Music and the Muses: The Culture of Mousike in the Classical

Athenian City
Penelope Murray and Peter Wilson

Print publication date: 2004
Print ISBN-13: 9780199242399
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: Jan-10
DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199242399.001.0001

Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized
Robert W. Wallace

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199242399.003.0010

Abstract and Keywords
This chapter examines the evidence for the career of Damon of Oa, music
theorist and friend of Pericles, who was said to have been ostracised for his
dangerous activities. It defends that tradition, arguing that music and politics
were intimately connected in 5th-century Athens. The sources suggest
that Damon developed what was later called the ethos theory of music
which believed in the power of music to influence character and behaviour.
Given the centrality of mousike in 5th-century Athenian society, it is entirely
plausible that a theorist who emphasised music's potential to change or
disturb the social order might be perceived as a threat.
Keywords:   Damon, Pericles, music, mousike, ethos

Damon of the Attic deme Oa is best known as a theorist of music and
poetic metre in the pages of Plato’s Republic, and as a teacher and
adviser of Perikles. 1 If extant texts are representative, Damon’s main
research interests lay in music and metre’s psychological effects and hence
behavioural consequences. He developed what was later called the ethos
theory of music, which remained important and controversial down through
antiquity. Isokrates remarked that he was thought to be ‘the most intelligent’

Athenian of his time (15.235). According to other sources, Damon was no
less important in Athenian politics. In the Life of Pericles 4 Plutarch suggests
Page 1 of 22

Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE ( (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2012.
All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a
monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see Subscriber: University
of St. Andrews; date: 20 August 2012

that Damon’s music research was in fact a camouflage, to hide his political
and sophistic activities:
Damon appears to have been a sophist of the highest order,
who hid behind the name of music, concealing his cleverness
from the people. He associated with Perikles, as it were that
athlete of politics, as a rubber and trainer.
Aristotle credits Damon with the idea of providing pay for serving in the
public courts, a milestone in the growth of fifth-century democracy (Ath.
Pol. 27.4). Ath. Pol. also says that Damon was ‘thought to be the proposer of
most of Perikles’ measures, and for that reason was later ostracized’. 2
The sources for Damon thus attest what many have thought was
a career with two distinct and even unrelated tracks: research in music
and metre, and political advising. In his book on the Greek ethos theory,
Warren Anderson states that Damon’s ‘political counseling had no essential
relationship to his musical theorizing’ ((1966) 76). Confronted by Damon’s
two-track career, some have promoted either politics or music as his
principal focus. This approach began as early as Plutarch’s Pericles, as we
have seen. Paralleling a conceit in Plato’s Protagoras (339a–e), Plutarch
says that Damon concealed his political and sophistic activities behind the
‘name’ of music. More recent scholars have adopted the alternative position
of minimizing Damon’s role in politics. They reject Ath. Pol.’s statement
that Damon proposed ‘most’ of Perikles’ measures as slander by Perikles’
enemies, seeking to insinuate that Athens’ leading politician was not
intelligent enough to have ideas of his own. 3 Similar criticisms may certainly
be found in contemporary sources. 4 Kallias’s Pedetai (fr. 21 K.–A.) joked
that Aspasia taught Perikles rhetoric. Eupolis’s Philoi called her Perikles’
‘Cheiron’ (fr. 294 K.–A.). Probably exploiting comic sources, Aeschines
of Sphettos (fr. 23 Dittmar) said the same of Aspasia and ‘the sheep
seller’ Lysikles. According to the historian Herodotos (8.58), Mnesiphilos
suggested to Themistokles the Greek strategy at Salamis. Plutarch (Them.
2.6) describes Mnesiphilos as ‘not a rhētor nor a physical scientist, but a
cultivator of what was then called sophia, although it was only political
cleverness and practical sagacity’
(p. 250 )

As for Damon’s ostracism, a number of scholars, including Jerome Carcopino,
Harold Mattingly, Martin Ostwald, and Kurt Raaflaub, have thought it
Page 2 of 22

Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE ( (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2012.
All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a
monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see Subscriber: University
of St. Andrews; date: 20 August 2012

com).4. In this passage Alcibiades states that Perikles did not achieve his wisdom independently. a response to Polykrates’ attack on Sokrates in the later 390s. Subscriber: University of St. addresses Polykrates’ comments on Damon: And as for Damon. 251 ) Finally. And even if we doubt that Damon proposed ‘most’ of Perikles’ measures. including Ath. if he did wrong. Arist. date: 20 August 2012 .) where someone inquires of Damon. a significant group of texts including Plato’s Republic establishes that Damon was an important music theorist.’ (p. Pol. ‘And now. Andrews.oxfordscholarship. Damon’s link with Perikles is reported in detail in Ath. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. Nic. Under the terms of the licence agreement. a number of testimonia document Damon’s ostracism. a second group of fifth. a fourth-century philosophical dialogue possibly written by Plato. And yet he [sc. since they say you are the Cheiron who nurtured up Perikles’. Libanius’ Defence of Sokrates. as far as we know— that they have sought to discredit the evidence for it. 1. old as he is. It is also mentioned in First Alcibiades 207 K. Plutarch mentions Damon’s ostracism in three separate Lives (Per. Pol.oxfordscholarship. as we have seen. written in the 320s by Aristotle or in his school. 4. Polykrates] says that Damon was driven out on less serious accusations Page 3 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. 2012. I ask. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. All Rights Reserved. 27. In Pericles 4 Plutarch cites a passage from Plato the fifth-century comic poet (fr. he spends time with Damon just for this purpose. ‘first then tell me. 6). 5 Despite Plutarch. he was rightly thrown out But if he was falsely accused it was no better that he should have suffered for it than that on his account Sokrates suffered also.–A. In a passage not previously adduced in this connection. but by associating with Anaxagoras and Pythokleides.and fourth-century sources make it difficult to deny that Damon had close ties with Perikles and was ostracized.sufficiently strange that a music philosopher should be ostracized—a procedure otherwise directed only against politicians.

