Contents

Syllabus ................................................................................................................................................... 1
Module: 1 ............................................................................................................................................... 1
Lecture: 1 ............................................................................................................................................ 1
HEAVY AND FINE CHEMICALS ......................................................................................................... 1
OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 1
Classification ........................................................................................................................... 1
UNIT OPERATION AND UNIT PROCESS.................................................................................... 3
Module: 2 ............................................................................................................................................... 7
Lecture: 2 ............................................................................................................................................ 7
CARBON DIOXIDE ............................................................................................................................ 7
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 7
SOURCES OF CO2 ......................................................................................................................... 8
MANUFACTURE ........................................................................................................................... 8
METHODS OF RECOVERY ............................................................................................................ 9
1.

Girbotol amine process ................................................................................................. 10

2.

Sodium carbonate process............................................................................................ 10

3.

Potassium carbonate process ....................................................................................... 11

PURIFICATION ........................................................................................................................... 12
1.

Purification of low % CO2 containing gas ...................................................................... 12

2.

Purification of high % CO2 containing gas ..................................................................... 12

PROPERTIES ............................................................................................................................... 13
USES .......................................................................................................................................... 13
Module: 2 ............................................................................................................................................. 14
Lecture: 3 .......................................................................................................................................... 14
OXYGEN AND NITROGEN .............................................................................................................. 14
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 14
Oxygen .................................................................................................................................. 14
Nitrogen ................................................................................................................................ 15
MANUFACTURE ......................................................................................................................... 18
Linde's process (O2 and N2) ................................................................................................... 18
PROPERTIES ............................................................................................................................... 24

...................................................................................................... 25 Lecture: 4 ............................................................................... Liquefaction of coke oven gas or coal gas.. Electrolytic Process ............................................................................................................................................................ 34 Module: 2 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 46 ....................................................................................................................... Bosch Process ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 28 Module: 2 .................................. 34 PROPERTIES ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 HYDROGEN (Continued).......................................... 36 INTRODUCTION ........ 30 Lecture: 5 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36 AMMONIA ....................................................................... 25 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................................................ 26 1............................................................................................................................................. 24 USES .................................................................. 45 Module: 2 ................................... 24 Module: 2 ............ 36 MANUFACTURE ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 30 3........................................................................................... 30 4.......................................................................................................................................................... 26 2.........................Oxygen ............................................. 36 (c) Modified Haber Bosch process ............................................................. 36 Lecture: 6 ................ 33 5........................................... 25 MANUFACTURE ........... 24 Nitrogen ................ 25 HYDROGEN .................................................................. 46 Lecture: 7 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 24 Nitrogen ............................................................................................................................ Lane process or steam hydrogen process .................................................................................................................................................................................... Steam Hydrocarbon Process ................................................................................................. 24 Oxygen ....................................... 36 (a) Haber and Bosch Process ......................................................................................................................... 45 USES ...................... 34 USES ................ 41 PROPERTIES .................................................

.......................................................................... 46 1............................................................................................................ 74 ........................................................................................ 60 INTRODUCTION ................................................................. 60 MANUFACTURE ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Leblanc process ....................................................................................... 72 PROPERTIES ............................. 60 SODIUM CARBONATE..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Freezing Method ............................................................ 70 3................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 49 3.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 SODIUM CHLORIDE ........................................................................................................................................................................................... Artificial Evaporation................................... 54 Lecture: 8 ................................................................................................ 70 Lecture: 10 ................................................................................... 58 PROPERTIES ............................................................ 58 Module: 3 ..................................................... From natural gas by partial oxidation (Sachasse process) .......................................... 55 1.......... 4...... 54 SOURCES OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ........................................................................................ From calcium carbide ....................... 58 USES ................................................................ 60 2................................................. 51 PROPERTIES ............................................ 55 2.............................................................. 47 2........ 53 Module: 3 ................................................................................................................................. 53 USES .............................................................................................. Solar Evaporation ........................... 60 1...........................................................ACETYLENE ........................... 57 3................................................................ Solvay's ammonia soda process ........................................ From paraffin hydrocarbons by pyrolysis (Wulff process) ........................................................................... 46 MANUFACTURE ........................................................................ 70 Electrolytic process ....................................... 62 Module: 3 ........................................................................ Dual process .................... 70 SODIUM CARBONATE (continued) ................................................................ 46 INTRODUCTION ............................................. 60 Lecture: 9 ........................................................ 54 INTRODUCTION ........................... 54 MANUFACTURE ................................................................

