Glossary of terms in Acupuncture

Chinese
(pinyin)
(Nei) San Jiao
(内) 三焦

Wai San Jiao
外三焦

English

French

Alternative names
and notes

San Jiao (三焦 ): production of Ying qi(营气 ) and Wei qi(卫气 )
Three burners
Les trois foyers
3 physical body zones:
• Upper burner
• foyer supérieur upper part of thorax, middle of abdomen
• Middle burner
• foyer médian
(just below the ribs) and lower abdomen,
• Lower burner
• foyer inférieur including the organs and viscera they
contain (Zang and Fu).
The three burners ensure the functioning
of the Pathway of water and cereals.
Three warmers
Les trois
These ensure the pre-processing of
• Upper warmer
réchauffeurs
energies and substances received and
• Middle warmer
• réch. supérieur, maintenance of the energetic and
• Lower warmer
• réch. médian
physiological integrity of the organism. In
• réch. inférieur, this they are supported by two structures:
• An anatomical structure: three “upper
tracts or external organs”:
o upper respiratory tracts (nose and
sinuses + bronchi),
o upper digestive tracts. (mouth +
esophagus)
o sexual and urinary tracts
• An energetic structure: the twelve
channels, antennae of the
corresponding organs and viscera in the
three burners. These twelve channels
then function in accordance with the
six phases of Shang Han Lun.

San Jiao : Utilization of Ying qi and Wei qi, in the form of Blood and Energy (Xue and Qi)
Nei San Jiao
Triple Burner
Le Triple foyer
Viscus (fu): energetic function
corresponding to the totality of the three
內三焦
burner organs, in particular the exocrine
Gu Fu孤腑
pancreas. The Triple Burner participates in
the functions of the 5 Earth elements in
the form of Yang Minister Fire. Also
known as "lone viscus" (Gu Fu)
Shou shao yang Triple Warmer channel Le méridien du
One of the 12 channels: the peripheral
san jiao jing
Triple réchauffeur energetic channel associated with the
Triple Burner function. As a channel, it
手少阳三焦经
participates in the 6 phases of Shang Han
Lun.

1

yang wei mai Yang linking vessel Solid. urinary bladder. see above. This Guide uses RM to avoid confusion with the Chong Vessel (which is not mentioned in the WHO nomenclature) Governor vessel – GV WHO standard abreviation.yin wei mai Yin linking vessel 阴维脉 Yin qiao mai yQM . etc. small intestine. triple burner) Gallblader. . brain. spleen. cysts. nasal mucus.Chong Vessel Penetrating vessel 冲脉 Yin wei mai yWM .du mai Governor vessel YQM . etc. 奇经八脉 8 wondrous vessels Chong mai CV. phlegm. lung. uterus Includes the bone marrow as well as the spinal cord and the brain. yang (gallbladder. large intestine. spittle. yin (liver. stomach. An “immaterial” pathogenic factor that can disturb consciousness and become condensed to form nodules. Chong mai Yin wei mai Yin qiao mai Ren mai Yang qiao mai Yang wei mai The WHO nomenclature of acupuncture points indicates CV (Conception Vessel) as standard abreviations.yang qiao mai Yang heel vessel / Yang motility vessel YWM . kidneys) Hollow.fluides (jin) et épais (ye) Glaires Substantial phlegm Glaires matérielles Mucus. Insubtantial phlegm Glaires immatérielles Qi jing ba mai Eight extra(ordinary) channels. Phlegm Liquides organiques . Energy Entrailles curieuses Energie Blood Sang Marrows Moëlles Body fluids Tanyin 痰饮 You Xing Zhi Tan 有形之痰 Wu Xing Zhi Tan 无形之痰 Mucus. viscera Viscère(s) ou entraille(s) Qi heng zhi fu 奇恒之腑 Qi 气 Xue 血 Sui 髓 Jinye 津液 Extraordinary organs Qi. marrows. heart.Zang 脏 Fu 腑 Organ(s) Organe(s) Viscus.yin qiao mai Yin heel vessel / Yin 阴跷脉 motility vessel Ren mai RM .ren mai Conception vessel 任脉 Huit merveilleux vaisseaux Du mai 督脉 Yang qiao mai 阳跷脉 Du mai Yang wei mai 阳维脉 2 DM .

