RULES FOR

CLASSIFICATION OF

SHIPS / HIGH SPEED, LIGHT CRAFT AND
NAVAL SURFACE CRAFT
NEWBUILDINGS
MACHINERY AND SYSTEMS
MAIN CLASS

PART 4 CHAPTER 3

ROTATING MACHINERY, DRIVERS
JANUARY 2001

CONTENTS
Sec. 1
Sec. 2
Sec. 3

PAGE

Diesel Engines ............................................................................................................................ 5
Gas Turbines............................................................................................................................. 27
Steam Turbines ........................................................................................................................ 52

DET NORSKE VERITAS
Veritasveien 1, N-1322 Høvik, Norway Tel.: +47 67 57 99 00 Fax: +47 67 57 99 11

CHANGES IN THE RULES
General.
This is a new chapter of the rules, decided by the Board in December
2000 and June 2001. It supersedes Sec.2, Sec.3 and Sec.4 of the January 1996 edition of Pt.4 Ch.2 “Propulsion and Auxiliary Machinery”. Previous Sec.9 on turbochargers has been revised and included
in Sec.1. Previous Pt.4 Ch.3 has been renumbered to read Pt.4 Ch.7.

W. Requirements regarding ancillaries, delivered as integral
parts of the engine, have been simplified.
In E the requirement concerning control and alarm have been increased to approximately E0 level.
In F300, H400 and I800 resilient mounting requirements have
been updated.
In G more focus has been put on vibration and transient torsional
vibration.
In H installation requirements have been included.

Sec.2 Gas Turbines

A. General

This sub section has been expanded and introduces the concept
of system approval (as opposed to component approval). Particular attention has been given to system integration.
B. Design

The expanded design sub section has been added to better explain
and present the approval exercise in DNV. The main changes relate to the test requirements. Cycle-based testing including frequent start and stop sequences represents the improvement in
DNV's expertise towards gas turbine in-service operation for
new engines.
C. Inspection and testing

Production verification process and extent of manufacturing survey arrangement have been added.
D. Workshop testing

Cyclic loading has been introduced in the certification test requirements. Less stringent than type testing, certification testing
focuses on the operating profile each specific engine is intended
for.
E. Control, alarms, safety functions and indication

The list of control and alarms has been expanded and amended.
Furthermore the concept of availability, in addition to safety, has
been highlighted. Specific fire safety requirements have been introduced and strengthened.
F. Arrangement

The requirements for arrangement have been clarified and made
more precise. More precise requirements for gas turbine enclosures have been added.
G. Vibrations

This part lists analysis and measurements to be performed with
reference to the relevant sections of the rules.
H. Installation inspections

Working as a checklist, this sub section is intended to verify that
the general arrangement of the gas turbine propulsion system on
board the vessel is in compliance with rules.
I. Shipboard testing



The rule changes come into force on 1 January 2002.
This chapter is valid until superseded by a revised chapter. Supplements will not be issued except for an updated list of minor amendments and corrections presented in Pt.0 Ch.1 Sec.3. Pt.0 Ch.1 is
normally revised in January and July each year.
Revised chapters will be forwarded to all subscribers to the rules.
Buyers of reprints are advised to check the updated list of rule chapters printed Pt.0 Ch.1 Sec.1 to ensure that the chapter is current.

Main changes

General

— A risk assessment and life cycle approach in class involvement
has been applied to Pt.4, resulting in the restructuring of Ch.1 to
Ch.12. The previous Ch.2 has been sub-divided into four chapters, with Ch.2 as the lead document, containing inter alia principles and certification requirements, in regard to rotating
machinery.
— Overall changes include that vibration requirements and methods
for vibration calculation have been added, instrumentation requirements have been increased to approximately E0 level and
more focus has been placed on acceptance criteria and transparency.

Sec.1 Diesel Engines

— A200 and A300 have been expanded to cover the extent and
specification of required documentation.
— B100 and B1602 have been extended to cover type testing for
highly rated engines.
— In B200 bedplates and frame boxes have been considered with
regard to fatigue (welding).
— In B500 requirements regarding power transmitting parts have
been added.
— In B1200 requirements for turbochargers have been expanded
and amended.
— In B1300 requirements regarding the auxiliary blower capacity
has been included for 2-stroke engines.
— In B1400 requirements concerning vibration dampers have been
included and extended.
— In C201 an opening for reduced certification of parts for smaller
engines in MSAs has been introduced.
— In items C200 and C300 the certification requirements for tie
rods and piston rods have been removed and the certification requirements for bolts, piston crowns, connecting rod, crosshead
and gear wheels have been reduced. The certification requirements for cylinder liners, bedplates and frameboxes have been
increased. Certification of turbochargers, when supplying cylinder groups of less than 2500 kW, have been reduced from NV to

Covering both quay and sea trials, this sub section is designed to
verify system integration and control system behaviour. The general test requirements are the same as those defined in B.

Sec.3 Steam Turbines

— No changes are introduced in this section.

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Norske Veritas.

Rules for Ships / High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2001
Pt.4 Ch.3 Contents – Page 3

CONTENTS
SEC. 1 DIESEL ENGINES .............................................. 5
A. General...................................................................................5
A
A
A
A
A

100
200
300
400
500

Application........................................................................5
Documentation of the engine ............................................5
Additional documentation of propulsion engines .............7
Documentation of arrangement.........................................7
Documentation of vibration ..............................................7

B. Design .....................................................................................8
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800

General ..............................................................................8
Structural components ......................................................9
Safety valves and crankcase ventilation............................9
Bolt connections................................................................9
Power transmitting parts ...................................................9
Hydraulic valve operation...............................................10
Fuel oil system ................................................................10
Charge air system and cooler..........................................10
Starting air system...........................................................10
Lubrication ......................................................................10
Fire protection .................................................................10
Turbocharger...................................................................10
Auxiliary blower .............................................................11
Vibration dampers...........................................................11
Type testing.....................................................................11
Type testing data collection ............................................12
Type testing program ......................................................12
Type testing of engines for high speed, light craft and
naval surface craft ...........................................................13

C. Inspection and Testing........................................................14
C
C
C
C

100
200
300
400

General ............................................................................14
Certification of parts .......................................................14
Testing and inspection of parts .......................................14
Inspection during assembly.............................................16

D. Workshop Testing ...............................................................16
D
D
D
D
D

100
200
300
400
500

Application......................................................................16
General engine tests ........................................................16
Testing of propulsion engines.........................................16
Testing of engines for auxiliary generating sets .............17
Opening up after testing..................................................17

E. Control, Alarm, Safety Functions and Indication............17
E
E
E
E
E
E

100
200
300
400
500
600

General ............................................................................17
Speed governing..............................................................17
Overspeed protection ......................................................17
Instrumentation and alarms for propulsion engines........17
Speed governing of diesel generator sets........................18
Instrumentation and alarms on auxiliary engines ...........18

F. Arrangement........................................................................19
F
F
F
F
F
F

100
200
300
400
500
600

Alignment and reaction forces ........................................19
Rigid mounting ...............................................................19
Resilient mounting ..........................................................19
Exhaust pipes ..................................................................20
Lubrication and fuel pipes...............................................20
Crankcase ventilation pipes ............................................20

G. Vibration ..............................................................................20
G
G
G
G
G
G

100
200
300
400
500
600

Symbols and definitions..................................................20
Vibration measurements .................................................20
Steady state torsional vibration.......................................20
Transient torsional vibration ...........................................22
Axial vibration ................................................................23
Engine vibration..............................................................23

H. Installation Inspections.......................................................24
H
H
H
H
H

100
200
300
400
500

Application......................................................................24
Assembling of engines supplied in sections ...................24
Alignment and foundation ..............................................24
Resiliently mounted engines ...........................................24
Fuel, lubrication and cooling systems.............................24

I. Shipboard Testing ...............................................................25
I

100

Application......................................................................25

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

General engine tests ........................................................25
Testing of propulsion engines......................................... 25
Testing of auxiliary engines............................................ 25
Steady state torsional vibration.......................................25
Transient torsional vibration ...........................................25
Axial vibration ................................................................25
Engine vibration..............................................................26
Opening up after testing..................................................26

SEC. 2 GAS TURBINES................................................ 27
A. General ................................................................................ 27
A 100
A 200
A 300
A
A
A
A
A

400
500
600
700
800

Application......................................................................27
Documentation................................................................27
Additional documentation for gas fuel arrangement (e.g.
for mobile offshore units) ............................................... 28
Documentation of vibration analysis (core and system).29
Documentation of arrangement.......................................30
Documentation of production verification...................... 31
Documentation of control systems..................................31
Documentation of fire safety ..........................................31

B. Design .................................................................................. 31
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

General ............................................................................31
Structural components .................................................... 32
Component design requirements.....................................32
Engine testing and type testing .......................................39
General requirements for engine test .............................. 39
Engine test data collection .............................................. 40
Power measurement ........................................................40
Type testing, general....................................................... 40
Type testing program ......................................................41
Boroscope inspection and tear-down after testing ..........43

C. Inspection and Testing ....................................................... 43
C 100
C 200
C 300

General ............................................................................43
Certification of parts ....................................................... 43
Production verification.................................................... 43

D. Workshop Testing .............................................................. 43
D
D
D
D
D

100
200
300
400
500

Application......................................................................43
Certification testing......................................................... 44
Certification testing of propulsion engines .....................44
Certification testing of engines for generating sets.........44
Boroscope inspection ......................................................45

E. Control, Alarm, Safety Functions and Indication........... 45
E
E
E
E
E

100
200
300
400
500

Core engine controls ....................................................... 45
Monitoring and instrumentation system ......................... 46
Safety system .................................................................. 46
Fire safety........................................................................ 46
Auxiliary system controls ............................................... 46

F. Arrangement....................................................................... 46
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800

F 900

Alignment and reaction forces ........................................46
Mounting in general ........................................................47
Rigid mounting ............................................................... 47
Resilient mounting .......................................................... 47
Inlet and outlet passages ................................................. 47
Carbo blast system .......................................................... 48
Gas turbine enclosure......................................................48
Special requirements for arrangement of ventilation in
mobile offshore units ......................................................48
Special requirements for arrangement of fuel supply in
mobile offshore units ......................................................48

G. Vibration ............................................................................. 49
G 100
G 200
G 300

General ............................................................................49
Analysis...........................................................................49
Tests and measurements ................................................. 49

H. Installation Inspections...................................................... 49
H
H
H
H

100
200
300
400

Application......................................................................49
Assembly of gas turbines supplied in modules...............49
Alignment and foundation .............................................. 49
Inlet and outlet passages ................................................. 50

DET NORSKE V ERITAS

Rules for Ships / High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2001
Pt.4 Ch.3 Contents – Page 4

H 500
H 600
H 700
H 800

On-engine ancillaries, including fuel and lubrication
systems ............................................................................50
Fire prevention ................................................................50
Piping and cables ............................................................50
Control and monitoring ...................................................50

B 200
B 300

Testing of components ....................................................52
Workshop testing ............................................................52

C. Arrangement ....................................................................... 52
C 100
C 200

General Arrangement ......................................................52
Arrangement of propulsion machinery ...........................52

I. Shipboard Testing............................................................... 50
I
I
I

100
200
300

Quay trial.........................................................................50
Sea trial ...........................................................................50
Boroscope inspection ......................................................51

SEC. 3 STEAM TURBINES ......................................... 52
A. General ................................................................................ 52
A 100
A 200

Application......................................................................52
Documentation ................................................................52

B. Certification and Testing ................................................... 52
B 100

General ............................................................................52

D. Design and Construction.................................................... 53
D 100

Design .............................................................................53

E. Control and Monitoring ..................................................... 53
E
E
E
E

100
200
300
400

General ............................................................................53
Propulsion steam turbines ...............................................53
Auxiliary steam turbines .................................................53
Monitoring ......................................................................53

F. Testing On Board................................................................ 54
F 100
F 200

Testing before sea trial ....................................................54
Sea trial ...........................................................................54

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Rules for Ships / High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2001
Pt.4 Ch.3 Sec.1 – Page 5

SECTION 1
DIESEL ENGINES
A. General
A 100 Application
101 This section covers requirements applicable to diesel engines above 200 kW subject to certification, see Ch.2 Sec.1
and Sec.2, as well as the engine installation and shipboard testing. For diesel engines with power less than 200 kW, IMO and
SOLAS requirements will still apply, see B800 and B1200. Installations intended for running on crude oil or gas will be especially considered, see Pt.6 Ch.13.
102 The rules in B to E apply to the diesel engine, its components and its internal systems. The rules in F to I apply to the
installation of the engine, the engine and its system dynamics
(which is influenced by the engine), and the shipboard testing.
103 The diesel engine is to be delivered with a NV certificate
that is based on the component certification in C and the workshop testing in D.
104 Fig.1 shows the certification process for a diesel engine
where the manufacturer is a licensee or producer of own design.
A licensee can apply for type approval or case by case approval
when a design assessment has been issued and a type test has
been carried out. This principle also applies for turbochargers
and torsional vibration dampers produced under licence.
A licensee does not have to carry out a new type test for engines, turbochargers and dampers produced under license
when the licenser has already carried out a type test.
A 200 Documentation of the engine
201 Drawings, data, specifications, calculations and other information are to be submitted as applicable according to Table
A1 (except for items covered by a type approval) where:
A
I
UR
NDT

=
=
=
=

UR is used for example when service experiences from similar
designs indicate that a more thorough design review may be
necessary.

*)

The type test may be postponed to the workshop test for
case-by-case approvals

Fig. 1
Flow chart showing the certification process for diesel engines

for approval
for information
upon request
non-destructive testing.

Table A1 Documentation
Component

Drawings

Engine transverse section
Engine longitudinal section
Bedplate

Material
specification

Calculations

I
I
A

A

UR

Frame box and column

A

A

UR

Engine block
Main and crankpin bearings
Thrust bearing and structure 1)

I
I
A

I
I
A

Tie rod
Crankcase safety valve arrangement
Cylinder head

I
A
I

I

Cylinder head bolts

I

I

Miscellaneous

— Welding procedure specification, see 204
— Alignment specification
— Welding procedure specification, see 204
— Alignment specification

Reference to
design
requirements

See B200
See B200
See B200

See 301
— See 302
— Welding procedure specification, see 204
A

I

DET NORSKE V ERITAS

See B300
NDT specification if cast for crosshead engines

p. see Ch. 4) Governor to be type approved.8.p.8.1 – Page 6 Table A1 Documentation (Continued) Component Drawings Material specification Calculations Cylinder liner I I Piston complete Piston rod Crosshead complete including guides Connecting rod Connecting rod bolts Crankshaft I I I A A A I I I A A A UR UR Crankshaft bolts A A UR Counterweights including fastening I Thrust shaft Torsional vibration damper Axial vibration damper Camshaft drive assembly Gear wheels for camshaft drive Camshaft Cams and cam rollers High pressure parts for fuel oil injection system Electronic injection system Fuel oil system 3) Shielding of fuel pipes Hydraulic system for valve lift Exhaust valve Inlet valve Turbocharger Auxiliary blower arrangement Exhaust pipes. The required information is: — maximum continuous output rating (kW and r. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. Particulars are to be submitted on the DNV form Diesel Engine Data Sheet No.) — intermittent overload rating (kW and r.m.m. 2) To be type approved.Rules for Ships / High Speed.p.3 Sec. shielding Starting air system 3) Charge air system 3) Lubrication oil system 3) Cooling water system 3) Safety and control system including alarm list Speed governing system Monitoring system Maintenance and Operation manual 5) A A I I I I I A I (of bolts if applicable) A A A2) A A A I I TA A A A A A I A Miscellaneous NDT specification if propulsion engine NDT specification upon request NDT specification upon request Alignment specification NDT specification — NDT specification — allowable deflections — alignment specification See B509 See B508 See B400 See B502 to B506 See B400 and B507 See B1400 See B1400 I I I I See B700 Shielding I I TA Reference to design requirements I See B1300 See B700 See B700 See B601 See B1200 See B1300 See B1100 See B900 See B800 See B1000 See B300 and E A4) A I See E See E Including maintenance schedule for the complete engine 1) Applicable when the engine thrust bearing is the main thrust bearing for the complete shafting system (taking propeller thrust).m. 72.4 Ch. 5) This applies for design assessments. see Ch. (for setting of overspeed protection) — valve timing angles — compression pressure and charge air pressure at maximum continuous rating — compression pressure and charge air pressure at intermittent overload rating — cylinder diameter — stroke — number and arrangement of cylinders — firing order or firing angles — compression ratio — mass of reciprocating parts per cylinder DET NORSKE VERITAS . 3) Integrated in engine design.10. January 2001 Pt. as specified by the manufacturer — permissible rate of load increase and load decrease (upon request) — mean indicated pressure at maximum continuous output — mean indicated pressure at overload rating — maximum cylinder pressure at maximum continuous rating — maximum cylinder pressure at intermittent overload rating — maximum permissible r.). type approvals and case-by-case approvals if no design assessment or type approval is issued.

g. a) Torsional vibration calculations for steady state conditions. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- d) Engine vibration calculations. When NDT specifications are required. It DET NORSKE V ERITAS . A 400 Documentation of arrangement 401 The following plans and specifications are to be submitted (normally by the yard): a) Engine fastening arrangement with bolts. b) Torsional vibration calculations for transient conditions: 1) Passing through a barred speed range (typical for 2stroke engine): This applies when it is necessary for the acceptance of the shafting to document a certain vibration and stress level when passing through a barred speed range. 2) Starting and stopping operations (typical for generator sets): This applies when requested by the Society in order to prove that starting and stopping procedures. 202 Some information. calculations of the static positions within the elastic mounts are to be submitted. see F304. see F300). see Ch. 3) Clutching in: This applies to plants with rapidly engaging clutches. LC and NSC propulsion engines. This also applies to diesel generator sets mounted on a frame that is resiliently mounted. if applicable.4 Ch. the acceptance criteria are to be included. 303 Engines driving generators in diesel electric propulsion systems are defined as propulsion engines.3 A200. See F303. f) A 500 Documentation of vibration 501 The following calculations (when applicable) are to be submitted (normally by the yard) for all plants except auxiliary plants with less than 200 kW engine rated power. applicable to HS. is not detrimental to any power transmitting parts. d) For resiliently mounted engines. This applies to design assessments. not directly subject to approval is collected in order to establish a complete file for use in the operational phase. 203 The drawings are to have clear references to the applicable material specification. Transient vibration calculations due to short-circuiting will be required if the ratio torsional dynamic stiffness (kNm/rad) and considering the excitation frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz) by rated torque (kNm) exceeds 10. i. 503 In all kinds of torsional vibration calculations the variation of essential data such as dynamic characteristics of elastic couplings and dampers is to be considered. full details of joints are to be given and relevant welding procedure specifications are to be referred to on the drawings. This applies only when requested by the Society. including reaction forces (see F205). arrangement of exhaust piping and all flexible piping.3 Sec. pre-stress.1 – Page 7 — mass of rotating parts of the connecting rod referred to the crank radius — unbalanced mass of one crank referred to crank radius (counterweights exclusive) — mass and angular position of each counterweight referred to crank radius — data for calculation of torsional vibration — turbocharger compressor chart with operation curve related to engine (Typical charts for type approval of the engine. the following are to be specified: — filler metal particulars — heat treatment after welding — NDT with acceptance levels (preferably ISO 5817 for internal defects). tuning wheel) or run in high-speed ranges where no field experience exists. This applies to all resiliently mounted engines except to engine-generator sets where the engine and generator are rigidly mounted on a common frame and the frame is resiliently mounted.e. Kdyn/To > 10 in the PTO branch. these are to substantiate the requirements given in B. transient vibration calculations will be required.3 A101. the specified chart for each application) — auxiliary blower number and capacity (applicable for 2stroke single propulsion engines). b) Top stay arrangement. See also Ch. 1) 2) 302 For engines with integrated main thrust bearing the maximum permissible wear is to be submitted for information unless given in the maintenance manual. The conclusion is to be based on a comparison between calculated dynamic response and the permissible values for all the sensitive parts in the plant. see G402. involving passage of major critical areas. In addition. see Ch.2 Sec. When calculations are required. e) Frame (skid) for engines and generators mounted on a frame that is resiliently mounted. The specified pressure-time characteristics will be considered and if found necessary. A 300 Additional documentation of propulsion engines c) Axial vibration calculations. see B1300 — performance curves — permissible bearing reactions in the engine (only applicable for direct coupled propulsion engines) — permissible accelerations of the engine. January 2001 Pt. type approvals and case-by-case approvals if no design assessment or type approval is issued.4 Sec. Especially rubber couplings and certain types of vibration dampers have wide tolerances of stiffness and damping. if applicable. bolt tightening specification and specification of maximum permissible wear are to be submitted for information unless given in the maintenance manual. direct coupled plants are running sub-critically on the lowest major torsional order engines are either rigidly connected to extraordinary heavy masses (e. Guidance note: Requests for axial vibration calculations are normally made when: 301 For main bearing and crankpin bearing drawings. c) Resilient mounts (to be type approved.1 B200. For resiliently mounted engines. 4) Short circuit in PTO driven generators: This applies to plants with power take off (PTO) driven generators where short circuits can occur. 204 For components of welded construction and for repair welding. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. epoxy (including calculations) or metallic chocks (see F200). and upon request. 502 — — — — — — The calculations are to contain: objectives description of the method plant and system layout conditions assumptions conclusion.2 Sec. if applicable.Rules for Ships / High Speed.