.........................................................................................................USES ........... 85 SODIUM HYDROXIDE (Continued) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93 Lecture: 15 ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 89 2................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 85 Lecture: 13 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 75 Lecture: 11 ..................... 77 USES .................... 89 SODIUM HYDROXIDE (Continued) .................................................................................................................. 89 PROPERTIES .................................................... 83 Module: 3 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 74 Module: 3 ... 81 The Castner Kellner cell.. 79 SODIUM HYDROXIDE..................................................................................... 79 Hooker cells. 85 Module: 3 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Using Diaphragm cell ................................................. 85 MANUFACTURE ............................. 89 Lecture: 14 ..................................... 93 ............................................................................................................... 75 PROPERTIES ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 75 MANUFACTURE ............................................... 79 INTRODUCTION ........................ 82 Membrane cell ....................................................................................................................................................................... 85 1.................. Lime soda process ......................................................................................................... 79 TYPE OF CELLS .......................................................... 75 INTRODUCTION ..... 75 SODIUM BICARBONATE .......................... 93 CHLORINE ........... 92 USES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 92 Module: 3 ............................................................................................................................... 78 Module: 3 ......... 79 Lecture: 12 .............................................................................................. 80 Nelson cell ................................................................................................................................................................................

105 USES ............................................................................................................................................................................... 96 NITRIC ACID ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 95 Module: 4 ............................................................................... From Chile saltpeter or nitrate ................................. 96 Lecture: 16 ...................... 98 3............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93 MANUFACTURE .................... 107 INTRODUCTION .................................................................. Using diaphragm cells .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 113 Lecture: 18 .............................. 96 MANUFACTURE ......................INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ Arc process or Birkeland and eyde process ................................... 94 PROPERTIES ................................................................................................................................... The contact process for sulfuric acid .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 113 2................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 93 1.............................................................. Ostwald's process or Ammonia oxidation process ........................................ The lead chamber process ................................................ 96 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 108 Module: 4 ............................................................................................................................................... 107 MANUFACTURE ............ 96 1......................................... 119 USES ......................... 113 SULFURIC ACID (continued) ............. Deacon’s method ................ 107 Lecture: 17 ................ 93 2....................................... Other methods .................................................................................. 93 3..................................................................................................................................... 121 Lecture: 19 ....................... 94 USES .............................................................................................................................................................................. 121 .................................................... 113 PROPERTIES ............................................................................................................................................................................... 120 Module: 4 ................................................. 106 Module: 4 ............................................................. 108 1............................... 96 2....................................................................................... 107 SULFURIC ACID ........................................................................................... 99 PROPERTIES ...........................................................................................

.............................................................................................................. 137 INTRODUCTION .................... 140 3................................................ From hydrochloric acid solutions ................... From incineration of waste organics.................................................................................................................. As by-product from chemical processes ....................................... 149 Module: 5 ..................................... 126 4...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 129 PHOSPHATE ROCK ............................................. 121 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................... 132 RED PHOSPHORUS ..............................................................................................................HYDROCHLORIC ACID ......... 143 PROPERTIES .................................................................................. 127 USES ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 134 PROPERTIES ........................................................ Wet process or from sulfuric acid and phosphate rock .............................................................................................................................. 127 PROPERTIES .............................................. 129 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... 122 2.............................................................................. Synthesis from Hydrogen and Chlorine .................................................................................... Oxidation and Hydration of phosphorous .................. 135 USES ................................................................. 149 USES .............................. 137 MANUFACTURE .......... 125 3....... The Salt–Sulfuric acid process ......... Using phosphate rock and electric furnace ...................................................................................................................................................................... 130 YELLOW PHOSPHORUS .................................................................................................... 137 1............................................... 122 1............ 129 PHOSPHOROUS .............................................................................................................................................................. 137 Lecture: 21 ........................... 127 Module: 4 ........................................... 137 2............................................................................................................................................................... 121 MANUFACTURE .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 136 Module: 4 ............ 142 4.......................................................................................... Using phosphate rock and blast furnace ................................................................................... 151 Lecture: 22 .......................... 129 Lecture: 20 ............................................................................................ 151 ............................................................. 137 PHOSPHORIC ACID ........................................................................................................... 126 5....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

