Good cooling tower practises

Georges Hoeterickx
Evapco Europe

Good cooling tower practises
Design considerations

Approach :
Difference between cooling tower outlet temp.
and design entering wb temp.

Design considerations
Cooling tower size versus approach

Cooling Tower Size

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Approach ° F

10

11

12

Design considerations
Minimum approach

CTI Certification under STD-201
Certification is limited to thermal operating
conditions….. and a cooling approach of
2.8°C (5°F) or greater….

Good cooling tower practises
Cooling tower range

Range :
Difference between cooling tower inlet and
cooling tower outlet temperature.

6 0. Size 1.4 0.8 0.2 1 0.T.2 0 80% 90% 100% 110% Range 120% 130% 140% 150% .Design considerations Cooling tower size versus range C.

.Good cooling tower practises Design considerations Avoid recirculation : Bypass of warm discharge air into the cooling tower air inlet will cause capacity losses.

Design considerations Avoid recirculation Top of cooling tower should be at least level with enclosure. .

„ Downward velocity : max. 1200 fpm (6 m/sec). 600 fpm (3 m/sec).Design considerations Avoid recirculation „ Fan discharge velocity : min. .

Design considerations Avoid recirculation Limit downward velocity .two side air inlet units .

single air inlet units .Design considerations Avoid recirculation Limit downward velocity .

Good cooling tower practises Design considerations Use of VFD’s for fan motors : Allow to control air flow through the cooling tower .

Design considerations VFD’s for fan motors Energy saving ? „ Condenser water temp 1°F Chiller efficiency 3% „ Cooling tower kW = ~ 5 % Chiller kW. .

Design considerations VFD’s for fan motors „ Water consumption : Air flow Water consumption „ Plume formation : Air flow Plume formation tendency „ Noise control @ night Fan @ half speed : – 9 dBA fan noise (60% capacity) .

RPM for gear (motor speed ≥ 450 RPM) „ Gear with mechanical oil pump for proper lubrication .Design considerations VFD’s for fan motors „ Min.

Maintenance – sump cleaning .Design considerations Cooling tower basins Common basin + Easier basin and cooling tower construction. + No need for equalizing connection .

Good cooling tower practises Design considerations Cooling Tower Basin : Hold circulating water of the tower. .

Need equalizing between basins.Design considerations Cooling Tower Basin Individual Basin per Cell + Easier for maintance (water) . .More costly construction .

Design considerations Cooling Tower Basin Sound mats to reduce water noise „ Noise reduction function ¾ number of layers ¾ distance mats – water in basin ! „ Sound mats will obstruct basin access : maintenance ! .

Good cooling tower practises Obtain the specified and correct quality level ! .

Fan Stack Other .Obtain the specified quality Cost distribution main items Fan Gear & Motor Fill Structure Louvers DE Water Dis.

Good cooling tower practises Obtain the specified quality Typical requirements: .

Obtain the specified quality FRP structure „ Reputable manufacturers have their components third party tested per ASTM E 84 for strength values and flamability „ Ask if these evidences are part of contract submittals ! .

Obtain the specified quality FRP structure Three factors influence life expectancy : „ Creep : long term deformation of a member under load „ Shear : FRP strong in one direction „ UV degradation .

Obtain the specified quality FRP structure : creep „ Design structure loads primarily taken by fiber – unidirectional „ Loads by resin to be maintained low „ Correct design assures long life time .

Obtain the specified quality FRP structure : shear „ Loads in plane of laminate by resin „ Avoid water migration by proper sealing all holes „ Inspect on regular basis .

Obtain the specified quality FRP structure UV protection „ UV degradation and moisture penetration will have influence life time of an FRP cooling tower „ The UV rays will cause the decomposition of the polymers holding the fibre glass together .

FRP structure UV protection „ Surface veil material of non woven polyester fabric to prevent fiber blow out „ Surface veil creates a resin rich surface area to provide enhanced UV protection „ One mil thickness of surface veil = 2 – 3 years life time .

FRP structure UV protection STRUCTURAL RESIN 55-25% GLASS 45-75% WOVEN ROVEN AND CONTINUOUS GLASS 250 MILS OR MORE CORROSION BARRIER RESIN 60-70 % GLASS 30-40% MAT OR CLOTH 40-60 MILS EXTERNAL LINER RESIN RICH 80-90% GLASS 10-20% 15-20 MILS SURFACING VEIL TYPE C 10-20 MIL THICKNESS .

FRP structure UV protection Useful life of UV projected components 80 70 60 50 Midde East Climate European Climate 40 30 20 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Years .