399e–400b [421 or later]). as is the defendant today. On the other side. Lach. this confluence of data seems significant. This is proof that Damon had enemies more moderate than Sokrates’. Andrews. 12. According to Ath. n. Now. Rep. Ach.oxfordscholarship. and one of his ostraka comes from a pot dated around 450 (Hamdorf. Plut. 197d [424]. this procedure provided a way to banish dangerous undesirables who nonetheless had committed no crime. Subscriber: University of St. 27. In Life of Aristides 1. Whatever the original or subsequent purposes of ostracism. Page 4 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. four is no decisive number. 6 above). Why should this have been invented? And why ‘rectify’ the sources to eliminate the unexpected? The most likely date for Damon’s ostracism is 443 or 442.oxfordscholarship. Plutarch says that Damon was banished because he was ‘too intelligent’. 2012. On the other hand. 29–32). 27. only forty-seven ostraka survive from the ostracism of Thucydides son of Melesias. (c) Copyright Oxford University 7 The very improbability of ostracizing a music theorist itself gives credence to the tradition. Peace 605–15. 1 118c [432 or 431]. Pol. why did the Athenians ostracize Damon? And why was ostracism an appropriate device to use against him? The explanations of Aristotle and Plutarch both prove important. By contrast. (1. As I discuss in greater detail in my book on Damon. Diod. All Rights Reserved. Per. date: 20 August 2012 .38–40. an institution probably of the 450s. a number of Platonic dialogues set in years from 432 or 431 represent him as being in Athens (Alcib. Under the terms of the licence agreement.and was not accused by his enemies with destroying the democracy.4. Damon is not mentioned in any account of Perikles’ troubles before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War in 431 (Ar. 515–30. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.4 says that Damon recommended dikastic pay. and only three from (p. 252 ) the ostracism of Hyperbolos (Mattingly ( 1991 ) 12–16). 6 To be sure. as Raaflaub points out. We shall shortly see other reasons why Damon’s ostracism might have followed that of Thucydides son of Melesias in 444 or 443. Ath. Damon was ostracized ‘because he was thought to be the proposer of most of Perikles’ measures’. The remainder of Damon’s ostraka will turn up. Pol.157) Damon’s ostracism finds some contemporary confirmation in the discovery so far of four ostraka inscribed with Damon’s name—at least two of them apparently written by the same hand. Although the chronological settings of Plato’s dialogues are sometimes unreliable.

com). that athlete of politics as it were. in Life of Pericles 4. 253 ) and lover of tyranny and ‘became the butt of the comic poets’. he calls Damon ‘a sophist of the highest order. linked to Damon’s association with Perikles and the nature of his research. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. Under the terms of the licence agreement.In Life of Nicias 6 he says that the demos was always suspicious of those who were clever and therefore they ostracized Damon. concealing from hoi polloi his cleverness He associated with Plutarch says that after the ostracism of Thucydides son of Melesias in 444 Page 5 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. but was caught out and ostracized as ‘a great meddler (p. Finally. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. ‘sons’ of Athens’ tyrant Peisistratos (Plut. who hid behind the name of music. the charge that Damon was echoes contemporary accusations that Perikles and his were ‘Peisistratidai’. They indicate that Damon’s ostracism resulted from the impact of four different issues. Andrews. 2012. Subscriber: University of St. calling Damon Perikles’ Cheiron. Plutarch then quotes Plato Comicus. as a rubber and trainer’. Per.oxfordscholarship. All Rights Reserved. 16.1). These explanations all resonate with fifth-century concerns. First.oxfordscholarship. date: 20 August 2012 .

(p. As Mattingly ( 1991 ) 12 points out. Bekker Anecd. In the Life of Pericles 7. The charge of fits in this context. 22) because of incessant selfglorification. Adesp.). Plutarch comments. Also indicating hostility. Metiochos inspects the bread. Metiochos.oxfordscholarship.7–8 (see also 9.4). Andokides complains that politicians do not dare to ‘stand in the middle. 2012. and begins to supply a political context for Damon’s ostracism. 309. this argument encourages a date for Damon’s ostracism of 443 or 442. 741 K.v.5). Metiochos inspects the roads. Metiochos takes care of all things. the accusation that Damon proposed ‘most’ of Perikles’ measures echoes Athenian complaints against the practice by politicians of using surrogates. but the next year he was ostracized. and Metiochos will come to grief (Com.121. Aristotle reports that Damon’s political work for Perikles provoked hostility from the demos. Plutarch comments on how often Perikles made use of associates: ‘He did not choose to speak on every question. thus provoking Aeschines’ attack on Timarchos (Aeschines 1).’ In Mor. Metiocheion): Metiochos is general. In conjunction with the other chronological data.oxfordscholarship. Metiochos the flour. in such a way as to arouse odium and disgust’. for great occasions. the Salamina. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. in 472 Themistokles’ accomplishments were celebrated in Aeschylus’ Persians which won first prize. people urged Perikles to swear not to become a but reserved himself like the state galley. and used the power he got through him.–A. Under the terms of the licence agreement. Demosthenes used his associate Timarchos to strike at Aeschines in 345. Andrews. 811c–13a Plutarch includes a lengthy discussion of this phenomenon in fifth-century Athens.17) and political counsellor (Phot. ‘He was one of Perikles’ hetairoi. 254 ) otherwise known as an architect (Poll. Second. Plutarch says that Damon was thought to have concealed his political activities for Perikles Page 6 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE ( according to Plutarch (Them. because his preeminence was too oppressive and incommensurate with democracy.or 443. and allowed his philoi and other rhētores to deal with other matters. but ‘send others who are shameless’ (2. fearing refutation’. date: 20 August 2012 . it seems. s. Like Metiochos. as [the secondcentury Peripatetic] Kritolaus says. 8. quoting from a comedy that criticized another of Perikles’ hetairoi. All Rights Reserved. Damon could certainly be regarded as one of Perikles’ hetairoi. Subscriber: University of St. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press.