161 Lecture: 24 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CLASSIFICATION ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 175 Lecture: 26 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 161 CEMENT MANUFACTURE ..................................................................................................... 175 CLASSIFICATION ................ 157 MANUFACTURE OF PORTLAND CEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 161 PROPERTIES .......................................................................................................................................... 171 SETTING AND HARDENING OF CEMENT ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 174 Module: 6 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 171 Lecture: 25 ................. 161 MANUFACTURE ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 177 USES ......................................................................................... 170 Module: 5 .................................................................. 171 PHYSICAL REQUIREMENT ............. 178 Lecture: 27 ................................... 176 PROPERTIES ........................ 177 Module: 6 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 178 .....................................................................................................CEMENT INDUSTRIES ............................................................................................... 159 Module: 5 ....................................... 157 CEMENT CLASSIFICATION (Continued) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 157 Lecture: 23 ........................................................... 151 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................. 175 CERAMIC INDUSTRIES ................................................................ 171 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION........ 175 RAW MATERIAL .......................................................... 171 CEMENT (Continued) ....................................................................... 153 Module: 5 ................................................................................... 175 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................... 158 Significance of constituents ............ 172 USES ...............................................................................

.................................................................................................................... Whitewares ................................... 197 Module: 7 ............................................................................................................................................WHITEWARES ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 182 Lecture: 28 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 182 PROPERTIES ...... 193 Lecture: 29 ................... 193 5........................................................................................................ REFRACTORY MATERIALS .................................................................... 183 3..................................................................................................................................................... 203 ....................................................................................................................................................... 178 Manufacture ......... 197 GLASS INDUSTRIES ...................................................................................................................................................................... 197 INTRODUCTION ...... 197 TYPES OF GLASSES. 191 Module: 6 ................................................................................................ 193 4.................................................................................................................. VITREOUS ENAMEL ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 178 1.................................................................................................................................................................................... 181 Uses ........................................................................................................................... 195 MANUFACTURE ....................... 186 PROPERTIES .................................................................................... 193 SPECIALIZED CERAMIC PRODUCTS AND VITREOUS ENAMEL ..................................................... 182 2...................... 197 Lecture: 30 ............. 184 MANUFACTURE ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 179 Properties............................................................................................................... 196 USES .............................................................................................................. 196 Module: 7 ................................................................ 181 Module: 6 ................................................................................................................................................. 182 CLAY PRODUCTS AND REFRACTORIES.................. 178 classification ................................................................................. 188 USES .................................................. 184 CLASSIFICATION ................................. SPECIALIZED CERAMIC PRODUCTS.................................. STRUCTURAL CLAY PRODUCTS....... 183 USES ... 195 PROPERTIES ....

............................................................. 212 FUNCTION OF NUTRIENT ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 211 Lecture: 33 ........................... 203 MANUFACTURE ...................................................... 211 PLANT NUTRIENTS ............................................................................................................ 223 USES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 211 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 203 MANUFACTURE OF GLASS ........................................................ 224 Module: 8 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 225 Lecture: 35 ...................................................................................................................................... 226 PROPERTIES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 212 NEED OF FERTILIZER ............................................................................... 211 TYPES OF SOIL ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Lecture: 31 .......... 220 Lecture: 34 ........................................................................................................................................ 220 AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE...... 225 SUPERPHOSPHATE .................................................................................... 204 Module: 7 ........................................................ 207 GLASS (Continued) ........ 221 PROPERTIES ............................................................................................................ 215 CLASSIFICATION ........ 215 Module: 8 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 220 INTRODUCTION ............. 207 PROPERTIES ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 209 Module: 8 ... 232 ...................................................................................................................... 220 MANUFACTURE ...................... 203 RAW MATERIAL ........ 225 MANUFACTURE ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 225 INTRODUCTION ..................... 207 Lecture: 32 ...... 207 MANUFACTURE (Continued)...................................................................... 211 FERTILIZER ............................................................