For some components. permissible overloads.2 Sec. engines that are generally fitted with an elastic coupling. b) Including the “crankshaft vibration” in the engine’s type approval. gearboxes. etc. cams. Guidance note: It is desirable to minimise the extent of documentation of vibration as given in 500 for the actual plants.6 and Ch. e. as well as load variations. c) Diesel generator sets and other auxiliary purposes according to maximum continuous power unless otherwise specified. For this purpose. Guidance note: Design approval based on testing is especially suitable for small engines. but as a minimum the influence of such wide tolerances is to be qualitatively considered and also addressed in the conclusions. Such verification applies if there is any reason to believe that the engine can be damaged when operating close to the specified alarm set points. the worst cylinder is to be selected. shafting lengths. January 2001 Pt. the assumed parameter dependency and tolerance range is to be specified.3 A102. Thus. 102 Design calculations or test conditions are to be based on the maximum possible loads. Such torsional vibration calculations are to be made with the maximum relevant engine load in the whole actual speed range. as found applicable. i. This applies in particular to parts subjected to high cycle fatigue such as connecting rods. etc. This can be achieved by e.2 Sec. cylinder maximum pressure.2. a) Propulsion engines according to maximum continuous rating b) Propulsion engines for HS. Approval will only be given if either the engine: — has been thoroughly tested during the development phase or — the test program has been extended to cover uncertainties in the design analysis or DET NORSKE VERITAS . Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. The testing is to be arranged to represent typical load profiles as well as to cover for required safety factors due to wear and fatigue scatter and foreseen in-service deterioration. see Ch. may be suitable for system type approval. 104 Design approval of diesel engines consists of both design analysis and testing. 505 In connection with torsional vibration calculations the following may be requested: — type of speed governor — position of speed sensor.2 Sec. High cycle fatigue (typical for “cold parts”) is to be documented by analyses combined with running at the most relevant load (normally an elevated level) for at least 3 million cycles.. water jets etc.g. or permitted in the operating manual. pumps. i. For couplings having stiffness with strong dependency on vibratory torque and mean torque and temperature (as a consequence of power loss) it may be required to carry out either iterative direct calculations or simulation calculation where these dependencies are included. For data that cannot be given as constant parameters (see for example 503).3 Sec. see Ch.m. LC and NSC as for a) and according to the specified overload permitted for intermittent use.Rules for Ships / High Speed. while others may be documented by either testing or calculations. For engines where the crankshaft stresses are practically independent of the driven system. Higher stresses and number of cycles will be necessary if the fatigue strength is influenced by fretting or possible defects in welds. The number of thermal stress cycles depends on the intended application of the engine. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 107 After testing as mentioned in 102 to 106 the engine is to be disassembled for thorough inspection by a surveyor from the Society. or change of structural integrity components or extended operational conditions. B. Thermal stress cycles obtained by idle (or start) – full load – idle (or stop) sequences are to be run in a way that results in the most severe thermal stresses. frequent idle (or start) . 2) Engines which use a limited number of elastic couplings. coolers etc. For general design requirements regarding piping and ancillary equipment. rollers and spring tuned dampers where higher stresses may be provided by means of elevated injection pressure. such as pipes.e. may be covered by a system type approval. see Ch. If the type test engine has a considerably lower number of cylinders than the maximum number for that engine type. this test requirement may be postponed to the sea trial testing of the first engine with the high number of cylinders. Design B 100 108 For engines of new designs or modifications of existing designs as: General 101 For general design principles concerning machinery. Misfiring (no fuel injection) of one cylinder is also to be considered. 506 Measurements and analysis of camshaft and gear drive vibration may be required if service experience with this or similar engine types indicate excessive vibration. 106 The duration of the tests is to be selected to accumulate a relevant number of stress cycles. For example: 1) Resiliently mounted engines where standard mounts are used and all connections (including the drive coupling) are made so flexible that they have no influence on the vibration. filters. The maximum and minimum loads are to be kept for sufficient time to stabilise the temperatures of the relevant parts.e. I. see G301 d).4 Ch. generators.g. propellers. normally with the maximum load change per time unit that is possible with the foreseen control system.1 – Page 8 is normally not required to perform calculations with all combinations of these extreme data. Guidance note: Design approval based on testing is especially suitable for small engines.7. this part of the torsional vibration need not be submitted for the actual applications. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 105 Verification of safe operation of the engine as limited by alarms may be required during type testing.3. 103 The engine loads to be considered are as follows: — — — — — 5% increase of maximum combustion pressure or 5% increase of mean effective pressure or 5% increase of r.p. it is advised to have both axial (if necessary) and torsional vibration included in the type approval. a combination of both testing and design calculations may be necessary. Special attention should be paid to Ch. 504 In vibration calculations the source of all essential data is to be listed.full load – idle (or stop) sequences and permissible rates of engine load increase and decrease.e.: a) System type approval.

5 mbar. January 2001 Pt. 303 The free area of each crankcase safety valve is not to be less than 45 cm2. 503 Requirements and calculation methods for crankshafts are described in Classification Note 41. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. Each one of the safety valves required to be fitted. 403 Bolt connections are to be designed to prevent fatigue. or — a crankcase volume of 0. surface roughness and dimensional tolerances for ovality.3 Sec. If a forced extraction of the gases is provided (e.1 – Page 9 — the engine has been case by case approved and has proven reliability in service. In addition. B 300 301 Safety valves and crankcase ventilation Engines with either: — cylinder diameter of 200 mm and above. connecting rods. 502 The crankshaft documentation submitted for approval is to contain drawings with details of fillets. framebox. 302 The safety valves are to be type tested according to method specified by the engine designer. B 500 Power transmitting parts 501 Crankshafts. columns and crankcases with integrated parts as crankcase doors are defined as structural components. provided that the free area of each valve is not less than 45 cm2.2 bar in the crankcase and to close quickly and automatically in order to avoid inrush of air into the crankcase. The crankcase volume is also to be specified. for oil mist detection purposes). Full penetration welds are to be applied in the most fatigue exposed areas. welds in journals etc. minimum 2 D > 300 One in way of each crank-throw One per separate space Separate spaces 1) from crankcase > 0. frameboxes and columns are to be designed to avoid fatigue cracking due to the stresses in operation.g.3 covers scantling of crankshafts based on an evaluation of safety against fatigue in the crankpin fillets. The threshold value for crack propagation is to be taken as 2 (MPa√m). mechanical properties. Furthermore. Guidance note: The oil vapour from the ventilation pipe should preferably be led to free air.4 Ch. cleanliness preferably according to ISO 4967 (applicable for materials with minimum required tensile strength beyond 800 MPa). journals and fillets as well as any other fillet treatment. NDT procedures. surface hardening (hardness and depth) of pins. forging or casting method. the weld dimensions including the maximum nose (root gap) is to be clearly defined. connection rod and cross head. are subject to special consideration. highly stressed areas as for example fillets between offset crankpins. 505 The fatigue criteria used in the Classification Note 41. When applicable. crossheads and piston rods are defined as power transmitting parts. The allowable crank throw deflections for installation phase as well as the operational phase are to be specified. Table B1 Crankcase explosion relief valves Cylinderdiameter Number of Number of safety valves D (mm) crankthrows 200 ≤ D ≤ 250 ≤8 One at each end of the engine 200 ≤ D ≤ 250 >8 As above plus one near the middle of the engine 250 < D ≤ 300 One in way of each alternate crank-throw. The respective bearings are also included here. These methods apply to solid or semi-built crankshafts of forged or cast steel. it is assumed that the highest DET NORSKE V ERITAS .g. for example more than 2500 running hours. finite element calculations. the material specification is to contain type of material(s). 304 The crankcase safety valves are to be designed and built to open quickly at an overpressure of not more than 0. position and the free area of the relief valves. 202 All welds in bedplates.6 m3 1) Separate spaces that are not in open connection to the crankcase such as gear and chain case etc. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- B 200 Structural components 201 Bedplates. Guidance note: The net gas volume is equal to the volume confined by the crankcase minus the volume of moving parts such as crankshaft. Documentation of this may be based on relevant tests. unless another value can be documented. material type and specifications as well as the tightening procedure and specification. may be replaced by not more than two safety valves of smaller area. The combined free area of the valves fitted on an engine is not to be less than 115 cm2/m3 of the crankcase net gas volume. For other bolt connections upon request 402 The drawings are to show dimensions. and with each crank throw between main bearings. Such areas are in particular those near the main and thrust bearings. 305 Ventilation of crankcase and any similar arrangement must be made so as to avoid a flow of external air within the crankcase. 203 If partial penetration welds are applied in the most fatigue exposed areas. Other types will be especially considered on basis of equivalence with the requirements mentioned above. oil holes. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- B 400 Bolt connections 401 The requirements in 400 apply to all important bolt connections such as: — crankshaft bolts (connecting parts of crankshafts and for flywheel connections) — connecting rod bolts. journal fillets and in the oil bores. it is to be documented that the stated nose is acceptable. The relief valves shall be provided with flame arrestors in order to minimise the possibility of injury to personnel. the vacuum in the crankcase is not to exceed 2.6 m3 and above are to be provided with crankcase explosion relief valves as shown in Table B1.3. The extent of these elements is subject to special consideration. 504 Classification Note 41.Rules for Ships / High Speed. Ducting of the outlet is to be avoided. taper and parallelism. thread type (including rolled or machined). The bolt fatigue strength is to be assessed under due consideration to both stress concentrations and pre-stress. Furthermore. The arrangement drawings are to show the number.3 assume that maximum respective minimum bending stresses occur simultaneously with the maximum respective minimum torsional stresses. service experience or by means of fracture mechanics calculations where the nominal stresses are found by e.

Surfaces that reach higher temperatures are to be insulated or equivalently protected so that flammable fluids hitting the surface cannot be ignited. 506 Classification Note 41. 902 The design is to prevent combustion gases from entering the starting air system in case of malfunctioning of the starting valves. if applicable material specification of rotating parts including evaluation of the material properties versus the temperature it will be exposed to — operational data and limitations. pitching etc.3 Sec. B 900 Starting air system 901 A system drawing showing all the protective devices. pitch and roll (degrees) and acceleration — maximum allowable vibration level — operation manual — compressor performance chart for the turbocharger to be tested — type test. The procedure for calculation of the applicable impact torque is given in Pt. evaluation of fatigue under multi-axial stress conditions and with rotating principal stress axis may replace the criteria applied.e.3 B200. as defined in Ch. The applicable impact torque is additional to the engine vibration torque and is of special importance for the safety against slippage. 509 Crossheads including gudgeon pin and guides are to be documented with drawings specifying material type and properties. The jacketed piping system shall include a means for collection of leakage and arrangements shall be provided for an alarm to be given. roll. into machinery air intakes. charge air spaces in open connection to the cylinders are to be fitted with: — safety valves which are to open quickly in case of an overpressure — a connection to an approved fire-extinguishing system that is entirely separate from the fire-extinguishing system of the engine room.1 Sec. These assumptions yield results that are somewhat on the safe side. 1203 The materials in the rotating parts are to be able to withstand the stresses and strains and temperatures to which they will be exposed. B 1200 Turbocharger 1201 Turbochargers are to be type approved (see also A104) based on: — — — — cross sectional drawing with principal dimensions drawings of the rotating parts welding details of the rotating parts. the required safety factor would then be subject to special consideration. 508 The connecting rod drawings are to specify the material properties and NDT including acceptance levels. at least: — maximum continuous r.3 also contains requirements for safety versus slippage of semi-built crankshafts. This is valid for the highest peak torque in the crankshaft and also taking the shrink fitting procedure into account. is to be submitted.Rules for Ships / High Speed. are to be designed to withstand the possible back pressure if a starting valve remains open.2 Sec. Guidance note: This may be arranged by means of an isolating non-return valve or equivalent at the starting air supply connection to each engine and a bursting disc or flame arrestors at the supply inlet to the starting air manifold. For turbochargers intended for a group of cylinders in excess of 2500 kW. B 600 Hydraulic valve operation 601 For engines with hydraulic lift valves.1 Sec. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. The maximum shrinkage amount is limited by the permissible amount of plastification of the web and journal materials. A jacketed pipe incorporates an outer pipe into which the high pressure fuel pipe is placed forming a permanent assembly.15. or other sources of ignition. in the case of a fuel line failure. surface roughness and required alignment (for information only). 703 Oil fuel lines shall be screened or otherwise suitably protected to avoid as far as practicable oil spray or oil leakage onto hot surfaces.p.4 Ch. including details (dimensions and material properties) of pipes and valves. 702 All external high pressure fuel delivery lines between the high pressure fuel pumps and fuel injectors shall be protected with a jacketed piping system capable of containing fuel from a high pressure line failure.5 Ch. an arrangement drawing is to be submitted. (Fully built crankshafts will be considered on basis of equivalence with these requirements. B 1000 Lubrication 1001 The lubrication oil pump intakes are to be arranged to ensure that no air suction takes place under the worst operating conditions such as maximum list. With these “hidden safety factors” the required minimum calculated safety factor is 1. this is to be documented by analyses of stresses and strains and temperatures in the rotating parts and lifetime calculations of these parts: DET NORSKE VERITAS .m. no elastic coupling) in ships strengthened for navigation in ice. 1202 The turbocharger is to be specified to operate under the conditions given in Ch. However.1 Sec.) The required minimum safety factor against slippage is 2. see also Ch.0. Water draining from a cooler leakage shall be possible.1. January 2001 Pt. — maximum allowable temperatures (air and exhaust) — maximum allowable list and trim (degrees).3.3 A103.3 B. the crankshaft and the crankshaft bolts are to be designed for the ice impact torques. 507 For direct coupled propulsion engines (i. The number of joints in such piping shall be kept to a minimum. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 903 The pipes and valves. B 1100 Fire protection 1101 All exposed surfaces are to be kept below the maximum permissible temperature given in Ch. Repair welding of connecting rods is subject to special approval. B 800 Charge air system and cooler 801 The charge air system is to be designed to prevent water entering the engine. see also A204. Guidance note: A hole in the bottom may be sufficient. including the non-return valve.1 – Page 10 stress concentrations in bending and torsion occur at the same positions. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 802 In 2-stroke engines. If properly documented. Double piping or shielding including both end connections is required. B 700 Fuel oil system 701 The drawings are to describe all pipes (including the low-pressure pipes) and pressurised components (engine side) as well as specifying the various maximum pressures in these.

b) The requirements for testing.1 – Page 11 a) The calculations are to be based on low cycle fatigue.g. The result is to be within the maker’s specification.1 Sec. the turbocharger is to be able to supply the airflow (volume and pressure) for the engine as specified by the engine manufacturer. The margin 1) against surging is to be at least: — 10% for normal operating conditions or according to engine designers specification — > 0 for all permissible operation modes with misfiring in one cylinder.e. maximum permissible compressor inlet (or ambient) temperature for steady state operation and maximum permissible rates of acceleration and deceleration during start-up and shutdown operation. 1) 1206 The turbocharger chosen for a specific engine is to be able to operate continuously (100% of the time) at the rated (certified) power as well as for any specified intermittent overload. Load profile definition is to be specified and documented. 1406 Spring tuned dampers are to be designed to avoid fretting in vital elements. and the testing requirements apply to one selected size.2 Sec. 1402 For torsional vibration dampers the following requirements apply: a) Subcontracted dampers of standard design (including design concept) are to be type approved. high cycle fatigue and creep-rupture analyses as applicable and they are to cover the limits of operation (see Guidance note). For a generic range of turbochargers. The type test is to be completed by a hot running test at maximum permissible speed and maximum permissible temperature. c) Dampers produced by the engine manufacturer are to be type approved either as a separate product or as a part of the engine. see 108). The margin is defined as the horizontal distance (constant pressure) to the surge line in a pressure-mass-flow chart. For such dampers the springs are to be designed with a minimum safety factor of 2. Typical limits are maximum permissible speed. documentation and acceptance criteria are to be approved by the Society. The type test report. based on the criteria above and combined with temperature effect. The limits of operation shall include any combination of the above which are realistic operating conditions. 1404 Torsional vibration dampers are to be specified with regard to damping. The extent of the DNV surveyor’s presence is to be decided by DNV in consultation with the maker before the test. a reduced extent of the above calculations may be accepted. acceptance criteria are to be approved. The tolerances of the damping and stiffness and the limitations of the influence parameters are also to be specified. are to be specified. one engine is to be presented for type testing. acceptance criteria for the following component conditions are to be agreed upon: — — — — rotor expansion (outer and inner diameters) radial and axial clearances NDT of all rotating parts bearing conditions. acceptance criteria. As an alternative. The testing is at least to include overspeed tests and endurance (life cycle) tests. reliability documented by testing may be accepted. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . 1205 For propulsion installations.p. etc. 1303 The engine speed at which the auxiliary blowers are stopped is to be selected under consideration of the necessity of passing quickly through a barred speed range.m. For rubber and silicone type dampers in general and for some steel spring dampers the dynamic properties are to be documented by means of relevant type testing (e. oil viscosity (viscous dampers). B 1500 Type testing 1501 Upon finalisation of every new type of engine (or modified. Before the test. After the test. see also Ch. i. Guidance note: The limits of operation are the operating conditions in which the (cyclic) stress range or strain range is maximum. the auxiliary blowers are to have a capacity sufficient to run the engine continuously with a speed (r. For turbochargers intended for a group of cylinders less than 2500 kW.3 B200. This requirement applies in all other foreseen operating conditions as e. rubber and silicone condition. the turbocharger is to be opened for examination. these elements are to be subjected to fatigue type testing. B 1300 Auxiliary blower 1301 All single propulsion 2-stroke engines to be fitted with at least two auxiliary blowers. maximum permissible turbine inlet temperature.0 against fatigue. with controllable pitch propellers utilising higher pitch than nominal when running at reduced speeds. is to be submitted for approval. The vibration level is to be measured and recorded. permissible vibration level and heat load properties as functions of their main influence parameters. Stress levels and number of stress cycles will be especially considered. whose engine power is above 2. As part of the type test. see also Ch. 1302 For single propulsion 2-stroke engines with only one turbocharger and intended for driving a fixed pitch propeller. the calculations are as a minimum to include one large and one small. B 1400 Vibration dampers 1401 Axial vibration dampers are to be documented by means of a sectional drawing and a system description of the adjustment. The duration is to be at least one hour and the test is to be witnessed by a DNV surveyor. see G400. For spring tuned dampers the spring materials and properties are to be specified. procedures.g. 1405 The inspection and service intervals are to be specified by the manufacturer. January 2001 Pt.2 B103. in stationary or rotating pulsators where torque and twist are plotted). leading to specific intervals for either inspection or torsional vibration measurements. b) Dampers of tailor made (unique) design may be case by case approved. For designs where fretting in vital elements cannot be excluded. which contribute to largest accumulated damage or shortest life. the turbocharger is to be subjected to 200 to 500 load cycles at the limits of operation (see Guidance note to 1203). may be carried out at either an engine (for which the turbocharger is foreseen) or in a test rig where the real running condition can be simulated.5 MW.4 Ch.3 Sec. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 1204 The type test for a generic range of turbochargers. stiffness. The permissible limits for wear (spring tuned dampers). which includes the test objectives. The submitted compressor chart is to be verified. If the latter is selected. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft.Rules for Ships / High Speed. oil pressure (if oil supplied). results and conclusions. 1403 The drawings of torsional vibration dampers are to specify all details which deal with the functions and limitations of the damper.) of approximately 40% of full speed along the theoretical propeller curve.

Normally.) of approximately 40% of full speed along the theoretical propeller curve.m. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. 100% and 110% of the maximum rated power: i) 1603 As a minimum the following engine data are to be measured and recorded: — — — — — — — — been informed about the nature and extent of investigations carried out during the pre-production stages. If deviation from design specifications exists. The relevant results are to be presented to attending surveyor during the type test.Type test Type test in the presence of a surveyor. this will be subject to discussions between the engine designer and the Society. 1702 Stage A .m. A type test program can be established to verify a certain fitness for purpose. the following assumptions apply: — the investigations and measurements required for reliable engine operation have been carried out during internal tests by the engine manufacturer — the acceptance has been obtained for the engine in question based on documentation requested and the Society has along the normal (theoretical) propeller curve and at constant speed for propulsion engines (if applicable mode of operation) ii) at constant speed for engines intended for generators sets including no load and full speed — the limit points of the permissible operating range.3 Sec. At least the following conditions are to be tested: 1) Normal case At least the following conditions are to be tested: — the load points 25%.p. the verification of the engine’s suitability for this may be postponed to the sea trial. Stage B .1 – Page 12 1502 As mentioned in 100. If an engine can be satisfactorily operated at all load points without using cylinder lubricators. is also considered as a part of the total type testing.1). b) Engines with two or more turbochargers. when one turbocharger is blocked or blanked off. 75%. frequent start . 1703 Stage B . 50%. engine r. B 1600 Type testing data collection 1601 All relevant equipment for safety of personnel is to be operational during the type testing. 1602 The following external particulars are to be recorded: — — — — — ambient air temperature ambient air pressure atmospheric humidity external cooling water temperature fuel and lubrication oil characteristics.Internal tests During the internal tests the engine is to be operated at the load points important for the engine designer and the pertaining operating values are to be recorded. torsional vibration in camshaft drives. torque maximum combustion pressure for each cylinder compression pressure mean indicated pressure for each cylinder lubrication oil pressure and temperature cooling water pressure and temperatures exhaust gas temperature before and after turbine and. may vary considerably from the selected engine for type testing.4 Ch. The extent of presence by a surveyor should be agreed in each case. The achieved results are to be recorded and signed by the attending surveyor after the type test is completed. for engines intended for running on heavy fuel oil. Stage C .m. as e. when the rotor is blocked or blanked off. the tests listed below are to be carried out in the presence of a surveyor.g. These limit points are to be defined by the engine manufacturer. Testing hours of components that are to be inspected after the type test. 1) Load points The engine is to be operated according to the power and speed diagram (see Fig.p. The operating time per load point depends on the engine size (achievement of steady state condition) and on the time for collection of the operating values. 1503 The complete type testing program is subject to approval. Testing prior to the official type testing (Stage B and C as described in 1700). an operating time of 0.Internal tests Functional tests and collection of operating values including test hours. from each cylinder. If found necessary. B 1700 Type testing program 1701 Unless otherwise approved (see 1500).5 to 1 hour can be assumed per load point.p. To be measured also if installed due to manufacturers minimum sensor delivery exhaust gas pressure before turbine r. DET NORSKE VERITAS . of turbocharger (applicable when the turbocharger serves a group of cylinders > 1 000 kW) charging air pressure charging air temperature before and after cooler jacket cooling temperature piston cooling temperature (in case of separate cooling medium). etc. 1504 Type testing is normally made for only one engine with a certain number of cylinders and considered representative for that type of engine ranging from a minimum to a maximum number of cylinders. However.full load . this is to be verified. are to be stated. the type test program is to be arranged as given in 1700 and 1800. January 2001 Pt. However. for certain number of cylinders such items as axial crankshaft vibration.Type test During the type test. Engines intended for single propulsion with fixed pitch propellers are to be able to run continuously at a speed (r.Component inspection Component inspections by attending surveyor after completion of the test program. which are to be submitted for approval. 1505 The type testing should preferably be made with the kind of fuel oil for which the engine is intended. The data to be measured and recorded when testing the engine at the various load points is to include all major parameters for the engine operation (see also 1500). the type testing might also serve partly the purpose of design documentation. 2) Emergency operating situations For turbocharged engines the achievable continuous output is to be determined in the case of turbocharger damage: a) Engines with one turbocharger. The engine designer is to compile results in a type test report. additional type tests to cover for such items may be postponed to the workshop testing or shipboard testing.Rules for Ships / High Speed. where required (see E400 and E600). — — — — — — The type test is subdivided into three stages: Stage A . 1506 If no special fitness for purpose testing or design documentation testing apply.stop sequences.

Guidance note: For engines intended to be used for emergency services.1 – Page 13 The measured maximum pressures. a) The corrected maximum pressure is not to exceed the approved maximum value b) At the maximum continuous rating.Component inspection The crankshaft deflections are to be measured in the specified (by designer) condition (except for small engines where no specification exists). further dismantling of the engine may be required. or maximum permissible power (normally 110%) and speed according to nominal propeller curve corresponding to load point 3a. alternatively 3% of the maximum permissible value where no design specification applies c) The corrected maximum average exhaust temperature is not to exceed the specified limit. the maximum pressure in the various cylinders is not to vary more than permitted by the engine designer. 10 and 11. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. overspeed trip device). DET NORSKE V ERITAS . 7 and 8 and at rated speed corresponding to points 9. If deemed necessary by the surveyor.4 Ch. Load point 3a applies to engines only driving fixed pitch propellers or water jets. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Fig. 2 Load points The load points are: — rated power. 1802 The load point 110% in 1700 is to be replaced with a load that is 10% (of the maximum continuous rated power) above the specified overload. LC and NSC with the specified overload permitted for intermittent use. exhaust temperatures and compression pressures are to be corrected to ISO conditions. 50% and 25% of rated power and speed according to nominal propeller curve corresponding to points 6.3 Sec. After the test run the components of one cylinder for in-line engines and two cylinders for V-engines are to be presented for inspection as follows: — — — — piston removed and dismantled crosshead bearing dismantled guide planes crankpin bearing and main bearing dismantled (special attention to serrations) — cylinder liner in the installed condition — cylinder head. 2) Emergency operations Maximum achievable power when: — operating along the nominal propeller curve — operating with constant governor setting for rated speed under conditions as stated in 1702 2). 100% output at 100% torque and 100% speed corresponding to load point 1 — 100% power at maximum permissible speed corresponding to load point 2 — maximum permissible torque (normally 110%) at 100% speed corresponding to load at point 3. At the power levels specified above all the data listed in 1602 are to be recorded.g. the requirements in 1802 and 1803 apply for engines for HS. d) The functioning of the charge air cooler drain is to be checked e) The functioning of the cylinder lubricators is to be randomly checked f) The jacket cooling and the piston cooling (when applicable) medium temperatures are to be checked versus engine specifications. 3) Functional tests a) Demonstration of reversing for reversible engines. i. Load point 3 applies to all other purposes — minimum permissible speed at 100% torque.e. light craft and naval surface craft 1801 In addition to the type testing required in 1700.g. corresponding to load point 4 — minimum permissible speed at 90% torque corresponding to load point 5 — part loads e.Rules for Ships / High Speed. 1704 Stage C . mean indicated pressures. 75%. camshaft and crankcase with opened covers. b) Testing the safety system to the extent as integrated in the engine design (e. supplementary tests according to the regulations of the flag Administration may be required. B 1800 Type testing of engines for high speed. January 2001 Pt. valves disassembled — control gear.

