausible speeches. to return to earth to see vengeance wrecked on his slayer. Lorenzo and Balthazar with their servants hang Horatio and imprison Bel-Imperia so that she cannot spread the truth. marshall of Spain. . and the King conceives the idea that a marriage between these two would unite the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal more firmly than a dozen wars.Thomas Kyd – The Spanish Tragedy ANDREA. has secretly taken Horatio for her lover because he was Andrea's friend and had given Andrea's body burial rites. Prince of Portugal. Hieronimo manages speech with her long enough to plan for their double revenge. During the course of the performance Hieronimo fatally stabs Lorenzo and Bel-Imperia kills Balthazar and herself. Balthazar inevitably falls in love with Bel-Imperia. accompanied by the spirit of Revenge. Pluto permits the ghost. but not too mad to plan a crafty revenge. Thus the ghost of Andrea receives full satisfaction for Andrea's untimely death. daughter of the Duke of Castile. keen to forward Balthazar's suit. During the confusion Hieronimo finds an opportunity to stab the Duke of Castile himself. During his lifetime he was lover of Bel-Imperia. and the reason for them. Hieronimo goes raving mad when he finds his son's body. Gossip begins to spread as to Lorenzo's part in Horatio's death. He arranges that a play of which he is the author shall be acted for the entertainment of the royal guests with Lorenzo. Thus he thinks to get rid of all witnesses. Lorenzo hires one servant to kill the other and then permits the first servant to be hanged for his crime. bribes Bel-Imperia's servant to betray her meeting with Horatio. In the Duke's household. a Spanish courtier. The party rushes down from the royal box to prevent his self-destruction before they can learn the names of his fellow conspirators. When. Balthazar. Bel-Imperia's brother and to Horatio. not sham. But a letter recounting the details of the slaying is found on the servant's body and brought to Hieronimo. Bel-Imperia and himself as actors. Before he attempts to hang himself. The King awards the ransom to Horatio and the custody of the royal prisoner to Lorenzo. Bel-Imperia is released for the royal betrothal ceremonies. Hieronimo explains to his audience that the deeds of blood are real. has been killed in battle by Balthazar. however. Bel-Imperia.