A serious accident has occurred.

During investigation it is found that an inspection of the
workplace had taken place before the accident. Outline possible reasons why the inspection failed
to identify a problem.








Management has not acted on time to put suggested control measures in place/lack of management
commitment (no procedure to fix serious issues immediately).
Not all hazards are obvious or visible during inspection
Unsafe practices may not happen during the inspection
Eliminating the hazard may be dealing with the symptoms rather than the cause
Person conducting inspection has limited knowledge of workplace
Person conducting inspection could have limited knowledge of the controls provided/to be provided.
Person conducting inspection could have less experience of the process
Training in inspection techniques was not effective which could have resulted in poor interpretation of hazards.
Communication and writing skills of the person conducted inspection could have not been effective
(interpretation of inspection report was difficult).

Outline what the organization needs to consider when deciding who should carry out risk
assessment






Thorough understanding of processes and procedures involved
Good communication skills
Knowledge of risk assessment process
Cooperative and flexible
Good listener
Keep an open mind
Knowledge of local legislation

Outline why it is important to involve workers in the development of Safe System of Work. (4)






People feel valued and involved in decision making a more.
Creates a more positive HSE climate.
Better control of workplace risks.
Helps in accurately identifying hazards, assess risks and develop ways to control and remove risks.
Since employees have extensive knowledge about work activities they take better decision in developing SSOW.
A stronger commitment to implement decision and actions as employees are actively involved in the process.
It helps in applying joint problem solving techniques.

Outline why it is important to for SSOW to be in writing. (4)






Changes monitored
Basis of reference
Legal requirements
To indicate approval or authorization
Version control and document change management.
Roles and responsibilities clearly defined.
Helps in standardization of processes.

Outline factors that could reduce the effectiveness of Respiratory Protective Equipment (8)








Incorrect selection of RPE
Incorrect usage
Lack of training and knowledge in correct use of RPE
Incorrect storage of RPE
Level of personal comfort – felt too hot
Enforcement of use within the company
Nature of hazard
Type of RPE
Lack of availability and Interfered with work

fire extinguisher etc. Ergonomics o Seat – whether adjustable or not? o Seating posture o Driving posture Journey o Route Identify hazards related to warehouse activities (8)          Fall from height – racking Manual handling – conveyor. packing material Falling objects from racking – load limit signs on racking. Machine cleaning of floors Lone working Electrical – check plugs.  Safety critical information – tyre pressure. defective pallets withdrawn Operation of lift truck Traffic movement – delivery vans Machinery o Stretch-wrap machine o Conveyor belt for unloading from lorry Portable electric appliances o Industrial cleaner o Kettle o Heater Fire . solvents.g. detergents and chemical vapors may cause breathing problems. pallet truck. debris.Identify hazards related to office cleaning activity (8)       Slips trips and falls o Spillages o Wet floors Musculoskeletal disorders and injuries o Heavy loads o Cleaning machines o Full mopping bucket Working at heights Contact with bleach and other cleaning chemicals e. cables etc Outline the factors to be considered when assessing the risks to a long distance transport vehicle driver. engine temperature etc. trip and falls – spillages. lift truck Slip. o Fit for purpose – desert drive o Condition  Maintenance  Safety equipment – first aid kit. sockets. (8)     Driver o o o o Experience Valid driving license for the type of vehicle Skills and expertise Fitness and health  Medical examination  Eye sight  Do not drive while taking a course of medicine that might impair their judgment Vehicle o Suitability for load etc.