In 300 the inspection and testing mentioned in Table C1 are described in more detail. 303 Cylinder or engine block.2 Sec. This applies independent of being supplied by subcontractors or produced by the engine manufacturer. January 2001 Pt. DET NORSKE VERITAS .2. and be settled in a MSA. C. General 101 The certification principles are described in Ch. 103 All specifications of welding procedures are to be qualified according to a recognised standard or the rules of the Society.e.2 C100. 306 Crankshafts are to be tested. inspected and documented with regard to: — — — — — chemical composition of the material mechanical properties of the material ultrasonic testing and crack detection repair welding (if applicable) check of contact in serrations (if applicable). 305 Crankshaft bolts (between crankshaft parts) and connecting rod bolts are to be tested.1 – Page 14 1803 Engines intended for water jet propulsion (that may suffer a sudden load shed) are to be tested up to the maximum permissible r. framebox and columns are to be tested. this inspection report will not cover design approval and testing as a part of the engine. Guidance note: Spare parts for ships in operation: For general principles. cylinder jacket or frame and exhaust valve housings are to be hydraulically tested for leakage at the working pressure of the cooling medium. i. see Ch. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 102 Material documentation is described in Ch. It is the operator's responsibility to evaluate and take the necessary precautions to see that the parts are fit for their intended use. Guidance note: It is advised to establish an MSA with sub-suppliers delivering materials or parts mentioned in 200 and 300. 307 Connecting rods are to be tested. inspected and documented with regard to: — — — — — — — chemical composition of the material forging method (not applicable if cast) repair welding if applicable mechanical properties of the material ultrasonic testing surface hardening fillet treatment. 309 Cylinder heads and cylinder liners are to be tested and documented with regard to: To item 3: — If the part is produced by a manufacturer not authorised by the engine designer or the designer's licensee. (see also E302).2 Sec.. surface hardening and rolling or peening — crack detection by MPI or dye penetrant in web fillets. The extent in Table C1 may be reduced according to an agreement with the manufacturer. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. In addition the following requirements should apply for diesel engines: To item 2: — The actual part should be produced by a manufacturer authorised by the engine designer or the designer's licensee. DNV may carry out inspections according to Table C1 and issue a report confirming this. 304 Crankcase safety valves are to be tested and inspected according to engine design specification. 302 Bedplates. oil hole fillets. 310 Piston crowns for propulsion engines are to be tested and documented with regard to: ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- C 300 chemical composition of the material mechanical properties of the material ultrasonic testing of welds and cast parts crack detection of welds by MPI or dye penetrant alignment protocol reviewed by the surveyor. The principles of manufacturing survey arrangement (MSA) is described in Ch. are to be tested and documented with regard to: — chemical composition of the material — mechanical properties of the material.5. 308 For crosshead engines the crossheads. However.2 Sec. are to be inspected. all components that may have been adversely affected by this speed. pin and journal surfaces — dimensions such as shrinkage tolerance. This applies also to those documented by work certificate (W) and test report (TR).3 Sec. such as crankpin bearings and bolts etc. — — — — — chemical composition of the material mechanical properties of the material ultrasonic examination (steel cylinder heads only) crack detection hydraulic testing for leakage of cooling space to the working pressure.2 Sec. Inspection and Testing C 100 — — — — — Testing and inspection of parts 301 The inspection and testing described in 300 provide more details to the requirements of Table C1. inspected and documented with regard to: — chemical composition of the material — mechanical properties — crack detection.4 and Sec.p. semi-products or materials are to be documented according to Table C1 and 300 if not otherwise agreed.Rules for Ships / High Speed.m.2 A102 (Guidance note). After the test. ovality and parallelism for semi-built crankshafts and fillet radii generally — surface finish. This agreement should preferably be arranged in connection with type approval of the engine. C 200 Certification of parts 201 Engine parts. and should at least verify that the premises for using W and TR are fulfilled. inspected and documented with regard to: — — — — — chemical composition of the material mechanical properties of the material ultrasonic testing if welded crack detection in ring grooves hydraulic testing of complete piston assembly for leakage of cooling space to the working pressure.4 Ch.

inspected and documented with regard to: — chemical composition of the material of rotating parts 1) — mechanical properties of the material of a representative specimen for the rotating parts1) or. 5) If delivered integral with the diesel engine. or 10% above the maximum speed at maximum permissible temperature — compressor chart. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft.4 Ch.Rules for Ships / High Speed. If the turbocharger can be tested on the engine for which it is intended for. cast All NV NV Crosshead Crosshead NV propulsion engines Cylinder head All NV Cylinder liners Propulsion W engines Piston crown Propulsion W engines All Air cooler 5) Fuel oil piping including All common rail 5) Turbocharger Supplying cylinder groups > 1000 kW Torsional vibration dampers (spring tuned) 1) All NV when > 2500 kW W when < 2500 kW Crack detection 1) NV 2) W NV 2) Hydraulic testing Dimensional inspection Other See 302 See 302 W TR See 303 See 304 W See 303 W See 303 W See 305 W W W NV W NV W W W W 3) W See 309 See 309 W4) W W6) See 310 W (water side) See 311 TR TR 2) Rotating parts: NV when > 2500 kW. documentation of heat treatment (temperature – time diagrams) — NDT of rotating parts 1) (upon request) — crack detection — dimensional inspection of rotating parts 1) (before assembly) — dynamic balancing of rotating parts 1) separately as well as complete rotating assembly — overspeed test 2) of all compressor wheels with a duration of 3 minutes at 20% above the maximum speed at room temperature. January 2001 Pt. return pipes and low pressure) is to be tested. in special cases. 6) Of complete piston. W when < 2500 kW W NV TR 2) See 306 See 307 See 307 See 308 See 312 W NV if caseby-case approved See 313 See 314 As per approved specification. inspection and certification Component Type of Product Material engine certificate certificate Bedplates 4) Propulsion NV NV engines Framebox and columns Propulsion NV NV engines Engine block All Crankcase All safety valves Cylinder jacket and Propulsion frame engines Exhaust valve housing Propulsion engines Bolts for crankshaft and All W connecting rod Crankshaft All NV NV Connecting rod. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . 312 Fuel oil piping (high pressure. 3) If cast. forged All NV Connecting rod. 313 Turbochargers supplying groups of cylinders in excess of 1000 kW are to be tested. 2) Of cast parts and welds. 4) If welded or repair welded. inspected and documented with regard to: — — — — Ultrasonic testing W chemical composition of the material mechanical properties of the material ultrasonic testing of welds crack detection.3 Sec. For common rail systems the above requirements are also valid for the control oil side. Table C1 Requirements for testing.1 – Page 15 311 The air cooler (water side) is to be hydraulically tested for leakage at the working pressure. In addition. the following test to be carried out: — Running test for each unit during 20 minutes at maximum speed and ambient temperature. the running test can be replaced by a test run of 20 minutes at an overload corresponding to 110% of maximum continuous rating for the applicable engine.

coolers. Work certificate (W) is required when supplying cylinder groups less than 2500 kW. Or: c) At constant speed This applies if driving a controllable pitch propeller with constant speed or a generator for propulsion. i. electric motors. 105 After the required workshop testing. 315 Ancillaries not covered by Table C1 such as pumps. C 400 Inspection during assembly 401 Shielding of fuel oil piping is to be inspected by the surveyor. D. are to be checked by the engine manufacturer’s quality system.Rules for Ships / High Speed. as found relevant.g.1 – Page 16 1) Rotating parts are turbine. 103 For case by case approved engines the workshop testing may be extended up to the full type testing if found necessary by the Society. 403 For propulsion engines the alignment of the bedplate. if an engine is intended for running on heavy fuel oil during the sea trial. 404 For propulsion engines. 402 Insulation of all surfaces expected to reach 220°C are to be inspected by the surveyor if the engine is delivered with insulation.e. the crossheads. adherence to maximum pressure. exhaust temperatures. functionality. water jet or controllable pitch propeller with variable r. 204 As a minimum the engine is to be run for 30 minutes at its maximum continuous rating. tightening of bolts for main and crankpin bearings is to be randomly checked by the surveyor. 208 The safety systems to the extent as integrated in the engine design. D 200 General engine tests 201 All measurements at the various ratings are to be made at steady operating conditions unless otherwise stated. There is not to be any continuous surging. 104 The engine manufacturer is to compile all results in a test protocol that is to be signed by the attending surveyor and submit it to the Society for later reference. hydraulic and pneumatic operation and cooling systems on the engine. 405 For propulsion engines with main thrust bearings integral with the engine. the maximum pressure is to be recorded for each cylinder at maximum continuous rating. 90%. the overspeed test may be waived except for the wheel of the type test unit. the crankshaft (by deflection readings). 203 The measured maximum pressures. 75%. filters. 202 The following external particulars are to be recorded: — — — — — ambient air temperature ambient air pressure atmospheric humidity external cooling water temperature fuel and lubrication oil characteristics. the load point with lowest r. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. either the maximum continuous rating or the specified overload permitted for intermittent use.p. Or: b) The modified propeller curve This applies if driving a controllable pitch propeller that — is intended to use a higher pitch than the nominal when running at reduced r. the blocking is to be made after the sea trial testing. See B1205. January 2001 Pt. the clearance is to be documented. If the sea trial full load testing will be made on light diesel oil. This is to enable comparisons with approved values and measurements in the operation phase. and the service is intended for heavy fuel oil.m.p. product quality and further to establish reference values or base lines for later reference in the operational phase.e. D 300 Testing of propulsion engines 301 The testing described in 300 apply to propulsion engines in addition to 200. For wheels without a bore. guides and the pistons are to be inspected by the surveyor. In this case the pitch limitations have to be stated on a signboard for the purpose of manual operation. safety (against fire). is to be tested (e. lubrication. DET NORSKE VERITAS . the engine is to be checked visually for leakage of fuel and lubrication oils. 102 Each engine to be certified shall be tested in the workshop. compressor wheels and shaft. valves.4 Ch. It shall not exceed the maximum permissible value nor vary more than permitted by the engine designer. The time is to be sufficient to permit adequate cooling after stopping the engine. 314 Spring tuned torsional vibration dampers are to be tested. The setting of the blocking is to be made as applicable for the intended fuel. and pitch limited (or permitted) to nominal value. piping. i. see also B1400. charge air pressure and compression pressures are to be corrected to ISO conditions. 207 The turbocharger system is to be checked with fuel shut off (misfiring) in one cylinder when running at the maximum permissible load for misfiring condition. etc. DNV certificate (NV) is required when supplying cylinder groups greater than 2500 kW. The notice is also to warn against restarting of an overheated engine until the cause of overheating has been found. inspected and documented as stated in the approved specification. according to the following (whichever is applicable): a) The propeller curve based on the propeller law This applies if driving a fixed pitch propeller.m. engines are to be blocked for output beyond the approved maximum rating. at 100% of maximum continuous rated torque is to be added — has a combinator pitch control using reduced pitch at lower speeds. 100% and 110%. the overspeed test may be omitted. In this case.p. the blocking after a workshop test on light diesel oil is to be set in accordance with the theoretical correlation between these fuel oils. 302 The engine is to be tested at the following power levels (given in percentage of MCR): 50%. This test may be waived if successfully tested on identical engine and turbocharger. 206 During testing. 406 A signboard is to be fitted in a clearly visible position on each engine. a mechanical overspeed trip device). The purpose of the workshop testing is to verify the design premises such as performance.m. Workshop Testing D 100 Application 101 All relevant equipment for safety of personnel is to be operational during the workshop testing. that are delivered as integral parts of the fuel oil. alternatively 3% of the maximum permissible value where no design specification applies. warning against opening of a crankcase for a specific period of time after shutdown due to overheating. 2) If each forged compressor wheel is individually controlled by an approved non-destructive method.3 Sec. 205 Unless otherwise approved.

If there are more than two propulsion engines. E 200 Speed governing 201 All engines are to be fitted with a speed governor so adjusted that the engine speed cannot continuously exceed the rated speed by more than 10%. It is to trip the engine prior to the maximum permissible speed. 504 For propulsion engines the following items apply: — without surface hardened camshaft drive train. 103 Alarms (level 1) and start of standby pumps are to be without delay. an additional device is required that automatically shuts the air inlet in case of overspeed. LC and NSC the test point at 110% of maximum continuous rating is replaced with a test point 10% (of the maximum continuous power) above the specified overload permitted for intermittent use. 309 For plants with water jet the speed control system is to be checked with a sudden load shed from the maximum continuous power to zero load. 90%. if not otherwise approved. D 400 401 Testing of engines for auxiliary generating sets The testing described in 400 is additional to 200. 303 The overspeed protective device is to be adjusted to ensure that the engine speed cannot exceed the maximum permissible speed as determined by the design. D 500 Opening up after testing 501 If nothing else is specified in a manufacturing survey arrangement. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. 304 At the power levels specified in 302 the following data is to be recorded: — — — — charge air temperature charge air pressure turbocharger r. The overspeed protective device may be substituted by an extra speed governor that is completely independent of the first governor. The operating time per load point depends on the engine size (achievement of steady state condition) and on the time for collection of the operating values. from each cylinder. The speed governor is to be tested with the maximum relevant load shed without tripping due to overspeed. 403 The overspeed protective device is to be tested. the load shed is to be instantaneous from 100% of maximum continuous rated torque to zero torque. In the case of serration.4 Ch. valves disassembled and with NDT on indication of cracks — one main bearing is to be checked. a thorough check for fretting is to be carried out — one cylinder head is to be checked visually.3 Sec. other than those necessary to filter normal parameter fluctuations. 503 The crankshaft deflections are to be checked according to the manufacturer’s specification. 100% and 110%. 303 For HS. where required (see Table E1). 102 A list of all alarm levels (1 and 2) and delay times (if applicable) is to be submitted for approval. an operating time of 0. The engine overspeed is not to release the overspeed protective device. 402 The propulsion engines are to be fitted with instrumentation and alarms to prevent engine deterioration that will not be obvious to the crew and that may result in loss of propul- DET NORSKE V ERITAS .1 – Page 17 The operating time per load point depends on the engine size (achievement of steady state condition) and on the time for collection of the operating values. For engines with turbochargers that can suffer overspeed due to a sudden shut of air intake. If deemed necessary by the surveyor. 304 For engines operating in environments where ingestion of gas is possible. Alarm. further dismantling of the engine may be required.p. and to be in accordance with manufacturer’s specification. the drive train is to be checked — cams and cam rollers are to be checked randomly — one piston is to be removed for inspection of the unit — one crosshead with bearing and guide to be checked — one crankpin bearing is to be checked.9.5 to 1 hour can be assumed per load point. Normally. This applies to all single engine plants regardless of overspeed trip setting. If the engine is tested on a waterbrake this load-shed test may be postponed to testing on board. the requirements may be reduced subject to special considerations. the shutting device should be between the turbocharger and the engine. 75%. 308 The jacket cooling and the piston cooling medium temperatures (when applicable) are to be checked versus engine specifications. The condition (hot or cold) is to be noted on the record. 302 Activation of the overspeed protection device is to cause either engine shutdown or idling at a low speed. E. 306 The function of water drain from the charge air system is to be checked. an operating time of 0. see Table E1 exhaust gas temperature before turbine and. 502 All inspection covers are to be opened. the requirements in 502 to 505 apply. and no additional class notation as E0. 307 The function of the cylinder lubricators is to be randomly checked.m. January 2001 Pt. Safety Functions and Indication E 100 General 101 The requirements in E are additional to those given in Ch. 305 For reversible engines the ability of starting astern is to be demonstrated. This applies to both systems if the overspeed protection device is substituted by an extra speed governor. For generating sets tested as a unit. when applicable. E 300 Overspeed protection 301 A separate overspeed protective device is required. at constant speed. Normally. Control.. To be measured also if installed due to the manufacturers minimum sensor delivery. is to be agreed with the surveyor. E 400 Instrumentation and alarms for propulsion engines 401 All single propulsion engines are to fulfil the following requirements. This applies to all engines where the overspeed trip is set less than 15% above the rated speed for continuous power. 402 The engine is to be tested at the following power levels (given in percentage of MCR): 50%. 505 For engines driving auxiliaries the extent of random checks of components to be presented for inspection after the workshop trials.Rules for Ships / High Speed.5 to 1 hour can be assumed per load point.

January 2001 Pt. plus pressure monitoring of crankcase. C. T Remote Low Expansion tank level C.p. Pressure monitoring in each crankcase compartment if separated. 3) C.6.p. T Turbocharger Scavenge air Exhaust gas Fuel oil Double and shielded pipes Cylinder cooling medium Piston cooling medium Lubrication of bearings Crankcase explosive conditions 7) Main thrust bearing Chain tension Indication Alarm at level 1 Exhaust gas temperature before turbine 4) Exhaust temperature each cylinder 5) C. T Piston coolant pressure inlet (common) Position feeler Engine overspeed protection Action 2) with Comments alarm at level 2 If applicable Slow down or shutdown 5) Individual exhaust temperature when cylinder power > 130 kW. crank. all double and shielded pipes for fuel and valve operation Cylinder cooling inlet pressure Cylinder cooling outlet temperature. T Local Remote Remote Local Remote Local Remote Remote Remote Exhaust temperature each cylinder. T Remote High X C Piston coolant flow outlet.m. each cylinder C Lubrication oil inlet temperature. T Receiver temperature C C. 4) If no individual exhaust gas temperature for each cylinder. T C. 2) Action means either slow down (r. T High If separate. T R.m. deviation from average 5) C. all inlets C.1 – Page 18 sion. each cylinder 9) C.2 Sec. T Crankcase protection 8) C. Table E1 Instrumentation and alarms for propulsion engines Valid for engine type 1) System Item Engine R. E 500 Speed governing of diesel generator sets E 600 501 For requirements concerning the speed governing of diesel generator sets. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. T Lubrication oil inlet pressure. T Lubrication oil inlet pressure C. DET NORSKE VERITAS .and crank bearings or c) Oil splash temperature deviation or d) Crank case pressure combined with metal particle detection (shunt to filter) For crosshead engines: a) Oil mist concentration or b) Temperature monitoring of main-. Metal particle detector (shunt to filter) may be accepted as alternative to pressure monitoring.3 Sec. T Local Remote Local Remote Local Remote Local Remote Local Remote Low 6) X Low X High Low 6) X and shutdown Local Remote High X Remote High X Local Remote C = Crosshead engine. see Ch. whichever is relevant.p.m.4 Ch. reduction) or load reduction (e. T = Trunk engines. 9) If individual stop valves are fitted for the cylinder jackets. 8) For trunk engines: a) Oil mist concentration or b) Temperature monitoring of main. forced lubrication Low High X High High X X X Remote Low 6) X C. 6) Automatic start of standby pump. Instrumentation and alarms on auxiliary engines 601 Instrumentation and alarms for auxiliary engines are required according to Table E2 if not otherwise approved. Otherwise main outlet. Action at level 2 depends on permissible misfiring condition Low 1) 3) Fire detection Leakage C. Applicable when the turbocharger serves a group of cylinders > 1000 kW. T Thrust bearing metal temperature C C. Instrumentation and alarms are required according to Table E1 if not otherwise approved.and crosshead bearings. pitch reduction). all inlets C.Rules for Ships / High Speed. T Remote Large deviation Fuel oil pressure after filter (engine inlet) Leakage. 7) Applicable to engines with cylinder diameter ≥ 200 mm.g.

1 F400. 2) Applicable when the turbocharger serves a group of cylinders > 1000 kW. F 300 Resilient mounting 301 All connections to the engine such as couplings. 205 The securing of the engine top stays to the hull structure is to be designed to avoid cracks at the fastening points. 105 For engine plants with elastic coupling.p.1 mm. etc. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. and the dynamic loads (see G600) without exceeding the approved specification. if and shutdown available X X Slow-down or shutdown 1) Action means either automatic slow down (r. 6) Either a) Oil mist concentration or b) Temperature monitoring of main. universal joints. The epoxy resin is to be type approved. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . see G600. the surface pressure is to be within the approved values (surface pressure and thickness) for the applicable epoxy type.m. lubrication oil and cooling water connections are to be designed for the maximum possible engine movements as limited by dual characteristic mounts or stoppers. 202 Metallic chocks are to be at least 20 mm thick.1 Sec.and crank bearings or c) Oil splash temperature deviation or d) Crank case pressure combined with metal particle detection (shunt to filter). Shims or combinations of shims and chocks are not acceptable.3 Sec. fuel pipes. Turbocharger R. is to be better than 0. the reaction forces under all relevant driving conditions are to be considered.4 Sec. 104 For engines with elastic couplings the alignment is to be within the permissible values for the couplings under all relevant driving conditions. whichever is relevant. the common frame is to have a stiffness that fulfils the requirement in 101 with regard to bearing reactions. 303 The static positions of the engine on the elastic mounts are to be calculated under consideration of the static loads given in 302. see Ch. see 300.m. spline connections. exhaust pipes. Arrangement F 100 Alignment and reaction forces 101 Direct coupled engines are to be aligned so that the internal bearing reactions within the engine comply with the engine specification. 5) Applicable to engines with cylinder diameter ≥ 200 mm. Documentation is to be submitted upon request. 302 The elastic mounts are to be able to support the mass of the engine. tooth couplings. respectively. These forces are to be within the limits specified by the engine manufacturer.1 A402) may be required substantiated by shaft alignment calculations.4 Ch.m. 4) Individual exhaust temperature when cylinder power > 130 kW. F 200 Rigid mounting 201 For mounting on epoxy. deviation from average 4) Leakage. The friction forces are to prevent dynamic movements between bedplate and chocks and epoxy. This is particularly important for resiliently mounted engines. January 2001 Pt. when not driving a generator) or load reduction. The accuracy of the fit between chocks and bedplate and foundation. 2) Exhaust gas temperature before turbine 3) Exhaust temperature each cylinder 4) Exhaust temperature each cylinder. the reaction forces due to engine torque.1 – Page 19 Table E2 Instrumentation and alarms for auxiliary engines System Item Engine R.3 B200).p. 103 For direct coupled propulsion engines the alignment specification (see Ch. For determination of dynamic movements. F.p. They are regarded as safety devices in case of relative movement between engine and foundation caused by loosened bolts. 3) If no individual exhaust gas temperature for each cylinder. 102 For engines driving generators with one bearing. reduction. all double and shielded pipes for fuel and valve operation Cooling water outlet temperature Exhaust gas Double and shielded pipes Indication Cylinder cooling Cooling water pressure or flow medium Expansion tank level Lubrication oil inlet temperature Lubrication of bearings Crankcase explosive conditions 5) Local Remote Remote Remote Remote Remote Alarm at level 1 High High High Large deviation X Leakage Remote High Remote Low Local Remote Local Remote Low X Automatic start of standby pump. 203 The pre-tensioning of the holding down bolts is to be specified with regard to tightening as well as the method. if available High Local Remote Low Crankcase protection 6) Local Remote High Engine overspeed protection Remote Lubrication oil inlet pressure Action 1) with alarm at level Comments 2 Automatic start of X standby pump.Rules for Ships / High Speed.4 Sec. 204 Side and end stoppers are normally required. End stoppers may be waived if fitted bolts or equivalent solutions are used. the maximum environmental conditions as list and trim (see Ch.