....... 251 1............... 238 Module: 9 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 233 TRIPLE SUPERPHOSPHATE .......................................................................... 249 Module: 9 ................................................. 254 Module: 9 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 250 MANUFACTURE ............................................................................................................................... 239 UREA.......................................................................................................................................................... 251 2................................ 250 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 232 Module: 8 ............................................................................................ 246 INTRODUCTION ....... 240 PROPERTIES .............................................................................................................................................. 238 USES ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 234 PROPERTIES ............................................................................................................................................................. Duel salt process .............................................................................................. 233 Lecture: 36 ............................................................................................................................................................. 250 AMMONIUM CHLORIDE ...... 246 PROPERTIES ..................................................................................................................................USES .................................................... 246 MANUFACTURE ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 239 Lecture: 37 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 246 CALCIUM AMMONIUM NITRATE .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 233 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 250 Lecture: 39 .......................................................................... 256 ........................................ 246 Lecture: 38 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 244 USES ....................................................................................... Direct reaction .................................... 239 MANUFACTURE ... 233 MANUFACTURE ........... 239 INTRODUCTION ............ 245 Module: 9 ........................................................................ 249 USES ................................................................... 252 USES .......................................................................................................................

................................................................................. 270 INTRODUCTION ... 268 Module: 11 .............................. 270 CLASSIFICATION OF PAINTS ............................................................................................................. 262 PROPERTIES ............................................................................ 265 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 270 PAINT INDUSTRIES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Lecture: 44 ................................................................................................................... 270 Lecture: 43 ......... 262 POTASSIUM CHLORIDE....................................................................................................................................................... Recovery from natural complex salts ........................................................................................... 274 CONSTITUENTS OF PAINTS........................................................................................................................ 265 POTASSIUM SULFATE .................... 265 2.... 267 PROPERTIES ..................................................................................... 257 PROPERTIES ........................................................................................... 261 Module: 10 ................ 274 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 256 MANUFACTURE ......................................... 262 Lecture: 41 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Mannheim process................................................................................................................................................ 264 USES ..................................................... 265 1....................................................................... 265 MANUFACTURE ................................................................................................................................................................................... 256 AMMONIUM SULFATE ................... 268 USES ...............Lecture: 40 ...................................................................... 261 USES ......................................................................... 262 MANUFACTURE ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 270 Module: 11 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 264 Module: 10 .......................................................... 265 Lecture: 42 ............................................................... 274 PAINT INDUSTRIES (continued) ..................................................................................................................... 256 INTRODUCTION .....

......... 279 MANUFACTURE ......... 283 PAINT FALIURE ................................................................................................................................... 279 Lecture: 45 ................ 284 PROPERTIES ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Module: 11 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 285 ...................................................................................... 282 REQUIREMENT OF A GOOD PAINT........................................................................................................................ 279 PAINT INDUSTRIES (continued) .............................. 279 SETTING OF PAINT............................