53). ‘he dazzled the Athenians.38. you consider future actions according as skilful speakers say what is possible. and are more like spectators of sophists than those who deliberate about the polis. or if not. Subscriber: University of Thucydides’ Kleon complains to the Assembly about their fascination with clever words and new. According to Diodoros (12.4–7) This fascination with the clever and novel was often remarked. 2012. and consider what has already been done on the basis of eloquent verbal invectives… You are best at being deceived by novelty of argument. 337d). Plato’s Hippias calls Athens ‘the very town hall of wisdom in Greece’ (Prot. being slaves of each new paradox and suspicious of what is customary.oxfordscholarship. The on-going engagement of mass theatre audiences with complex intellectual. a political context and popular suspicion According to Plutarch a third main factor behind Damon’s ostracism was the Athenians’ suspicion of his ‘cleverness’. when the Sicilian sophist Gorgias arrived in Athens in 427. are indicated. and theological issues is a cultural phenomenon virtually without parallel. but to praise in anticipation some smart statement… In a word you are in thrall to the pleasures of listening. All Rights Reserved. by his exotic speech he was wondered at for his rhetorical skill The Athenians’ intellectual openness attracted philosophers from around the Greek world. 8 Again. (3. In a well-known passage. each of you wishes to be able to speak himself. Under the terms of the licence agreement. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. The intellectual engagement of Page 7 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. and at not wishing to follow what has been approved. and sailors—are abundantly documented.behind the screen of music. Above all. shoemakers. who are by ( especially during the second half of the fifth century.oxfordscholarship. Andrews. 255 ) nature clever and lovers of words. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. The intellectual openness and curiosity of the Athenian demos—farmers. to compete with those who say such things by seeming not to lag behind them in intelligence. political. date: 20 August 2012 . paradoxical arguments: Spectators of words and hearers of deeds.

com). Demosthenes states.68. Suspicion of the archetypally sophistic skill of ‘making the worse logos seem the better’ sprang from similar sentiments. That is the part of a rascally sophist.1). 256 ) cleverness Page 8 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. Demosthenes admits his own (p.253). ‘For all the Athenians and strangers which were there spent their time in nothing else but either to tell.40–3). trusting in logos. 23. The demos knew that words can mislead as well as inform. Under the terms of the licence agreement. Halliwell ( 1997 ) 121–6).282. 2012. ‘If you bring novel wisdom to fools. Andrews. The outlook endured. Thesm.97). for fear that I should mislead and deceive an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. or to hear some new thing’ (Acts of the Apostles 17:21). who sails on his craft of words over the sea of state’ (3.oxfordscholarship.oxfordscholarship. a mountebank and a sophist and so forth’. 8. the demos’s intellectual acuity was sometimes manifested by a counterbalancing suspicion of cleverness. and if the city regards you as greater than those with a reputation for knowing something you will be thought vexatious’ (298–301). Euripides’ Medea says. All Rights Reserved. The Assembly began with a curse against anyone who deceived the people (Ar. is deinos and ‘trusts in speaking and in the 1000 drachmas he has paid to his teacher’ (35. Aeschines called Demosthenes ‘the pirate of politics. date: 20 August 2012 . 356–67. not wise. you will be regarded as useless. At the same time. Subscriber: University of St. but people should not look down on others and covet the property of others. who should be made to suffer for it. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press.ordinary citizens must rank among Athens’ most extraordinary qualities. 18.’ His opponent. calling me a clever speaker. ‘I never reproached my enemy for being a sophist and paying silver to Isokrates. Dem. This suspicion is best documented in connection with the sophists and speech (see Ober ( 1989 ) 165–74. Demosthenes retorted that Aeschines ‘bids you be on your guard against me. he says. Thucydides says that the sophist Antiphon never spoke in public because he was mistrusted for his cleverness.

an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. Second. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press.276–77). despite his best efforts and unlike Antiphon.which he renames and says he uses it only to benefit the demos (18. date: 20 August 2012 . understanding the nature of Damon’s research proves to be complex. or or the which Aristoxenos wrote about in the later fourth century. factional politics must have played a role. In particular. Plato’s endorsement of Damon’s work inspired various later philosophical writers to attribute alien doctrines to him. both the nature of Damon’s research and the date of his ostracism are significant. However. 257 ) others had anticipated his approach. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement. variously called the harmonikoi. and addresses the issue of the appropriateness of the political procedure that was used against him. in particular from neoPlatonist and neo-Pythagorean traditions. they had no texts by Damon to control what they attributed to him. if Damon was ostracized just after Thucydides son of Melesias. Damon appears to have left no written work. Finally. 11 These followers of Damon appear to have written copiously. For three reasons. 2012. A similar problem is presented by the figures of Sokrates and Pythagoras. failed to conceal his cleverness from the demos. We now may turn to the question of whether Damon’s music theorizing was relevant to his political activities. after him there arose a school or schools. Subscriber: University of St. as I make clear in Page 9 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. 9 Plutarch indicates that Damon. The preceding discussion sets out some political dimensions of Damon’s ostracism.oxfordscholarship. Third. 10 Opposition to Perikles will have driven some supporters of Thucydides against Perikles’ associate. and which continued into the Hellenistic period. For this. or else to claim that (p. as I argue elsewhere ((1991) 43–4).com/page/privacy-policy). and they sometimes mentioned their master. The result is that the sources for Damon are marked by an extraordinary contamination of Damon’s theories with later philosophical materials. Andrews. Their suspicion led to his ostracism.