202 A complete report containing results from unfiltered signals (e. Excessive movements are movements beyond those expected and determined in 303 and G600. System instability. a) In A500. 502 The lubricating oil drain pipes from the engine sump to the system tank are to be submerged at their outlet ends during all operating conditions as defined in Ch. the stoppers are not to be reached. For branched systems where certain branches may be disengaged. signal processing method. both in-phase and anti-phase — for direct coupled engines the whole speed range with and without misfiring G. natural frequency calculations are only required for those combinations of disengaged branches which will yield significantly different vibration modes and natural frequencies. vector sums and.g. For systems with elements (such as non-linear elastic couplings or dampers) that have wide stiffness range within the relevant operating conditions.minimum torque) during a time interval that covers the period of the lowest order.p. b) Natural frequency calculations of the complete system are required. c) Forced torsional vibration calculations are required for all operating conditions where vibration levels are expected to be higher than 50% of the permissible levels. the type of instrumentation.m. However.1 – Page 20 304 Excessive (static and dynamic) movements are to be prevented either by dual characteristic mounts or by stoppers. Clutching in. shaft stresses) as well as processed signals (e. F 500 501 (mean torque T). 103 Misfiring in a cylinder is defined as no fuel injection. Lubrication and fuel pipes All flexible pipes and hoses are to be type approved.m.m. Guidance note: Oil vapour from the ventilation pipes should preferably be led to free air.expansion cycle is assumed to be maintained under the same charge air pressure as normal. 402 Exhaust pipes from several engines are not to be connected. but are to have separate outlets.1. The latter condition is in principle a transient condition even if it occurs at constant speed because the excitation increases due to the feedback from the speed governor.Rules for Ships / High Speed. location of pick ups. at maximum continuous power r. it will not be further mentioned.p. 104 Transient torsional vibration in this context is operations as: a) b) c) d) e) Acceleration or deceleration through a barred speed range. For dual characteristic mounts the “second level” may be utilised provided that this is foreseen in the dynamic analysis and with regard to the vibration isolation of the engine as well as the engine’s compatibility with the resulting accelerations. means are to be provided to avoid the possibility of water entering the engine. Under the running conditions considered in G.g. at which vibration are considered speed ratio defined as n/n0 rated torque (at maximum continuous power) mean torque at n r. G 200 Vibration measurements 201 When vibration measurements are required. natural frequency calculations with at least the maximum and minimum values are to be made. Drain pipes from different engines are to be laid independently of each other in order to avoid intercommunication between crankcases.4 Ch. F 600 Crankcase ventilation pipes 601 Crankcase ventilation pipes from different engines are to be laid independently of each other in order to prevent intercommunication between crankcases. unless precautions are taken to prevent the return of exhaust gases to a stopped engine. vibratory torque at n r. The compression . Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. Vibration G 100 101 n0 n λ T0 T Tv τ τv 102 Symbols and definitions The following symbols are used in G: = = = = = = = = r. Short circuit in PTO driven generators. Starting and stopping operations. since this condition is prohibited (see 303 c). frequency analyses) is to be submitted for approval. if used in their phase angles.p.5 (maximum torque . The amplitude of vibratory torque is defined as: DET NORSKE VERITAS .p. G 300 Steady state torsional vibration 301 Extent of calculations ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Tv = 0. and the measurement procedure are to be agreed by the Society. January 2001 Pt. relative inertia torques. In such cases the mean torque used in various fatigue criteria is to be replaced with the average torque. including possible beat orders.3 Sec. The following apply when none of those options are used.m. Driving conditions to be considered are: This definition also applies for non-linear vibration and for synthesised linear vibration where the average torque (which is the average between the maximum torque and the minimum torque) differs significantly from the effective driving torque — one cylinder misfiring per engine — for twin engines. some ways to minimise the extent of calculations are mentioned. These are to include tables of relative displacement amplitudes and deflection curves. F 400 Exhaust pipes 401 Where exhaust pipes are led overboard near the water line. torsional stress (N/mm2) corresponding to T torsional stress (N/mm2) corresponding to Tv.

the cylinder which has the opposite phase angle of the vector sum should be selected or . h) Propeller excitation can be taken as a percentage of the actual mean torque according to Table G1 unless other values are substantiated by the propeller manufacturer. see 303. The latter implies that if an element is strongly dependent on the level of the vibratory torque and used in a linear vibration calculation.calculating all combinations and presenting the worst. any cylinder may be selected — for vibration modes with significant vector sums (e. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. c) The forced torsional vibration can be calculated by means of linear differential equations. damping described as absolute (mass) damping and relative (shaft) damping. for controllable pitch plants also for low pitch combinations. This is suitable for determination of vibration outside the engine itself. and vibratory torque. may have to be taken into account in special cases. d) For calculation in misfiring condition the misfiring cylinder is to be selected as follows: — for vibration modes and orders with vector sums almost equal zero. From these theoretical pressure diagrams (including misfiring). For plants with different engines. and so on. evaluation of the torsional vibration system including the speed governor loop should be considered. and load) or at larger intervals with interpolation to each case. It should be noted that this procedure is considered as far less accurate than the two first. one for each lumped mass. g) Engine excitation is to be as realistic as practically possible and is to contain both impulse and phase angle for each harmonic. temperature. f) If the speed governor influence is to be taken into account (see 301 f). The dependencies mentioned in d) can be built into the procedure and thereby avoiding iterative calculation. expansion and compression exponents. charge air pressure. such as in couplings and gear meshes. see 302 f).9. If any result is close to the acceptance limit and there are uncertainties in the calculations. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- e) The normal operation. e) Alternatively to the above mentioned conventional forced torsional vibration calculation procedure. the gas impulses and phase angles are to be evaluated and combined with the mass impulses. Calculation method a) The plant can be described as a lumped mass system. and excitation applied on mass. Other methods may be considered if they are consistent with cylinder balance requirements in the operational phase. Note that the above mentioned way of estimating the normal operating condition is not an obligatory calculation. then the mass elastic system for numeric simulation can be essentially simplified.m. connected by torsional springs to adjacent masses. simulation by numeric time integration can be used. compression ratio. universal joints (second order) etc. 2) Calculation of pressure-crank angle based on engine particulars as maximum pressure. Table G1 Propeller excitation Number of Blade frequency (%) blades 3 8 4 6 5 4 6 4 i) j) Double blade frequency (%) 2 2 1. For plants with hydrodynamic couplings or torque converters the system may be considered “cut” in the fluid provided there is a significant slip in the coupling. For plants dominated by vibration modes that have insignificant vector sums in the relevant speed range the TVideal may be assumed to be zero. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- b) The natural frequency calculations can be performed with matrix methods or Holzer method. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . i. January 2001 Pt.e. mean torque. the engine with flywheel can be described as one mass. the branches on the nonexcitation sides of such couplings may be described by few lumped inertia. For the forced vibration calculation the necessary excitation data shall be determined by interpolation and extrapolation of the analysed measurements and combined with the calculated excitation due to mass forces. 3) Gas impulses with phase angles may be taken from general (not engine particular) sources and combined with mass forces. for example from unity to 0. It is required to verify by natural frequency calculations that the simplified system has approximately the same lower (only the important) frequencies as the detailed system. This procedure may be carried out at each single case (r. is considered as a combination of the ideal and the misfiring condition as: TV = (TVmisfiring – TVideal) z/24 + TVideal z = number of cylinders in the engine f) 302 then the whole calculation may have to be made by iteration. e.1 – Page 21 — for multi-branch systems the expected worst combination of engaged branches.5 Other excitation sources as water jet impeller pulses. The gas impulses and phase angles are to be analysed at each measured condition.g.g.5 1. Guidance note: For plants with highly elastic couplings. Guidance note: The choice of misfiring cylinder should preferably be agreed in general for each engine type and firing sequence. the vibration response from each engine is considered as described above. the least favourable phase is considered. If any vibration condition results in high vibration at the governor pick up position of flexibly coupled propulsion engines.4 Ch. engines with a certain imbalance between the cylinders. d) The parameters used in vibration calculations are to be representative for the actual speed. > 0.1 relative to maximum cylinder amplitude) either .p. frequency. If the natural frequency calculations (of the detailed system) indicate that only a few lower modes are of importance. For fixed pitch plants according to the propeller law. For twin engines.Rules for Ships / High Speed. The selection may be based on an assumed relative crankshaft deflection from the free end to the flywheel. and then added. mean indicated pressure. it is advised to do this by means of numeric simulation as described above. The following acceptable methods are mentioned in descending preference: 1) Measured pressure-crank angle data at several speeds and torques.3 Sec. Misfiring (no injection) is to be included. Each mass is described by its inertia. The results of the forced torsional vibration calculations are to be presented as relevant for the various components in the system.

Higher values may be accepted for a limited time of operation (see 302 j). These limits are for continuous operation. The vibration level is not to exceed the limit given by the manufacturer. Unless significantly higher vibration are expected to occur somewhere in the shafting. heating of rubber elements causing damping and stiffness to alter to further increase the vibration level. documentation of the vibration levels in the shafts is not required.g. etc. G 400 Transient torsional vibration 401 Passing through a barred speed range a) Documentation (note that this is not always required.) — rejection when the vibration level may be critical as e. 3) Gear hammer (negative torque) is not permitted except in unloaded power take off branches where 10% of T0 (referred to the subject shaft speed) is permitted and for short duration misfiring 15% is permitted.2 B106. Alternatively. rubber. The acceptance criterion is the peak torque (or stress) and the corresponding equivalent number of cycles that are to be used for the shaft calculations. such as acceleration at mass for cam drive branch or journal movements in bearings. This means e. higher values may be considered. a) Dampers Depending on the type of damper (viscous. All these parameters are to be documented as well as the corresponding steady state vibration calculations. resonance at approximately same λ value.8 is not permitted. d) The result of a transient vibration documentation is to contain the peak vibration level and an approximation of the equivalent number of cycles. d) Couplings Torsional elastic couplings are limited with regard to: — dissipated power — vibration torque. January 2001 Pt. Exceeding the acceptance limits in normal operation will result in a barred speed range well covering the range where the limits are exceeded. fully submerged propeller. However.1 – Page 22 vibration measurements may be required. universal joints. h) Propellers No specific limitations apply unless especially mentioned in connection with the propeller approval. hard gear hammer. Other criteria may also apply. The tachometers are to be accurate within the tolerance +/-0. are to be barred for continuous operation.Rules for Ships / High Speed. see A501 b) of the vibration level and number of cycles when passing through a barred speed range may be: — direct calculation by means of numeric time integration — result of steady state calculations reduced by a factor based on experience from measurements.4 Sec. full or high ship load. Exceeding the acceptance limits in misfiring condition will result in: — restricted (e. < 0. etc. Corresponding signboards are to be fitted at all manoeuvring stands and all tachometers marked with red. If no value is specified and approved. This equivalent number of cycles for passing up and down through the barred speed range is to be multiplied with the expected DET NORSKE VERITAS . the measurements used to collect this experience are to be made under relevant conditions. i) Generators. link couplings.5 hours) operation when the vibration level is acceptable for limited time (slow heating of rubber elements) — restricted driving or load condition (barred speed range or speed reduction etc. pumps. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. 303 Acceptance criteria Speed ranges or operating conditions where the following acceptance criteria are exceeded. 2) The vibration torque is limited to 35% of T0 throughout the entire operation range. A barred speed range above λ = 0. speed governor response. This applies when twist amplitudes are monitored. e) The equivalent number of cycles is defined as the number that results in the same accumulated partial damage (Miner’s theory) as the real load spectrum. b) Crankshafts The permissible vibration torque (or shear stresses) and peak torque (only applicable to semi-built shafts) are determined in connection with the engine approval. c) When steady state vibration results are reduced according to experience. tests and measurements are to be made in order to verify that the governor response is insignificant. are limited with regard to the approved vibration torque. the shafts (inside as well as outside the gearbox or thruster) are to be designed for at least the same vibration level as the gearing. f) Shafts For plants with gear transmissions. Tooth couplings are limited with regard to cyclic torque reversals. The negative torque is not to exceed 20% of T0 unless especially approved. The vibration torque is not to exceed the value used in the approval of the shrink fit connection. etc.1)·T0 where KA is the application factor used in the gear transmission approval. steel spring) the following is to be considered: — dissipated power (all kinds) — vibration torque (rubber type and some steel spring types) — vibration angle (some steel spring types) The limits specified in the respective type approvals apply. see Ch.01 n0. For direct coupled plants the vibration level (τv) is not to exceed the values used for the shafting design with regard to continuous operation. same fuel rack position. similar engine. Other couplings and similar components such as membrane couplings.g. e) Gear transmissions The permissible vibration torque in gear transmissions is normally limited as: 1) In the full speed and load range (> 90% of rated speed and load) the vibration torque is not to exceed (KA . compressors etc.3 Sec. elements of composite materials. the calculated vibration for continuous operation may be used for the shafting design. g) Shrink fits including propeller fitting Permissible vibration torque in shrink fit connections is only to be considered for direct coupled plants and when the peak torque in a barred speed range exceeds the peak torque at full load. b) Direct calculations for fixed pitch plants are to take into account the ship mass and resistance (fully loaded) as well as the foreseen fuel rack position. c) Speed governor The vibration levels at the sensor location of flexibly coupled propulsion engines are not to exceed the value specified by the engine manufacturer.g.4 Ch.

404 Short circuit in PTO driven generators Note that the following is not always required.5 T0.4 sin(2Ω t)] Ω/2 π = the net frequency (50 or 60 Hz) t = time in s. Transient peak torques as determined in 403 are not to exceed T0. The purpose of the calculation is to determine the peak torques and amplitudes that occur before the safety system (circuit breaker) is in action. 502 Acceptance criteria a) In crankshafts. the torque amplitudes as well as number of equivalent cycles per passage are not to exceed the premises for the shaft design. The duration to be considered is 1 s. see also A501 b. see also A501 b. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. b) The amplitudes at the front end of the crankshaft are to be within the engine designer’s specified limit. If the excitation torque (in the air gap between rotor and stator) is not specified. c) If the lowest vibration mode (with the node in the thrust bearing) is of significance to the conclusion.Rules for Ships / High Speed. a simplified approach may be used for ships: Guidance note: The dynamic response may be assumed as an addition of 20% to the static response due to the various conditions as calculated in F303. these couplings and piping are preferably to be so flexible that their influence on the engine movements is negligible.1 Sec. a) Torsionally elastic couplings Transient vibration as determined in 402 and 403 are not to exceed neither TKmax1 nor ∆TKmax. The influence of the shaft connections (elastic couplings) and piping is to be considered. see also A501 c. A detailed method for evaluating the equivalent number of cycles and expected number of passages is presented in Classification Note 41. the calculations are to be made with various thrust bearing stiffness in order to see the influence of an estimation error. This is to be included in the operating manual. Transient vibration as determined in 404 are not to exceed TKmax2. d) Torque measurements during the clutching-in may be required. The clutch parameters as the actuation pressure-time characteristics and if necessary also the changing coefficient of friction are to be used in the calculation. b) The plant should be described as a lumped mass system. This may be done by response calculations based on the relevant motions in seaway as given in Ch. c) The response due to motions in seaway is to be considered. forced axial vibration calculations and measurements (see 200) will be required. However. the transient vibration torque is to be considered. Transient peak torques as determined in 404 are not to exceed the approved KAP·T0 or 1.4. Power loss need not be considered for transient operation. c) Shafts For shafts that are designed on the basis of transient vibration as determined in 401. but may be essentially simplified as described in 302 e). the stresses due to axial vibration are not to exceed the values used in connection with the engine approval. a) For plants that have a major critical resonance below idling speed and the damping of this critical resonance is dependant on the oil pressure supplying the dampers and couplings. b) As a minimum. c) The results are not to exceed the permissible peak torques and amplitudes in couplings and gears as well as the permissible heat (J) and flash power (W) in the clutch. This applies when calculations indicate peak torques or amplitudes near the approved limits.1 – Page 23 number of passages during the foreseen lifetime of the ship.3 Sec. a) The calculation (numeric simulation) of the system is to determine: — — — — the peak torque in couplings and gears the first decreasing torque amplitudes the heat developed in the clutch the flash power in the clutch.4 Ch. DET NORSKE V ERITAS ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- . a) For engines with elastic coupling.3 B. calculations may be restricted to the engine itself. a) A possible short circuit in a generator is not to be detrimental for the power transmitting elements such as couplings and gears. b) Gear transmissions Transient vibration as determined in 402 are not to cause negative torques of more than 25% of T0. January 2001 Pt. the calculations are to include the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the relevant vibration modes. b) Calculation of forced responses may be required if excitation frequencies (whole operating speed range) and natural frequencies are closer than 30% of the excitation frequency. G 600 Engine vibration 601 Extent and method of calculation of resiliently mounted engines a) Resiliently mounted engines are to be calculated with regard to natural frequencies for all six degrees of freedom. This applies e. to diesel generator sets with highly elastic couplings and propulsion plants without clutch. b) For plants that have a major critical resonance below idling speed and a low ratio of engine inertia to driven machinery inertia. d) If major critical resonance occurs near or in the operational speed range and no damper is foreseen. 405 Acceptance criteria In the following. it can be assumed as: T = T0 [10 e-t/0. For directcoupled engines. the whole plant is to be included. the axial vibration. 402 Starting operations Note that the following is not always required. see also A501 b.g. Alternatively.4 sin(Ω t) – 5 e-t/0. G 500 501 Axial vibration Extent and method of calculation Note that the following is not always required. the start up is to be delayed to give the standby oil pump time to fill up this damping element. but essentially simplified as described in 302 e). b) The plant can be described as a lumped mass system. limitations for transient vibration are given. Coupled torsional and axial vibration may also be required. 403 Clutching-in Note that the following is not always required.

the fitting is to be checked with feeler gauge and is to be better than 0. The distance or clearance to the stoppers should be checked after some sink in of the rubber. 102 Unless otherwise stated. See guidance in Fig. lubrication oil and cooling systems that has been opened after the workshop testing or has been connected to other systems on board. c) Side and end stoppers and top stays (if applicable) are to be checked according to the arrangement drawing. 302 Rigid fastening of engines a) For mounting on metallic chocks (see F202). H 300 Alignment and foundation 301 Alignment of engine a) The engine is to be aligned in relation to the aligned shafting and gearbox. hydraulic oil. 502 Drip trays under fuel filters including drainage to tank to be checked. casting and curing is carried out as per maker’s instructions — the cleanliness of tank top and bedplate before casting is as per maker’s instructions — the area and height of resin are within approved dimensions — the resin is properly cured before bolt tightening. are to be flushed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specification.3 Sec. If the gearbox also is resiliently mounted.4 Ch. it is to be checked that: — the resin is type approved — the mixing. All welding in the engine room that may influence the alignment is to be finished. Installation Inspections H 100 Application 101 The paragraphs in H apply to installation inspections of diesel engines including the engine fastening. 3 Recommended arrangements of hoses and pipes c) The exhaust pipe compensators are to be of an approved type and checked for compliance with the maximum possible engine movements. c) After tightening of the foundation bolts. Fig. e. b) For mounting on epoxy resin. Some further sink in should also be considered. the combined (relative) movements of engine and gearbox are to be considered for the coupling misalignment H.1. and are given in F304. respectively. See also F204 and F205. January 2001 Pt. The temperatures are to be stable. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. b) All flexible pipes and hoses are to be: — type approved (for fuel and lubrication oil) — arranged so that in case of leakage no flammable fluid can get in contact with hot surfaces — arranged to allow for the maximum possible engine movements (i. d) The tightening of the holding down bolts is to be checked versus approved specification. The results are to be within the manufacturer’s specification. the adjustment may be made under the assumption of a sink in based on experienced values. These records are to be reviewed by the surveyor and compared with the corresponding workshop records. a surveyor is to attend the inspections given in H. the bedplate (for crosshead engines) is to be checked for twist and straightness and the crankshaft deflections are to be checked. b) The acceptance criteria for engine connections such as couplings and piping are given in F301.g. one or two weeks after fully loaded. 402 Engine connections a) The coupling alignment should be checked after the sink in of the rubber mounts.1. DET NORSKE VERITAS . a torsional vibration damper.e.1 – Page 24 602 Acceptance criteria a) The acceptance criteria for resilient mount deflections considering the combined static and dynamic responses. reaching the stoppers) without restricting the engine movement.g.Rules for Ships / High Speed.4 Sec. 202 All engines Parts that have not been integral with the engine during the workshop testing. e. Alternatively. H 200 Assembling of engines supplied in sections 201 Crosshead engines a) The bedplate alignment is to be carried out under stable conditions.1 mm unless otherwise approved. H 500 Fuel. lubrication and cooling systems 501 Every system such as fuel oil. b) The thermal growth is to be considered in the shaft alignment and bedplate alignment procedure. are to be checked versus approved drawings or type approval. H 400 Resiliently mounted engines 401 Resilient mounts a) The engine mounts are to be checked as follows: — mounts are to be type approved — load distribution between mounts of same type (approximately equal deflection) — distance to stoppers (or second level if dual characteristic mounts) as approved. b) The crankshaft deflections are to be checked as per manufacturer’s specifications. piston rod and crosshead alignment are to be recorded. The results are to be within the designer’s tolerances. c) The piston. shaft connections and all piping to the engine. The alignment of intermediate shafts and elastic couplings is specified in Ch.

