# Chempocalypse Now!

Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry

Page 1

Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry
Topic 01 from the IB HL Chemistry Curriculum

1.1

The Mole and Avogadro’s constant (2 Hours)

1.1.1

Assessment Statement
Apply the mole concept to substances

1.1.2

Determine the number of particles and the
amount of substance (in moles).

Obj
2

3

Teacher’s Notes
The mole concept applies to all kinds of particles: atoms, molecules,
ions, electrons, formula units, and so on. The amount of substance is
measured in moles (mol). The approximate value of Avogadro’s
23
−1
constant (L), 6.02 × 10 mol , should be known.
Convert between the amount of substance (in moles) and the number of
atoms, molecules, ions, electrons and formula units.

Measurement and units
Scientists search for order in their observations of the world. Measurement is a vital tool in this search. It makes our
observations more objective and helps us find relationships between different properties. The standardization of
measurement of mass and length began thousands of years ago when kings and emperors used units of length based on
the length of their arms or feet. Because modern science is an international endeavor, a more reliable system of
standards, the Systeme International is needed.
A lot of experimental chemistry relies on the accurate measurement and recording of the physical quantities of mass,
time, temperature, volume and pressure. The SI units for these are given below.
Property

Unit

Symbol for Unit

mass
time
temperature
volume
pressure

kilogram
second
kelvin
cubic meter
pascal

kg
s
K
m3
Pa or N∙m−2

These units are, however, not always convenient for the quantities typically used in the laboratory. Volumes of liquids
and gases, for example, are measured in cubic centimeters.

Chempocalypse Now!

Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry

Page 2

Other units used in chemistry are shown in the table below.
Property

Unit

Symbol for Unit

mass
time
temperature
volume
pressure

gram
minute
degree celsius
cubic centimeter
atmosphere

g
min
°C
cm3
atm

Amounts of substance
Chemists need to measure quantities of substances for many purposes. Pharmaceutical companies need to check that a
tablet contains the correct amount of the drug. Food manufacturers check levels of purity. In the laboratory, reactants
need to be mixed in the correct ratios to prepare the desired product. We measure mass and volume routinely in the
laboratory but they are not direct measures of amount. Equal quantities of apples and oranges do not have equal
masses or equal volumes, but equal numbers. The chemist adopts the same approach. As all matter is made up from
small particles, we measure amount by counting particles. If the substance is an element we usually count atoms, if it is
a compound we count molecules or ions.
A standard unit of amount can be defined in terms of a sample amount of any substance. Shoes and socks are counted
in pairs, eggs in dozens and atoms in moles. A mole is the amount of a substance which contains the same number of
chemical species as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of the isotope carbon-12. The mole is a SI unit with the symbol
mol. The word derives from the Latin for heap or pile.
Naturally occurring carbon is, however, made up from a mixture of different types (called isotopes) of carbon atom. The
presence of these isotopes increases the mass of one mole from 12.00 g (for a pure sample of carbon-12) to 12.01 g.
More generally, the mass of one mole of atoms of an element is simply the relative atomic mass (Ar) expressed in grams.
One mole of hydrogen atoms has a mass of 1.01 g, one mole of helium 4.00 g and so on.
Some elements exist as molecules, and not as individual atoms. The composition of a molecule is given by its molecular
formula. Hydrogen gas, for example, is made from diatomic molecules and so has the molecular formula H2. Water
molecules are made from two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom and have the molecular formula H2O. The relative
molecular mass (Mr) is calculated by adding the relative atomic masses of the atoms making up the molecule.
Worked example
Calculate the relative molecular mass of ethanol, C2H5OH.

Chempocalypse Now!

Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry

Page 3

Solution:
The compound is made from three elements, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Find the number of atoms of each element and their relative atomic masses from the Periodic Table, as shown in the
following table.

Relative atomic mass

C

H

O

12.01

1.01

16.00

2

5+1=6

1

Number of atoms in one
molecule of the compound
Calculate the relative molecular mass of the molecule.

Relative molecular mass = (2 × 12.01) + (6 × 1.01) + 16.00 = 46.08
The molar mass of ethanol is 46.08 g mol−1. The molar mass of a compound is calculated in the same way as that of the
elements. It is the relative molecular mass in grams.
It is incorrect to use the term relative molecular mass for ionic compounds such as sodium chloride, as they are made
from ions (e.g. Na1+ and Cl1−) not molecules. The term relative formula mass is used. It is calculated in the same way.
Once the molar mass is calculated and the mass is measured, the number of moles can be determined.
Worked example
Calculate the number of moles in 4.00 g of sodium hydroxide, NaOH.
Solution:
The relative atomic masses are Na: 22.99, O: 16.00 and H: 1.01.
The relative formula mass = 22.99 + 16.00 + 1.01 = 40.00
M = 40.00 g mol−1
n = m ÷ M = 4.00 ÷ 40.0 = 0.100 mol
It is important to be precise when calculating amounts. One mole of hydrogen atoms has a molar mass of 1.01 g mol−1
but one mole of hydrogen molecules, H2 has a molar mass of 2 × 1.01 = 2.02gmol−1.

Counting particles
The number of atoms, ions or molecules in a sample can be determined from mass measurements.

Chempocalypse Now!

Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry

Page 4

As the mass of an individual atom can be measured using a mass spectrometer, the mole is a counting unit. Whereas
socks are counted in pairs, sheets of paper in reams (1 ream = 500 sheets), atoms are counted in moles.
From mass spectrometer measurements: mass of 1 atom of 12C = 1.99265 × 10−23 g
Mass of 1 mole of 12C = 12 g
Number of atoms in one mole = 12 ÷ 1.99265 × 10−23 = 602214000000000000000000.
This is a big number. It is called Avogadro's number and is more compactly written in scientific notation as 6.02 × 1023.
It is the number of atoms in one mole of an element and the number of molecules in one mole of a covalent compound.
Although we could never count to Avogadro’s Number, even with the most powerful computer, we can prepare samples
with this number of atoms. The atoms are counted in the same way as coins are counted in a bank; we use a balance:
3.01 × 1023 atoms of C = ½ mol = 0.5 × 12.01 g = 6.005 g.
3.01 X 1023 carbon atoms are 'counted out' when we prepare a sample of 6.005 g.
Worked example
Calculate the amount of water, H2O, that contains 1.80 × 1024 molecules.
Solution:
n = number of particles ÷ 6.02 × 1023
n = (1.80 × 1024) ÷ (6.02 × 1023) = 2.99 mol
Note the answer should be given to 3 significant figures - the same precision as the data given in the question. If the
amount given was 1.8 × 1024, the correct answer would be 3.0.
Worked example
Calculate how many hydrogen atoms are present in 3.0 moles of ethanol, C2H5OH.
Solution:
In 1 molecule of ethanol there are 6 H atoms.
In 1 mole of ethanol molecules there are 6 moles of H atoms.
In 3 moles of ethanol there are 3 × 6 = 18 moles of H atoms.
Number of H atoms = 18 × 6.02 × 1023 = 1.08 × 1025

Chempocalypse Now!

Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry

Page 5

Zumdahl, 5th Edition contains information relevant to this topic in Chapter 01. You should take some time to review the
approach outlined in that textbook.
IB Examiner Hints:

Pay attention to decimal places. When adding or subtracting, the number of decimal figures in the result should be
the same as the least precise value given in the data.
Pay attention to significant figures. When multiplying or dividing, the number of significant figures in the result
should be the same as the least precise value in the data.
Use the accepted shorthand to solve problems more quickly in exams, for example n for moles, m for mass and M
for molar mass. In some resources, Avogadro’s constant is shortened to L. You might find this helpful.
Although Avogadro's constant is given in the IB Data booklet, you need to memorize its value for Paper 1.

Exercises:
Show all work in the space provided. For multiple choice answers, briefly explain your reasoning.
Calculate how many hydrogen atoms are present in 0.040 moles of C2H6.

Calculate the molar mass of magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO3)2.

Calculate how many hydrogen atoms are contained in 2.3 g of C2H5OH (Mr = 46).

The relative molecular mass of a compound is 98.0. Calculate the number of molecules in a 4.90 g sample.

2 × 1023 D. 6.10 mole of propyne. 0. 0.3 mol H2SO4 B.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry 97N109 Which one of the following ionic compounds contains the greatest number of ions per mole of compound? A. C3H4? A. 0.0 × 1022 C.0 × 1023 02M102 Which sample contains the smallest amount of oxygen? A.8 mol H2O Page 6 .6 mol O3 C. 6. 4. Al2(SO4)3 B.7 mol HCOOH D.2 × 1022 B. 0. Ca(HCO3)2 C. Li3PO4 98M101 How many atoms are present in 0. 4. (NH4)2Cr2O7 D.