„ Variation in the visibility of the Continious Filament Mat. .FRP structure UV protection How to verify UV protection quality ? „ Have samples of different weight veil material for comparison.

Obtain the required quality FRP structure Fire retardancy Fire resistance and damage control of the FRP structure. .

Class 1 type „ Specify self extinguishing „ High glass content = minimum burn rate „ Addition Antimony Trioxide improves fire retarding . heat resistant / fire retardant resin systems.FRP structure Fire retardancy „ Design with high quality.

Obtain the required quality FRP structure „ Major part of the cooling tower cost „ Most critical item for the cooling tower life time ! How to obtain the required quality ? .

. 2.Obtain the required quality FRP structure 1. Demand cooling tower supplier names the FRP source and ask delivery certificates from the FRP manufacturer. Reserve the right to inspect before delivery to verify Quality Process Map is complied with.

Obtain the best quality Fans .

Obtain the best quality Fans „ Fans are selected for a given airflow and static pressure „ Fan design parameters : diameter – speed – nbr and shape of blades – blade width „ Fan design parameters influence : cost – power consumption – noise .

Cooling tower fans Noise definition Specify sound pressure in dB(A) measured 1.5 meter above fan discharge (per CTI std ATC – 128) .

Cooling tower fans Noise .

5 100.3 54.196 m³/ sec @ 160 Pa pressure drop Fan dia Nbr Blades Rpm ft Tip speed Sound Power Fan shaft Power Fan m/sec dB(A) kW US $ 14 6 270.9 45000 .Cooling tower fans Comparison .6 53.3 2100 16 7 193.2 3600 18 5 186.8 54.2 99 46 13500 18 * 4 137 40 86.8 60.3 59.5 95.9 49.2000 ton tower .

22 % .11 % 18 +8 % .Cooling tower fans Fan power vs cost – 2000 ton tower – 196 m³/sec @ 160 Pa pressure drop Fan dia Tower price Fan Power ft % kW 14 - - 16 + 1. 25 % .

5 97.2 106.2 60000 28 6 82.8 43.9 90 102.9 87.3 106.3 65000 .7 37.6 104.5000 ton tower .Cooling tower fans Comparison .6 36.375 m³/ sec @ Fan dia Nbr Blades Rpm ft 160 Pa pressure drop Tip speed Sound Power Fan shaft Power Fan m/sec dB(A) kW US $ 22 6 226 44.3 9500 26 9 104.1 26000 26 6 89.2 90.

5000 ton tower – 375 m³/ sec @ 160 Pa pressure drop Fan dia Tower price Power Sound Power ft % kW dB (A) 22 106.Cooling tower fans Fan power – noise vs cost .6 28 + 22% -4% 90 .3 26 +7% .18 % 97.9 26 20% -2% 90.

Obtain the required quality Fan stacks .

„ Access door or removable panel „ Assembly hardware SST .… „ Material : Class 1 – flame spread rating 25 (Class II and Class III = Cheaper !) „ UV resistance (gelcoat 20 mil).Fan stacks Material „ Height : 6 – 8 – 10 ft .

Fan stacks „ Make sure fan deck floor opening matches fan cylinder „ Smooth air inlet „ Fan tip clearance : 0.5% fan dia .

Obtain the required quality Air inlet louvers Water stays in … Sunlight stays out! .

Air inlet louvers Single pass louvers „ Waterdroplets tend to splash out when fans are shut off. „ Sunlight still enters the cooling tower basin ! .

Air inlet louvers Two pass air inlet louvers „ Minimise splashout „ Direct sunlight is blocked from the water inside the tower and reducing the potential for algae formation ! „ Minimum pressure drop .

Air inlet louvers Two pass air inlet louvers Typical two pass air inlet louvers .

Obtain the required quality Drift eliminators .

01 to 0.0005 % of tower flow rate „ Drift rate function of type DE. water loading and spray nozzle types .Obtain the required quality Drift eliminators „ Drift rates : 0. air velocity.

Drift eliminators Quality Drift rate dependends on: ¾ ¾ ¾ Waterloading Air velocity Spray nozzle arrangement .

Drift eliminators Efficiency confirmation „ Ask your cooling tower supplier names manufacturer of DE „ Demand independent test certifications according to accepted standards .

Drift eliminators Execution on site Air passes through area with minimum resistance ¾ Air bypass reduces cooling effect ¾ Water loss because of higher air velocity .

Drift losses Design considerations : air seals .

Good cooling tower practises Design considerations „ Mechanical equipment „ Fill „ Water distribution .

Good cooling tower practises Obtain the specified and correct quality level ! .

Thank you Georges Hoeterickx .