Where surface temperatures exceed 220°C. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. The running time must be sufficient to reach steady state thermal conditions and to make all necessary records. The engine speed is to be stable and the fuel rack index to oscillate (maximum to minimum) less than 10% of the effective stroke (idle to full). 210 The temperature of hot surfaces is to be checked during full load testing. the specified time for the passing is to be checked. and in particular engines for HS. I 600 Transient torsional vibration 601 Passing through a barred speed range is to be made in an optimum way. 304 Reversible engines are to be tested with a minimum reversing engine speed of 70% of the rated forward speed for at least 10 minutes. less than 4 hours at full load may be considered. hydraulic oil or lubrication oil. Somewhat higher oscillations may be accepted if acceptable torsional vibration can be substantiated by measurements. the entire speed range with either full pitch or combination pitch is to be checked. 402 Engines driving generators are to be tested according to requirements in Ch. 203 For the jacket cooling and the piston cooling (when applicable) medium temperatures are to be checked versus engine specifications. I 300 Testing of propulsion engines 301 The engines are normally to be tested for 4 hours at 100% power. the same applies. However. but the misfiring of the engines is to be combined. and the service is intended for heavy fuel. I 500 I 200 General engine tests 201 The functioning of water drain from the charge air system is to be checked. Steady state torsional vibration 501 Direct coupled engines with a barred speed range are to be checked for stable running at both lower and upper borders of the barred range. the maximum pressure is to be recorded for each cylinder at maximum continuous rating. LC and NSC. 205 The suitability of the engine to burn residual or other special fuels is to be demonstrated. 102 Unless otherwise stated. the mechanical blocking of the fuel rack is to be made after sea trial testing. if the machinery installation is arranged to burn such fuels. 302 The lowest engine speed according to nominal propeller curve is to be determined for plants with fixed pitch propellers. see Ch. For testing procedures. alarm and safety functions are to be tested. It shall not exceed the maximum permissible value nor vary more than permitted by the engine designer. this is to be tested with both zero and full pitch. see Table E1 and E2.3 Sec. This may be done by a slow sweep or stepwise speed increase — for two engine plants. This may be done by keeping the selected misfiring for engine one. It is advised to use thermographic analyses for documentation. 208 Starting tests are to be made in order to document the required starting air energy capacity.4 Ch. If the engine cannot be loaded to 100% power at 100% rated speed due to propeller characteristics and ballast conditions. the clutching-in is to be checked at the minimum respectively the maximum permissible engine speed for clutching-in.Rules for Ships / High Speed. Application 101 The paragraphs in I apply to all shipboard testing of diesel engines including vibration that are influenced by the diesel engines.time) is checked for four-stroke diesel engines.5. 206 If the sea trial full load testing is made on light diesel. For selection of misfiring cylinder. alternatively 3% of the maximum permissible value where no design specification applies. in power take off gears light gear hammer in unloaded condition is acceptable. see G303 e). except items integrated in the engine and verified during the workshop test. If the passing through is automatically controlled. insulation of oil non-absorbent material covered by sheet metal is to be fitted.6 Sec. 602 After the clutch characteristics (pressure . see 503. 207 For engines to be run on heavy fuel. January 2001 Pt. the following apply for each plant on board: — for a single engine plant. 204 The engine is to be checked for any leakage of fuel oil. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . I 700 Axial vibration 701 For crosshead engines the axial vibration are to be checked at the free end of the engine when running at full load. 502 Reduction gears and power take off gears are to be detected for gear hammer in misfiring condition in ranges specified in connection with the approval. The speed governing system is to respond with quickly damped oscillations. Speed ranges where gear hammer occurs due to one misfiring cylinder are to be restricted for continuous operation in that operation mode. 503 Engines with elastic couplings are to be checked for stability of the speed governing system when provoked by misfiring. a surveyor is to attend the tests and inspections given in I. this test is to be carried out at a speed that corresponds to 100% torque. 209 The control. Normally this means as quickly as possible. The vibration level is not to exceed the limit given by the engine designer. If a specific procedure is given in the torsional vibration calculations. The blocking is to limit the engine output to the approved value. 202 The functioning of the cylinder lubricators (when applicable) are to be randomly checked. Shipboard Testing I 100 I 400 Testing of auxiliary engines 401 Engines for auxiliary purposes are to be tested for 100% power for at least one hour. For controllable pitch propellers. For small engines. Fuel rack oscillations peak to peak (with combined misfiring for twin engines) are not to exceed 10% of the effective stroke (idle to full). A deviation from the normal 4 hours full load running has to be approved by the Society. Unless otherwise stated in the approved torsional vibration calculations. special considerations apply — diesel generator sets are to be checked at a minimum of 50% load and with another set operating in parallel.2 Sec. see approved torsional vibration calculations.6. Speed ranges where gear hammer occurs are to be barred for continuous operation. this is to be verified under the foreseen operational conditions. and first select a cylinder at random for the second engine and afterwards select the adjacent cylinder — for plants with more than two engines. 303 For two stroke engines the auxiliary blowers are to be checked for correct start and stop according to specification.1 – Page 25 I.

902 Unless otherwise approved. cooling water bellows. The inside of the cylinder liner is to be inspected c) One crosshead bearing and guide is to be checked d) The thrust bearing is to be checked. lubrication oil pipes. Crankshaft deflections are to be checked as per manufacturer’s specification c) Cams and cam rollers are to be randomly checked.1 – Page 26 I 800 Engine vibration 801 For resiliently mounted engines the engine movements are to be observed during the misfiring tests of the engine (torsional vibration). etc. January 2001 Pt. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. a thorough check for fretting is to be carried out DET NORSKE VERITAS .4 Ch. the following apply for all kinds of engines: b) One main bearing is to be checked. I 900 Opening up after testing 901 Unless otherwise approved. the following apply for crosshead engines in addition to 901: a) The camshaft drive is to be checked for wear b) One piston and cylinder head is to be removed for inspection. None of the engine connections such as exhaust pipe compensators. In the case of serrations. see F304. The engine is not to reach contact with the stoppers. are to restrict the engine movements.Rules for Ships / High Speed. a) One crankpin bearing is to be checked. especially at full load.3 Sec.

or documented. the Society might require complementary information when faced with unconventional designs. gas turbines operating on only liquid fuel do not need to comply with the requirements specific to gaseous fuel operation (see F800 and F900).1 Ch. as well as in 400. FAA. It is assumed that the following is in place: — type approval certificate — manufacturer survey arrangement (MSA) (see Ch. 500 and 600. or new designs may receive a preliminary (time limited) design approval so as to allow initial operation.2 C100). the Society will. and rating. Novel. and are aimed at manufacturers.2 presents the certification process for subsequent type approved engines. upgrading. etc. specifications. 109 Where the rule requirements defined herein are not explicitly complied with. and change in application. with respect to working profile. upon request. In addition. as well as the engine installation and shipboard testing.1 Sec. other supporting systems. water injection. It is also a condition for type approval that the manufacturer has satisfied the following criteria: Fig. January 2001 Pt. 102 The rules in this section apply to all gas turbines operating on liquid and or gaseous fuel. However.2 Sec. General A 100 Application 101 This section covers requirements applicable to gas turbines subject to certification. without major fault findings. before the type approval certificate will be issued. This applies to engines of existing or modified designs. control and monitoring systems and heat recovery systems (if applicable). 108 Fig. Guidance note: This implies e. yards and operators. light craft and naval surface craft. are to be submitted for all gas turbines. gas turbines intended for propulsion. 105 The rules apply for ships and high speed.2 – Page 27 SECTION 2 GAS TURBINES A. It is required that the manufacturer documents 2 500 hours of inservice experience of one unit. These requirements apply to conventional gas turbines used as propulsion engines and driving auxiliaries. The in-service experience should be relevant for the application that type approval is applied for. Fig. Additional documentation for mobile offshore units is listed in 300. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Fig. ductwork. modifications. analysis and particulars as listed below. packagers. power generation or any major functions such as gas compression.4 Ch. 1 Type approval and certification process for the first engine a) The engine has been thoroughly tested during the development phase. 106 Subject to approval are the gas turbine with foundation.g.1. see Ch.2 Sec. etc. operating profile. on DNV classed objects are to be type approved. fuel and lubrication oil systems.1 shows the type approval and certification processes for a gas turbine (first engine). calculations and other information are to be submitted as applicable according to Table A1. 2 Certification process for subsequent engines A 200 Documentation 201 Drawings. change in working DET NORSKE V ERITAS .Rules for Ships / High Speed. approval by other recognised bodies such as CAA. Plans. data.1 B200.3 Sec. and rating. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. evaluate alternative and or equivalent solutions in accordance with Pt. that during the design assessment credit may be given for extensive relevant operational experience. b) The engine test program has been designed to cover uncertainties in the design analysis. 103 The rules apply for gas turbine packages. 104 The rules apply for mobile offshore units. 107 Normally. where documented service experiences is available for the specific application.

change in any major parameters or any other modified operating conditions.m. f) Hazardous areas are all areas in which explosive gas and air mixture are. turbine. at different locations. u) Containment calculations of the gas turbine with regard to blade loss. It includes starting the engine. the following definitions apply: a) Maximum continuous output rating. see definition in B103. a) Maximum continuous output rating (kW and r. acceleration to maximum rated power. Peak design power at relevant ambient temperatures. d) Idle speed. In addition. k) Compressor performance curves (for both open and closed bleed valves and VSVs and IGVs. accelerating to maximum rated power. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft.p.2 – Page 28 cycle.p. with respect to the gas turbine and core control. 203 When considering components that are of welded construction. the following are to be specified: — filler metal particulars — heat treatment after welding — NDT with acceptance levels. such as discs.g. and power turbine. f) Specification of operating profile (mission cycle) that is used in the strength calculations of components. g) Computing method for calculating accumulated life using mixed mission cycles (only for case by case approval). operating speed range. h) Torsional vibration calculations. n) Performance characteristics including dependency of engine power and speed on ambient temperature.). When calculations are required see 201. Compressor surge and choke margin. the review of the relevant documentation may be performed by the Society at the manufacturer's premises. s) Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). hubs. for mobile offshore units) 301 The following plans and particulars are to be submitted for approval: f) Logic diagram showing the working principles of the monitoring control systems. if applicable).m.p.). e) Idle speed. and maximum (trip) speed of power turbine (r. maximum continuous rating and emergency rating. j) Axial vibration calculations. To be consistent with operating profile used for certification test. p) Component life for all life limited parts. e) OEM is original equipment manufacturer. o) Time between overhaul (TBO) with respect to rated power.p. and shafts. deceleration.m. hubs. DET NORSKE VERITAS .). examination. idling. and stop. the acceptance criteria are to be included in the documentation. and for repair welding. full details of seams are to be given and relevant welding procedure specifications are to be referred to on the drawings. m) Specification of pressure and temperature at the different stages in the engine for all operational modes. these are to substantiate the requirements given in these rules. assuming normal recommended shipboard maintenance procedures have been followed. q) Number of start-stop stress cycles approved for each rotor structural parts such as discs. c) Maximum permissible rate of acceleration and deceleration. In the case when NDT specifications are required. This includes start-up of the engine. d) Overhaul is normally to be accomplished at the engine manufacturer's plant or at an OEM's approved plant. start. l) Turbine performance curves. a) Torsional vibration calculations of power turbine and shafting system including complete driven train. or may normally be. 204 For the purpose of these rules. r) Specification of reliability and availability and analysis supporting the specified reliability and availability. and maximum (trip) speed of compressor rotor (r.m. such as compressor. with regard to fire protection and also with regard to preventing human skin contact with hot component. and from zero to full load for a series of different ramp functions (with varying time constants for load increment and load shed). analysis and particulars are to be submitted: c) Drawings and description of shielding of hot parts. c) Time between overhaul. b) Calculations of turbine response (r. It shall include disassembly. operating speed range. b) Arrangement of engine room installation. January 2001 Pt. This is the period which the engine is expected to run prior to removal for overhaul. e) Arrangement of ventilation. expected to be present in quantities such as to require special precautions for the construction and use of electrical equipment and machinery. limiting pressures. and shafts of the compressors and turbines. A 300 Additional documentation for gas fuel arrangement (e.) to load variations: from full load to no load. The following plans. c) Arrangement of piping for gas and fuel oil. b) Start-stop stress cycle consists of a mission cycle or an equivalent representation of engine usage. spacers. and stopping. The maximum power level at which the engine has passed the engine type testing specified in B800. cleaning and repair of the gas turbine engine and accessories. The following particulars related to installation on board are to be submitted: a) Description of installation. temperatures and power ratings have not been exceeded and lubricating (when applicable) and fuel oils specified in the type approval certificate have been used. 205 When the design assessment conflicts with confidentiality and or proprietary issues.Rules for Ships / High Speed. d) Test program for the sea trials. e) Shaft alignment specification. i) Lateral vibration calculations. decelerating. when relevant. upon agreement between both parties. 202 The drawings are to have clear references to the applicable material specification.4 Ch. t) Calculation and or experimental data of turbine response to an instantaneous failure of coupling shaft at 100% load. spacers. b) Maximum permissible rate of load increase and load decrease. d) Piping diagrams showing the arrangement of fuel supply.3 Sec.

particulars. 402 As a general requirement. Table A1 Documentation Plans. I variable stator vanes Bleed valves I Bearing. thrust A Bearing housings I Tie rod A Rotors A Disks A Shafts A Combustor and flame tube A Burners I Turbine nozzles A Turbine internal air cooling system A Starting systems A 1) Turbine mounted piping Lubricating oil system I Turbine fuel system I Fuel metering valves UR Fuel specification I Control system A Monitoring and instrumentation system A Safety system A Performance I FMEA I Fire prevention A Maintenance manuals I Operating manual I Test procedures A 1) A: I: UR: h) Gas detectors in the intake system of the gas turbine. Enclosure drawings and information including duration the enclosure can contain a fire (A-0. The components and components parameters should be that of the actual delivery for the project. hydrodynamic A Bearing. including bearings A and shaft design Section showing blade. gas detectors. rolling element A Bearing. Any changes to components after the calculations are completed are not acceptable unless verified through new analysis or equivalent methods. DET NORSKE V ERITAS .Rules for Ships / High Speed.3 Sec. are to be considered. and foundations.4 Ch.6. For approval For information Upon request A 400 Documentation of vibration analysis (core and system) 401 Axial. including gas turbine and driven equipment. 403 In all vibration calculations the variation of essential data such as dynamic characteristics of flexible couplings. A-60 etc. specifications Drawings and and components specifications General technical specifications A General arrangement of gas turbine A Section rotor assembly. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft.). analysis. is to be submitted for approval.3 A104): — — — — — objectives description of the method conditions assumptions conclusion.2 Sec. The conclusion is to be based on a comparison between calculated dynamic response and the permissible values for all the sensitive parts in the engine or system. and their locations.2 – Page 29 g) Enclosures with details of flame detectors smoke detectors. i) Logic diagrams showing the emergency shutdowns due to detection of fire or gas. Material specification Calculations Miscellaneous I Design and detailed documentation requirements B301 B302 A B302/B303 A A A A A A B303 B303 B304 B305 B306 B307 I I I UR A A A I UR I A A A A A I A I A A A I UR I I I B308 I UR B309 B310 B311 B312 B313 B314 B315 B316 B317 B318 B319 B320 B321 B322 B323 B324 B325 B326 B327 B328 B329 B330 B331 B332 B333 B334 B335 B336 I I 1) UR UR I A To be in accordance with Ch. calculations are to include (see Ch. bearings. inlet guide vanes. and blade fastening A Seals with sealing arrangement A Blades A Impellers A Casing A Diffuser A Variable guide vanes. lateral and torsional vibration analysis of the complete system. January 2001 Pt.

engine vibration is to be calculated with regard to natural frequencies for all six degrees of freedom. The specified pressure-time characteristics for systems incorporating clutches (Ch.4 Sec.2 – Page 30 404 In vibration calculations the source of all essential data is to be listed. The results should be confirmed by testing. If this should occur. bearing housing and base stiffness. The analysis should include all speeds from zero to trip. including the next mode above the trip speed. and other actual running conditions. as a minimum should be: — unbalance in the rotor system (unbalance to be placed as far from a node as possible) — oil-film instabilities (whirl) — asymmetric flexibility (rotor sag) — shaft misalignment — hysteretic whirl (in shrink fit shafts) — dry-friction whirl — boundary. unbalance. The probes should be placed as far from a node as possible. surge or stall — excitation due to torque variation in geared system using helical gears — excitation due to thrust variations in electrical generators (field shift). ventilation system. together with response due to maximum acceleration and deceleration of the vessel. or at locations of highest displacement of the rotor as seen from the mode shapes of the natural frequency calculations.5g (transverse and longitudinal) and frequencies to be determined for passenger craft. phase and response amplitude data is to be presented for the vibration probe locations.3 Sec. The unbalance should be located at points on the system as far from a node as possible.3) shall be considered and if found necessary impact vibration calculations will be required. as a minimum should be: 407 Torsional vibration calculations The excitation sources to be investigated by analytical methods. car ferry and yacht. Frequency. Calculations should specify rotor masses. in the running range from zero to trip speed.4 Ch. 408 Engine vibration and response to sea loads For resiliently mounted engines. are to be submitted.3) or plants with power off-take system driving generators where short circuits can occur. Impact calculations due to short-circuiting in power generating systems. The acceleration is to be considered as sine functions with peak amplitudes up to 1g (vertical) and 0. A 500 Documentation of arrangement 501 The following plans and specifications are to be submitted: a) Engine room arrangement with enclosure.Rules for Ships / High Speed. bearings. — gear induced excitation. Torsional resonance frequencies for the complete train shall have normally a separation margin of 20% of any possible excitation frequency within the normal running range of the plant. calculations indicating that the response of the rotor will not exceed the manufacturers specified limits should be submitted for approval. Calculation of forced response may be required if excitation frequencies can interfere with natural frequencies inside the operating speed range. response calculations of sea induced vibration. Appropriate unbalance should be used in the analysis (commonly. Response plots indicating modal displacement should also show the locations of the couplings. and pitch line run-out — control system induced excitations — starting device excitation. metallic chocks or resilient mounts. rotor stiffness. and all load conditions. LC and NSC the response due to peak amplitude acceleration is to be calculated. and maximum to minimum clearances. As a minimum the analysis is to include plots of mode shapes for all natural modes of vibration. The excitation sources to be investigated by analytical methods. as a minimum should be: — excitation due to thrust variation as a result of load variation. Impact torsional vibration calculations. For gas turbine installations intended for propulsion (including electric propulsion). base frame. The following are to be included: — bolt pre-tension calculations (see F302) — epoxy resin surface pressure calculations (see F301) — chock dimensions (see F301) DET NORSKE VERITAS . transverse and longitudinal directions. the assumed parameter dependency and tolerance range is to be specified. Resiliently mounted machinery is to be designed for dynamic response due to these accelerations. rescue and patrol craft and are to be approved by DNV. such as mesh frequency. assembly tolerances. and damping characteristics. The minimum seal clearances should be noted on the plots.4 Sec. as applicable. and seals. including special test conditions. 406 Lateral vibration calculations Natural frequency analysis and forced vibration analysis should take into consideration the following: The natural frequencies of the rotor-bearing-support system should not exist inside the normal speed range of the turbine from idle to trip speed. Torsional vibration calculations for steady state conditions. All machinery is to be designed to operate under relevant acceleration due to heavy sea in vertical. Bearing dynamic characteristics should take into account oilfilm stiffness and damping as a function of shaft rotational speed. This applies to plants with rapidly engaging clutches (Ch. gas turbine hook-ups and adjacent components. 405 Axial vibration calculations The excitation sources to be investigated by analytical methods. bearing stiffness. b) Engine fastening arrangement with bolts. This is also to include possibly increased accelerations if hitting end stoppers. January 2001 Pt. maximum permissible residual unbalance). Higher acceleration values apply for cargo craft. forced response calculations in conjunction with stress calculations are required to prove that failure of the shafting will not occur as a result of high cycle fatigue. For data that cannot be given as constant parameters. For HS.1 Sec. struts. including crash stop. temperature. This applies to all plants except auxiliary plants with less than 200 kW engine rated power. epoxy resin. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. This may be done by response calculations based on the relevant motions in seaway as given in Ch.layer flow separation — acoustic and aerodynamic cross-coupling forces — asynchronous whirl — ball and race frequencies of anti-friction bearing. Critical speeds should be calculated by the damped unbalance response analysis of the rotor.3 B. stoppers. with a separation margin of 20%. In the case that there is a resonant condition in the running range. The calculations report should contain a summary of the total analysis.

filters. g) Specification of water wash and carbo blast system ( see also F600) to be submitted (when applicable). starting system. f) Specification of anti-icing system (when applicable) including: — drawings showing the anti-icing system (flow of hot gas.g. etc. A 600 Documentation of production verification 601 The following is to be submitted to DNV in due time before product audit (see C300): — production schedule of relevant components — type of certified quality system — in case of forging. with regard to environmental conditions. valve blocks. at maximum output to anti-icing — heating system (when sources are other than the gas turbine) — method of detecting ice formation at the filters — instrumentation of the detection system — FMEA (or equivalent) of the anti-icing system.10.9 and Ch.4 Ch. i) j) The heat rejection curve of the turbine (heat rejection versus time for shutdown from full load) or equivalent shall normally be provided. with the maximum temperature. temperature. A 800 Documentation of fire safety 801 Fire safety documentation to be submitted as a minimum is as follows: — drawings indicating location and type of fire (flame) detection. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . — drawings indicating location of doors — drawings indicating location of equipment such as pumps.. including material — detailed drawings of the attachments of the boiler to its supports — calculations of the back pressure at full load due to the boiler — expected maximum gas temperature — expected maximum particulate percentage in exhaust gas (as a function of fuel type and power) — maximum expected thermal power to be generated. c) Shaft alignment specification including calculations for the high speed shaft (see F101) d) Arrangement plans of inlet and exhaust ducting (see F500).2 – Page 31 — “dynamic” and static calculations of resilient mounting (see F400) — stress calculations for foundation members (see F201) — buckling calculations for supports and struts (see F201) — deflection calculations of gas turbine casing.3. the following is to be documented with respect to fire safety: — type and capacity of the enclosure fire extinguishing medium to be specified — specification of action sequence in case of fire (alarm. Specification of the following systems to be submitted (as applicable): — filtration system — silencer system. acceleration rate etc. — drawings indicating location of fans and blowers in the ventilation system — material specification for enclosure and fire dampers — specification of measures to prevent personnel being exposed to fire extinguishing medium constituting a health hazard — documentation of ventilation air distribution (upon request). e. such as maximum speed. etc. 102 The design and construction is to enable the gas turbine to meet the general requirements. and pressure of hot gas.10 — arrangement of fuel spray shields — special piping arrangement showing location of pipes.). and location of source (when applicable) — resulting power loss to the turbine.3 Sec. closing of ventilation ducts. The manufacturer is to provide a two-dimensional design envelope made up of what may be sustained during normal operation and what may be experienced occasionally (e.2 Sec. and fire extinguishing equipment in addition to requirements in Ch. material chemical composition and forging procedure — procedures and specifications as requested by the Society. Design h) Documents to verify compliance with F700. fire extinguishing. see Ch.6 — insulation type. start sequence — control set points. storm conditions). Special attention is to be given to A100. The engine must not suffer unreasonable distortion (or stress) if these loads are applied repeatedly. hoses. natural frequency calculations of foundation system (see F203). if applicable (see F202) — upon request. e) Specification of exhaust heat recovery system (when applicable) including: — drawings of exhaust duct and boiler.7 and Ch.6.g. This shall include bleed air piping. etc. such as duration of acceleration ramp. See also A408. electrical panels. fuel shut off. A 700 Documentation of control systems 701 The documentation that shall be submitted is as follows: — control logic flow chart. method and arrangement — drawing of fuel trays and handling of fuel and lubrication oil leaks.Rules for Ships / High Speed. valves and pumps in relation to potential ignition sources in addition to requirements in Ch. Note: These requirements are in addition to those specified in Ch. January 2001 Pt. — alarm and shutdown (or step-to-idle) set points — time constants.10. B. The engine must be capable of withstanding environmentally induced acceleration loads during operations. when applicable) — expected maximum mass flow. functional capability and to reliability and availability as given in 103. In case of enclosure. Drawings indicating temperature profile on the skin and casing of the gas turbine from intake to exhaust (maximum). Note: These requirements are in addition to those given in Ch. This may for instance be: B 100 General 101 For general design principles for machinery. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. Ch.