(c) Copyright Oxford University Press. scholars should approach virtually everything in Diels– Kranz’s version of Damon with the utmost caution. he named something an iamb and something else a trochee. If we doubt Plato’s testimony. and he added longs and shorts. as I mentioned. and one called ‘finger’ and a ‘heroic’ which he somehow arranged and made equal up and down. Andrews. Proleg. as I think.-Plato Axiochos 364a. date: 20 August 2012 . Well. Phil. Sokrates remarks to Glaukon with his usual dry humour. ed. Plato is our earliest source for Damon. as to which steps are appropriate to ungentlemanly behaviour and hubris or mania and other and. Bertrand Russell once said that he would far prefer that his views ‘be reported by my bitterest enemy among philosophers than by a friend innocent of philosophy’ ((1967) 82). according to Ps. passing into a short and a long.28–30. although this report could represent an improper deduction from Damon’s prominence in Plato’s dialogues. Plat. 2. His uncle Charmides was known as Damon’s friend.oxfordscholarship. But let these things. a late Hellenistic dialogue demonstrably well informed about Damon (Wallace ( 1992 ) 332). on these matters also we shall take counsel with Damon. And in some of these he criticized or praised the tempo of the foot no less than the rhythms themselves. Plato’s music teacher Drakon is reported to have been Damon’s student (Anon. By all accounts the most important discussion of Damon occurs in Plato’s Republic 399e–400b. and a near contemporary. I can’t Damon is unknowable. Under the terms of the licence agreement. I think I have heard him obscurely naming a metre ‘in armour’ [a composite]. In discussing which types of rhythms imitate which sorts of life. Westerink).oxfordscholarship. and what rhythms we must leave for their opposites. Subscriber: University of St. Plato was an intelligent professional philosopher. My reconstruction of Damon’s work is based largely on Plato’s testimony. be postponed for Damon’s Page 10 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. All Rights Reserved. or else some combination of the two. 2012. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see book on Damon. Finally. for several reasons.

Page 11 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. according to Damon as Plato represents him. First. A third conclusion from Plato is that Damon was concerned to name or label In Aristophanes Clouds 648–51. in a debate with Nikias on the definition of courage. certain rhythms or steps. Dover charmingly associates with little boys. characteristic especially of Prodikos but also of others. our good friend. pretended to find—Damon’s metrical research obscure. date: 20 August 2012 . Strepsiades replies that he certainly knows about this finger. In Plato Laches 197d. Damon studied the technicalities of rhythms and metres. Strepsiades asks ‘How will rhuthmoi help me in terms of barley?’ and Sokrates replies. Subscriber: University of St. All Rights Reserved. Or do you think otherwise? Four points are clear from this passage. I agree that Aristophanes echoes Damon’s teaching: Damon was active in Athens in the later 420s when Clouds was first produced. Andrews. and Damon constantly associates with Prodikos. for to determine the truth would require no little discussion. 2012. 258 ) appropriate to’ or ‘fit’ certain psychological states or modes of behaviour. As Martin West has noted. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. A final point from Republic 400 is that Plato found—or rather. Under the terms of the licence agreement. who is thought to be the cleverest of the sophists at distinguishing terms like these’. and in Classical Greek occurs as a metrical term only here and in Republic Sokrates tells Laches to say nothing. in his commentary on Clouds. Second. 65) and others. making a gesture that. Plato’s Cratylus deals with the subject. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. if you can tell which of the rhythms is “in armour” and which a finger— Along with Wilamowitz (( 1921 ) 59. ‘for in fact you seem to me to have failed to perceive that Nikias has acquired this wisdom from Damon. this passage provides our first evidence for the division of metrical feet into segments: (1984) 216. ‘First of all you’ll be polished at parties. The concern with names is a well-recognized phenomenon of the late fifth century.oxfordscholarship. ‘are (p.oxfordscholarship.consideration.

at 424c. Proclus writes. Except for those harmoniai which produce lamentation and drinking songs. states that a number of harmoniai were ‘handed down’ by Damon (De Mus. The translation ‘rules’ may retain something of this ambiguity. In his commentary on Plato’s Republic. Proclus refers to certain of Damon’s harmoniai while discussing a controversy over which harmoniai Plato allowed in his polis. and since some of Damon’s followers called themselves the harmonikoi. a music theorist probably of the third century ad. 2012.oxfordscholarship. and yearn with sad longing. musical styles not only ‘fit’ behaviour. affected by the words. for example ‘political and social conventions’. ‘certain people think that [Sokrates] accepts as proper for education the other harmoniai. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. It follows that in Damon’s view (as Plato represents it). an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. both for individuals and for society. it ‘changes the psyche into another state’ (10). Subscriber: University of St. the sources on this point have some claim to credibility. of those which Damon taught’ (In Rempubl. (p. Its hearers shudder with terror. 12 In Gorgias the force of logos works immediately on the psyche: it ‘can make any impression it wishes on the psyche’ (13). 836f. substantial albeit later group of sources attests this aspect of Damon’s work. Aristeides Quintilianus. even though the basis of his discussion of harmoniai is precisely those ethos correlations for which Damon was famous. 838d). The probable meaning of tropoi in this context is musical ‘styles’. as Anderson ( 1966 ) 25 has shown. Following a suggestion by Kroll. 398c–399e). date: 20 August 2012 . Here Sokrates observes. ‘never are the tropoi of music changed without [changing] the most important nomoi of the city.19–24 Kroll). However. Under the terms of the licence agreement. ‘All poetry can be called speech in metre. All Rights Reserved. Plato does not mention Damon in connection with the harmoniai suitable for his ideal polis (Rep. ‘the power of logos over the constitution of the psyche can be compared with the effect of drugs on the bodily state’ (14). Since harmoniai were the basis of fifth-century music (and not of music by the end of the fourth century). the Phrygian and the Dorian. a that Damon was ‘the most intelligent Athenian of his time’. 2. the soul. this text adds the important information that Damon studied harmoniai of all Page 12 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. So: ‘never are musical styles changed without changing the most important rules of the city’. 61. X Orat. Notoriously. they also determine or shape it. shed tears of pity. feels as its own an emotion aroused by the good and ill fortunes of other people’s actions and lives’ (9). If we accept Proclus.A second important passage for understanding Damon occurs a little later in the Republic. 259 ) Rostagni saw that the same view may be echoed in Gorgias’ Helen. if in fact Gorgias was Isokrates’ teacher (Ps.-Plut.14). as Damon says and I believe him’.oxfordscholarship. while nomoi can refer either to the laws of the polis or to something broader. Damon’s influence on Gorgias may explain Isokrates’ perhaps rather fulsome praise. applied to speech or logos. I p.