2 1.000 crucible with magnesium before heating crucible with solid after heating 25. 2 1.31 = 0. 3 1.2.1 Assessment Statement Define the terms relative atomic mass (Ar) and relative molecular mass (Mr). its mass increases as it is combining with oxygen.002) 25.050 – 25. and molar mass.2.0021 0.050 ÷ 24. Obj 1 1.2.000 = 0. Item Mass / g (±0. Element magnesium oxygen Mass / g (±0.050 = 0.2 Calculate the mass of one mole of a species from its formula. The precision of the calculated value is limited by the precision of the mass measurements to 2 significant figures.2. Moles 0.5 Determine the empirical formula from the other percentage composition or from other experimental data.6 Determine the molecular formula when given both the empirical formula and experimental data.034 The ratio of magnesium: oxygen atoms = 0.00 = 0. 3 Page 7 Teacher’s Notes -1 The term molar mass (in g mol ) will be used.2.0021 .084 – 25.034 ÷ 16.0021 : 0. 3 1. mass.050 25.001) empty crucible 25.0021 = 1 : 1.2 Formulas (3 Hours) 1.084 The masses of the magnesium and oxygen are then calculated as shown below.4 Distinguish between the terms empirical formula and molecular formula. This is the simplest ratio known and is called as the empirical formula.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry 1.3 Solve problems involving the relationship between the amount of substance in moles. Aim 7: Virtual experiments can be used to demonstrate this.050 25. Finding chemical formulas in the laboratory When magnesium is burned in air.2. The mass change can be investigated experimentally.

Pb O Mass / g 2.7% by mass of carbon.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 8 Worked example A 2.14 = 1 = 14. Set out the calculation in a table.7) by mass of hydrogen.3 ÷ 1.7 ÷ 12.3% (100 − 85.364 Moles = 2.765 g sample of a lead oxide was heated in a stream of hydrogen gas and completely converted to elemental lead with a mass of 2.01159 ÷ 0. C H Mass / g 85. Solution: As a hydrocarbon contains only carbon and hydrogen.14 = 2 Empirical formula = CH2 .7 100 − 85.00 = 0.01159 = 2 Empirical formula = PbO2 Worked example A hydrocarbon contains 85.01 = 14.01 = 7. Deduce the empirical formula. What is the empirical formula of the oxide? Solution: The mass loss is caused by a loss of oxygen.401 g.401 ÷ 207.16 ÷ 7.765 − 2.364 ÷ 16.19 = 0.0228 Simplest ratio = 0.0228 ÷ 0.401 = 0.401 2.01159 = 1 = 0.14 = 14.14 ÷ 7.16 Simplest ratio = 7. the compound contains 14.01159 = 0. as shown below.7 = 14.3 Moles = 85.

the molecular formula = C6H12O6 Express this as the simplest ratio: CH2O. Substance Formula Substance Formula Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen water H2(g) O2(g) N2(g) H2O(l) Carbon Dioxide Ammonia Methane Glucose CO2(g) NH3(g) CH4(g) C6H12O6(g) Worked example What is the empirical formula of glucose? Solution: From the table above. Some molecular formulas are shown below. . Molecular formula The empirical formula does not give the actual number of atoms in the molecule. O: 41. Deduce the empirical formula. S: 20. Deduce the empirical formula.7%.4%. can only be determined once the relative molecular mass is known. which is a multiple of the empirical formula. The hydrocarbon in the previous worked example had an empirical formula of CH2 but no stable molecule with this formula exists.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 9 Exercises: An oxide of sulfur contains 60% by mass of oxygen. The molecular formula.9%. This can either be measured by a mass spectrometer or calculated from the ideal gas equation. Pure nickel was discovered in 1751. It was named from the German word “kupfernlckel” meaning “devil's copper”. A compound of nickel was analyzed and shown to have the following composition by mass: Ni: 37.

5th Edition contains information relevant to this topic in Chapter 03. Solution: Molar mass = (2 × 14. All steps in the calculation must be shown.03 = 3 Molecular formula: C3H6 Sometimes chemists need to know the percentage of an element in a compound. (NH4)2SO4.20% Zumdahl.06 + (4 × 16.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 10 Worked example The compound with the empirical formula of CH2 is analyzed by a mass spectrometer and its relative molecular mass found to be 42.00) g mol−1 Mass of N in one mole = 2 × 14.01 % of N (in one mole) = (2 × 14.03n n = 42.09.06 + (4 × 16.01) + 32. “Keep going” as errors are carried forward so that a correct method in a later part of the question is rewarded even if you have made earlier mistakes. .01) + (8 × 1.01) ÷ ((2 × 14. This is discussed in Chapter 02.01n) + (2n × 1.01) = 14. Solution: Empirical formula = CH2 Molecular formula = CnH2n (where n is an integer) Mr = 42.01) + 32. One common problem is the use of too few significant figures in intermediate answers. IB Examiner Hints:   The uncertainties in all the measurements should be included in all data tables. You should take some time to review the approach outlined in that textbook.09 = (12. Calculate the percentage by mass of the element in ammonium sulfate. Practice empirical formula calculations.09 ÷ 14.00)) = 21. They can calculate this from the molecular formula.01) + (8 × 1. Worked example Nitrogen is an important constituent in fertilizers. Deduce its molecular formula.

Empirical (simplest) formula A.1 % The value of its Mr is 135. . hydrogen. chlorine and fluorine which catalyze the depletion of the ozone layer. Calculate the percentage by mass of nitrogen in ammonium nitrate. Determine the molecular formula of the CFC.6 % 28.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 11 Exercises: Which formula can be determined by only using the percent mass composition data of an unknown compound? I. Carbon Hydrogen Chlorine Fluorine 17. The composition of one CFC is shown below. I only II only Both I and II Neither I nor II CFCs are compounds of carbon. Molecular formula II.8 % 1.5 % 52. B. D. C.

Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry 97M106 1. C. CaC2. D. Which formulas are possible for this compound? I. D. B. CH2 CH2O CH3O C2H4O Page 12 . B. C. C. I and II only I and III only II and III only I. can take place as follows: CaC2 + 2 H2O → Ca(OH)2 + C2H2 C2H2 + H2 → C2H4 nC2H4 → −(−CH2−CH2−)n− What mass of polyethene is obtained from 64 kg of CaC2? A.0 g samples of each of the following compounds were dehydrated. II. B. 7 kg 14 kg 21 kg 28 kg 00N102 A certain compound has a relative molar mass of 88. Which sample would lose the greatest mass percentage due to the removal of water? A. MgCl2∙6H2O Mg(NO3)2∙6H2O NiSO4∙6H2O Fe(NO3)3∙6H2O Molar mass = 203 g/mol Molar mass = 256 g/mol Molar mass = 263 g/mol Molar mass = 305 g/mol 05N102 The relative molecular mass (Mr) of a compound is 60. CH3 CH2CH2NH2 II. CH3 CH2CH2OH III. D. CH3 CH(OH)CH3 A. A possible empirical formula for this compound is A. C. B. D. and III 02N102 Formation of polyethene from calcium carbide.

64 grams of a compound are produced when 1. A.36 g of H2O. CH2 CH4 C3H4 C3H8 02M101 A compound that contains only carbon. B. and oxygen has the following percentage by mass: carbon 60%. AB A2B AB2 A3B2 97M107 Complete combustion of a sample of a hydrocarbon produces 0. D. B.66 g of CO2 and 0. hydrogen 8%. C. D. the gaseous products consist of 40 cm3 of CO2 and 40 cm3 of H2O measured under the same conditions of pressure and temperature. D. C. oxygen 32% What is a possible molecular formula? A. What is the empirical formula of this hydrocarbon? A. B.08 g of A reacts completely with excess B. What is the simplest formula of the compound? (Ar of A = 27. B = 14).Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 13 97N123 When 10 cm3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon is reacted with excess oxygen. C. D. What is the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon? A. B. CH4 C2H4 C4H4 C4H8 97N106 1. C5H8O2 C5H4O C6HO3 C7HO4 . C. hydrogen.

As the physical states of the reactants and products can affect the energy change and rate of reaction. The only change is in how these atoms are bonded to each other. C. Obj 3 1. What is a possible molecular formula of this compound? A. One mole of water is formed from half a mole of oxygen and one mole of hydrogen. There are four atoms of H and two atoms of O on both sides. it is good practice to include state symbols in chemical equations as shown above.2 Identify the mole ratio of any two species in a chemical equation.0 g of CO2 were produced.3 Apply the state symbols (s).3. A chemical equation provides a balance sheet which allows us to monitor these changes as reactants are transformed into products. (g) and (aq). CH C2H2 C3H6 C6H6 1.3.3a Chemical equations (1 Hour) Assessment Statement Deduce chemical equations when all reactants and products are given. D. B.0 g sample of an unknown compound containing only carbon and hydrogen was burned in excess oxygen and 88. (l). The number of atoms of each element must be the same on both sides of the equation. the formation of liquid water involves two molecules of hydrogen gas combining with one molecule of oxygen gas to produce two molecules of liquid water. 2 1. This information can be expressed in a more concise form: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) The reactants H2 and O2 are on the left-hand side and the product H2O is on the right-hand side.1 Teacher’s Notes Students should be aware of the difference between coefficients and subscripts. 2 1. For example. . The coefficients in front of each of the molecules give the molar ratios of the reactants and products. equations can also be interpreted in terms of moles: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) 2 mol 1 mol 2 mol Two moles of water can be formed from one mole of oxygen and two moles of hydrogen. Since the mole is a counting unit. they are simply rearranged. Chemical equations: the language of chemistry Atoms cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical reaction.3.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 14 98M102 A 26.