Employee rota iv. d. Loss of strength d. Warm and dry clothing (d) c. b. a) Identify two health effects from exposure to HAV (2) b) Identify two health effects from exposure to WBV (2) c) Outline factors that should be considered when carrying out RA for workers exposed to vibration when using the road drill (8) d) Outline control measures to be considered to reduce risk for above (8) (a) Hand arm vibration syndrome a. chronic – permanent spinal damage.      Hazardous substances o Vehicle exhaust fumes – engine stopped. Pain and swollen joints Back pain. Fingers going white (VWF) Carpel Tunnel Syndrome (b) a. c. . Tingling b. Alternative work method – use of breaker attachment on an excavating machine Equipment selection – lowest vibration i. Processes exposure to vibration Which jobs and tools produce a risk? Refer to machine manual to verify whether any warning of vibration risks mentioned Who is likely to be effected Estimate of employees’ exposure Identify what you need to do to comply with legislation a. ventilation o Eye irritation o Respiratory problems Bleach and cleaning Battery charging o Release of hydrogen o Spillage of acid Lighting Hygiene Temperature – hot and cold The use of a road drill (pneumatic breaker) can expose workers to hand-arm vibration and whole body vibration. b. damage of central nervous system. Limit time ii. e. blood pressure. To minimize loads on employees’ hands – use jigs and suspension systems to reduce the need to grip heavy tools tightly ii. Team work v. f. e. d. hearing loss. (c) a. Sharpen chainsaw teeth regularly Work schedules i. Heavy grinder suspended from a counterbalance system to reduce the load on operators arms and tightness on grip Maintenance program i. Shorter period iii. f. increased heart rate. Large hole in brickwork use a diamond tipped hole cutting drill bit with a rotatory action rather than tungsten tipped hole bit which requires rotatory and hammer action Work station design i. Numbness in fingers c. circulatory and digestive problems.

permits to work. site specific hazards. training and qualified welder – Contractors are carrying out a major building project for an organization. hand shield etc. Emergency arrangements and monitoring performance. welder’s gloved. suitable references.commencement checks to ensure contractor can carry out work as agreed. accident data.Identify precautions that would need to be considered before welding work can commence. safe systems of work. site rules etc. Organization to nominate a site contact to provide general communication. Frequency of monitoring depends on the degree of risk.g. apron. The organization could reduce the risks to contractors by.g. pre. so the contractor can incorporate these into risk assessments and safety method statements which are then checked by the organization. 3 Controlling contractors on site      H&S rules communicated to the contractors before attending site and reinforced on site with induction training. Ensuring site controls in place e. (8)         Prevent fire o Remove nearby combustible material o Protect nearby combustible material that cannot be removed e.policy. Each party’s responsibilities for H&S must be clearly defined. selection of subcontractors . . supervision etc 2 Planning the job    information to be provided to the contractor by the organization regarding the nature of the job. means of demonstrating employee competence. The task.g. 4 Checking contractors work   Monitoring at agreed intervals and also carrying out unannounced checks. Outline how this organization could reduce the risks to contractors carrying out the project. Competence. 1 Selecting competent contractors       carrying out checks to ensure they have experience of the type of job and industry. boots. risk assessments. welding goggles/face shield. suitable safety management documentation . o Check all connections and equipment for faults and leaks Flash back arrestor Prevent cylinders from falling or knocked down by securing them and use of trolleys Use of PTW Adequate ventilation to be made available Lighting Adequate PPE e. metal sheets. fire retardant blanket o Keep fire extinguishers nearby.

crowbars. emergency breakdowns and contract works.g. training. Answer The training session on a safe system of work will include: Method of development of safe system of work. Visitors are not competent to work safely on site and endanger themselves by using incorrect and unsafe working practices. insulated tools for electricians non-sparking tools for flammable atmospheres tools made of suitable quality materials which will not chip or splay in normal use correct tools for the job. The activities which need safe system of work e. chisels. Q . equipment. This will include: 1.Outline the control measure to reduce the risk to workers when using non powered tools? Answer: Examples of non powered tools are picks. saws. 2. environment and people involved. 2. 4. Suitability Every tool has its proper application. 5. Sometimes visitors may not be correctly supervised and lead them to work in a dangerous way. Monitoring the system using reactive and proactive monitoring techniques. 4. Visitors do not receive appropriate supervision leading to unsafe conditions especially when there is construction machinery operational at site.Question Give reasons why visitors to a work place might be at a greater risk of injury than workers? Answer Visitors are unaware of the site’s layout. 3. wrenches. 3. Systematic examination of task Analysis of task considering materials. rules and procedures including emergency procedures. using the right-sized spanner and the use of mallets on chisel heads safety knives with enclosed blades for regular cutting operations scissors with blunted ends Inspection 1. supervision and legislation requirements. 6. The method of implementation of the safe system including PPE. maintenance. . type and weight of tool should be selected for the job. At times visitors do not have the necessary safety personal protective equipment and can put them at risk of personal injury. Visitors are not even aware of the hazardous activities going on at site and they are not aware of risk assessments. for example. Proper training to be provided in safe use of these tools This will be particularly important with specialist working conditions or work involving young people. hammers. All tools should be suitable for the purpose and location in which they are used. axes. Question Identify the information given to the workers in a training session on a safe system of work. shovels. cleaning. 5. screwdrivers etc. 6. 2. regular inspection of hand tools to be carried out discarding or prompt repair of defective tools proper storage to prevent damage and corrosion locking tools away when not in use to prevent them being used by unauthorized people Grease moisture and dirt should be regularly cleaned off cutting edges should be kept sharp to permit accurate working and to avoid unnecessary pressure Training 1. As a result they are more likely to behave in a dangerous way that puts them at risk of an accident. The correct size.