2 2 –7 Industrial Gases Introduction. manufacturing methods and properties of white wares. sulfuric acid. types of cement Module No. uses and preparation of sodium chloride. refractories. 11 43 – 45 Paint Industries Introduction. sodium bicarbonate sodium hydroxide and chlorine. properties and uses of nitric acid. Module No.Syllabus Curriculum of the subject is divided into eleven modules and 45 lectures. manufacture and properties of paints 1 . Lecture Topics to be covered Numbers Module No. oxygen. properties and uses of sodium carbonate. Synthesis. 10 41 . Manufacture. ammonium chloride. ammonium sulfate Module No. 9 38 – 40 Nitrogen fertilizers Introduction. 6 26 – 29 Ceramic Industries Raw materials. calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN). Module No. Module No. classification of chemical industries. hydrogen. ammonia. 7 30 – 32 Glass Industries Raw materials. super phosphate. types of glass Module No. manufacturing method. manufacture of glass. clay products. 3 8 – 15 Sodium compounds Sources.42 Potassium fertilizers Introduction manufacture and properties of potassium chloride and potassium sulfate Module No. manufacture and uses of carbon dioxide. manufacture & properties of urea. heavy and fine chemicals Module No. acetylene. hydrochloric acid. triple super phosphate. properties and uses of ammonium phosphate. Module No. 5 22 – 25 Cement Industries Raw materials. 8 33 – 37 Phosphorus based agrochemicals Introduction of fertilizers. nitrogen. types. 4 16 – 21 Mineral acids Manufacture. phosphorus and phosphoric acid Module No. 1 1 Overview Introduction. Module No.

Chemical composition a) Organic compound Compounds having carbon atom in the main structure of the molecule is called organic compound. b) Fine chemicals They are complete purified substances and produced in limited quantity. On the other hand certain industries deal with speciality chemicals and they are making small quantity of product having better quality which is sold into market as finished good. N.g. Na2CO3 etc. NaOH. Patel Module: 1 Lecture: 1 HEAVY AND FINE CHEMICALS OVERVIEW Chemical industries are basically divided into two groups. E. mineral acid.g. medicines etc. NPTEL 1 . 2. They are called as fine chemical industries. phenols. First which produces simple compounds from the locally available large amount of raw materials usually they are very large industries and the product manufacture are purified to the extent that they can be used as raw material for other industries or they are directly marketed as a consumer goods. perfumes. E.g. carboxylic acid etc. hydrocarbons.Jay Shri Harsiddhi Mataji Module 1 Lecture: 1 Overview Dr. Quantity of production and consumption a) Heavy chemicals Those dealt in large quantity normally crude or less purified chemicals. 1. speciality solvent. K. Classification The materials used or produced in the chemical industries are classified in the following manner. E. In general they are heavy chemical industries.

Na2CO3. Patel b) Inorganic compound They are the compounds which do not have carbon in the main structure. E. NPTEL 2 . It becomes an active ingredient of a finished dosage form of the drug. Based on availability a) Natural compounds Compounds which are available in nature or produced or extracted from plant and animals are referred as natural products. E. Due to large utilization & limited production the natural source is depleting. usually used in small amounts relative to the reactants. They may be synthesized using natural product or they are synthesized completely using other type of synthetic materials. b) Synthetic products Men made compounds are referred as synthetic products. c) Resin Resin is a natural or synthetic compound which begins in a highly viscous state and hardness with treatment. Based on application a) Catalyst A substance. petroleum etc. E. epoxy. polystyrene. that either increases or decreases the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the process. but the term does not include intermediates used in the synthesis of such substances. K. polyvinylchloride etc. AlCl3. E. coal.Module 1 Lecture: 1 Overview Dr.g. Bisacodyl etc. If consumed than it should regenerative at the end of process. E.g. MnO2. 3. polyester etc. Pantoprazole. K2Cr2O7. but the main target or such product is that must be suited to direct applications. synthetic or semi synthetic. Pt etc.g. MgCl2 c) Polymers They are the macromolecular mass compounds made from covalent bonding of repeating structured units which may be natural. E. Urea formaldehyde.g. b) Bulk drug Bulk drug is the active substance used in a drug formulation.g. N.g. 4.