which gives 3½ mol of O2 molecules. Consider the unbalanced equation for the reaction between methane and oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water: ___CH4(g) + ___O2(g) → ___CO2(g) + ___H2O(l) It is a good idea to start with the elements that are present in the least number of substances: in this case C and H. _1_C2H6(g) + _3½_O2(g) → _2_CO2(g) + _3_H2O(l) Sometimes it is more convenient to deal with whole numbers so we multiply the equation by 2. _1_C2H6(g) + ___O2(g) → _2_CO2(g) + ___H2O(l) Balance the H: 6 mol of atoms needed on the product side which gives 3 H2O molecules. Balance the C: _1_CH4(g) + ___O2(g) → _1_CO2(g) + ___H2O(l) 1 mole of C atoms on both sides Balance the H: _1_CH4(g) + ___O2(g) → _1_CO2(g) + _2_H2O(l) 4 moles of H atoms on both sides Balance the element which occurs in the most substances last: in this case. _1_CH4(g) + _2_O2(g) → _1_CO2(g) + _2_H2O(l) 4 moles of O atoms on both sides Worked example Balance the equation for the combustion of ethane shown below: ___C2H6(g) + ___O2(g) → ___CO2(g) + ___H2O(l) Solution: Balance the C: 2 mol of atoms are needed on the product side. O. Changing the product side would change the C or H which are already balanced. _1_C2H6(g) + ___O2(g) → _2_CO2(g) + _3_H2O(l) Balance the O: (4 + 3) mol on the product side. _2_C2H6(g) + _7_O2(g) → _4_CO2(g) + _6_H2O(l) . 7 mol of O atoms needed on the reactant side.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 15 Balancing equations Trying to balance chemical equations can be very frustrating so it is important to follow a systematic method. so we change the reactant side.

IB Examiner Hints:    Practice writing and balancing a wide range of equations. but if an element appears more than once on each side of the equation. Balance each element in turn. 5 C. 5th Edition contains information relevant to this topic in Chapter 03. Check that everything balances as it is very easy to make careless mistakes. Nitrogen dioxide is a secondary pollutant which can react further with oxygen and water in the atmosphere to produce nitric acid. 7 04M103 . Nitrogen monoxide is a primary pollutant. Treat ions such as NO31− and SO42− as complete units when the nitrogen only appears as a nitrate. What is the sum of the coefficients for the reactants in the balanced equation? ___As4 + ___O2 → ___As4O10 A. Give a balanced equation for this reaction. After it escapes into the atmosphere. HNO3(aq). Give a balanced equation for the formation of nitric acid from nitrogen dioxide. Make sure that you do not change any formulas. it reacts with oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide. reacts with oxygen to produce the oxide As4O10. leave it until last. You should take some time to review the approach outlined in that textbook.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 16 Zumdahl. Give a balanced equation for this reaction. one of the ingredients of acid rain. Balance the following equation: ___KClO(s) → ___KCl(s) + ___KClO3(s) Balance the following equation: ___Fe2O3(s) + ___H2SO4(aq) → ___Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + ___H2O(l) 99N102 Arsenic. Exercises: Nitrogen and oxygen react in the cylinders of car engines to form nitrogen monoxide (NO). 4 B. and the S as a sulfate. As4. 6 D.

C. C2H2. 2 3 5 7 03N103 Lithium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide as follows. D. The unbalanced equation for this reaction is given below. 2 LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O What mass (in grams) of lithium hydroxide is needed to react with 11 g of carbon dioxide? A. B. D. C. B. C. 6 12 24 48 97N108 Ethyne. B. 1:3 2:5 1:2 2:3 Page 17 . can be reacted with oxygen to produce very high temperatures for cutting metal. ___C2H2 + ___O2 → ___CO2 + ___H2O What should the C2H2 : O2 ratio be in order to have the proper stoichiometry (and the hottest flame)? A.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry What is the coefficient for O2(g) when the equation below is balanced? ___C3H8(g) + ___O2(g) → ___CO2(g) + ___H2O(g) A. D.

 Double Replacement. or Metathesis o AB + CD  AD + BC o In many reactions between two compounds in aqueous solutions.  Combustion reactions o Chemical + O2  chemical oxides o CxHy + O2  CO2 + H2O o S8 + O2  SO3 o Combustion reactions are exothermic reactions that release heat. Double Displacement. An element can only replace another element that is less active than itself.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 18 1. o Removal of ions can occur in one of three ways:  Formation of a precipitate – a solid has formed that is insoluble in water. The driving force in a double replacement reaction is the removal of at least one pair of ions from solution. the cations and anions appear to switch partners. there are 5 basic types of chemical reactions. NH3) involve the initial formation of a substance that breaks down to give the gas and water. The two compounds form two new compounds. SO3.  Synthesis or composition o A + B  AB o Two or more reactants are combined to form one compound  Decomposition o AB  A + B o One reactions is broken into two or more products o Decomposition reactions are endothermic – the reaction absorbs heat. .  Formation of a gas – gases may form directly from the reaction or a side decomposition reaction occurs causing the gas to form.3b Patterns in Chemical Equations (2 Hours) Classifying Reactions As you learned during your sophomore chemistry course. The products include the displaced element and a new compound. Reactions that produce three of the gases (CO2. No changes in oxidation numbers.  Single Replacement or Single Displacement o Element + Compound  Element + Compound o A + BC  AC + B o Single replacement reactions are reactions that involve an element replacing one part of a compound.  H2SO3    water + SO2  H2CO3    water + CO2  NH4OH    water + NH3  Formation of water – water is formed from an acid/base reaction. o All double replacement rations must have a “driving force” or a reason why the reaction occurs.

Use the prompts to figure out the products. I2. be sure to adjust the count for each and every element that an added coefficient affects. 1. the odd will need to be evened out—so use a coefficient of 2 for that substance. Classify the reaction according to the outline on the following three pages. Begin balancing elements that are only found in one substance on each side.  Keep polyatomic ions grouped together in double replacement reactions. so you must write an integer coefficient in front of (to the left of) each material in the reaction to make sure every type of atom has the same number on each side of the reaction. 4. If there is an odd number of an element on one side and an even number on the other. Write out the reactants.  Synthesis Reactions o Element + Element  Zn + Cl2  ZnCl2 o Compound + Compound  Formation of an Acid  Gas + Water  Acid  CO2 + H2O  H2CO3  Formation of a Base  Metal Oxide + Water  Metal Hydroxide  CaO + H2O  Ca(OH)2 . 3.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 19 The Law of Conservation of Mass states that in a chemical reaction there is no loss of mass. N2. Each type of element will have the same mass before the reaction and after the reaction. Remember your diatomic elements (H2. Remember ionic compounds need to have their charges balanced. Mentally count or tally how many of each type of atom is present on each side of the equation. or as reactant and product. Br2. But you can’t change the materials that participate in the reaction. O2. Balance the reaction.  When tallying. Balance oxygen and hydrogen last. When prediction reactions you will need to follow steps in order to get the correct final balanced reaction. F2) 2. Tips for Balancing Equations      Be sure each molecular formula is written correctly and each compound is neutral (meaning no charge). Cl2. Remember ionic compounds need to have their charges balanced.  Combustion reactions that don’t seem to balance will often turn out better if a coefficient of 2 is used for the hydrocarbon.

 Reactants: Na + H2O  Equations: 2 Na + 2 H2O  H2 + NaOH o Active metals replace hydrogen in acids  Lithium is added to hydrochloric acid  Reactants: Li + HCl  Equation: Li + HCl  H2 + LiCl o Active nonmetals replace less active nonmetals from their compounds in aqueous solutions.  Cl2 + KI  KCl + I2 Page 20 .  Sodium is added to water.  Chlorine gas is bubbled into a solution of potassium iodide.  Reactants: Mg + FeCl3  Mg is higher on the activity Series than Fe so it replaces the iron  Equation: 3Mg + 2FeCl3  2Fe + 3MgCl2 o Active metals replace hydrogen in water.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry  Decomposition Reactions o Binary Compound—a compound with two elements  Compound  Element + Element  2AlCl3  2Al + 3Cl2 o Metal Carbonate  Metal Carbonate  Metal Oxide + Carbon Dioxide  Na2CO3  Na2O + CO2 o Metal Oxide  Metal Oxide  Metal + Oxygen Gas  2FeO  2Fe + O2 o Metal Peroxide  Metal Peroxide  Metal Oxide + Oxygen Gas  2PbO2  2PbO + O2 o Metal Hydroxide  Metal Hydroxide  Metal Oxide + Water  2LiOH  Li2O + H2O o Acid  Acid  Water + Gas Left Over  H2SO4  H2O + SO3 o Metal Chlorate  Metal Chlorate  Metal Chloride + Oxygen Gas  2KClO3  2KCl + 3O2  Single Replacement Reactions o Active metals replace less active metals from their compounds in aqueous solutions.  Magnesium turnings are added to a solution of iron (III) chloride.

Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 21  Double Replacement Reactions o AB + CD  AD + BC o Metals will interchange and new products will be formed. 6. Rewrite what is left in the reaction—net ionic equation. 5. l. H2SO4. weak acids. HNO3. 4.  Combustion Reactions o Chemical + O2  chemical oxides o C3H8 + 5O2  3CO2 + 4H2O o S8 + O2  SO3 o 2C8H18 + 25O2  16CO2 + 18H2O  Net Ionic Equations In overall ionic equations. and strong bases are written as separate ions. Insoluble salts. 5. H2SO4 (aq) + NaOH (aq)  H2O (l) + Na2SO4 (aq) H2SO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq)  2H2O (l) + Na2SO4 (aq) 2H+1(aq) + SO4-2 (aq) + 2Na+1(aq) + 2OH-1(aq)  2H2O (l) + 2Na+1(aq) + SO4-2 (aq) Na+1 and SO4-2 are spectator ions and are canceled 2H+1(aq) + 2OH-1(aq)  2H2O (l) Reduce: H+1(aq) + OH-1(aq)  H2O (l) . strong acids. water and organic compounds are always written as compounds. o AgNO3 + NaCl  NaNO3 + AgCl  All chlorides are soluble except silver chloride. 6. Use solubility rules to find if a precipitate will form. solids. Reduce if needed Example: Aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and excess sodium hydroxide are combined. 3. HBr. AgCl is the solid. Cancel any ions that are found on both sides of the equation—spectator ions. 2. formulas of the reactants and products are written to show the predominant form of each substance as it exists in aqueous solution. weak bases. HClO3 Writing Net ionic Reactions 1. aq) of each chemical. Strong Acids—HCl. 2. g. Soluble salts. 1. suspensions. Balance the equation Rewrite the equations splitting the (aq) substances—Overall ionic equation. 3. 4. gases. HI. Write the equation and put the phases (s.

include state symbols. and the solubility rules to predict them. The first two problems are done for you.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 22 Balance and classify the following reactions using the information on the preceding three pages. _1_Zn(s) + _2_HCl(aq)  _1_ZnCl2(aq) + _1_H2(g) _2_Fe(OH)3 + _3_H2SO4  _1_Fe2(SO4)3 + _6_H2O ___Na + ___O2  ___Na2O ___C9H20 + ___O2  ___CO2 + ___H2O ___NH3  ___N2 + ___H2 ___S8 + ___O2  ___SO3 ___AgNO3 + ___H2S  ___Ag2S + ___HNO3 ___H2O + ___Na2O  ___NaOH ___PbCO3  ___CO2 + ___PbO ___Mg + ___N2  ___Mg3N2 ___KClO3  ___KCl + ___O2 ___Na + ___H2O  ___NaOH + ___H2 ___MgCl2 + ___NaOH  ___Mg(OH)2 + ___NaCl ___HNO3  ___H2O + ___N2O5 ___H2O + ___Cl2O7  ___HClO4 Single Replacement: Active metals replace hydrogen in acids Double Replacement: H+(aq) + OH−(aq) → H2O(l) . use context. If possible. Write a net ionic equation for any double replacement reactions. the activity series. If the products are not identified.

and wherever appropriate. Page 23 . Include state symbols. Solid beryllium is left in a container with liquid bromine. a net ionic equation. write and balance a chemical equation.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry ___KOH  ___Zn + ___CuCl2  ___Cu + ___ZnCl2  ___NaNO3 + ___K2SO3  ___NaClO3  ___C6H14 + ___O2  ___PbCO3  ___Cl2 + ___KI  ___I2 + ___KCl  ___K2SO4 + ___BaCl2  ___C6H6 + ___O2  ___AgMnO4 + ___KCl  ___Al(OH)3 + ___HC2H3O2  For each of the following problems.

Solid calcium oxide is added to water. Potassium hydroxide is heated. Hydrogen and oxygen gases are mixed.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Solid bismuth is burned in air. Cesium is put in a container with chlorine gas. Dinitrogen trioxide gas is bubbled through water. Solid magnesium oxide is placed in water. Page 24 . Phosphorus trichloride is placed in a chlorine rich atmosphere. Solid gold is added to fluorine gas. Sulfur trioxide is bubbled through water.

A sample of magnesium carbonate is heated. A sample of ammonium carbonate is heated. Sulfurous acid is boiled. Carbonic acid is boiled. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes. Page 25 . Ammonium hydroxide is heated. Molten aluminum chloride is electrolyzed. Liquid bromine is added to a container of sodium iodide crystals. Lithium chlorate decomposes by heating.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Sodium carbonate is heated.

The interpretation of the coefficient of a balanced equation as the number of moles opens the door to a wide range of calculations discussed in this section.5 Hours) 1.4. calculate the mass or amount of another species. 1. experimental and percentage yield.4 Apply Avogadro’s law to calculate reacting volume of gases.08 g 44.4.24 x 10 m mol (22.4. 3 General strategies A balanced chemical reaction is a quantitative description of a chemical reaction and can be used to make numerical predictions.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 26 1. 2 The molar volume of an ideal gas under standard conditions is −2 3 −1 3 −1 2.4. The general strategy for the solution of these problems is outlined on the next page.4. 3 1. 100 g of calcium carbonate will produce 56 g of calcium oxide. pressure and volume for a fixed mass of an ideal gas.4. 3 Aim 7: Simulations can be used to demonstrate this. 2 1.4.6 Solve problems involving the relationship between temperature.7 Solve problems using the ideal gas equation. Consider the thermal decomposition of limestone (CaCO3) to make lime (CaO): CaCO3(s) Initial amounts 1 mol Initial masses 100. Obj 2 Teacher’s Notes Given a chemical equation and the mass or (in moles) of one species. 1.3 Solve problems involving theoretical. 3 TOK: The distinction between the Celsius and Kelvin scales as an example of an artificial and natural scale could be discussed.8 Analyze graphs relating to the ideal gas equation.1 Assessment Statement Calculate theoretical yields from chemical equations. PV = nRT. or expressing the relationship in terms of mass.4.4 Mass and gaseous volume relationships in chemical reactions (4. 3 Aim 7: Virtual experiments can be used here. .5 Apply the concept of molar volume at standard temperature and pressure in calculations. 1. 1.09 g Final amounts 0 mol Final masses → CaO(s) + CO2(g) 0 mol 0 mol 1 mol 1 mol 56.4 dm mol ).2 Determine the limiting reactant and the reactant in excess when quantities or reacting substances are given.01 g This equation shows that one mole of calcium carbonate will produce one mole of calcium oxide. 1.

00 g C2H2 × 1 mol C2H2 26. work out which reactant is in excess and which is the limiting reagent. 2. You will need to carry out conversions between moles and masses and volumes.38 g CO2 Exercise: The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is an environmental concern as it adds to the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Convert the number of moles to the required quantities (mass. Calculate the mass of CO2 produced when 100 g of propane is burned according to the equation: C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) → 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l) .04 g C2H2 × 4 mol CO2 2 mol C2H2 × 44.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 27 1. Worked example: Ethyne is used in welding as its combustion gives a lot of heat. Write the amounts in moles of the relevant reactants and products of interest from the equation and show the relationship between them. Convert the known data given into moles to find moles of the substance required. volumes. The reaction can be described by the equation: 2 C2H2(g) + 5 O2(g) → 4 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) Calculate the mass of CO2 produced from the complete combustion of 1. Solution 1.00 g of C2H2.01 g CO2 1 mol CO2 = 3. 4. If the amounts of all reactants are given. etc). Write the equation for the reaction. 3. Express the answer to the correct number of significant figures and include units.

Limiting reactants The equation for the reduction of iron (III) oxide in the previous exercise shows that one mole of iron (III) oxide reacts with three moles of carbon monoxide to produce two moles of iron.00 g of oxygen gas and the mixture is exploded. You can use the strategy in the previous worked example to predict how much product will be produced from given masses of starting materials. The carbon monoxide is the limiting reagent. . Exercise: Iron is produced in the blast furnace by reduction of iron(III)oxide: Fe2O3(s) + 3 CO(g) → 2 Fe(l) + 3 CO2(g) Calculate the minimum mass of iron(lll) oxide needed to produce 800 g of iron.04 g of hydrogen gas and 16. The amount of iron produced is limited by the amount of carbon monoxide. Identify the limiting reagent and deduce the mass of water produced.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 28 Using chemical equations: the theoretical yield When you plan a meal you need to check that you have the correct amount of ingredients to prepare the food in the required amounts. The iron oxide is said to be in excess. The same amount of iron would be produced if we had doubled the amount of iron oxide and kept the amount of carbon monoxide the same because there is insufficient carbon monoxide to reduce the additional iron (III) oxide. A balanced chemical reaction provides the recipe. Worked example: A reaction vessel is filled with 4. The chemist faces the same problem when planning the synthesis of a new compound.