dai mai Belt vessel Girdle vessel Dai mai vaisseau ceinture Various types of channels Jing mai 经脉 Zheng Jing 正经 Liu Da Jing 六大经 Shou tai yin 手太阴 Shou yang ming 手阳明 Zu yang ming 足阳明 Zu tai yin 足太阴 Shou shao yin 手少阴 Shou tai yang 手太阳 Zu tai yang 足太阳 Main channels Méridiens principaux 6 (paired) channels • Tai Yang • Yang Ming • Shao Yang • Tai Yin • Shao Yin • Jue Yin LU – Lung channel 6 grands méridiens • Tai Yang • Yang Ming • Shao Yang • Tai Yin • Shao Yin • Jiu Yin P .rein MC – maître du cœur et de la sexualité ou péricarde ou enveloppe du coeur TR – Triple réchauffeur VB – vésicule billiaire F . R . while the Pericardium meridian or channel is xin bao jing 3 .g. • 2ème chaîne de V.estomac SP – Spleen channel Rt .rate HT – Heart channel C – cœur SI – Small Intestine channel UB – Urinary Bladder channel • Inner pathway IG – intestin grêle • Outer pathway Zu tai yin 足太阴 Shou jue yin 手厥阴 Xin bao jing / luo 心包经/络 KI –Kidney channel Shou shao yang 手少阳 Zu shao yang 足少阳 Zu jue yin 足厥阴 TW – Triple Warmer channel GB – Gall Bladder channel LV – Liver channel PC – Pericardium channel V – vessie • 1ère chaîne de V.Dai mai 带脉 DM . e. the Yang Ming paired channel comprises Shou Yang Ming (large instestine channel) and Zu Yang Ming (stomach channel) ST – Stomach channel E .foie The Pericardium as a function is known as xin bao luo in Chinese.poumon LI – Large Intestine channel GI – gros intestin Each paired channel divides into a “hand” channel and a “foot” channel.

sun luo. Vaisseaux luo / Vessels are short vessels that connect lo transversaux. the Main Channel of a Zang (Yin solid organ) with its coupled Fu (Yang hollow bowel). 12 Transversal Luo vessels 2. connecting channels. similar to capillary blood xue luo vessels. (In French. 浮络,孙络, (capillaires) 血络 Jing Bie Jing Bie Jing Bie Terminology can be confusing in Chinese Divergent Channels Vaisseaux (not to mention English and French) as 经别 collatéraux divergent vessels appear under different Bie Mai names in the Classics at different epochs. The 12 Transversal Luo-connecting 2. Fu Luo. the “divergent channels”. collaterals 1. 别脉 Jing jin Jing Jin Jing Jin Muscle channels Méridiens tendino经筋 Jing jin-sinew channels musculaires Ligamentary channels Vaisseaux Musculotendinous ligamentaires channels Tong Dao Pathway Trajectoire / trajet Pathway of a channel or an extraordinary vessel 通道 Xu Li Xu Li Xu Li Great Luo of stomach 虚里 Da Bao (Pi zhi Da Bao Da Bao Great Luo of spleen da luo) 大包(脾之大 络) Different types of points Beishu Xue 背俞穴 背俞 Mu Xue 募穴 Xi Xue 郄穴 4 Back-Shu points Back transporting points Front-Mu points Front collecting points Alarm points Xi-cleft points Acumulating points Points Shu Points assentiment Points Mu Points héraut Points Xi Points d'accumulation . the term “collatéraux”is used for jing bie!).Luo mai 络脉 Bie luo 别络 1. Xue Luo luo (capillaries) fu luo. Zong Luo 16 Longitudinal Luo Vaisseaux luo / lo The 16 Longitudinal Luo-connecting Vessels longitudinaux vessels originate at the Luo points on the 纵络 extremities and have a distinct symptomatology. Les luo / lo. Be sure not to confuse these collaterals with jing bie. Sun Fu Luo. Xue Vaisseaux luo / lo. 2. Luo channels 1. Luo-connecting les vaisseaux channels. luo / lo. Smaller luo vessels branching off the main Luo. Sun Luo. luo vessels.

vessels and arteries. marrows. qi. SP 6 acts on the spleen. viscera. veins. water and cereals. Points on the neck or head where the Jing Bie meet two by two (a yin coupled with a yang) 5 . For example. liver and kidney channels. marrows Lower He-Sea 8 Hui-converging points 8 master points Hui-meeting points Hui-gathering points Intersection points Coupled points Point He secondaire Points maîtres (des merveilleux vaisseaux) Points réunion Points croisement Points CRX Points couplés Jing Bie meeting points Points de reunion des Jing Bie Windows of the sky points Points fenêtres du ciel Jîng Xue 井穴 Rong / Ying Xue 荣/荥穴 Shu Xue 输穴 Yuan Xue 原穴 Jing / Xing Xue 经穴 He Xue 合穴 4 Hai Xue 四海穴 Xia He Xue 下合穴 Ba Mai Jiao Hui Xue 八脉交会穴 Jiao Hui Xue 交会穴 Point Jîng Dui Xue 对穴(八脉交 会穴) Hui Xue 8 Hui-influential points Points réunion 汇穴 Hui He Xue 汇合穴(经 别) Tian you Tian chuang Xue 天牖/天窗穴 The group Luo points act on three channels at the same time.Luo Xue 络穴 Zu Luo Xue Luo-connecting points Points Luo Group Luo points Points Luo de groupe Wu Shu Xue 五输穴 (Five) Shu points transporting points antique points Jîng-Well point Points Shu antiques Ying-Spring point Point Rong Point Ying Shu-Stream point Point Shu Yuan-source point On the yang channels only Jing-River point Point Yuan Point Source Point Jing He-Sea point Point He Uniting point He-Sea point Points mer Sea points of the blood. for exemple SP 6 with PC 6 Meeting points of the blood. which are always used in pairs. organs. muscles and ligaments. Points corresponding to the five elements on each of the channels Always used in relation with an extraordinary vessel Points common to channels and extraordinary vessels Refers to the 8 Master points of the extraordinary Channels. etc. qi. bones.