This is to include a specification of key gas turbine parameters as given in Table B1. January 2001 Pt. e. such as blades. while requirements for certification testing and shipboard testing are covered in D200. complemented with results from development testing. during 2500 hours without major fault. High cycle fatigue margin is to be documented by analyses and testing. Maximum power turbine speed 2) 1) At maximum rated power and ambient temperature.p. 103 The reliability and availability of new designed turbines is to be supported through a design analysis. 104 Design calculations or test conditions are to be based on the maximum permissible loads. Table B1 Documentation of general technical specifications Subject Unit Mass (kg) Dimensions (m) (kg/s) Maximum air mass flow rate 1) Maximum continuous ratings (kW) (ºC) Maximum turbine inlet temperature 1) (ºC) Maximum exhaust temperature 1) Fuel type (kg/kWh) Specific fuel consumption 1) (hours) Expected time between overhaul 1) r.p. DET NORSKE VERITAS . The number of thermal stress cycles depends on the intended application of the engine. The design analysis is to substantiate the information as given in A201.p. If fuel is different from test to operation. 600 and 700. from cold start) are to be documented and correlated to the design calculations. e. shall be documented and available to be presented upon request from the Society. components exposed to thermal cycle loads or other low cycle fatigue. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. However. The engines are to be limited to the specified maximum rating (working envelope approved by the Society) by blocking the controls.e. a combination of testing and design calculations may be necessary. normally with the maximum load change per time unit that is possible with the foreseen control system. The precise extent of cycle testing needed shall be agreed taking applicable component experience and relevant analyses into account. For some components. The maximum and minimum loads are to be kept for sufficient time to stabilise the temperatures of the relevant parts.g.4 Ch.m. B 200 201 Structural components See F200. 109 For new and uprated engines the information from internal development testing. as well as load variations. Performance and operational particulars. etc.2 – Page 32 108 Previously approved engines with an upgraded or modified design or up-rated operational parameters can be granted approval with a reduced documentation scope.m. D300 and I100 and I200.m minor changes to structural integrity components minor changes to operational profile.full load – idle (or stop) sequences and permissible rates of engine load increase and decrease. or permitted in the operating manual. 111 Bolt material should generally not be exposed to temperatures where creep is significant. disks. General requirements for engine testing are covered in 500. Instrumentation particulars are to be submitted in accordance with E200. 106 Design approval of gas turbines consists of both design analysis and testing. the allowable modifications in such cases are limited as follows: — — — — — 20ºC increase of maximum turbine inlet temperature 5% increase of mass flow 5% increase of r. Maximum compressor speed 2) r. Type testing requirements are defined in 800 and 900. the maximum number of thermal cycles (full cycle. 107 The duration of the tests is to be selected to accumulate a relevant number of stress cycles.g.Rules for Ships / High Speed. respectively. Override functions are not permitted without the written consent from the Society. frequent idle (or start) . while either testing or calculations may document other components. This should be substantiated through design and operating experience. as specified in A201 are to be submitted. Thermal stress cycles obtained by idle (or start) – full load – idle (or stop) sequences are to be run in a way that results in the most severe thermal stresses. This applies in particular to parts subjected to high cycle fatigue. The testing is to be arranged to represent typical load profiles as well as to cover for required safety factors due to wear and fatigue scatter and foreseen in-service deterioration. providing an overview of engine design and technical capabilities. For components such as turbine disks. as well as full scale testing. such as thermal paint results. it should be taken into account. i. B 300 Component design requirements 301 General technical specifications. provided that the engine: Guidance note: Example of design envelope diagram: — has been thoroughly tested during the development phase or — the test program has been extended to cover uncertainties in the design analysis or — the engine has been case by case approved and has proven reliability in service. 2) Trip speed. features and operational modes A general technical description of the turbine is to be submitted.3 Sec. 105 The engine loads to be considered are as follows: — propulsion engines according to maximum continuous rated power — other auxiliary purposes according to maximum continuous rated power unless otherwise specified. The precise design assessment scope needed is to be agreed with the Society on a case by case basis. 110 Normally gas turbines are to have a minimum TBO of 10 000 running hours.

low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep. Blade vibration modes are to be documented. Blades fitted with interference are to document local pressure. first stage low pressure turbine. are not required. The conclusion of the analysis shall take into account the actual material specification (including test specimen scatter). bearing spans etc.g. yield strength. and the consequence of loss of cooling medium (FMEA). — — — — — If the gas turbine is a single spool engine. several drawings may be used to give the same general information. low pressure compressor. elongation. The minimum ranges are to include the 2. 303 Rotor assembly Rotor assembly drawings submitted for approval shall contain details of the following information: blade fastening including dimensions and materials disk including dimensions and materials shafts including dimensions and materials blades including dimensions and materials seals including dimensions and materials. turbine rotor length. Goodman diagrams (or equivalent representation) shall be used (together with Campbell diagrams) in demonstrating the blade life. and thickest cross-section. thermal loads. Thermally loaded areas are to take into consideration local “hot spots”. Normally only the following blades are required to be documented as representative of the different stages as applicable: — — — — — Documentation is to include dimensions. The vibration modes to be considered are: — — — — first flexural second flexural first torsional first edgewise. and the vane root. such as cooling hole patterns or coating composition. Normally the natural vibration frequencies and mode shapes are to be presented in the form of a Campbell diagram. fir-tree blade and disk interface. Analyses are to take into consideration geometric stress raisers e. Vibration models shall be such that they will depict the correct mode shapes and frequencies (within uncertainty limits of verified measured frequency). fatigue properties etc. (relevant to the design review) are to be supplied upon request. inlet diameter. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . areas where boundary layers due to the rotating disk may form insulation against forced cooling air or the blocking of cooling air due to other reasons. if applicable. as chemical composition. then sub-level drawings that give the same details will be considered. The drawings are to include the material of the main components. calculations are to include analysis at thinnest cross section. cooling and coating. 305 Impellers Impellers for radial compressors or turbines shall have documented evidence of its design (see 304). material specification. first stage and last stage. and need have only overall dimensions such as casing dimensions. first stage and last stage high pressure compressor. 304 Blades Blade documentation shall as a minimum contain the data required in this section. middle compressor stage is to be added. Total strength evaluation The blade strength documentation is to be based on high cycle fatigue (HCF). The stages where cooled and coated blades are used shall be specified. incorporating the listed components. if this is not possible. This will form the basis for acceptance by the Society. blade neck. documentation of cooling and coating is only to indicate presence. together with the blade lock-up speed. and result in a margin of safety.2 – Page 33 302 General arrangement General arrangement drawings of the gas turbine shall include the following: — — — — — — — — — — compressor rotor high pressure turbine rotor power turbine rotor bearings seals combustion chamber blades disks guide vanes shafts. However. which take into consideration the impeller body. Interference shall not occur with any source of excitation within +/-10%.0 order of nozzle passing frequency. This is to prove that the model used is accurate. gas pressure. This model shall then be used for the stress calculations mentioned above. first stage and last stage high pressure turbine. Rubbing is not to lead to such deterioration of the performance that the engine is unable to meet the specified performance. e. and analyses are to include combined stress. but using the same method and tools of computation. Segments of the impeller. Particulars. first stage power turbine.4 Ch. January 2001 Pt. Blade strength with respect to radial forces. The analysis shall take into consideration the gas force. The calculated frequency should be within the uncertainty limits of the measured frequency. and its distribution along the impeller vanes. In the case that assembly drawings are not available as described. Vibration analysis A sectional representation. the material properties. heat treatment specifications. Production drawings are not required. 3-D finite element analysis or equivalent methods calculating the von Mises stress of the complete impeller is required to be submitted for assessment. are also acceptable. as well as radial and thermal loads. In the case of blades with internal cooling passages.Rules for Ships / High Speed. In the case of shrouded blades the Campbell diagram shall show the frequencies above and below the lock-up speed of the blade. If rubbing of the blade tips can be expected during operation. Experimental or other means of correlating the calculated frequency and modes of vibration of the impeller should be submitted upon request. at critical locations. compressor rotor length. and creep Blade strength with respect to centrifugal forces and gas pressure is to be documented by finite element analysis (FEM) or equivalent methods. vanes.g. However. is preferred included in one drawing. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. In case the materials are manufacturer specific. This proof of correlation could be from other impellers. the blades are to be designed so as to minimise the mechanical damage.3 Sec. The analysis shall also predict the expected thrust forces at full load.

and pressure variation through the diffuser. 309 Bleed valves and variable bleed valves Bleed valves shall be documented through drawings.2 ρ = the gas inlet velocity. the mechanism of operation shall be documented.area ratio vs. The associated power loss of the turbine shall also be documented. which shall include CFD (computational fluid dynamics) calculations. variable inlet guide vanes and variable stators vanes are used. shall be capable of containing a projectile such as blades or parts thereof (minimum one blade for axial units. flow velocities. covering the most severe conditions of temperature and pressure during operation. The variation of mass flow as function of guide vane angle shall be documented. This includes: — wall angles — diffuser chart . Such blade and impeller loss is not to result in consequential loss of other components such as disk or rotor which will in turn result in hazardous conditions for the vessel or its occupants.3) = the diffuser area ratio A well designed. describing major dimensions and materials. The operation of the bleed valve shall not result in the poor performance of the compressor. the valve position shall not be allowed to roll off the required position dictated by the control system. flow distortions. together with the maximum and minimum angles.Rules for Ships / High Speed. The maximum and minimum flow rates of the valves shall be specified in the documentation. e. Overall buckling strength shall be documented combining following loads: — — — — The hoop-stress values seen in the design shall not exceed the allowable values as required by international standards such as ASME codes (Section VIII Division 1. 316 and 317. The engine is to accommodate features that permit inspection of the combustors. When VGVs. p1. the revision is that which coincides with the validity of these rules). and partial load as a minimum.3 Sec. Inspection openings The design is to have features that permit boroscope inspection or equivalent of the first stage in the compressor and the last stage in the power turbine. January 2001 Pt. The documentation of the design. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- These calculations shall result in contoured flow diagrams. without catching fire and without failure of its mounting attachments. The documentation shall also provide information that indicates avoidance of rotating stall. The corresponding compressor map for open and closed conditions (0% and 100%) is to be submitted for information. defined as follows: 2 ( p2 – p1 ) .4 Ch. The required driving force shall be documented for the mechanism. Containment calculations or other methods are required to document that casing integrity is maintained. a diagram showing actuators and actuating media is to be submitted for information.⋅ 100% η = -------------------------------------------2 2 ρν 1 [ 1 – 1/ AR ] AR = diffuser inlet and outlet static pressures. In the event that the bleed air is used for other purposes such as anti-icing. Inspection procedures are to be described in the operating instructions. which give visual information of the direction of flow. idle. Bolted flange design Bolt pre-load calculations are to be submitted for information. This shall include full load.g. in the case of a centrifugal impeller the parts from one blade root failure). That is. The maximum temperature of the gas shall also be documented. 307 Diffusers The following design documentation for diffusers shall be submitted for approval: — main drawings. The design of the mechanism shall not allow play to be introduced as a result of normal wear. Diffuser efficiency. and size. indicating their position. a diagram showing actuators and actuating media is to be submitted for information. IGVs and VSVs are controlled by the fuel system or shaft speed. non-dimensional length (straight walled conical diffuser only) — reaction forces on diffuser wall. The calculations shall show that there is low probability of flow instabilities in the running range of the impeller. including power turbine casing. Diffuser design shall upon request be supported by aerodynamic calculations. system diagrams showing expected maximum and minimum air flow through the system are to be provided for information. conventional diffuser will have an efficiency in the range of 85%. including thermal effects and fatigue considerations (Goodman diagram). Containment and rotor failure All the sections of the casing exposed to rotating parts. Care shall be taken to see that bleed valve is always in a controlled position. Calibration procedures for the mechanism shall be submitted for information. and flow visualisation experiments. When bleed valves are controlled by the fuel system (or shaft speed).2 – Page 34 ν1 306 Casing The gas turbine casing design shall be supported by an analysis. Guidance note: The internal flow quality is assessed through the diffuser design review and used for further study such as for instance. combustion process consideration. 308 Variable guide vanes (VGV). DET NORSKE VERITAS . The drawings shall be in sufficient details such that it is possible to validate the input used in the calculations mentioned above. at different relevant running conditions. The corresponding compressor map for open and closed conditions (0% and 100%) is to be submitted for information. inlet guide vanes (IGV) and variable stator vanes (VSV) In the case where variable guide vanes. shall also indicate central parameters such as entrance angle into the diffuser and velocities through the different parts of the diffuser. Documentation shall indicate mass flow. reduce stall margins. such as holes for boroscope inspection. See also 314. and the compressor and turbine stages. respectively = the gas density (assumed constant for Mach numbers < 0. Flow visualisation and CFD modelling of flow pattern in the pre-combustor diffuser (around the flame tube head) is to be included upon request. tension bending moment shear torque. and vortex formations.

grade of precision etc. together with lubrication oil inlet and outlet temperatures. January 2001 Pt. 311 Hydrodynamic bearings The following documentation is to be submitted for approval: — drawings showing bearing detail. such as major dimensions.).4 Ch. Vibration conditions mentioned above are to take into account response when running through transients. the thrust force used for calculations shall be the worst case vector sum of thrust forces — potential unloaded conditions (skidding) for rolling bearing elements must be carefully evaluated (e. including turbine blade loss. Drawings shall be of sufficient details such that it is possible to locate the oil slits and holes.g. The deflection of the coupling shall be considered in both the axial and bending directions — surge forces — if two or more rotor thrust forces are to be carried by one thrust bearing. change of direction for thrust in the speed range). such as bearing type. — lifetime calculations based on normal loads — overload capability based on loss of a part. if relevant. Bearings shall have minimum lifetime of 50 000 hours (L10) at normal running conditions. etc. major dimensions. whip.2 – Page 35 310 Rolling element bearings Design documentation of rolling element bearings. as a function of load and speed in the normal operating range. blade. bearings could themselves be damaged). etc. For system vibration related items. this is to be substantiated through design documentation. containing the following. — drawings shall be of sufficient details to locate the oil slits and holes — documentation of bearing load capability and expected life. where the driven equipment’s mass is likely to result in a significant thrust force. — forces from heavy driven equipment (i. Irrespective of bearing type. Bearing housing for pressure lubricated hydrodynamic bearings shall be adequate to maintain the oil and foam mixture level below the shaft seals at all times. The documentation shall include the maximum permissible dynamic and static load that the bearing can withstand. Upon request historical failure data for the bearings is to be submitted. drawings are to be submitted for approval. (In this case the bearings only need to hold the rotor from complete destruction. converted thrust from geared system driving generators (short circuit torque). Upon request substantiation of minimum lifetime and load capability may be required through submittal of detailed analysis. and operation at stall conditions. 315 Rotors The following documentation is to be submitted for approval. see also G and A500. bearings supporting the output shaft are to be capable of withstanding the increased unbalance forces developed (due to higher shaft speed) if a coupling shaft fails. operation at or near compressor surge. Blade-out loads are to be based on worst case blade loss. The design should take into consideration the combination of clearances. loads. The structure of the bearing housing and the casing are to be designed such that blade loss or other rotor damage (see 306) will not cause the bearing housing or casing to fracture. Bearings are generally to be designed with the capability of withstanding forces resulting from any turbine component failure. The procedure for assembly of the rotor including the prestressing of the tie rod is to be submitted for information.g. 312 Thrust bearings Documentation on thrust bearings shall be provided as given in 310 or 311. and heat treatment where applicable. — analyses indicating the shaft position in the bearing. materials. This force added to the full load thrust should not exceed 50% of the maximum design thrust force of the bearing — expected thrust forces from flexible-element couplings. without requiring a change out or inspection. materials used. depending on bearing type.e generators). The thrust forces shall be calculated on the basis of maximum possible deflection of the coupling. e. taking the following into consideration: — — — — — — — rotor mass vibration loads misalignment pre-loading combined thrust and radial loads blade-out loads loads due to gyroscopic effects. provision shall be made for mounting two radial-vibration probes in each bearing housing. The following documentation is to be submitted upon request. DET NORSKE V ERITAS .Rules for Ships / High Speed.. shall be submitted for approval: — details of bearings. Bearings shall be equipped with replaceable labyrinth-type seals and deflectors where the shaft passes through the housing.3 Sec. and at least two axialposition probes at the thrust end of each machine. The calculations shall. in terms of resulting unbalance. thrust force calculations shall be submitted for information. etc. The thrust force is to be calculated using the maximum expected acceleration in the thrust direction (due to the vessel’s motion. Additionally. shall be within manufacturer's specifications when operating under the most severe conditions of ambient temperature and load. Calculations of tie rod strength are to be submitted for information. as a minimum. take into consideration the following items: — fouling and variation in seal clearances — stage reaction and stage differential pressure — external loads from driven equipment and load as a result of the environmental factors (vessel movement). Upon request. 313 Bearing housing for hydrodynamic bearings Drawings of bearing housing design is to be submitted for information. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. 314 Tie rods Whenever tie rods are used in rotors.: — — — — — — allowable temperature of the bearing material deflection of the bearing pad minimum oil film thickness feed rate and viscosity of oil oil temperature calculations indicating maximum expected specific pressure in the bearing — assessment of risk for oil film instability (whirl. but taking shaft coupling damping and spring effects into account). Normally. oil viscosity and operation so as to minimise the risk of this occurring. Temperature rise in the bearings and bearing housing. The drawings are to include material properties.

tolerances. If this should occur. and the effect of thermal expansion at the interface. and shall include the effects due to interference fits. The frequencies are to be presented in a Campbell diagram or equivalent for speeds from 0% to 110% full speed. and external loads) at critical locations. taking into consideration stress raisers. Note that the possibility of erroneous control system operation is to be taken into account. and materials submitted for approval. the thermal loads. such as notches. see A405. and external loads) at critical locations. 318 Combustor and flame tube Drawing and information of the combustor and flame tube are to be submitted as follow: a) Drawings containing main dimensions and materials specification are to be submitted for approval. see 306 for details. This documentation shall include the effect of centrifugal forces. impingement cooling. and materials. Gas generator rotors and rotors of single shaft machines shall be able to operate safely from zero to 110% of turbine trip speed. Cyclic thermal loads (including transient conditions) and cooling effects are to be taken into account in the calculations. Blade loss will be acceptable provided it can be proven that the blade or blades loss can be contained. d) Shaft strength shall be documented through analyses taking into consideration stress raisers. the drawings shall show where proximity probes are located. calculations indicating that the response of the rotor will not exceed the manufacturers specified limits should be submitted for approval. The combined stress (thermal. e) Documentation of the strength of the disk is to include FE analysis or equivalent to establish the disk blade retention capacity. Drawings of combustors shall be sufficiently detailed to allow correlation with CFD (computational fluid dynamics) calculations or flow visualisation if needed.) is to be presented for information. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft.3 Sec. The admissible residual magnetism shall be stated. g) Results of thermal paint tests are to be submitted upon request. are to be calculated and presented for information. b) Calculations of natural frequencies. calculations shall take into account the effect of cooling failure resulting from both cooling film breakdown and loss of cooling air. The natural frequencies of the rotor should not exist inside the normal speed range of the turbine from idle to trip speed. The inspection and replacement procedure to be applied in such cases shall be submitted upon request. such as intermesh.Rules for Ships / High Speed.2 – Page 36 a) Drawings indicating overall dimensions.4 Ch. c) Documentation on combustor cooling method (film cooling. holes. etc. f) Results from CFD calculations are to be submitted upon request. 317 Shafts Drawing and information of shafts are to be submitted as follows: a) Drawing showing the main dimensions. with a separation margin of 20%. d) Maximum permissible residual unbalance. including support structures. and shall be higher than that achievable while the unit is governed by the control system. b) Calculations (finite element (FE) analysis or equivalent) indicating the strength capabilities for foreseeable speeds and operating conditions. The documentation shall conclude with a margin of safety for normal running and abnormal conditions. For example. The calculations are to be submitted in a form including the resultant safety margin or equivalent factor. While life calculations shall take the thermal barrier into account. and mechanical shall be documented. Rotor disk or shaft failure or separation as result of the ensuing overspeed is not acceptable. For vibration analysis requirements for power turbine rotor. b) Combustor description and designation (staged combustion. d) Calculations showing the combined stress (thermal. documentation is required to substantiate the disk’s capability to transmit the required torque. January 2001 Pt. b) When relevant.. e) Where thermal barriers are used. taking into consideration stress raisers. The documentation shall also establish the disk blade retention capacity versus speed for all foreseeable overspeeds. h) Maximum allowable temperature spread at outlet plane shall be submitted for information. f) The disk burst speed shall be documented. reverse flow) to be submitted for information. the resultant overspeed should be limited by mechanical braking. the locations shall be shown on the combustor drawings. See also 316. the impact of barrier loss on material temperature and combustor life is to be evaluated and presented for information. pressure. radial. such as shock-load conditions. d) In cases where the disk is connected to the shaft with interference fit. Rotors shall be able to withstand instantaneous coupling shaft failure at full load. The uniformity of the combustor outlet plane temperature may be characterised in terms of the temperature traverse quality factor as defined below: T m ax – T 3 TTQ = -----------------------T3 – T2 Tmax DET NORSKE VERITAS = the maximum gas temperature in the outlet plane . in the event of a shaft or coupling failure. including transients where the coupling shaft fractures instantaneously at full load. c) Stability calculation including bearings characteristics and unbalanced forces. where applicable. Surface finish is to be specified. Guidance note: The combustion process is assessed in order to evaluate thermal loads and aerodynamic effects on hot section components. stress raisers. electrical. Vibration analysis covering disk vibration mode shapes and frequencies is to be submitted upon request. 316 Disks The following documentation is to be submitted for approval: a) Drawings indicating main dimensions. are to be calculated and presented. The admissible run-out. etc. g) Events potentially leading to extreme overspeed shall be shown through documentation to avoid disk rupture through fail-safe unit design. A406 and A407. The calculation results are to include expected combustor life. c) Welding documentation is to be in accordance with A203. LPP. c) If the disk is film cooled. with special attention to the blade and root disk connections. For turbine disks the thermal loads (including transient conditions) are to be taken into account in the calculations.

* Documentation indicating presence. including material properties (for approval) — pressure loads (for information) — thermal loads (for information) — stress due to expansion limitations (for information) — cooling system* (for information) — coatings. Normally. and is to be submitted for information. be as follows: a) Electric starting system: — — — — — — drawings describing the system starting torque required motor power and speed starting logic and set points disengaging speed redundancy in technical design and physical arrangement. A typical combustor will have a temperature traverse quality in the order of 20%. igniters shall normally not remain in the primary combustion zone during operation. An electric ignition system must have at least two igniters and two separate secondary electric circuits. i. The maximum mass flow rate of the fuel and the expected airflow (fuel air ratio) is to be documented upon request. The drawings shall specify the dimensions and material. Fuel nozzles are to be removable without disassembly of the combustor system. 322 Starting systems Documentation submitted for approval shall. The design shall also ensure that normal wear of the burners (see 320). the Society will require monitoring of the cooling air supply.2 – Page 37 = T 3 is the mean temperature in the outlet plane = T 2 is the compressor exit temperature.) — safety system in case of pressure build-up — starting logic and set points — disengaging speed (air turbine starter). such that the specified life of the components will be maintained..Rules for Ships / High Speed. Flame tube shall be sufficiently strong to withstand normal and transient temperatures and pressures. The design of combustor shall be such that the radial and circumferential gas temperature distribution will be acceptable during all normal and transient running conditions. as a minimum. relief etc. Combustors shall have dual ignition systems. See Table E1. Provisions shall be made for inspection of the combustor system such that all important sections can easily be inspected. 321 Turbine internal air cooling system Turbine cooling system documentation to be submitted for approval is: — drawing of the cooling system for the gas turbine — maximum and minimum flow rate of air required for cooling — maximum and minimum temperature of air required for cooling — maximum and minimum pressure of air required for cooling — monitoring instrumentation for cooling air supply.g. or variations in fuel and gas flow conditions due to normal wear of other components. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. of the power supply system.e.4 Ch. if applicable.* (for information). Normally. When brazing or other fixation methods are used to connect vanes to the outer and inner rings. This shall also take normal air cooling system degradation into account. The design of the cooling air system shall be such that documentation and experience can prove that there will always be a required minimum air flow available at maximum temperature and minimum cooling air pressure. Life calculations for high pressure turbine nozzle(s) shall consider the elements listed above and take into account the effects of both loss of coating and cooling (independently). b) Pneumatic start system: — drawings describing the system — pressure and volume of air required — redundancy in technical design and physical arrangement. The maximum fuel delivery temperatures and pressures. In cases where hot section design assessment indicates that reduction or loss of cooling air will reduce component life to a level jeopardising turbine safety. The following design documentation elements are to be submitted upon request: — — — — — — aerodynamics gas flow at geometric boundaries profile loss annulus loss secondary flow loss tip clearance loss. will not lead to flame distortion having a negative impact on component life. 319 Burners Sectional drawings of the burners are to be submitted for information. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- i) When welded constructions are used submitted welding documentation is to be in accordance with A203. they shall be complete. combustor life shall not be less than 10 000 hours based on full load conditions at worst-case certified ambient conditions. are to be specified for information. NGV's). January 2001 Pt. see below). particularly the burner area and combustor outlet (gas collector. Particulars such as cooling hole patterns or coating composition are not required. of the air supply system — operation of the air supply valves (set points. Burner lifetime shall be specified together with the nominal change-out intervals. The stages where cooled and coated nozzles are used shall be specified. The igniter should have a life that as a minimum coincides with a convenient check period (e. unless otherwise substantiated by documentation. (Only if installed. if relevant. as well as respective flow paths of fuel and air. c) Hydraulic start system: — drawings describing the system — hydraulic pressure required for starting — safety system in case of pressure build-up DET NORSKE V ERITAS . brazing shall not be intermittent. 320 Turbine nozzles Turbine nozzle design documentation is to be submitted for approval or information as indicated: — dimensional drawing. nozzle life shall be greater than 10 000 hours based on full load conditions at worst-case certified ambient conditions. together with the compressor air delivery temperature.3 Sec. hot section repair interval or time between overhaul).