et Plat. as the references to them by Stesichoros (fr. 4 Diehl). and he correlated them with different psychological states or modes of behaviour. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. If Damon thought about harmoniai in the way he did about metres. effects were produced by Page 13 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.-Plutarch De Musica 1136e. Scholars generally agree that they were distinctive scales. not simply those which Plato accepted for his polis. 260 ) as to whether Damon did invent this harmonia. some drunken youths were acting crazy to the Phrygian tune of an aulos player. particular pitches or rhythms may have been involved. or ‘tunings’ of an instrument. 67 Snell–Maehler) indicate. each constituted from different sequences of intervals (see esp. Philol. They were also very old. In practice at any rate. Under the terms of the licence agreement. et Merc. According to Plato (Rep. Plato limits us to examples from rhythms: physical violence disgraceful behaviour madness and their opposites. presumably he systematized them in some coherent order. he may have named some of them (possibly formulating the harmonic categories ‘hyper-’ or ‘hypo-’. 398e–399a). They may well have been performed in different musical styles. All Rights Reserved. according to Ps. Andrews. Hippocr. and so forth. Each of these harmoniai was associated with a particular people: Dorians. Damon had the aulete change to a Dorian harmonia and the youths were calmed. Phrygians.926). which Plato expressly banned from his polis as ‘soft and sympotic’ (Rep.oxfordscholarship. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. 2012. The nature of the early harmoniai which Damon studied remains obscure. 1 Page). Lydians. 395c–d) and Aristotle (EN 1152a30–3). Pratinas (fr. in an anecdote reported by Galen (De Placit. 9. 35 Page) 5) and Martianus Capella (De Nupt. We may reserve judgement (p.types. date: 20 August 2012 . Subscriber: University of St. Finally. It is nonetheless interesting that Plutarch’s tradition associates Damon with a harmonia that Plato condemned. As for the kinds of psychological states or types of behaviour that Damon thought harmoniai could produce. as in ‘Hyperdorian’).com/page/privacy-policy). Furthermore. Lasos of Hermione (fr. Barker ( 1984 ) 163–8). It remains unclear how Damon believed that harmoniai produced psychological states or modes of behaviour. and Pindar (fr. Damon invented a harmonia called the ‘relaxed Lydian’.

a thousand Athenians. To understand the significance of Damon’s research in the context of fifthcentury Athens. The poetry produced for these occasions reflected the needs and concerns of the people who performed it. Under the terms of the licence agreement. for the Greeks music was an experience profoundly different from the essentially passive thing it has become in western societies. if he formulated one. elitist experience that poetry became in and after the Hellenistic age. this may not have been Damon’s position.oxfordscholarship. Every year at the festival of Dionysos. and others have made the central observation that archaic and classical Greek poetry was not the private. marriages with their hymenaioi. Athens’ dithyrambic performances are especially striking. present at almost all social gatherings. poetry existed in the voices of its performers.oxfordscholarship. silent. Calame ( 1997 ) 25 notes that music for female choruses marked the major moments (as traditionally conceived) in a woman’s life: puberty. Gentili (e. epinikia to celebrate victories. Andrews. Poetry’s public and communal quality was reinforced diachronically by the role of mousikē in education. also. female cultic associations for which Sappho wrote her poems. thiasoi. As many scholars have now said. 1988). multifaceted role of music in Greek society. prosodia or processional hymns. Subscriber: University of St. All Rights Reserved. many scholars believe that virtually all archaic poetry for solo delivery was originally intended for the symposium. 261 ) together. However. By contrast. and childbirth. communal prayers to the gods including hymns. inextricably linked to the social occasions for which it was produced. Page 14 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. The people sang. holding a myrtle branch. marriage. they became the poet and said his words as their own. As Oswyn Murray’s Sympotica volume reveals. it is necessary to keep in mind the complex. Each guest then sang in turn simple stanzas. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. In the private sphere. Calame. At the start. date: 20 August 2012 . men and boys in groups of fifty. a paean was sung by all participants together. funerals with their threnoi. In an oral society. performed in this event. transmitting basic social ideologies. 2012. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. and often performed by everyone ( paeans. choral poetry was group poetry. Poetry Individual performances followed. present at many group functions: festivals such as that of Dionysos at Athens. through the traditional songs taught together with gymnastics.habituation: after long imitation one assimilated the behaviour in question. Greek music was communal. with its own ‘archon’ as magister bibendi. as symposiasts with particular musical abilities sang monodic poems while accompanying themselves on the lyre. and parthenia (maiden songs). Plato remarks. the symposium was a focal point of elite cultural life and a microcosm of the polis.g.