at 2hourly intervals. the first and last points on a channel Points at which the tendino-muscular channels converge three by three Guan Xue 关穴 Guan points Barrier points Points d’entrée et de sortie Points de réunion des méridiens tendinomusculaires Points Guan Points barrières Jing Jin convergence points Points Koann Principles and theory Da xunhuan 大循环 Horary cycle zi wu liu zhu 子午流柱 Wu Ye (zi-wu ) 午夜(子午) Fu Qi 夫妻 Biao ben 標本 Gen Bu Xue / Gen Xie Xue 根补穴/根泻穴 Bi Zheng 痹症 Midnight-noon ebb flow Midday-midnight rule Root treatment tonification / dispersion point Bi (syndrome) Traitement des Racines / branches Point racine de tonification / de dispersion Bi Seasonal attack 8 gang 八纲 yin / yang 阴/阳 biao / li 表/里 han / re 寒/热 shi / xu 实/虚 8 Principles 8 Principes Yin / Yang Yin / Yang Interior / exterior Avers / revers Cold / heat Froid / chaleur Deficiency / excess Vide / plénitude Movements of Qi Qi deficiency Mouvements du Qi Vide d’énergie Qi sinking Energie rentrante Qi Xu 气虚 Qi Xian 气陷 6 Grande circulation Circulation of Qi in the 12 channels. Worsley (Five Element School) and Lavier call this “Wei Circulation”. Chu Xue 入/出穴 Hui He Xue 汇合穴(经 筋) 13 ghost points 13 points gui Points indicated by Sun Si-Miao Entry and exit points In general. relation) Midi-minuit Husband and Wife rule Loi époux-épouse Root/branch treatment Also surface/depth or outside/lining . (Loi.Gui Xue 鬼穴 Ru.

also birth or production cycle (a physiological cycle) ( physiological cycle) This is a pathological exacerbation of the Ke cycle – the dominated element is “crushed” 7 . stase sanguine Chaleur du sang Liu Jing Zhuan Six stages Bian 六经传变 Six phases Wu Xing 五行 Mu 木 Huo 火 Tu 土 Jin 金 Shui 水 5 elements 5 éléments Wood Bois Fire Feu Earth Terre Metal Métal Water Eau Tu Huo 土火 Earth fire Feu de la Terre Xiang Huo 相火 Minister fire Deuxième feu Feu ministre Jun Huo 君火 Xiang Sheng 相生 Xiang Ke 相克 Emperor fire Feu empereur Sheng cycle Engendering cycle Ke cycle Control cycle Restraining cycle Overwhelming cycle Cycle Sheng Xiang Cheng Bei Ke 相乘 倍克 Cycle Ke Cycle d'insulte After Shang Han Lun (On Cold Damage) Concerns the Pericardium and the Triple Burner when they dynamize the “transport-transformation” function of the Earth In the Five Elements.Qi Yu 气瘀 Qi Ni 气逆 Xue Xu 血虚 Xue Yu 血瘀 Qi stagnation Xue Re 血热 Blood heat Qi counterflow Blood deficiency Blood stasis Stagnation d’énergie Energie à contrecourant Vide de sang Stagnation de sang. concerns the Pericardium (yin Minister Fire) and the Triple Burner (yang Minister Fire) Concerns the Heart as Emperor Sheng cycle.