LC and NSC Pt. Gas turbine lubricating oil systems are in addition to comply with the following: — gas turbines are to have a separate lubrication oil system — the system is to include sufficient filtering. The starting system shall be capable of performing at least 6 consecutive starts. including the DET NORSKE VERITAS . In pressurised systems there shall be provision for safe relief of pressure in the event that the pressure goes above the design limit. For mobile offshore units. Note that this also applies to HS. Piping is to be designed to withstand all expected vibration and environmental loads.6.3 B300 or Rules for Classification of HS. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- The gas turbine fuel system is to be designed and tested in compliance with Ch. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft.1 Sec. Location of these components is to be indicated on the drawings listed in above — any shutdown of the gas turbine. according to NAS 1638 or ISO 4406 (or equivalent).3 Sec. LC and NSC applications. stainless steel piping is to be used between the fuel filter separator and the engine. 326 Fuel metering valves Fuel metering valves are. lubricating oil piping.2 – Page 38 — redundancy in technical design and physical arrangement of the hydraulic fluid supply system — starting logic and set points — disengaging speed. If special maintenance is required to reduce degradation of the turbine.4 Ch. see Pt. fuel gas composition. Normally all fuel piping shall be class I as defined by Ch. — piping and instrumentation diagrams (or equivalent) — control parameters and instrumentation — maximum and minimum flow rate — flow rate as a function of actuator displacement and rotation — calibrating process of the metering valve — environmental testing procedures. to be documented as follows: — drawings of the valve. magnetic chip detectors located as necessary.6. shutdown due to turbine trip (except due to fire detection).3 B300. is not to result in damage to any turbine bearings. and other piping determined to be subject to these rules. if necessary.Rules for Ships / High Speed. 327 Fuel specification The fuel specification for the actual vessel and project is to be submitted for information. Heat balance calculations for the lubricating oil system is to be submitted upon request. LC and NSC applications. relief valve setting. see also E404. 324 Lubricating oil system The following lubricating oil system documentation shall be submitted for information: — drawing of the lubricating oil system for the gas turbine — piping and instrumentation diagrams (or equivalent) and instrumentation listing — drawings shall indicate maximum and minimum pressure and temperature in the system. The heat exchangers are to be certified in accordance with Ch. The start system shall be designed such that a single component failure does not lead to a failure to achieve propulsion power. The start system shall have its own protective system to ensure that failure to reach ignition speed.4 Ch. This also applies to HS. or due to a blackout of the vessel.6. January 2001 Pt. etc. When heavy fuels are to be used the manufacturers shall document the turbine's ability to maintain serviceability at full power. Gas turbine fuel systems are in addition to comply with the following: — fuel nozzles are to be replaceable without major adjustments for the fuel system — the system is to be equipped with suitable means for draining the fuel manifold and fuel nozzles after shutdown (normal and emergency) of the engine fuel supply — the combustors are to be equipped with a drainage system. which includes dimensions. 323 Turbine mounted piping Included in the term piping is fuel piping. Note that normally all fuel piping covered by 326 shall be class I as defined by Ch. hydraulic piping. e. without significant loss of component life. Guidance note: The requirements for a separate drainage systems may be waived if the engine design itself can be proven to hinder unwanted fuel accumulation. including normal. the type used is to be accepted by the engine manufacturer. vibration loads. The start system shall be protected such that a stuck rotor does not damage the start system. Guidance note: Gas turbine fuel system is defined as gas turbine manufacturer’s scope of supply.6. where gas fired turbines use gas processed from the field. engine induced.4 Ch. the methods used to clean the turbine shall be submitted to the Society for information.1 Sec. The heat balance is to be considered at cooler inlet temperature of 32°C. If biocides are needed. and water separator arrangements. The lubricating oil system is to be designed and tested in compliance with Ch. an ambient air temperature of 40°C or conditions specified by the specifications for the vessel or project. — type of lubricating oil — approved list of lubricants — maximum permissible amount by volume of water in the oil — oil filtration requirement. Normally the border line is set at fuel booster pump inlet.7. starting system piping. either due to a normal shutdown. upon request. shall not cause damage to the starting system. Piping is to be designed and tested in compliance with Ch. 325 Turbine fuel system The following fuel system documentation shall be submitted for information: — piping and instrumentation diagrams (or equivalent) — purification method and specification of the fuel as required by the manufacturer — drawings of the gas turbine fuel system (see guidance note).6. preventing accumulation of fuel after a failed start. See also E400. before bearings. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Normally. whichever is more demanding. heat exchanger capacity. instrument and control air piping. flow directions.g. by pass system etc.

This is to identify critical components and systems together with failure modes and consequences.g. 502 The following external particulars are to be recorded: — — — — — ambient air temperature ambient air pressure relative humidity fuel designation or specification lubricating oil specification. b) Overall gas turbine performance curves. basic cycle 332 Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) An FMEA of the gas turbine is to be submitted for information.2 – Page 39 highest expected sulphur content in the mature field. respectively. The design shall take into consideration thermal gradients for all modes of operation including trips. when calculating ISO equivalent power referred to actual measured power.Rules for Ships / High Speed. pressure) — mechanical control system (e. maximum blade crack length. see Ch. — methods used to identify the hours on the component — acceptance and rejection criteria of major components. and methods of evaluating parameters. 336 Test procedures Test procedures for the type test. disks. e) The expected recoverable performance of a used engine (after a complete overhaul). Fig.3 Sec. 329 Monitoring and instrumentation system See E200. blade and disk cooling) — turbine cooling and ventilation system (shell and casing) — control system — control system power supply — instrumentation system (e. See also 400. the design specification shall be assumed. B 500 General requirements for engine test 501 All measurements at the various ratings are to be made at steady operating conditions unless otherwise stated. the contents are to be as follows: — illustrated list of parts — assembly and disassembly process with tools and procedures. The turbine manufacturer is to provide a list of their approved overhaul depots for the respective gas turbine types. c) The expected performance of new engine. burners etc. expected frequency of failure. — time between inspection. 328 Core engine controls See E100. Coupling shaft failure and its consequences shall be identified and documented. tabulated in the form of name components and system.3). where 5 and 6 denote turbine inlet and outlet conditions (see Fig. The analysis should be presented in a format that is clear. with repair. 330 Safety system See E300 and E400. e. 3 Station numbering. such as. vibration. temperature. nozzles. d) The expected performance of used engine (approximately 30 000 hours). The turbine in this case is assumed to be running within design specification or contract specifications. e. and reject. such as clearances. thermal interlock) if operational conditions so require. for acceptance without repair. as a minimum. 333 Fire prevention See E400 and F700. For type approval. 331 Performance Documentation of the performance shall include the following for information: — turbine hot section cooling system (e.1 Sec.g. consequences.g. See also E301. The analysis shall.4 Ch. Type testing requirements are defined in 800 and 900.g. January 2001 Pt. f) The normal performance or power loss as a function of running time.g. D300 and I100 and I200. power. overhaul and change out of major components. * The turbine shall be designed to permit rapid start from cold conditions. 334 Maintenance manuals Maintenance manuals are to be submitted for information. and shall permit immediate restart (within control system constraints. The procedures shall include acceptance criteria. pre-tightening procedures. These are normally to be based on the overall efficiency (ηt) and the quasidimensionless massflow group m√T05/p05 as function of the pressure ratio p05/p 06 This shall be presented for various values of the quasidimensionless speed group N/ √T05. variable guide vanes) — anti-icing system* — heat recovery system (only that portion in the exhaust gas path)* — inlet air systems (e. Mean time to failure for critical components and systems is to be defined. 335 Operating manual Operation manual is to be submitted for information. and the certification test are to be submitted for approval. Equivalent performance curves are also acceptable. B 400 Engine testing and type testing 401 General requirements for engine testing are covered in 500. e. for product certificates the contract specifications shall be consider as the running conditions. As a minimum.g. torque limits etc.3 C200. filtration)* — heat absorption system ( cooling water for the lubrication oil system). only. e. type of expected failures.g.g.* a) Compressor characteristics. without working outside the performance envelope of the either the gas generator or power turbine. cover the following: — — — — — gas path components bearings seals fuel system lubricating oil system To be included in FMEA if defined as part of type approved system. 600 and 700. blades. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. is to be submitted for information. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . while requirements for certification testing and shipboard testing are covered in D200.

3 Sec. or X X bleed valve opening. b) Shaft torque meters. are to be tested. in the case that a gas generator is being tested alone. significant application limitations. The tests are to be witnessed by a surveyor. and does not cover a range of design variations. Thermodynamic This method may be used when it is not possible to use direct shaft torque measurements. a new test will normally be required based on shaft torque when the power turbine is coupled to the gas generator. B 600 Engine test data collection 601 The engine and system data given in Table B2 are to be measured and recorded. January 2001 Pt. etc. the precise details of test scope. or extensive relevant operational experience). If special considerations apply. See 106 and 107 for further background. 803 The complete type testing program is subject to approval. 4) At locations specified by the manufacturer. see A107 and Fig.g. at X X X the fuel inlet Hydraulic fluid pressure X Coolant temperature and pressure 4) Temperature of external surfaces of X the engine 7) Bearing metal temperatures X X X Intake pressure loss X X Exhaust pressure loss X X Vibration levels X X X Position of variable stator vanes. Where surface temperatures exceed 220°C. The method used and the expected errors are to be submitted to the Society.1. the precise extent shall be agreed in each case. 7) Lubricating oil temperature measurement after bearing is also acceptable. 504 The temperature of hot surfaces is to be checked during full load testing. Lower heating value of gaseous fuel to be supported either by test or by calculations based on gas composition analysis of fuel actually used.2 – Page 40 Lower heating value for liquid fuel normally to be supported by test of fuel actually used. This method can normally not be used alone during a type test for a unit consisting of both gas generator and power turbine. the Society’s decision will be final. Table B2 Engine and system data acquisition CertifiType Quay Parameter cation test trial test 1) X X X 5) Power (thermodynamic) Gas generator. and its consequences to the results of the test. This is to be done when the gas turbines are not intended to be in an enclosure.4 Ch. 506 Subject to pre-test approval by the Society. 503 During testing the engine is to be checked for leakage of fuel or lubrication oils. B 800 Type testing. If this is not possible then there shall be prior agreement with Society as to the fuel used for the test. arrangement and performance may be adjusted for engines with extensive relevant operational experience. but may (based on proven accuracy) be used during a certification test for the gas generator. and will be specified on the type approval certificate. and power turbine X X X speed 2) Shaft torque at drive end (power turX X bine output) Electrical power at drive end (generX ator set only) Compressor inlet pressure and temX X X perature 1) Compressor discharge pressure and X X X temperature 1) X X X Turbine inlet temperature 1) 6) Gas generator exit pressure and temX X X perature 1) Gas generator exit gas temperature X X X spread Power turbine exhaust pressure and X X X temperature 1) Lubrication oil temperature and X X X pressure 4) Fuel temperature and pressure. are fixed for a given type of turbine. calculation acceptable. to the extent they are integrated in the engine design. 3) These values may be derived values from other measured points. 806 If no special turbine application considerations apply (such as e. 2) If more spools are involved.Rules for Ships / High Speed. mass flow rate. 802 Type testing serves the primary purpose of substantiating the engine design documentation. turbine inlet temperature. For engines intended for running on heavy fuel oil. However. It is furthermore intended to validate that the engine will provide acceptable performance under the worst-case operational and ambient conditions of its intended service. however. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. The maximum speeds of the spools. Note that both raw and corrected parameters are to be recorded. Subject to pre-test approval by the Society the parameter list may be adjusted to accommodate engine design issues and test facility limitations. firing temperature. or equivalent. That is. Should there be discussions over methods and materials used (e. 6) Measurement not required. or for engines where extensive amounts of relevant test data is already available. the type test program is to be arranged as outlined in 900. the test verification of the engine’s suitability for this may be postponed to the sea trial. B 700 701 Power measurement The following methods may be applied. Mechanical a) Torque measurements based on absorption dynamometers. 805 Type testing shall preferably be made with the type of fuel oil for which the engine is intended. difference in Poisson’s ratio between calibrated shaft and actual shaft). general 801 For definition of engines subject to type approval see A107. as applicable Sea trial X 5) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 1) To be corrected to standard reference conditions (ISO 2314). fitness for purpose testing. 804 Type testing is normally valid for only one specific type of engine.g. their respective speed shall be recorded. insulation of oil non-absorbent material covered by sheet metal is to be fitted. exhaust temperatures. 5) May be substituted by torque measurement at power turbine output. An approved type test is a pre-requisite for the engine to start accumulating the 2500 hours needed in operation for the type certificate to be issued. 505 The safety systems. the test program will be agreed between DET NORSKE VERITAS .

a new type test is normally not necessary. and engine packager. according to the manufacturer established and documented procedures. without tripping. but will be based on the elements in 900. Even if the inconsistency is rectified during the test.p. then formal changes in the design specification need to be documented before acceptance shall be given for the test. The percentage refers to increases since the last type testing. 813 Test data shall be recorded only after steady state conditions have been reached by the gas turbine. which is to be submitted for approval. load increase from 20% to 100% and other load variations due to power demand. The Society will not allow the engines to run at these points unless there is a design basis that clearly indicates integrity of the components for a sufficient period of time. The recorded test results are to be endorsed by the attending surveyor upon completion of the type test.) during data acquisition shall normally not exceed ±1% (or the manufacturer’s specification. B 900 901 Type testing program It is assumed that: a) The investigations and measurements required for reliable engine operation have been carried out during internal Fig. Variation within expected limits under testing conditions are however permitted. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. b) Design assessment acceptance by the Society has been obtained for the engine in question based on documentation requested. 809 Control settings of the gas turbine. mechanical running test. and does not require internal (manufacturer) design review. high temperature spread). It is assumed that the original design calculation of the engine has taken into consideration the intended increase in power. There must be at least one false engine start. see 1000. January 2001 Pt. may be postponed until the certification test. 905 Start test Seven starts must be made. turbine inlet temperature. The rates at which load is shed from 100% to 20% and load is increased from 20% to 100% (and other load variations) should be established by agreement between the Society. If not the test shall be considered as failed. 814 For turbines driving electric generators. Type approval of gas turbines involves the following type tests: start test. all possible effort shall be made to rectify the inconsistency during the testing. This. These tests are to be carried out in the presence of a surveyor. however. and performance test. pausing for the manufacturer's specified minimum fuel drainage time. and the Society has been informed about the nature and extent of investigations carried out during the preproduction stages.2 – Page 41 the Society and the manufacturer on a case by case basis. such as alarm and shutdown shall be agreed upon with the Society.Rules for Ships / High Speed. before attempting a normal start.3 Sec. The permanent speed variation is not to be more than 1% of the rated speed. engine manufacturer. 812 When measured test parameters do not conform with design specification (e. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . or be integrated so as to combine items from the three tests into one. see 810.4. etc. are not to result in a transient variation in r. complete generator sets should perform an instantaneous load shed test from 100% to 0%. of which 3 starts must be preceded by at least a two-hour engine shutdown. 810 Variation in control parameters (compressor discharge temperature. a re-test or test extension may be required by the Society. 811 If during the test.g. A typical schedule encompassing the required tests is shown in Fig. See D402. The type test shall be performed as close to standard reference conditions as possible in order to minimise correction errors. Failure to reach an agreement shall result in a retest. This shall be done in a mutually agreed upon manner between the manufacturer and the Society. 903 Component inspections after completion of the test program shall be conducted or witnessed by attending surveyor. 807 If a type tested engine that has proven reliability in service. the observed data is obviously inconsistent with expected data or out of specifications of the manufacturer. If deviation from design specifications exists. Shaft power shall not vary more than ±3% (or that agreed upon in the contract specification). for the specific test point. For emergency operating situation. Set points that shall be used in the test that are inappropriate in relation to those used in normal running require written agreement. not to the last approved level. not less than 500 hours. if preferable. If feasible.4 Ch. the following tests may be performed: — quick start — override functions. 4 Example of type test schedule 902 Functional tests and collection of operating values including test hours are to be documented. Steady state is achieved when all key control parameters of the gas turbine have reached a steady state for that specific test condition. 808 All test results are to be corrected to standard reference conditions as defined by ISO 2314. The relevant results are to be presented to attending surveyor during the type test. Temperature: 15 °C Humidity: 60% relative Barometric pressure: 1.m. is design approved for an increase of power by less than 5%. 904 The engine designer is to compile results in a type test report. see 803. The standard reference conditions are (ISO 2314): tests.). load shedding from 100% to 20%.013 bar (760 mmHg). this shall be agreed upon between the engine designer and the Society. They may be conducted separately. greater than ±10%.

the performance test is to be carried out using the least favourable fuel. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. Documented occurrences of this type of start may be used as verification of this test. according to the application (e. and down to idle. This may need to be induced. and finally through coast down and stop. Additional testing and measurements may be required by the Society should there be significant changes to critical components e. A leak check is to be performed prior to all runs. DET NORSKE VERITAS . This is dependent on the measurements actually performed providing a reasonable match with analysis results submitted as part of the design assessment. Documented occurrences of this type of start may be used as verification of this test. are to be presented to the Society's approval centre in due time before the actual test. 909 Lubricating oil pressure and temperature are to be monitored and recorded during the test. 916 The mechanical running test is to be considered complete if no damage occurs to the turbine. blades. bearings. and vice versa. January 2001 Pt. and tested functions and operating parameters are within specified limits and the vibration requirements are met. e. modifications to the design are considered necessary.e. combustors. 911 The monitoring and control system used in the test is to be representative of the type approved monitoring and control system. If. as defined below) must be conducted 5 times to complete the required 15 hours of operation. c) Flame out. propulsion drive. The engine is to be operated according to the power and speed diagram. while at load specified in operating manual. The data to be measured and recorded when testing the engine at the various load points. The parameters are to be within the manufacturer's recommended values. 915 The acceleration and deceleration tests of the gas turbine according to the manufacturer internal procedure is to be witnessed by the Society.4 Ch. The 3-hour test sequence (or "run". ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- The Society may require additional measurements at certain specific speeds.Rules for Ships / High Speed. and down to idle. 907 Engine emergency shutdown Engine emergency shutdowns are defined as follow: a) Hot shutdown.g. provided that time interval between consecutive restarts are according 605. 100% output at 100% torque and 100% speed. Zero to 100% for other shafts. b) Failure to ignite. these rules prevail. i. e. performance test codes. disks. Such special cases will be individually considered by the Society. The operating time per load point depends on the engine size (achievement of steady state condition) and on the time for collection of the operating values.g. Gas turbines intended for dual fuel service are to demonstrate the capability to change from one fuel to the other. 906 Starts done in the other type tests can be incorporated in the start test to reach the sum of seven. In the case of conflict between the standards and these rules. disks.3 Sec. at full load (as soon as permitted by the manufacturer's instructions). resulting in aborted start sequence. the curve shall be the propeller and waterjet curve). and the reasons for the changes are to be presented to the Society's type approval centre in due time before testing.g. 917 Performance test The performance test is to be carried out in a manner equivalent to standards recognised by the Society. This may need to be induced. ISO 2314 Gas turbines acceptance tests or ANSI and ASME PTC 22 Gas turbine power plant. light craft and naval surface craft application. after the test. except in special cases. In such cases. Restart to be achieved before lockout and within 30 minutes. 913 The manufacturer is to provide the Society with the vibration acceptance criteria that are to be used during the test. The deviations are to be recorded in the test report. the readings are to be taken at steady state conditions. e. The test sequence is to include: — one hour and thirty minutes total at successive part loads corresponding to at least 9 approximately equal speed and time increments between maximum continuous engine rotational speed and minimum idle rotational speed. bearings. Normally. further testing may be required under certain circumstances. For high speed. The parameters of the control system governing these sequences shall be in compliance with the approved sequences and time constants. 908 Mechanical running test The mechanical running test can be conducted at no-load condition. Engine and control system is to demonstrate trouble free running without load for a minimum of 20 minutes. blades. and should be agreed upon with the manufacturer prior to the test. The remaining starts may be made after completing the 15 hours of endurance testing. and finally through coast down and stop. 914 Filtered vibration signals will not be accepted during the testing. and should be agreed upon with the manufacturer prior to the test. etc.g. Deviations from the type approved monitoring and control system. etc. and is subject to Society consideration. The type test engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 15 hours of operation. 918 For dual fuel installations. and will be mutually agreed upon between the Society and the manufacturer. from that submitted to the Society during the design review. before testing at load conditions.g. without detrimental change in operational parameters. to the extent related to the gas turbine (see E100). according to nominal propeller curve — one hour and thirty minutes at rated maximum continuous power. 919 Any deviations to the engine internals.2 – Page 42 There must be at least three normal restarts with not longer than 15 minutes (unless otherwise stated) since engine emergency shutdown (see 907). liquid to gas. 912 The test is to include a verification of lateral critical speeds in the range 0% to 100% of rated speed for all shafts. — Generator drive: — Zero to 105% of rated output shaft speed. The recommended values are to be stated in the operating instructions. an operating time of 10 minutes can be assumed per part load point. Guidance note: Verification up to less than 100% of rated speed may be accepted if ambient conditions so dictate. 910 The lubricating oil filtration is to be as specified by the manufacturer. and is to include all major parameters for the engine operation (see also 600). combustors. a complete new test must be performed. Vibration levels are to be recorded for a constant speed increase as follows: — Mechanical drive (all shafts): — Zero to 100% of rated shaft speed.

a lubricating oil sample is to be tested for contaminants and particles in accordance with the specification of the manufacturer. 302 A manufacturing survey arrangement (MSA) is to be established based on a product audit covering the following aspects: 1003 Proper instruments and necessary personnel shall be on site during the inspection. Teardown may also be required. All components listed in 301 are to be inspected prior to certifying the first engine. 102 The manufacturer is to have in operation a certified quality system according to ISO 9001. and the components are manufactured in accordance to the same quality system and procedures as components for aero derivative gas turbines. inspection and testing of the component in question shall be readily accessible. All relevant documents concerning manufacturing. Based on this assessment a survey arrangement with the manufacturer may be established. not meeting manufacturer’s specification. Within a fouryear period.2 Sec. DNV require traceability back to the material batch on each of the components listed in 301. Should the manufacturer not be in possession of a valid quality system certificate. should there be cause to do so.2 Sec. C 200 Certification of parts 201 Gas turbines are to have DNV (NV) certificate. are as a minimum to be documented through the manufacturer's quality system: — — — — — — — — — — — — blades impellers disks shafts inter-stage coupling tie bolts combustors nozzles gas generator casing power turbine casing gas generator rotor assembly power turbine rotor assembly. and made available to the Society upon request. boroscope ports placement): — — — — — compressor (blades and nozzles) combustor fuel burners high pressure turbine (blades and nozzles) power turbine (blades and nozzles).Rules for Ships / High Speed.2 C100. such as damaged blades or nozzles. B700 and B1000. as documentation during the inspection. B500. or equivalent. Boroscope inspection of the following parts shall be conducted to the extent allowed by engine design (e. semi-finished products or materials are to be tested and certified according to the original engine manufacturer (OEM) requirements.g. or any other parts mentioned in the boroscope inspection. 103 A manufacturing survey arrangement (MSA) shall be established (see Sec. C. In case the manufacturer is certified by a recognised aviation authority.2 A and B. The following is to be available at the product audit: — routing sheet or an instruction that dictates the step by step process by which the components are to be produced — acceptance criteria for each step of the process. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft.4 Ch. General 101 The certification principles are described in Ch. D. 1005 Further inspection up to and including tear-down of the turbine may be required by the attending surveyor. General considerations and requirements pertaining to certification testing are found in B400. B 1000 Boroscope inspection and tear-down after testing 1001 Boroscope inspection is to be conducted following both type and certification test. The audit is to ensure the capability to produce in accordance to the original engine manufacturer’s (OEM) specifications and common engineering standards in the gas turbine industry. all components listed in 301 are to be evaluated through a product audit.2 Sec. 202 Engine parts. Minor cracks. January 2001 Pt. Annual product audits are to be performed using spot checks to ensure that the basis for the MSA is maintained. an extended product audit covering the quality system elements which are in operation at the manufacturer's works is to be made. 1006 A report summarising findings from inspection and tear-down is to be submitted for information. Boroscope inspection may be required by the Society after sea trial. This applies irrespective of the — — — — — — — — — — — quality system documentation human resources equipment and facilities production methods and control routines purchasing and subcontracting production process control distribution and warehousing quality inspection and testing document control traceability non-conformity and corrective actions. The principles of manufacturing survey arrangement (MSA) are described in Ch. including acceptance criteria. C 300 Production verification 301 Production of power transmitting. should the turbine fail its test due to not meeting performance requirements. or not meeting DNV requirements. see Ch. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . indents or tear in uncritical stationary parts may be accepted based on documented acceptance criteria. Documentation to be retained at the manufacturers.2. 104 All specifications of welding procedures are to be qualified according to a recognised standard or the rules of the Society. 1002 In general no cracks or major wear shall be seen in rotating parts after testing of a new gas turbine. B600.2 – Page 43 920 Before and after test. DNV might reduce the involvement in the production phase. heat exposed and pressurised components as given below. Inspection and Testing C 100 item being supplied by subcontractors or produced by the engine manufacturer. Workshop Testing D 100 Application 101 This sub section covers procedures and requirements for certification testing of complete gas turbines.2 C100) specifying all details on component testing and inspection.3 Sec. 1004 Normally the boroscope inspection shall be taped or photographed.