02 g H2O 1 mol H2O = 18. you might perform the initial gram-to-mole coversions. The smaller of the two is called the theoretical yield.02 g H2 × 2 mol H2O 2 mol H2 × 18.02 g H2O The “start-change-finish” box illustrates how the quantities of the reactants and products change over time.0 mol 1. The “start-change-finish” box only works with moles. Alternatively.04 g H2O 16.0 mol −0.0 mol Finish 1. you will have to do additional work.5 mol 0.02 g H2O 1 mol H2O = 36. remember that you must always show your work. Consider the following solution. The reaction proceeds until one of the reactants is completely used up – that reactant is the theoretical yield.5 mol +1.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 29 Solution Step 1 2 H2(g) + 1 O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) Step 2 2 moles of H2 react with 1 mole of O2 to produce 2 moles of H2O. Numerous methods can be employed to solve stoichiometry problems.0 mol Amount of product produced = 1. The theoretical yield is the maximum quantity of product that can be obtained. you will get two different answers. and then use a “start-change-finish” box to solve the problem. The rate of change has to mirror the mole ratio from the balanced equation.0 mol Change −1.00 g O2 × 2 mol H2O 1 mol O2 × 18. If you are using grams.00 g O2 × 1 mol O2 32. according to the balanced equation.0 mol 0.04 g H2 × 1 mol H2 2.02 g H2O/mol = 18. from given quantities of reactants. . and is useless because there is not enough of the limiting reagent to create that much product.0 mol 0. The other answer is what should be made by the reagent in excess. Whichever method you use.02 g H2O If you solve the problem from the perspectives of each reactant. 2 H2(g) + 1 O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) Start 2.0 mol H2O × 18. Step 3 4.

C4H6O3. the amount actually produced) is generally less than the theoretical yield predicted from the equation. (a) Determine the limiting reagent in this reaction.13 g C7H6O3 × 1 mol C4H6O3 102. we can calculate percentage yield. Percentage yield = experimental yield theoretical yield × 100% Worked example: Aspirin.90 g. Therefore.64 g C4H6O3 × 2 mol C9H8O4 2 mol C7H6O3 180. 10. The efficiency of the procedure can be quantified by the percentage yield.00 g C9H8O4 × 100% = 60. with 2-hydroxybenzoic acid. The experimental yield (i.17 g C9H8O4 1 mol C9H8O4 × 2 mol C9H8O4 1 mol C4H6O3 × 180.80 g C7H6O3 10.26 g C4H6O3 × × 1 mol C7H6O3 138.56% . is made by reacting ethanoic anhydride.00 g C9H8O4 = 36. C7H6O3.26 g of ethanoic anhydride.02 g C9H8O4 The limiting reagent is the one that produces the smaller value for theoretical yield. Calculate the percentage yield of aspirin.80 g of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid is reacted with 10. C9H8O4.90 g C9H8O4 18.e. C7H6O3 is limiting. Complete separation of the product from reaction mixture is impossible. Using the above equation. according to the equation: 2 C7H6O3 + C4H6O3 → 2 C9H8O4 + H2O 13.17 g C9H8O4 1 mol C9H8O4 = 18. There are side reactions in which unwanted substances are produced. (b) The mass obtained in this experiment was 10.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 30 Percentage yield Few chemical reactions are completely efficient. Solution 13. There are several reasons for this: • • • • The reaction is incomplete. Product is lost during transfers of chemicals during the preparation.

20. Write and balance an equation for the formation of aluminum iodide from aluminum and iodine. . has enabled us to increase food production to cater for the world's growing population. which provides ammonia needed in the manufacture of fertilizers. Suggest why production of purple vapor during the reaction leads to low experimental yield. Calculate the experimental yield. identify the limiting reagent.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 31 Exercises: The Haber process.00 g of aluminium is mixed with 30. Calculate the percentage yield of ammonia. Ammonia is produced by the synthesis of nitrogen and hydrogen: N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 NH3(g) 400 kg of N2 is mixed with 200 kg of H2 to produce 220 kg of NH3. 5.00 g of iodine. Calculate the theoretical yield of aluminum iodide from this reaction mixture.00 g of aluminum iodide was produced.

Absolute zero (−273°C) is the lowest possible temperature attainable as this is the temperature at which all movement has stopped. . The kelvin scale emphasizes this relationship between average kinetic energy and temperature.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 32 States of matter If you were hit with 180 g of solid water (ice) you could be seriously injured. The basic ideas are: • all matter consists of particles (atoms or molecules) in motion • as the temperature increases. Temperature can be converted from Celsius to the kelvin scale by the relation: T (K) = T (°C) + 273 The kelvin is the SI unit of temperature. The three states can be characterized in terms of the arrangement and movement of the particles and the forces between them. is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of its particles. but you would be only annoyed if it was 180 g of liquid water. Absolute zero and the kelvin scale The movement or kinetic energy of the particles of a substance depends on the temperature. the average kinetic energy of the particles also decreases. These three samples are all made from the same particles – 10 moles of water molecules. Most substances can exist in all three states. The difference in physical properties is explained by kinetic theory. as the absolute temperature. The state at a given temperature and pressure is determined by the strength of the interparticle forces. 180 g of gaseous water (steam) could also be harmful. If the temperature of a substance is decreased. measured in kelvin. the movement of the particles increases.

When the temperature increases enough for the particles to have sufficient energy to overcome the interparticle forces. the average kinetic energy of the molecules increases and so the temperature increases. the particles move faster and so the temperature increases. At the melting point of 0°C (273 K). As steam is heated. The following heating curve shows how the temperature changes as ice is heated from −40°C to steam at 140°C. a change of state occurs. He at 100 K B. the vibrations are sufficiently energetic for the molecules to move away from their fixed positions and liquid water starts to form.       As the ice is heated. H2O at 400 K .Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 33 Changes of state The movement or kinetic energy of the particles depends on the temperature. there is sufficient energy to break all the intermolecular bonds. At the boiling point of water. not to increase the kinetic energy. and so the temperature remains constant. H2 at 200 K C. The added energy is used for this process. The added energy is needed to break the bonds between the molecules – the intermolecular bonds. Consider a sample of ice at −40°C = 233 (−40 + 273) K. Some molecules will have sufficient energy to break away from the surface of the liquid so some water evaporates. The water molecules vibrate at this temperature about their fixed positions. the vibrational energy of its particles increases and so the temperature increases. There is no increase in kinetic energy so there is no increase in temperature. O2 at 300 K D. As the water is heated. Worked example: In which sample do molecules have the greatest average kinetic energy? A.

their volumes and that of any products formed were in simple whole number ratios . Volume is often used for liquids and gases. it can be detected several meters away in a short time. The sample at the highest temperature has the greatest kinetic energy. Some substances change directly from a solid to gas at atmospheric pressure. The separation between the particles in a gas is significantly larger than that in a liquid. The molecules increase in size. Exercise: Which of the following occur when a solid sublimes? I. . they have the same average kinetic energy and are moving at the same speed. II. Distinguish between the two states on a molecular level by referring to the average speed of the molecules and the relative intermolecular distances. Exercise: When a small quantity of perfume is released into the air. Investigations into the relationship between the volumes of reacting gases were carried out by the French chemist Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) at the beginning of the 19th century. This change is called sublimation. Use the kinetic theory to explain why this happens. A. Solution As the two states are at the same temperature.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 34 Solution Answer = D. Worked example: A flask contains water and steam at boiling point. I only II only Both I and II Neither I nor II Reacting gases The analytical balance used to measure mass is not always the most convenient instrument to measure quantity. He observed that when gases react. C. D. B. The distances between the molecules increase.

Suggest a reason for any relationships you find.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 35 A modern version of one of Gay-Lussac's experiments is described in the worked example. (f) Compare the volume ratios of the three gases involved in the reaction with their molar ratios. 5. After each addition the tap was closed. Worked example: Nitrogen monoxide. to form one product. The results are shown graphically in the following figure. After the gases had returned to their original temperature. NO2(g). nitrogen dioxide. In the experiment. NO(g). (e) Deduce the volume of nitrogen dioxide formed. Syringe A contains 50 cm3 of nitrogen monoxide. (b) State the total volume of gases when the reaction is complete. This is a brown gas. Syringe B contains 50 cm3 of oxygen gas. Consider the following apparatus.0 cm3 portions of oxygen were pushed from syringe B into A. (c) Deduce the volume of oxygen that reacts with 50 cm3 of nitrogen monoxide. (a) Deduce a balanced equation for the reaction. O2(g). (d) Identify the limiting reagent in the reaction. the total volume of gases remaining was measured. reacts with oxygen. .