64). No less significant was the communal role of music in the military. Herodotos reports that (p.oxfordscholarship. and the aulos music which orchestrated the movements of rowers on board ship. protect ourselves from our enemies. According to a late report (Aelian VH 3. first expressed for us in the myths of musical magic: the Sirens. had to turn in unison during battle. 306) calls it a Page 15 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. 2012.and low-pitched auloi’ (1. the poet Phrynichos was elected stratēgos because he wrote good pyrrhics. In all of these instances. Lengthy hoplite battle lines.oxfordscholarship. Finally. 13 The gymnopaidikē was a dance imitating wrestling and the pankration. and conquer them in battle’.one who cannot sing and dance in a chorus is uneducated (Laws 654a–b). date: 20 August 2012 . Pindar calls song a (Pyth. one dance simulated a fight between a robber and a ploughman protecting his field. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. Subscriber: University of St. Andrews. Arion and his dolphins. oars moving as one. 628f) attributes to Sokrates the judgment that the best choral dancers are also the best men in war. The pyrrhichē is only the most famous of these. The Greeks had a complex series of war dances which often armed men performed to music. and high. By playing his lyre Amphion raised the walls of Thebes. Orpheus. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. 3. communal dexterity was required of 170 men to row a trireme. Just so. Those who fought in the front lines were called (Luc. Aeschylus (Eum. Alan Boegehold ( 1991 ) has suggested that these rhythmic abilities were born through communal dancing that was so pervasive an element in Greek daily life. in the marching paians sung when Greek phalanxes approached the enemy. the Greeks recognized the great power of music. sometimes four men deep. in the use of music to fire the troops’ enthusiasm before battle. Under the terms of the licence agreement. in the hypothēkai performed during the intervals of battle. All Rights Reserved. ‘marching in to the music of syrinxes. singing and dancing—so as to win the gods’ favour. 14).8). music shaped the rhythms essential to the safety of the city.1). The Greeks knew of the powers of music to entrance. The fourth-century Peripatetic Chamaileon (ap. 262 ) every year Alyattes invaded Milesian territory during harvest time. In Laws 803e Plato states that ‘we must spend our whole lives playing at certain games—sacrifice. Athen. In a scene of competitive war-dancing performed by the troops in Xenophon’s Anabasis (6.17).

music’s ability to change or disturb the social order was also widely recognized. So Damon says and I believe him. In Aristophanes’ Clouds. Lac.’ Page 16 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. poetry. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. Subscriber: University of St.oxfordscholarship. Under the terms of the licence agreement. 15 Precisely because these anecdotes are unhistorical. Plato states that Damon made the connection between music and politics explicit. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. the limb would heal. Thus for the Greeks music was essentially a political phenomenon. so as to remain in a state of subjection. Plutarch (Lyc. 28. As a consequence of music’s power and social importance. whereupon an ephor came up to him with a knife. the ephors wanted only simple songs (Inst.66–7). to obtain a wider variety of music. All Rights Reserved. that in listening to the songs of Terpander the Spartans grew unified in concord: ‘they were entirely changed. the young thief-god placated Apollo by means of the lyre.9–10) reports that the helots were forced to perform grotesque dances and songs. First. asking from which side he should cut two strings. By contrast. In the light of the public qualities of Greek music and the widespread perception of its power. Theophrastos reported the belief that if aulos music with a certain harmonia was played over a limb afflicted with sciatica. the attitude behind them is significant. as Diodoros imagines (8. embracing and tearfully kissing one another’. 263 ) Hymn to Hermes (lines 416–96). 2012. for We are told. 264 ) changing the most important rules of the city. In Plato’s Republic. He turned up at Sparta’s Carnean games with a nine-string lyre. Sokrates warns most earnestly against musical innovation: ‘the overseers of our state must be watchful against innovations in music that are counter to the established order … We must not praise that sort of thing. some Greeks feared or rejected musical innovation. Andrews. Plutarch writes that Terpander was condemned by the ephors at Sparta because he added an eighth string to the lyre.28). ‘Just Logos’ longs for the good old days. of direct concern to the polis. music. For a change to a new type of music is something to beware of as a danger to the entire politeia’ (424b–e). Three points expressly link Damon.‘a binding spell’. date: 20 August 2012 . and philosophical Pindar expressly formulated the concept: by his kithara Apollo ‘brings eunomia without discord into the hearts of men’ (Pyth. ‘Never are musical styles changed without (p. Music was thought to have the power to heal. in anecdote. 5. when no musical innovations were permitted (963–74). so that Timotheos not corrupt Spartan society. 14 The psychological affects of music were especially well known. 238c). A similar anecdote is told of Timotheos in the early fourth century. In the Homeric (p. and politics.