Xiang Wu Fan ke 相侮反克 Reverse Ke cycle Rebellion cycle Cycle Ke inversé Liu qi 六气 Heavenly « 6 environmental phenomena » 6 qualités du ciel Liu yin Liu xie 六淫六邪 Wai xie 外邪 Han 寒 Huo 火 Shu 暑 Six climatic pathogens Six facteurs 6 excesses pathogènes The reverse Ke cycle is another pathological cycle When the “environmental phenomena" become excessive or abnormal Exogenous evils Exogenous pathogens Cold Maux extérieurs Energies perverses Froid Fire Feu "Hot" or "radiating" fire Summer heat Chaleur (de l'été) Feng 风 Wind Vent Atmospheric depression.g. inner heat Atmospheric pressure. not to be confused with heat (Re 热). not to be confused with inner wind. A climatic factor. A climatic factor. Zao 燥 Shi 湿 Gen jie 根结 Dryness Sécheresse Dampness Humidité Roots and knots Noeuds et racines Qi Qing 七情 Xi 喜 Nu 怒 You 忧 Si 思 Bei 悲 Kong 恐 Jing 惊 Seven emotions Sept sentiments Joy Joie Anger Colère Worry Souci Pensiveness Réflexion Sadness Tristesse Fear Peur Fright Choc 8 Treatment of the six pathogenic factors Anxiety . e.

Xian tian 先天 Hou tian 后天 Earlier heaven Ciel antérieur Later heaven Ciel postérieur Shui gu tong dao 水谷通道 Pathway of water (or liquids) and cereals Voie de l’eau et des céréales From Nanjing. chapter 25 Bu 补 Xie 泻 Tonify Tonifier Drain / disperse Disperser 1212- Gu qi 谷气 Qing Qi 清气 Yang qi 氧气 Ying qi 营气 Wei Qi 卫气 Qi 气 Xue 血 Ba gua 八卦 Kun 坤 Zhen 震 Dui 兑 Xun 巽 Li 离 Kan 坎 Gen 艮 Qian 干 Gu qi Gu qi Food (alimentary) energy Respiratory energy Energie respiratoire Qing Qi is the term used in medical classics to designate respiratory energy. Blood (Xue) Pump in energy so as to increase it Close a point Drain or eliminate energy Open a point Energies Nourishing or nutritive Qi nourricier energy Defensive energy Énergie Wei Energy (Qi) Energy Energie Energy Blood Sang Blood Trigrams Trigrammes Earth Terre Thunder Tonnerre Also lightning Lake Lac Or Marsh Wind Vent Fire Feu Water Eau Mountain Montagne Heaven Ciel 9 . Modern TCM texts call it Yang Qi (litterally "oxygene"). the energy of the air.

Tian Gan 天干 Di Zhi 地支 Heavenly stems Troncs célestes Earthly branches Branches terrestres Pouls Cun 寸 Guan 关 Chi 尺 Wang Shu He Mai Xiang 王叔和脉象 Chang 长 Chen 沉 Chi 迟 Cu 促 Da 大 Dai 代 Dong 动 Duan 短 Fu 浮 Fu 伏 Ge 革 Hong 鸿 Hua 滑 Huan Mai 缓脉 Ji 急 Jie 节 10 Cun Pouce Pulse position I Guan Barrière Pulse position II Chi Pied Pulse position III Wang Shu-He's pulses Pouls de Wang Shu-He Long Long 28 types of pulse: the 24 classic Wang Shu-He pulses (Mai Jing – pulse classic) +4 Beyond the pulse location Sinking. periodical Moving Remuant Disturbed Short Court Not reaching the pulse location Floating Flottant Superficial Hidden Caché Leather Flooding En peau de tambour Vaste Slippery Glissant Moderate Lax Urgent Paisible Knotty Noué Hâtif Less than 5 pulsations per breath . deep Profond Slow Lent Hurried Précipité Large Grand Interrupted Intermittent Irregular.

comme Water un caillou Pouls révélateurs The carotid pulse is mentioned in Zhen Jiu Da Cheng . stringlike En corde Empty Vide Wu Xing Mai Xiang 五行脉象 Xian 弦 Man 满 Huan 缓 Fu 浮 Chen 沉 San Bu Jiu Hou 三部九侯(沿 经脉循行的搏 动 5 Element pulses Pouls des 5 éléments Wiry Tendu. Chapter 20 "San bu jiu hou lun" Alternative pulses (carotid pulse and pulses along the channels) More than 5 pulsations per breath 11 . petit Wiry. the pulses along the channels in Yi Xue Ru Men . en corde Wood Full Ample Fire Moderate Moyen Earth Floating Flottant Metal Deep.I) Also in Nei Jing. Xiao 细,小 Xian 弦 Xu 虚 Tight Serré Hollow Creux Confined Fixé Soggy Mou Weak Faible Scattered Dispersé Choppy Rugueux Full Plein Rapid Rapide Faint Ténu Thin. thready Fin.VIII.Jin 紧 Kou 芤 Lao mai 牢脉 Ru mai 濡脉 Ruo 弱脉 San mai 散脉 Se 涩 Shi 实 Shu 数 Wei mai 微脉 Xi. like a stone Profond.