The volume of NO is double the volume of oxygen as there is double the amount of NO compared to O2. (e) Volume of nitrogen dioxide = total volume − volume of oxygen = 75 − 25 cm3 = 50 cm3. (c) The reaction stops after 25 cm3 of O2 is added. The oxygen is in excess. Eventually. (f) The ratio of the volumes of the gases NO : O2 : NO2 is 50 : 25 : 50 = 2 : 1 : 2. Worked example: 40 cm3 of carbon monoxide is reacted with 40 cm3 of oxygen. This implies that equal volumes correspond to equal amounts (NO and NO2 in this example). One mole of each of the gases has the same volume .Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 36 Solution (a) The unbalanced equation: ___NO(g) + ___O2(g) → ___NO2(g) The N atoms are balanced. Solution 2 CO(g) 3 + 1 O2(g) 40 cm 3 → 2 CO2(g) 0 cm3 Start 40 cm Change −40 cm3 −20 cm3 +40 cm3 Finish 0 cm3 20 cm3 40 cm3 Avogadro’s hypothesis states that volume is proportional to moles. This is the same as the molar ratios expressed in the balanced equation. the equation will balance as: _2_NO(g) + _1_O2(g) → _2_NO2(g) (b) The reaction is complete when the volume stops decreasing. . This explanation of Gay-Lussac's results was first proposed by the Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro. The only way to balance the O atoms without changing the N atoms is to change the coefficient of O2. 40 cm3 CO2 is made. Avogadro's hypothesis states that equal volumes of different gases contain equal numbers of particles at the same temperature and pressure. (d) The limiting reactant is nitrogen monoxide because the oxygen is left in excess. _2_CO(g) + _1_O2(g) → _2_CO2(g) What volume of carbon dioxide is produced? Assume all volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure. Reading from the graph: total volume = 75 cm3.

decomposes completely into its elements. As this is such a large number it is often quoted in dm3 (1 dm = 10 cm. At the higher temperature of 298 K (room temperature) the molar volume is 24dm3 (298 K and 100 kPa is called RTP). One mole of gas occupies 22400 cm3 under these conditions.8 cm3 of the gas at STP. This pressure replaces the previous standard of 1 atm which is 101.3 kPa. (a) What volume of nitrogen forms when 100 cm3 of ammonia. NH3. so 1 dm3 = 103 cm3 = 1000 cm3).40 g of carbon dioxide at standard temperature and pressure.8 ÷ 22400 = 0.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 37 Exercises: Assume all volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure. Calculations are simpler as all gases have the same molar volume. _2_NH3(g) → _1_N2(g) + _3_H2(g) (b) What volume of oxygen is needed to react with 40 cm3 of butane. C4H10.00200 mole Exercise: Calculate the volume occupied by 4. The molar volume can be used to calculate the amount of gases in the same way as molar mass. . Worked example: Calculate the amount of chlorine in 44. The standard conditions of temperature and pressure (STP) are 273 K (0°C) and 100 kPa pressure. Solution n = V/Vmol = 44. and what volume of carbon dioxide is produced? _2_C4H10(g) + _13_O2(g) → _8_CO2(g) + _10_H2O(l) The molar volume of a gas All gases have the same molar volume at the same temperature and pressure.

200 g of calcium reacts completely with water. produced when 0.056 g Li × 1 mol Li 6. Dinitrogen oxide.94 g Li × 1 mol H2 2 mol Li × 22400 cm3 H2 1 mol H2 = 90 cm3 H2 Exercises: Calcium reacts with water to produce hydrogen: Ca(s) + 2 H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) Calculate the volume of gas.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 38 The volume of gaseous reactants and products in chemical reactions can be calculated using a similar strategy to that outlined earlier to calculate masses. measured at STP.056 g of lithium (Li) reacts completely with water (H2O): _2_Li(s) + _2_H2O(l) → _2_LiOH(aq) + _1_H2(g) Assume the volume is measured at STP. Calculate the volume (at STP)of N2O produced from 1. Worked example: What volume of hydrogen (H2) is produced when 0. Solution 0.0 g of ammonium nitrate. is a greenhouse gas produced from the decomposition of artificial nitrate fertilizers. when it reacts according to the equation: NH4NO3(s) → N2O(g) + 2 H2O(l) . N2O.

He found that if the temperature and amount of gas is kept constant. Relationship between volume and pressure for a gas An increase in volume reduces the frequency of the collisions with the walls of the container and so the pressure decreases. Both factors lead to an increase in pressure. Pressure If you have ever pumped a bicycle tire or squeezed an inflated balloon you have experienced the pressure of a gas. pressure and volume. the pressure halves if the volume is doubled. The particles move faster and collide with the walls of the balloon with more energy and more frequency. The relationship was studied experimentally by Robert Boyle in the 17th century. A gas produces a pressure when its particles collide with the walls of its container. . An increase in the frequency or energy of these collisions will increase the pressure. Relationship between temperature and pressure for a gas You may have noticed that balloons have an increased tendency to 'pop' on hot summer days.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 39 The gas laws The gaseous state is the simplest state as all gases have the same molar volume and respond in similar ways to changes in temperature. The graphs in the following figure show that the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to the volume. When the relationship is studied experimentally at constant volume. The gas laws describe this behavior. An increase in temperature increases the average kinetic energy of the particles. the graphs in the following figure are produced.

V = kT. This relationship is sometimes called Charles' law. The combined gas law We can combine the three gas laws for a fixed mass of gas into one expression: VαT PαT P α 1/V → PV α T PV/T = constant The response of a gas to a change in conditions can be predicted by a more convenient form of the expression: P1V1 T1 = P2V2 T2 where 1 refers to the initial conditions and 2 the final conditions. 2. The volume is doubled at fixed temperature. where k is a constant. The volume of a gas is proportional to the absolute temperature . The changes are summarized below. 1. The temperature is doubled at fixed volume. Feature Step 1 Step 2 Overall change Temperature Doubled Fixed Doubled Volume Constant Doubled Doubled Pressure Doubled due to increase in temperature Halved due to increase in volume No change The volume and the temperature of the gas have both doubled at fixed volume. . Consider the following sequence.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 40 Effect of temperature on the gas volume Combining the two previous relationships we can predict how the volume changes with absolute temperature.

. When SI units are used R has the value 8. Deduce the final volume of the gas.4 dm3. The ideal gas equation The combined gas equation refers to a fixed mass of gas.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 41 Worked example: What happens to the volume of a fixed mass of gas when its pressure and its temperature (in kelvin) are both doubled? Solution The pressure and temperature are both doubled: P2 = 2P1. Exercises: The temperature in kelvin of 4.0 dm3 of hydrogen gas is increased by a factor of three and the pressure is increased by a factor of four. The number of moles can be included in the combined gas equation to give the ideal gas equation.31 J K−1mol−1. The molar volume of a gas at STPis 22. where R is the gas constant. When you pump up a bicycle tire the added gases cause the pressure to increase. When you blow into a balloon you increase the number of particles and this increases the volume. T2 = 2T1: P1V1 T1 = P2V2 T2 P1V1 T1 = 2P1V2 2T1 V1 = 2V2 2 Substitute for P2 and T2: P1 and T1 cancel from both sides: = V2 The volume does not change. PV = nRT. Use the combined gas equation to show that the molar volume of gas is 24 dm3 at RTP.

01 × 105)( 18.08 g Measuring the molar mass The ideal gas equation can be used to find the molar mass of gases or volatile liquids. Density can be used with this equation. Ideal gas law: PV = nRT Molar mass: Mr = Density: ρ = mass n mass V Useful formula modifications: Mr = mass∙R∙T P∙V Mr = ρ∙R∙T .0 dm3 = 18.05 × 1.0 × 10−3 m3 T = 25°C = (25 + 273) K = 298 K Plug the numbers into the equation: n = (1.05 × 1.771 mole × 4. when density is in g m−3 P Worked example: A sample of gas has a volume of 432 cm3 and a mass of 1. Worked example: A helium party balloon has a volume of 18. Calculate the number of moles of helium (Ar = 4) in the balloon and the mass needed to inflate it.500 g at a pressure of 0. Solution PV = nRT n = PV RT Convert data into SI units: P = 1. Real gases deviate from the equation at high pressure and low temperature owing to the effects of inter-particle forces. .771 mole Mass of helium in the balloon = 0. as well.01 × 105 Pa V = 18.05 atm = 1.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 42 Gases which follow this equation exactly are called ideal gases. Calculate the molar mass of the gas.0 dm3.00 = 3.31)(298) = 0. Useful permutations of these equations are as follows.05 atm.974 atm and a temperature of 28°C.0 × 10−3) (8. At room temperature (25°C) the internal pressure is 1.

and hence identify the gas. There is no need for intermediate steps which calculate the number of moles. P should be in units of N m−2 (Pa). V = 432 × 10−6 m3 Mr = 1.01 × 105 Pa. An oxide of sulfur has a density of 3. IB Examiner Hints:      Whenever you multiply or divide data. Exercises: The density of a gaseous hydrocarbon with the empirical formula C3H7 is found to be 2. .01 × 105 ∙ 432 × 10−6 = 88. and hence identify the gas.60g dm-3 at STP. quote the answer to the same number of significant figures as the least precise data.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 43 Solution Mr = mass∙R∙T P∙V Convert into SI units (the mass should be kept in g). Practice setting out calculations in a logical way. An unknown noble gas has a density of 5. Calculate its molar mass. 5th Edition contains information relevant to this topic in Chapter 05. SI units should be used when R = 8. V in units of m3 and T in units of K. T = 273 + 28 K.3 g mol−1 Zumdahl. You should take some time to review the approach outlined in that textbook. including a few words to indicate what process is being used.00 atm.31 J K−1 mol−1. P = 0.81 g dm−3 at 100°C and 1.particularly if presented in graphical form.31 ∙ (273 + 28) 0. Practice data response questions which involve the manipulation and interpretation of unfamiliar data .974 × 1. Problems involving volumes of gases can often be solved directly. Make sure that you use the correct units when using the ideal gas equation. Calculate its molar mass.84 g dm-3 at STP.500 ∙ 8. Calculate the molar mass of the hydrocarbon and find its molecular formula.974 × 1.