Perikles then first had a decree passed to establish a music contest at the Panathenaic festival and.oxfordscholarship. led by Thucydides son of Melesias. 265 ) legal proceedings. many-seated and many-columned in its interior arrangement. Dikastic pay. as Alan Shapiro (( 1992 ) 58) and others point out. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. All Rights Reserved.oxfordscholarship. was intended to permit as many Athenians as possible to take part in (p. rather than introduced it. with the peculiar lines of the Odeion. Both then and later the people watched the musical contests in the Odeion. Andrews. fitting his oversize head. missing Perikles himself. however.). an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. date: 20 August 2012 . | Perikles. ‘bearing the Odeion on his head’. and whether the ostracism Kratinos mentioned was actually Damon’s. In the Life of Pericles 13 Plutarch writes. This would certainly suit Plutarch’s context: now that the principal enemy of Perikles’ building programme is out of Athens. In fact. Under the terms of the licence agreement. where they could listen Page 17 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. The ostracism Kratinos mentions is generally thought to be that of Thucydides son of Melesias in 444 or 443. For this reason Kratinos again made fun of him in The Thracian Women: ‘This onion-headed Zeus comes. just in the period of Damon’s ostracism. a proposal by Damon. elected steward of the games himself prescribed how the competitors should play the aulos or sing or play the kithara. which Perikles promoted and his opponents. they say was an image and a copy of the Persian King’s tent. Perikles can and with a roof with a circular slope from a single peak. The Odeion. 2012.) 16 A date in the 440s for the reconstruction of the Odeion is plausible and widely accepted (Stadter ( 1989 ) ad loc. bearing the Odeion on his head | Since the ostracism has passed by Ambitious for honour. important evidence indicates a deep interest in the music of the polis by Damon’s student Perikles. Perikles must have merely reformed this and that Perikles oversaw construction of it. Given that context. contested. (Kratinos compared the odd shape of Perikles’ helmet. The Plutarch passage quoted reports a decree by Perikles establishing a music contest at the Panathenaia. one cannot help speculating whether the decree Plutarch mentions may have been one of those proposed by Damon on Perikles’ behalf. The context of this passage is the reconstruction of Athens’ public buildings after 449. Subscriber: University of St.

Without their leader. 1135–7).com/page/privacy-policy). Comment. He went on a rampage. At the same time. Probably sometime around 444 Sophokles staged Ajax. to slaughter the army and its leaders. however. a cardinal point of democratic ideology championed by many including Thucydides’ Perikles (2. 148). Finally. (1352). 17 The community’s ruler Menelaus argues in defence of the ‘ship of state’. providing a place where music could work its effects. along with the chorus (158–71) and Ajax’s own enemy Odysseus (1332–1345). Despite his outrageous Page 18 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. however. an ambiguously anti-progressive play that (among other points) disputes the notion of ‘living as you wish’ (lines 1073–88). The Odeion did the same for music. Ajax’s Athenian crew (201) are frightened (p. Under the terms of the licence agreement. an explicit democratic reference (cf. His report is nonetheless consistent with what must have been a principal link between a music theorist whose work concerned the behavioural consequences of music. the struggle itself indicates a state of some ambivalence. It is unclear what Olympiodoros could have known. The later 440s seem to have been important for music at Athens in other ways as well. Ajax despised the people’s judgement in awarding Achilles’ arms to Odysseus. 1415–18).oxfordscholarship. that Ajax was a ‘noble man’. Westerink). 266 ) ‘like timorous doves’ (140). the sixth-century Platonic commentator Olympiodoros remarks. 54. ‘Perikles learned from Damon the songs through which he harmonized the city’ (In Plat. 1266–1315.oxfordscholarship. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see The great do well when the little are there to help them’ (155). The aristocrat Ajax. 2012. in a testimonium not included in Diels–Kranz. Although Perikles prevailed against Thucydides son of Melesias. Subscriber: University of St. He destroyed undistributed (the text is specific) community property and its guards (26–8. ‘Great and little together is best. Shapiro (( 1992 ) 58) notes the exceptionally large number of vases depicting musical scenes from this period. and a democratic politician who wanted to influence the demos. claiming that Ajax was never subject to them and stressing. 138. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. 440–9. Alcibiad. Ajax’s brother Teuker also defies the community’s rulers (1093–1117.37). these years were also characterized by political and intellectual uncertainty and conservatism. refuses to submit to the community’s leaders or the people’s vote— ‘the masses who judge’ (1243). the rhetoric of opposing litigants.4–11 ed. date: 20 August 2012 . All Rights Reserved.

which elsewhere also as we have seen sometimes directly targeted musical innovation. ad Ant.oxfordscholarship. the following year Sophokles was elected hellenotamias. Andrews. one principal reason for Damon’s ostracism may have been that. Although we cannot determine the popular reaction to this politically conservative drama. in 440 the Athenians voted in some way to restrict comedy (Schol. 267 ) Page 19 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. even though Polyneikes had attacked his own city and (Sophokles specifies) tried to burn its temples (line 199). an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. The parallel is striking that in 412. ‘clever’. Subscriber: University of St. We are told that as a result of this play. it is probably best seen as a temporary response both to the war with Samos and to pressure from Perikles. Sophokles was elected general (hypoth. Antigone champions the right to burial of her brother Polyneikes. that our country is our safety. In 442. Ajax receives an honourable burial which the play presents as worthy of approval. We have no reason to think that the playwright possessed financial or military credentials. music itself is one bridge between Damon’s political and his intellectual activities. Ach. knowing this. In Antigone Kreon learns that his attitude must be modified. treasurer of the Athenian alliance.oxfordscholarship. Although everything about this measure is obscure. In his opening speech. All Rights Reserved. in a climate of caution about ridiculing Athens and its politicians during wartime (Halliwell ( 1991 ) 58–9). again in a complicated period for Athens. trans. Ar.crimes against the community. Finally. Aristoph. Sophokles was chosen proboulos to counsel his city. Under the terms of the licence agreement. in an ambiguously conservative climate of suspicion and tension. Gram. linking the two tracks (p. 2012. date: 20 August 2012 . Whatever the truth of the accusation. Damon’s ostracism fits in a climate of political and intellectual suspicion. The provision was repealed in 437. Thus as a political phenomenon. to honour a family member whom the play itself presents as a traitor. Thebes’ new ruler Kreon proclaims: ‘I could never make that man a friend of mine who menaces our Sophokles staged Antigone. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. Fagles). in many ways also a conservative text. 67). and ‘meddling’ attempt at innovations they neither liked or They therefore drove him out. Only when it sails upright can we establish true friendships’ (187–90. his musical investigations could be represented to the demos as a ‘concealing’.