industrial radiography Exposure to biological agents Manual handling .g.) Positioning of fire extinguishers and their suitability.g. Availability of MSDS. Exposure to ionizing radiation e.) and fire protection system (fire extinguishers. supervision. Form of hazardous substances e. liquid. Risk of an equipment becoming faulty and how the equipment is constructed. Availability of alarm and their audibility Emergency contact details Frequency for conducting mock drills. low. young workers) Safe storage of combustible/flammable material Emergency evacuation procedures. COSHH Training. firefighting. etc. Type of electrical system being used e. pregnant women.g. legal requirements) Frequency for conducting “Health Surveillance”. instruction Development of procedure for safe handling and usages of hazardous substances Provision of protective measures e. Duration of exposure. Training requirements (first aid. fire protection and detection system and their maintenance.g.g.(8)       Exposure to hazardous substances such as lead. etc. Work place monitoring Procedure for reporting of ill health Properties of substances in regards to health effect. Exposure to vibration. Testing and maintenance of fire detection (detectors.(8)               Fire load available at workplace Material available at workplace (e. etc. Storage requirements for the substances (as per MSDS. etc.g. toxic. gas. Exposure to noise. etc. toxicity and concentration of the hazardous substance. Identify hazards to which a worker might be exposed that would result in that person requiring health surveillance. local exhaust ventilation. combustible. e. National and international regulations for fire prevention No. of employee. wet. Working environment e.g.Outline the factors to be considered when determining the frequency for the inspection and testing of electrical equipment. first aid arrangements Possible ignition sources. flammable.(8)             Check the possibility of purchasing less hazardous substances in place of more hazardous substance. harmful. etc. presence of heat. gender and employees with special needs (disabled. Requirement set by national or international regulations The competency of the employees using electrical equipment.(8)       Manufacturers recommendations set for testing and inspection of electrical equipments. asbestos. Safe system of works Outline factors to be considered when undertaking an assessment of health risks from hazardous substances to be used in the workplace. information. solid. medium or high voltage Outline factors to be considered when carrying out fire risk assessment of a workplace. children. irritant.) and their quantity.

It helps giving early warning that the protective measures are adequate or not. Size and nature of organization Both short.     Display screen equipment Welding Working in cement industry Painting and sand blasting Working in dusty environment e. By liaising with organizations in regards to emergency planning. Outline role of health surveillance in the control of exposure to hazardous substances. It helps to identify work-related ill health at an early stage so that steps can be taken to treat the condition and prevent further damage. o o o o o o o o o o Issuing or approving regulations. Objectives at different levels or within different parts of an organization should be aligned so they support the overall policy objectives. By reviewing legislative enactments. to enforce organizations to report injuries to enforcing authorities Outline what an organization may need to consider when setting health and safety objectives. By providing specific measures to prevent major catastrophe. sand blasting etc. By conducting inspections of workplace to evaluate compliance to HSE requlations. code of practices on health and safety.(8)      Health surveillance results could indicate the effectiveness of the control system provided to control exposure to hazardous substances. Identify principles to be followed when siting (positioning) fire extinguishers. By initiating health and safety campaign to spread awareness. .g. Outline how national government can contribute towards good standards of health and safety within their territories. By Liaising with international bodies to keep themselves updated. measurable. Compliance status in regards to local/international laws/regulations gets verified.(8)         Health and safety objectives need to be specific. realistic and set against a suitable timescale (SMART). road works.(8) National government can contribute towards good standards of health and safety within their territories by. Competency of employees.and long-term objectives should be set and prioritized against business needs. Protect workers who are at an increased risk. The height at which fire extinguisher to be positioned. By providing information and advice regarding Health and Safety matters.(8)         Accessibility Visibility Proximity to escape routes Travel distance Means of supporting the extinguishers off the ground Weight of fire extinguisher Need to protect fire extinguishers from the weather and other sources of damage. agreed with those who deliver them. Personal targets can also be agreed with individuals to secure the attainment of objectives. Setting requirements such as RIDDOR 1995. Training people so that an improved health and safety planning process can be established Adequacy of workplace precautions and compliance with the law will also be necessary.