95 atm). What is the percentage yield of ammonia? A. 70 D. C.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 44 99N103 What is the minimum number of grams of O2 (Mr = 32) required to burn 1. B. 0. 74 D.4 D. 100 97M125 A certain gas has a density of 2.24 × 3/6 0.6 B. 32 98N103 Aluminum reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas according to the equation below: 2 Al(s) + 6 HCl(aq) → 3 H2(g) + 2 AlCl3(aq) Which expression gives the number of moles of hydrogen that can be produced from 0. The molar mass of the gas will be closest to which of the following? A.0 g of N2 produces 34. 80 . 50 B.24 moles of Al and excess hydrochloric acid? A.35 g dm−3 at 30°C and 96 kPa (0. 6.0 g of NH3. D.24 × 6/2 02N103 Ammonia is manufactured by the synthesis of nitrogen and hydrogen as follows: N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 NH3(g) 56. 60 C. 1. 68 C. 50 B.2 C.6 grams of CH4 (Mr = 16) according to the equation below? CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) A. 3.24 × 2/3 0.24 × 3/2 0.

the solution becomes more and more concentrated.Chempocalypse Now! 1. Solutions The discussion so far has focused on pure substances but chemists often carry out reactions in solution. or gas but the solvent is generally a liquid. mass Density: ρ = V In the laboratory. 3 Liquids Liquids. solution and concentration −3 −3 (g dm and mol dm ). like gases. volumetric flasks or pipettes are used. . A buret is used when the volume is unknown. These are called aqueous solutions and are given the state symbol (aq). Solutions in water are particularly important. Solve problems involving concentration. The mass can be calculated from the volume if the density is known.30 cm3. can also be conveniently quantified by measuring their volume rather than their mass.5. The less abundant component is the solute and the more abundant the solvent.5 1. amount of solute and volume of solution.06 cm3 and a 250 cm3 volumetric flask has an uncertainty of ±0.1 1.2 Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 45 Solutions (2 Hours) Assessment Statement Distinguish between the terms solute. solvent. however. The solute can be solid. When the solvent cannot dissolve any more solute. it is saturated. Concentration The composition of a solution is generally expressed in terms of its concentration. As more and more solute dissolves in the solvent. for example. there is no direct relationship between the volume of a liquid and its amount. liquid. Unlike gases. Obj 2 Teacher’s Notes −3 Concentration in mol dm is often represented by square brackets around the substance under consideration.1 cm3. A 25 cm3 pipette has a typical uncertainty of ±0. Salt water is a solution with salt as the solute and water the solvent. Solutions are mixtures of two components. the volume of a liquid can be measured using different pieces of apparatus depending on the precision required.5. [HCl]. When the volume is known. A 50 cm3 buret has a typical uncertainty of ±0.

Concentrations in mol dm−3 are generally used in solving problems involving chemical equations.00) + 5(18. Solution Concentration = 0.200 mol dm−3 solution. The amount of solute needed can be calculated from the concentration and the volume required: n concentration = (dm3) V Worked example: Calculate the mass of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate.00. Square brackets are used to represent concentrations. Sodium hydroxide has a molar mass of 40. . When this amount of solute is added to water to make a 1 dm3 solution.200 mol dm−3.00 g dm−3.200 mol × (63.99 + 35.02)) = 49. Standard solutions A solution of known concentration is called a standard solution. What is its concentration in mol dm−3? Solution Find the number of moles.200 mol mass = 0. so this can be written down as [NaCI] = 1. Worked example: A solution of sodium hydroxide has a concentration of 8.45 g = 58. The units are either g dm−3 or mol dm−3.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 46 The concentration is generally expressed in terms of the mass or amount of solute dissolved in 1dm3 of solution. For example.00 g.44 g. one mole of sodium chloride has a mass of 22. the concentration is 0.400 mol dm−3 = n mol ÷ 0.400 mol dm−3 solution.00 g dm−3 means that there are 8.44 g dm−3 or 1.06 + 4(16.00 mol dm−3. A concentration of 8. 8.500 dm−3 n = 0.00 g of solute dissolved in 1 dm3 of solution.55 + 32. required to prepare 500 cm3 of a 0. the concentration can either be expressed as 58.9 g CuSO4∙5H2O Exercises: Calculate the mass of potassium hydroxide needed to prepare 250 cm3 of a 0. CuSO4∙5H2O. Therefore.00 g is 1/5 of 40.00 mol dm−3.

MgSO4·7H2O. Worked example: What volume of hydrochloric acid with a concentration of 2. ask your teacher for a recap. a known volume of one solution is measured into a conical flask using a pipette.500 mol dm−3) × (0. Titrations Standard solutions are used to find the concentration of other solutions. Typically.500 mol dm−3 sodium carbonate solution to produce a neutral solution of sodium chloride? Solution Na2CO3(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) → 2 NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) 1 mole 2 moles Molesacid = Molesbase Concentrationacid × Volumeacid × Protonsacid = Concentrationbase × Volumebase × Protonsbase * (2.0 cm−3 of a 0.025 dm3) × (2) Vacid = 0.0125 dm3 *If this equation does not look familiar.00 mol dm−3 would have to be added to 25.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 47 Calculate the mass of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. The other solution is then added from a burette to find the equivalence point – the volume when the reaction is just complete. In acid-base reactions the equivalence point can be detected by the color change of an indicator.020 mol dm−3 of zinc chloride (ZnCI2) solution.250 dm−3 of 0. One of the most important techniques is titration. You have seen something like it before. The analysis of composition by measuring the volume of one solution needed to react with a given volume of another solution is called volumetric analysis.00 mol dm−3) × (Vacid) × (1) = (0.100 dm−3 of a 0. .20 mol dm−3 solution. required to prepare 0. Calculate the number of moles of chloride ions in 0.

00 cm3 of 0. This makes the calculation easier and saves time.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 48 Zumdahl. Calculate the molar mass of the metal. (b) Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide. (a) Calculate the concentration of the sulfuric acid. This will help you spot careless mistakes.025 g of an unknown Group 1 metal were added to excess water. 40 cm3 of hydrogen gas were collected at STP. IB Examiner Hint:  In Paper 1 you can find the best solution with less precise relative atomic mass values. Nitroglycerine C3H5(NO3)3 is a liquid which explodes to produce a mixture of gases and water. . Exercises: 25.100 mol dm−3 sodium hydrogen carbonate solution were titrated with dilute sulfuric acid: 2 NaHCO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) + 2 CO2(g) 15. Calculate the total volume of gas produced at STP when 1. You should take some time to review the approach outlined in that textbook. For papers 2 and 3 estimate the answer before you use a calculator.2 cm3 of the acid were needed to neutralize the solution. 5th Edition contains information relevant to this topic in Chapters 04 and 11. produced during the titration. Balance the equation for the detonation of the explosive below: ___C3H5(NO3)3(l) → ___CO2(g) + ___H2O(I) + ___N2(g) + ___O2(g) Deduce how many moles of gas are produced when one mole of nitroglycerine is detonated. When 0.00 g of the nitroglycerine explodes. measured at STP.

What volume (in cm3) of 0.04 C.008 B. 0. 10. D. 0. What is the concentration of this solution in mol dm−3? A.25 mol dm−3 CuSO4 solution? A. All the solid zinc reacts and Cu2+ ions remain. 0.0 cm3 of 0.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 49 97M131 When equal volumes of 1 × 10−2 M Ba(NO3)2 and 4 × 10−3 M Na2SO4 are mixed.10 D. 13. 01M101 10. 30. 0. What will be the result of adding 3.0 . All the Cu2+ ions react and some solid zinc remains. B. Neither solid zinc nor Cu2+ ions remain.003 02M104 2.20 01N103 Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) Powdered zinc reacts with Cu2+ ions according to the equation above. 0.25 g of Zn to 100 cm3 of 0. 0. 20.02 B.200 mol dm−3 H3PO4(aq) is converted into Na2HPO4(aq). C.006 C.02 g of KNO3 (Mr = 101) is dissolved in sufficient water to prepare 0.500 dm3 of solution. 0. All the Cu2+ ions react and no solid zinc remains.200 mol dm−3 NaOH(aq) is required? A.0 D. a precipitate of BaSO4 is formed.0 B. 0.004 D.3 C. What is the Ba2+ ion concentration (in mol dm−3) in the resulting solution? A.