and correlating these with conduct and ethos. (3) Cf. which was more likely Oa (Steph.oxfordscholarship.’s ‘Damonides’ is most likely an error for Damon. mentions not Damon but ‘Damonides’ (the name of Damon’s father). The earliest and best sources for Damon’s philosophical activity give no sign that he promoted certain types of music for their positive ethical consequences. (4) See Schwarze ( 1971 ) 160–4.of Damon’s career. Because it can scarcely be that both Damon and his father were Perikles’ advisers and later ostracized. the rivalry between the aulos and the kithara and the emergence of New Music. not through rhetoric (although Gorgias had similar thoughts. and metrical feet. Under the terms of the licence agreement. Damon applied his interests to the practical manipulation of immediate experience. We also have no evidence that he took sides in two great musical controversies of his day. describing and naming different harmoniai. Philosophy. rhythms. s. (p. In addition to confusing Damon’s name. These political connections then led to Damon’s ostracism. e. Since this manipulation could have broader political uses. and Politics in Ancient Athens. and may show Damon’s influence) but through music and poetic metre. Both points are elsewhere attested for Damon. has probably mistaken his deme. date: 20 August 2012 . Rhodes ( 1981 ) 342. His work was oriented toward music and humanity. and learned from him the techniques of musical politics. Ath.oxfordscholarship.) than the larger and important Oe. Music. Page 20 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. (2) Although Ath.v. and his approach was not negative. written about elsewhere in this volume. Pol. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. Ath. in Thucydidean terms. as for example in Plutarch Pericles 4. Subscriber: University of St. 268 ) Notes: (1) Further discussion of many of the issues raised here will be found in a volume currently in preparation: Damon of Oa. Byz. politicians took an interest in Damon’s work. Damon studied the behavioural and hence political implications of music systematically. Andrews. Pol. sceptical or relativist: the ethical consequences of harmoniai and metre were the same for each individual. This may explain why Plato seems not to have wholly approved of him. it identifies ‘Damonides’ as an adviser of Perikles who was later ostracized. 2012. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press.. All Rights Reserved.g.

Mattingly ( 1971 ) 287 and (1991) 22 rejects Damon’s and other obscure ostracisms because of their ‘dubious literary sources’. (12) Kroll ( 1911 ) 168–9. Harmon. and also the many dramatic references in Halliwell ( 1997 ) 131 n. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press. (7) Cf. Eratokles. Aesch. Raaflaub’s essay is forthcoming. also call Damon(ides)’ ostracism ‘dubious’. 34. 10. F. Under the terms of the licence agreement. which Aristoxenos himself mentions.4. (11) Porph. schools whose philosophical views are clearly preserved even up to the present day.oxfordscholarship. those of Pythagoras and of Aristoxenos. Isokr. Metiochou ). Eux. date: 20 August 2012 . Eudoxias. W. Andrews. Hamdorf in Hoepfner. Plin. ( 1935 ) 125–42. Rostagni ( 1922 ) 149 = (1955) 2. 80 Jensen (rhētores are like snakes). All Rights Reserved. 1: ‘While there are many schools of music about 88 (Wimmer) ap.oxfordscholarship.4–5. As yet unpublished. Comotti ( 1989a ) 30–1. see above all Ceccarelli ( 1998 ) and in this volume. as narrowly understood. 25–6 and fr. and some after him. (9) See also Dem. and Aul. 87. some before Aristoxenos. (6) IG 12. Rhodes ( 1994 ) 97: ‘There was a need to deal with politicians whose influence was dangerous but who could not be proved guilty of offenses against the laws. as I hope to argue elsewhere. NH 28. such as those of Epigonos. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www. For we could mention that more schools existed. Page 21 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.173–5. 2012. mentioning Damonian harmonikoi. frr.(5) Carcopino ( 1905 ). Düring 1932. For Ostwald on the purpose of ostracism (to choose between competing political visions). and Stadter ( 1991 ) 117–18. 624a–b. Gell.334–46. 1. while Damon proposed dikastic pay.1. Damon. (13) On pyrrhics. probably belongs in the early 3rd cent. Hyper. 51. Ehrenberg ( 1954 ) 93. Per litteras he argues that Damon does not fit this criterion. Day and Chambers ( 1962 ) 15. two other ostraka from the Kerameikos are mentioned to me by Peter Siewert. Athen.. p.. Subscriber: University of St. (14) Theophr. in Ptol. see CAH 42.912.13. ed. 4. 15. one could suppose that two are of the greatest importance. which others have described … PHibeh 113 (Barker ( 1984 ) 183–5)..20–2. (10) See e.’ (8) It is interesting to note that Metiochos built one of the dikastēria (Bekker ibid .g. Comment. Isai. ed. 1976 : 210 K 100. Agenor and some others.

date: 20 August 2012 . (17) For a discussion and summary of views on the date of Ajax. and in it Perikles († 429) comes on stage. 81 K.–A. Lac. All Rights Reserved. an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see Garvie opts for the mid–440s. Inst. born c. because it mentions the younger Kallias III (fr. see Garvie ( 1998 ) 6–8. De Mus. Athen.(15) Plut. Page 22 of 22 Damon of Oa: A Music Theorist Ostracized PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www. Under the terms of the licence agreement. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press.6.oxfordscholarship. 2012. Agis 10. 628b. See Geissler ( 1925 ) 21–2. 1. Subscriber: University of St.). 238c. Andrews. (16) Kratinos’ play is commonly dated to the 430s.450 (Davies ( 1971 ) 263).com/page/privacy-policy). Boeth.