Benzene. E. DMSO etc. Raw materials They are naturally occurring material or not produced at the manufacturing unit and are procured from outside the manufacturing plant. Form the above discussion materials which are used in chemical industries can be classified into following categories. Pigments are defined as colouring agents that are practically insoluble in the application medium. NPTEL 3 . UNIT OPERATION AND UNIT PROCESS Activities of chemical manufacturing plant are broadly covered under the label of conversion of raw materials into useful products.g. THF. fertilizer. f) Miscellaneous All other compounds which do not cover in above class are called as miscellaneous. N.g. paper. e) Solvent A liquid in which substances (or solutes) are dissolved to form a solution is called as solvent. by forming insoluble salts (lake formation) of carboxylic or sulfonic acids. and particularly by incorporating groups that reduce solubility (e.g. In some cases the product are used as starting materials for further modification and thus the product may not be termed as end product but is called as intermediate. amide groups).Module 1 Lecture: 1 Overview Dr. glass etc. Many organic pigments and dyes have the same basic chemical structure. Patel d) Dyes and Pigments A dye or a dyestuff is usually a coloured organic compound or mixture that may be used for imparting colour to a substrate such as cloth. plastic or leather in a reasonably permanent fashion. K. DMF. In another cases the products are ready for marketing known as finished product. E. whereas dyes are colouring agents that are soluble in the application medium. The insolubility required in pigments can be obtained by excluding solubilizing groups. by metal complex formation in compounds without solubilizing groups. But still some of the finished products may be used for physical blending or combination with other materials and binders particularly in pharmaceutical industries.

Heat transfer processes : Evaporation. Unit operations shall be broadly classified as follows. N. Further. NPTEL 1. utilization of waste products etc. Thus very important classification of various changes useful to chemical industries was needed to be done. condensation 3. Also known as co-product Waste Do not have any commercial value. For the systematic study of chemical process industries the physical and chemical changes which are important for the manufacturing processes have been classified as unit operation and unit processes respectively Thus. In majority of cases. distillation.Module 1 Lecture: 1 Overview Dr. May be discarded after giving some treatments regarding control of pollution. adsorption. filtration. solids fluidization 2. operations are to be done to set up the condition to carry out chemical changes. any commercial manufacture or production unit of chemicals have combination of series of physical and chemical changes of raw materials or intermediates or finished product. modification of chemicals. Patel Intermediate They are undergoes some processing and further proceed for modification Finished product Product which are ready for marketing or sale By product It is useful material generated with main product. extraction. maximize the yield and conversion. K. Chemical Process Industries = Unit operation + Unit process Unit operation Major physical changes occur which are useful to chemical industries are known as unit operation. drying 4 . Ultimately comprehensive utilization of material for improvement in chemical properties. Fluid flow processes : Fluids transportation. Mass transfer processes : Gas absorption.

crushing and pulverization. Separation : Distillation. The study of these processes includes  The basic knowledge of chemistry and mechanism of particular chemical reaction  Design of equipment for the reaction  Optimization of reaction parameter However. Patel 4. But the regularities emerged from the study of a particular process can be useful in setting up condition for the manufacture of new chemical which may include one or more such unit processes. Mechanical processes 6. screening and sieving : Mixing 7. In both unit operations and unit processes the similarities within any unit operation or unit process are separated and studied. Thermodynamic processes : Gas liquefaction. Combination : Solids transportation. The ultimate study by NPTEL 5 .g. E. reduction. This is the scientific and engineering approach. In the unit process nitration  Reaction is almost exothermic  Physicochemical principles of equilibrium and chemical kinetics are similar  Material of construction of plant and equipment for the process can be predicted The principles of widely varying sequence of making up a chemical process do not depend upon the nature of the materials being worked upon and other characteristic of the system under study. establishment of reaction parameter and reactor design. K. If the step of process is recognized. alkylation and acylation etc. N. the process can be designed in such a way that each step to be used can be studied individually. thus drawing attention to the like qualities of a given physical change or chemical change. still the condition and parameter for carrying unit process in plant level may differ from product to product. Finally these results help to understanding the process. halogenations. refrigeration 5. extraction Unit process Useful chemical transformations with or without physical changes occurs in the chemical industries are called as unit process e.g. oxidation.Module 1 Lecture: 1 Overview Dr.

N. These formulas and laws are the tools for the industrial chemist uses in designing or operating a chemical plant.Module 1 Lecture: 1 Overview Dr. Patel this method of the technical changes culminated in chemical engineering formulas and laws for using the classified observations in each unit operation or unit process. In conclusion. NPTEL 6 . Both physical and chemical changes have been useful not only to fundamental concept but also to provide the technical detail as well as smoothen the manufacturing process at optimized reaction condition at low cost. K.