24 g of Mg are added to 100 cm3 of 0. D. 40 cm3 of 0. 10 cm3 of 4 mol dm−3 nitric acid C.20 M AgNO3. is exothermic.48 g of Mg are added to 100 cm3 of 0.40 M AgNO3. C. Mg(s) + 2 AgNO3(aq) → 2 Ag(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) Which of the following experiments would exhibit the greatest temperature increase? A. represented by the equation below. 0.5 mol dm−3 sulfuric acid Page 50 . 0. 80 cm3 of 0. 0. B.10 M AgNO3.5 mol dm−3 hydrochloric acid D. 05N103 Which aqueous solution contains the most hydrogen ions? A.20 M AgNO3.24 g of Mg are added to 100 cm3 of 0.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry 97M108 The reaction of magnesium metal with aqueous silver nitrate. 0.96 g of Mg are added to 100 cm3 of 0. 20 cm3 of 2 mol dm−3 sulfuric acid B.

200 cm3 C.30 D. 3 C. what is the coefficient for oxygen? A.500 mol dm−3 HCI(aq) is required to react completely with 10.0 dm3 of sulfur dioxide is reacted with 2. 5 3.030 C.0 g of calcium carbonate according to the equation below? CaCO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) A.) A.0 dm3 of oxygen according to the equation below.0 What volume of 0.0030 B. 0.8 × 1022 molecules? A. O2. 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) → 2 SO3(g) What volume of sulfur trioxide (in dm3) is formed? (Assume the reaction goes to completion and all gases are measured at the same temperature and pressure. 3.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 51 Chapter 01 Review Questions: What amount of oxygen. 300 cm3 D.0 D.0 B. 2.0 ___C2H2(g) + ___O2(g) → ___CO2(g) + ___H2O(g) When the above equation is balanced.0 C. 100 cm3 B. 4. 3. 0. 0. 2 B. 400 cm3 . 5. (in moles) contains 1. 4 D.

Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 52 00N116 125 cm3 of an unknown gas has a mass of 0.7% chlorine. (3) (c) Determine the mass of sodium carbonate neutralized by the hydrochloric acid and hence the mass of sodium carbonate present in 1.725 × 82.05 × 298 0. 125 × 0. (a) Write an equation for the reaction between sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.97 0.05 × 298 0.3% AI and 79.725 g at 25°C and 0.97 atmospheres.05 cm3 atm K−1 mol−1) A.05 × 25 0.97 × 0. 0.97 × 125 B. 27.000 dm3.725 × 82. 0. (3) (d) Calculate the mass of water in the hydrated crystals and hence find the value of x. (4) .725 × 82.725 × 82.000 dm3 of solution. Which expression will give the relative molar mass of the gas? (R = 82. (2) (b) Calculate the molar concentration of the sodium carbonate solution neutralized by the hydrochloric acid.00 cm3 of this solution were neutralized by 48.05 × 298 C.1000 mol dm−3.80 cm3 of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.125 D. 0.82 g of hydrated sodium carbonate crystals. 25.97 × 125 The relative molecular mass of aluminium chloride is 267 and its composition by mass is 20. Determine the empirical and molecular formulas of aluminium chloride. were dissolved in water and made up to 1. Na2CO3·xH2O.

(2) (b) A 1 g sample of the hydrocarbon at a temperature of 273 K and a pressure of 1. (a) Use the kinetic molecular theory to explain why this happens. (1) When a small quantity of strongly smelling gas such as ammonia is released into the air. (2) . (2) (ii) Deduce the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon. it can be detected several meters away in a short time. (i) Calculate the molar mass of the hydrocarbon. (a) Calculate the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon.00 atm) has a volume of 0. (2) The percentage composition by mass of a hydrocarbon is C = 85.4%. (2) (b) State and explain how the time taken to detect the gas changes when the temperature is increased.399 dm3. (2) (b) a sample of a very volatile liquid (such as ethoxyethane) is placed on a person's skin.01 × 105 Pa (1.6% and H = 14.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 53 Describe in molecular terms the processes that occur when: (a) a mixture of ice and water is maintained at the melting point.

(3) (a) Write an equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. 2 Na(s) + 2 H2O(l) → 2 NaOH(aq) + H2(g) 1. measured at 273 K and 1. After heating.01 × 105 Pa.15 g of sodium is allowed to react completely with water.25 g of calcium carbonate. (2) An oxide of copper was placed in an unreactive porcelain dish and reduced in a stream of hydrogen. Calculate the concentration.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 54 Sodium reacts with water as follows. (1) .50 mol dm−3 of hydrochloric acid that would react with exactly 1.25 g of calcium carbonate reacts completely with the hydrochloric acid. which would be produced when 1.75 g Mass of dish and contents after heating and leaving to cool = 20. of the resulting sodium hydroxide solution. (3) (c) Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide.80 g Mass of dish and contents before heating = 21. (3) (c) Write an equation for the reaction that occurred. assuming complete reduction of the oxide. The following results were obtained.15 g (a) Explain why the stream of hydrogen gas was maintained until the apparatus cooled. in mol dm−3. (1) (b) Calculate the empirical formula of the oxide of copper using the data above. The resulting solution is diluted to 250 cm3. Mass of empty dish = 13. (2) (b) Determine the volume of 1. the stream of hydrogen gas was maintained until the apparatus had cooled.

This oxide contains 25. (1) (b) If 2. (3) . when vaporized.1% H by mass. (a) Write a balanced equation for the reaction.199 g of the oxide was obtained from 1. the remainder being oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula of this second oxide. A. Determine the relative molecular mass of A.239 g of X. hydrogen and oxygen was analyzed.9% of nitrogen and 74. calculate the relative atomic mass of X and identify the element. (a) A was found to contain 54. (3) (b) A 0.230 g sample of A. (1) An element X reacts with oxygen to form the oxide X2O3.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 55 An organic compound. (5) (c) Nitrogen also forms an oxide on reaction with oxygen. Determine the empirical formula of the compound.1% of oxygen by mass.0785 dm3 at 95°C and 102 kPa. containing only the elements carbon.5% C and 9. had a volume of 0. (3) (c) Determine the molecular formula of A using your answers from parts (a) and (b).

and then look at the rubric. (1) (ii) Calculate the amount (in moles) of the precipitate formed. Ag1+. Calculate the molar mass of copper (II) nitrate trihydrate and the mass of product obtained. (i) Calculate the amount (in moles) of Ag1+ ions used in the reaction.0345 mol of copper (II) oxide to 36. 1. (1) (c) Use the information in (a) and (b) to identify the limiting reagent and determine the amount (in mol) of copper (II) nitrate formed. Write a balanced equation for the reaction.2040 mol dm−3 is added to a solution of XO43− ions. (2) (b) When 41. Calculate the amount (in mol) of nitric acid. including state symbols. Answer each question to the best of your ability. (1) (b) The student carries out this reaction by adding 0.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 56 Actual IB Questions with Complete Grading Markschemes: The following questions are followed by the actual rubrics used to grade them.18 cm3 of a solution of aqueous silver ions with a concentration of 0.172 g of the precipitate is formed. (2) (iv) Determine the relative atomic mass of X and identify the element. Question A: A student is asked to prepare some copper (II) nitrate by reacting nitric acid with copper (II) oxide.15 mol dm−3 nitric acid solution. (2) (d) The product of this reaction is isolated as copper (II) nitrate trihydrate.0 cm 3 of 1. (2) . (1) (iii) Calculate the molar mass of the precipitate. (a) Write a balanced equation for this reaction. (2) Question B: (a) Aqueous XO43− ions form a precipitate with aqueous silver ions. to see where you lost points.

04118 dm3 = 0.0414 mol (1) (1) (c) 0.00 g (allow ECF from (c) and from molar mass) (1) (1) Rubric B: (a) 3 Ag1+(aq) + XO43−(aq) → Ag3XO4(s) (1) For balanced equation and (1) for states. (b) (i) nAg+ = cV = 0. not guessed.87) + x + 4(16.0207 mol Cu(NO3)2 formed.002800 mol weighs 1.63 g mol−1 241. No penalty for too many sig figs.008401 = 0. P / phosphorus (2) (2) .6 Therefore.2040 mol dm−3 × 0.0) = 418. Do not accept g.0).0207 mol Cu(NO3)2 0.0345 mol CuO × 1 mol Cu(NO3)2/1 mol CuO = 0.f.0207 mol = 5.02 + 54.) (ii) nAg3XO4 = 1/3 nAg+ = 1/3 × 0.008401 mol (−1 s.15 mol dm−3 = 0.172 g 1 mol weighs 1.002800 mol = 418.99 (accept 31 or 31.0345 mol Cu(NO3)2 HNO3 is limiting reagent (Must be justified.Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 01 – Quantitative Chemistry Page 57 Rubric A: (a) CuO + 2 HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + H2O (b) 0.172 g / 0. x = 30. Allow ECF.55 + 124.0414 mol HNO3 × 1 mol Cu(NO3)2/2 mol HNO3 = 0.036 dm3 × 1. ECF from (b)(ii)( g mol−1).6 g mol−1 Accept answer in range 418 to 419.63 g mol−1 × 0.06 = 241.) (1) Therefore 0. (iv) (3 × 107.002800 mol (2) (1) (1) (iii) 0. (Allow ECF) (1) (d) 63.