Outline control measures that could reduce the risk from the wood dust. Long sleeve coveralls. o Rotate dusty tasks to reduce workers’ exposure times to wood dust o Shower before eating or drinking o PPE – face mask and respirators are a last line of defense. Radon is emitted by radium in the ground. caves. mines High concentration in ground floor buildings because they are usually at slightly lower pressure than surrounding atmosphere this allows radon from the sub-soil underneath buildings to enter through cracks and gaps in floor. Sawing Hand sanding Wood cutting Dry sweeping dusty floors Spindle moulding machine Machine sanding Identify health risks that could be associated with the wood dust (4) Contact dermatitis/skin disorders Cause nasal dryness. (12) Elimination – outsourcing to another workplace with adequate controls Substitution – replacing more hazardous timbers with less hazardous species of wood. Isolation – enclosed plant or keep workers away from dusty area. and cracks in the floor itself.dust extraction using Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) Administrative Controls o Use suction cleaners to remove accumulated dust. Engineering control . Installing a radon sump system in the basement Installing a positive supply ventilation system Sealing small gaps around service penetrations such as pipes and cables. . A factory producing furniture uses wood in the manufacturing process and is concerned about the health risks of wood dust. ground water and building material Radon enters a building through the lowest level in the home that is in contact with open ground. irritation and obstructions of respiratory system Asthma A rare type of nasal cancer. Identify control measures that could be used in a workplace affected by significant levels of radon gas (4)     Improving ventilation of the house and avoiding the transport of radon from the basement into living rooms.Identify sources of radon that could affect workers in a building (4)     Underground spaces such as basements. (a)       (b)     (c)      Identify operations that are likely to produce high levels of wood dust in this workplace.

Use of crawling board for material and manpower movement on sloping roofs Where task is of short duration (tasks measured in minutes) properly secured ladders to access the roof and proper roof ladders may be used. Use of PPE such as harnesses and helmets to be used Health condition of individual working at height to be checked e. dry and in good condition Stack and store items properly and safely Keep entrances and exits clear Follow maintenance requirements for facilities and buildings Keep lighting sources clean and clear Construction of floorings to be using non slip tiles Outline precautions to be taken when repair work is to be carried out on the sloping roof of a building (8)            Sloping roof requires scaffold to prevent people or material falling from edge. wire or steel strapping Taps or pipes leaking Outline housekeeping measures to reduce the risk of injury to pedestrians (4)       Keep isles.g. Work on sloping roofs to be stopped during extreme weather conditions e. freezing conditions.g. floors clean. Use of working platforms. rain. Safety nets or soft landing systems such as bean bags or inflated air bags can minimize the consequences of any potential injury. high winds etc. Mobile elevating platforms can also be used for carrying out minor repairs at sloping roofs. guard rails and toe boards to be made mandatory as required. vertigo or a heart condition. (4)         Water on the floor Slippery tiles Poor lighting Ice buildup on the floors Slipping on greasy. Material to be secured near roofs to avoid flying off during high winds Overhead live power lines to be taken care . Edge protection must be fixed to the eaves of any roof.Outline ways in which poor housekeeping can lead to injury to pedestrians in a workplace. oily or dirty surfaces Striking against projecting poorly stacked material Projecting nails.

loose clothing etc. Enclose drum and disc sanders with guards to avoid flying objects. Keep fingers away from moving belts Loose jewelry.g. breaks in cable or other signs of physical damage are not existing Wear dust masks particularly such as lead paint.g.A portable electric sander is being used in the production area of a factory (a)         (b)           Identify hazards that may be present (4) Electrical shock Noise Dust Vibration Ergonomic hazards e. pulling effect Moving parts e. always make sure that the belt sander is unplugged first. should not be used. (4) Use sander in a dry environment Use of earth leakage detection and RCD Check the sander and all electric cables and connections are in good condition Pre-use checks to see whether any worn out belt. . belts in a belt sander In-running nip points Wood splinters and chips may be thrown from the sanding action Outline precautions that could be taken to reduce the risk. fibre cement If belt needs changing. neckties. Use of guards on the running belt.