In such cases. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- D 300 Certification testing of propulsion engines 301 The testing described in 300 applies to certification of propulsion engines. The unfiltered vibration signals are to be recorded at a constant speed increase from zero to 100% of rated power turbine speed. the readings are to be taken at steady state conditions. The certification test shall simulate the conditions in which the engine is expected to operate in service. safety (against fire). and power are to be corrected to ambient conditions as defined in ISO 2314. exhaust temperatures. 210 The monitoring and control systems used in the test are to be representative of the type approved monitoring and control system. The operating time per load point depends on the time for collection of the operating values. The Society may require additional measurements at certain specific speeds. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. 303 For plants with water jets that may experience air ingestion. load shed) alternative solutions may be agreed with the Society. This is to enable comparisons with both values from the type test and measurements during the operation phase. together with the reason for the changes. 205 After the required factory testing. If the facilities are incapable of providing the requisite load alterations (e. and is additional to that required in 200. the blocking after a factory test on light diesel oil (or other fuel types) is to be set in accordance with the correlation between these fuel oils. and finally through coast down and stop. deceleration. adherence to maximum pressure. In the case that the gas generator and the power turbine have been tested separately. The number of points should be sufficient to establish the speed – power relationship.2 – Page 44 D 200 Certification testing 201 Each engine to be certified is to be tested in the factory. January 2001 Pt. i. the engine and the control and monitoring system are to demonstrate trouble free running at no load for 20 minutes. 209 Any deviation to the engine design and engine dressing from that of the type test is to be stated in the test report. 402 The speed control system for generating sets is to be tested with a load shed that is to be instantaneous from 100% to zero. including typical startstop cycles and load points. an operating time of 10 minutes can be assumed per load point.3 Sec.m. the Society accepts that the certification testing of the complete gas turbine is performed on board (see I100 and I200). If this is not practical. see D300 and D400.m. functionality. and also be in accordance with the following (whichever is applicable): 207 The certification test shall include testing found necessary by the Society to demonstrate: a) The propeller curve based on the propeller law — starting. the Society will themselves provide the vibration acceptance criteria. The purpose of the factory testing is to verify the design premises such as performance.p. The manufacturer is to provide the Society with the vibration acceptance criteria that are to be used during the test. 211 The certification test is to include vibration measurements. if an engine is intended for running on heavy fuel oil during the sea trial. 213 The test is to demonstrate the gas turbine's capacity to perform satisfactorily during load alterations that are likely to occur during the actual operating conditions. This applies if driving a fixed pitch propeller. In the case that the Society does not accept the maximum allowable vibration limits as specified by the manufacturer. as described in 207. engines are to be blocked for output beyond the approved maximum continuous rated power. If the engine is tested on a water brake. c) At constant speed The certification test procedure is to be approved by the Society prior to testing. idling. The engine overspeed is not to trigger the overspeed protection function (no trip). Deviations from the type approved monitoring and control system. 203 For case by case approved engines the workshop testing may be extended up to the full type testing if found necessary by the Society. If the sea trial full load testing will be made on light diesel oil. For application related specifics see 300 and 400. and the service is intended for heavy fuel oil. 208 Prior to the start of the certification test.4 Ch. at 100% torque is to be added. the test is to be performed with a coupling system representing a reaction moment within ±10% of that of the actual coupling system. to the extent related to the gas turbine. The actual time may be determined by the attending surveyor. 202 The measured maximum pressures. The setting of the control blocking is to be made as applicable for the intended fuel.e. 302 In addition to the test profile defined in 207 the engine is to be tested at power levels to be agreed with the Society. however see 206. and is additional to that required in 200. this load-shed test may be postponed to testing on board. and down to idle. acceleration. 212 The certification test is to be carried out using the contract coupling. stopping — safe operating characteristics throughout its specified operating envelop. and the reasons for the changes are to be presented to the Society's approval centre in due time before testing. and pitch limited to nominal value. This applies if driving a controllable pitch propeller with constant speed or an electric generator for propulsion. the blocking is to be made after the sea trial testing. product quality and further to establish reference values or base lines for later reference in the operational phase. In this case.p. Vibration measurements may be completed prior or after the endurance test. water jet or controllable pitch propeller with variable r. without the engine tripping due to overspeed. By system is meant coupling and any additional components that follow the coupling. D 400 Certification testing of engines for generating sets 401 The testing described in 400 applies to certification of generator sets. The engine is normally to be run for at least 90 minutes at the maximum continuous power in service. See also E109.g. inlet temperatures. b) The modified propeller curve This applies if driving a controllable pitch propeller that is intended to use a higher pitch than the nominal when running at reduced r. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Guidance note: The precise test details are to take test facility capabilities into account.m. 204 The engine manufacturer is to compile all results in a test protocol that is to be endorsed by the attending surveyor and submitted to the Society for later reference.Rules for Ships / High Speed. the load point with lowest r.p. Normally. 206 Certification testing is to be performed on the complete gas turbine. the speed control system is to be checked with a sudden load shed from the maximum continuous power to 20%.

speed sensor Anti-surge system. with set points — normal and abnormal stop and start sequence — load control — alarms and shutdown — automatic purge cycle — fuel control for normal running — fuel control in abnormal shutdown — other systems such as fire detection and prevention — control of all train parameter. Where a gas turbine incorporates a reverse gear. see Ch. as applicable See also 201. radial displacement. vibration. See B1000 for particulars and requirements.Rules for Ships / High Speed. electric transmission. vessel) control system. a speed control device independent of the overspeed protective device is to be fitted and is to be capable of Shutdown Alarm High ShutHigh – High down Flame out Inlet guide vanes. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. pressure Clogged lubricating oil filter. but it should normally be of a duration sufficient to displace the exhaust system volume three times before attempting re-start. 108 Gas turbine control systems are to be provided with overspeed protection preventing the turbine speed from exceeding either 115% of the maximum continuous speed. are to permit rapid starting. see B322. whichever is lower. speed. etc. pressure Control actuator position out of synchronisation with command value.9 before being installed on board or being hooked up to the turbine. 3) If required. variable stator vanes actual position not in synchronisation with command value. if applicable Flame out detection Vibration. Displacement sensor Power turbine overspeed. 3) Pressure or flow Failure to ignite Failure to reach idle speed Low Compressor inlet pressure Low Cooling medium temperature High Alarm Step to idle Alarm Shutdown Alarm Alarm Alarm 3) Alarm Alarm Step to idle Alarm 1) Normally. with set points (when applicable) — surge control of the train (when applicable) — seal gas control (when applicable) — override functions (when applicable). Control. Basic monitoring requirements are given in Table E1. bleed valves. Table E1 Monitoring requirements Control parameter E. pressure Core engine controls Parameter value High High-High High High-High Alarm Step to idle Alarm Alarm Step to idle Alarm Alarm Shutdown Alarm Alarm Step to idle Alarm Alarm Alarm Alarm Deviation Alarm High Shutdown Indicated surge Alarm High High-High 101 Gas turbines are to be delivered with a type approved control and monitoring system. The extent of purging required is subject to a case by case evaluation. Fuel oil delivery. or the maximum permissible speed as defined by the manufacturer. Lubricating oil.3 Sec. Bearing temperature Hydrodynamic bearing. temperature. controllable pitch propeller or other free-coupling arrangement. Note that the table covers both core engine and gas turbine package with auxiliaries.g. there shall be at least one temperature sensor per combustor and no less than six temperature sensors per engine.9. Alarm. Subject to consideration by the Society the parameter list may be adjusted to accommodate engine design issues.4 Ch. when ignition has failed. Power turbine inlet temperature spread out of specification 1) Exhaust temperature (power turbine outlet) 104 Control systems are to be arranged so as to allow local control and operation of the gas turbine. thrust bearing gap value 2) High High-High Thrust bearings temperature High High-High Power loss of monitoring system Power loss of control system Loss of cooling air supply. temperature High High-High 102 The control logic shall as a minimum encompass the following: — control of all turbine parameters. 105 Starting sequence is to be discontinued and main fuel valve closed within a pre-determined time. pressure E 100 Anti-icing system failure. pressure Low Low-Low High Control systems for gas turbines are to be certified in accordance with Ch. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . irrespective of the state of the overall (e. 106 All gas turbine control systems are to implement purging as part of normal start up and start failure. 107 Gas turbines for which standby duty must be expected. Total loss of control system power shall lead to a controlled turbine shutdown. vibration sensor Power turbine inlet temperature 103 The control system is to be equipped with an uninterruptible power supply designed to function even under blackout conditions. gap value 2) Action Alarm High High-High Alarm Step to idle Alarm High High High-High Alarm Alarm Shutdown High Alarm Axial displacement of power turbine. Clogged fuel filter. 2) Two proximity probes recommended for each hydrodynamic bearing. pressure Low Low-Low High Lubricating oil. January 2001 Pt.2 – Page 45 D 500 Boroscope inspection 501 Boroscope inspection is to be conducted following certification testing. Safety Functions and Indication Clogged air intake filter. controlling the speed of the unloaded gas turbine without bringing the over speed protection function into action.

reference is made to Ch. type. pointing at the fuel metering valve and fuel lines.g. an enclosure is to be fitted.2 Sec. P&ID’s and instrumentation lists) showing sensor ID. 111 The following is to be submitted upon request: — transfer functions for control of turbine parameters — results of open and closed loop simulation of turbine control parameters — interface specification to control system superior to turbine control system. including computer-based control and monitoring. the enclosed space shall be accounted for when calculating necessary amount of fire extinguishing medium for the engine room firefighting system. Arrangement If the above premises can not be fulfilled by suitable means. Fire detectors are required type approved. E 500 Auxiliary system controls 501 The following turbine services are to be fitted with automatic temperature controls so as to maintain steady state conditions throughout the normal operating range of the main gas turbine: E 400 Fire safety These requirements are amendments to Ch. but is subject to a case by case evaluation taking generator package design into account.6 A104 (5 s).1 Sec. Both hot and cold conditions are to be included in the calculations. For gas turbine propulsion system directly driving generators (no reduction gear). e. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 405 The construction of the foundation structure should be such that the ventilation air is able to evacuate any build up of combustible gas mixtures.6. focusing on location that are prone to ignition. the complete drive train is to be included. When the power generation system incorporates a reduction gear. As a minimum the following elements are to be accounted for in the shaft alignment calculations: — thermal expansion of gear — thermal expansion of power turbine — thermal expansion of generator. before ignition commences or recommences after failure to start. see F702. F 100 Alignment and reaction forces 101 Shaft alignment specification substantiated by calculations are to be submitted for approval. 402 There shall be sufficient number of flame detectors.9. Enclosure ventilation ducts are to be automatically closed when a confirmed fire is detected.10 and Ch.9. Guidance note: Note that the time requirement to re-establishment of steady – state speed after load shed in Ch. The system is to be designed based on a recognised standard. bearing pedestals.4 Ch. set-points and measuring limits. Guidance note: Piping should be arranged so as to minimise the risk of fuel being gravity fed back into the turbine in case of fuel drain check valve failure. etc. January 2001 Pt.Rules for Ships / High Speed. intended to safeguard against hazardous conditions arising in the event of malfunctions in the gas turbine installation. an automatic fire extinguishing system is to be provided for any gas turbine enclosure. 406 Special requirements for mobile offshore units The following fault conditions are to release alarm and automatic shutdown of gas and fuel oil supply: — detected gas of maximum concentration of 60% of the LEL in the ventilated duct — detected gas of maximum concentration of 2% of the LEL in engine room — loss of ventilation in the enclosure — abnormal pressure variations in the fuel supply line. detector above the front end of turbine (cold end) looking at the fuel manifold and turbine hot section (2 detectors). the high-speed shafts are to be included as a minimum. light craft and naval surface craft: — clearance adjustment of power turbine — difference in thermal expansion between hull and shafting. In addition to the engine room fire-fighting system. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft.3 B201). One detector. E 200 Monitoring and instrumentation system 201 For instrumentation and automation. For enclosure requirements for ventilation and personnel safety. see Ch. 401 Fire ignition is to be prevented through use of the following means: — lubricating oil supply — fuel oil supply (automatic control of oil fuel viscosity as alternative). Upon request the shaft alignment calculations are to incorporate the following additional elements for high speed. viewing the turbine from below. The requirement concerning draining and venting may be waived if the engine design itself can be proven to hinder unwanted fuel accumulation.3 Sec. location. (See Ch. Automatic or interlocked means are to be provided for purging all parts of the gas turbine of the accumulation of liquid or gaseous fuel.2 Sec.2 – Page 46 109 For gas turbines driving main or emergency electric generators. see Ch. Additional monitoring and instrumentation system documentation is to be submitted for information as follows: — documentation (e. is not applicable to gas turbines. This shall as a minimum cover all parameters listed in Table E1 — instrument data sheets for core control and engine protective function sensors — documentation on machinery protection hardware. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 110 Documentation of both control system software and electronic hardware is to be submitted for approval. F.g. E 300 Safety system 301 Details of the manufacturers specified automatic safety devices.6. see B333. 404 Unintended accumulation of flammable fluid and vapour must be prevented by draining and venting. In case the enclosure is not made fire resistant. 403 Detected fire in enclosure or engine room is to release alarm and automatic shutdown of the fuel supply. are to be submitted for approval together with the failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). — all surfaces that may reach a temperature of 220°C are to be insulated — it is to be tested that insulation is impervious to liquid fuel — flammable fluids are to be prevented from leaking onto hot surfaces.

505 Air intakes are to be placed such that the ingestion of spray due to ship motion and weather is kept within acceptable limits. F 500 Inlet and outlet passages 501 The air intake is to be arranged and located such that the risk of ingesting foreign objects is minimised. 509 Multi-engine installations are to have separate inlets and outlets for each gas turbine and are to be arranged to prevent induced circulation through a stopped engine. 102 Gas turbines are to be aligned so that the shear force and bending moment at the engine flange are within the approved engine specification.2 – Page 47 — axial compression of hull at maximum speed at maximum draft — axial elongation of hull during crash stop — deflection of transom. d) Forces transferred to foundation memc) Any other exbers due to deflection of ship structure.3 Sec. The friction forces are to be able to prevent dynamic movements in the base plate connection. 103 For gas turbine drive train.3 B201).Rules for Ships / High Speed. F 200 Mounting in general 201 The loads given in Table F1 are to be considered in the design of the foundation system. with a minimum of obstacles. Guidance note: Depending on the arrangement. The epoxy resin is to be type approved. Inlet airflow analyses or model tests may be required in special cases. 503 Icing at air intake is to be prevented by suitable means.g. silencers and anti-icing devices are to be constructed and mounted to minimise the risk of loose parts entering the gas turbine. January 2001 Pt. The stoppers are not to be reached as a consequence of operational loads. Stresses on foundation members are to be well below the fatigue curve for the material. A combination of the above loads is to be considered The following prevails for the worst expected operational loads (left column): a) b) Gas turbine supports (struts) are to have documented a safety factor of minimum 2.1 Sec. This is to minimise the creation of vortex flow. 302 The pre-tension of the holding down bolts is to be specified with regard to tightening as well as the method. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 202 Preferably. 506 Air intakes and exhaust outlet are to be so arranged that re-ingestion of combustion gases are avoided. Calculation of surface pressure due to peak loads can be required in special cases. sharp corners and duct curving. Maximum allowable salt content in the air entering the compressor inlet is 0. intake and exhaust ducts. of a centrifugal impeller.01 wppm. in the case determined. for the individual application. from entering the compressor inlet.g. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 502 The inlet ducting and components in way of inlet airflow. such as filters. and maximum deflections shall be within limitations set by the gas turbine and adjacent components (e. f) Any other operational loads that may be significant for the individual application. F 300 Rigid mounting 301 For mounting on epoxy resin. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. For dual characteristic mounts the “second” level may be utilised provided that this is foreseen in the dynamic analysis. the stoppers are to be regarded as safety devices in case of loosened bolts or excessive loads due to engine breakdown (e. 508 Pressure losses in air intake and exhaust ducting are not to exceed the specifications of the gas turbine manufacturer. Table F1 Operational and extreme loads Operational loads Extreme loads a) Mass. In case of extreme loads (right column). blade loss). see Table F1.4 Ch. 303 Side and end stoppers are required. the air intake system is to incorporate an effective filtration system preventing harmful particles. This is particularly important for resiliently mounted engine. The air inlet ducts are to incorporate a system for drainage of water. the Society may require that a grid be fitted on the air intake. see Table F1. see 300. F 400 Resilient mounting 401 Resilient mounts to be type approved.5 against buckling. 402 All connections to the engine such as couplings. the alignment is to be within the permissible values under all relevant driving conditions. This might however be accepted if it can be shown by calculations that casing deflections are within acceptable limits as specified by the gas turbine manufacturer. In case of friction bolts as main fastening device. 405 Excessive movements due to extreme loads. without exceeding the approved specification.a) Forces derived tions such as list and trim are to be confrom blade loss sidered when mass reaction forces are or. the surface pressure due to mass and bolt tension is to be within approved values for the applicable epoxy resin. including sea salt and harbour dust. Calculations to be submitted upon request. loads. flexible coupling). Maximum environmental condi. 507 The flow path of the inlet air is to be as straight and clean as possible. are to be prevented by either dual characteristic mounts or by stoppers. 504 When considered necessary. the b) Maximum operational acceleration parts from one loads (see guidance note to B102). treme loads that e) Forces derived from heat expansion of may be relevant gas turbine. see Table F1. pressure drops and uneven air distribution in the compressor inlet. The thickness of the epoxy resin is to be within the approved limitations. 203 The foundation system is normally to be designed with a minimum separation margin of 20% to dominant frequencies of the gas turbine and adjacent equipment. Operational and extreme loads as defined in Table F1 shall not cause the gas turbine to move permanently on its foundation. It is assumed that there is always a flexible coupling between the gas turbine and any consumer. Guidance note: The foundation should be designed to take advantage of supports in the ship structure such as bulkheads and stiffeners. 403 The resilient mounts are to be able to support the worst expected operational loads. blade root failc) Reaction forces due to engine torque (inure. fuel pipes lubricating oil pipes and electrical wires are to be designed for the maximum possible engine movements as limited by the elastic mounts. cluding short circuit torque in case of b) Crash stop electrical generators). DET NORSKE V ERITAS . Pressure drop across filter to be monitored in accordance with Table E1. (See Ch. 404 The static positions of the engine on the elastic mounts are to be calculated under consideration of the static loads listed in Table F1. the gas turbine casing shall not absorb deflections in vessel structure. the foundation integrity is to be maintained.

Warning and notice plate is to be provided. The hood or casing is to be installed or mounted to permit ventilation air to sweep across the control unit and be discharged at the top of the hood or casing (enclosure).. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. The air space between outer and inner walls is to be provided with separate mechanical ventilation with a capacity of a minimum of 30 air changes per hour.t. loss of any function such as electrical power will not reduce the airflow to less than 100%. 702 When an enclosure is fitted. The “block and bleed” system is to shut off the gas supply and vent the gas piping to a safe location in the open air. No secondary damage shall occur due to overheating. pressure control valves etc. and that any combustible gas mixtures are evacuated. i. 903 The “block and bleed” valves are to be arranged for both automatic and manual operation. Guidance note: Carbon dioxide in excess of three percent by volume is considered hazardous to personnel. The enclosure tightness shall be such that any personnel staying in the engine room shall have sufficient time to evacuate if a fire extinguishing medium hazardous to personnel is released inside the enclosure. Detachable pipe connections are to be limited to those that are necessary for the installation purpose only. The duct and hood are to be fitted with gas-tight inspection openings in way of connections of pipes. DET NORSKE VERITAS . the fans used for ventilation or cooling of the gas turbine shall have redundancy in technical design and physical arrangement. 602 Back flow of hot gases into the carbo blast piping is to be prevented by suitable means. in the case of emergency closing of the ventilation ducts. or that specified by other authorities.2 – Page 48 510 In case of a heat exchanger mounted in the exhaust duct.3 mm. See also A601. which is above atmospheric pressure. In or immediately inside the duct outlet. valves etc. 511 Welds in exhaust ducts are not to be located in areas with stress concentration such as corners and dimension changes. The distribution of ventilation air shall ensure that an acceptable temperature profile of the gas turbine is maintained. The manual operation is to be carried out from the control hood of gas turbine and from a location outside the engine room. The ventilation is to ensure a good air circulation in all spaces. 803 Gas supply lines are not to pass through the accommodation or control station spaces. The electrical supply shall also be from two separate sources. Gas lines may pass through or extend into other spaces if the lines are enclosed in a mechanically exhaust-ventilated gas-tight pipe or duct. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 704 In case personnel are allowed to enter the enclosure when the gas turbine is in operation. water separator. 603 Clogging of cooling passages must be avoided. Interlock on doors or equivalent barriers shall be provided to ensure that fire extinguishing medium hazardous to personnel is not released when personnel are inside the enclosure.r. not enclosed in a gas tight pipe or duct) fuel pipes may be accepted in non-hazardous areas after special consideration in each case. The complete system for treatment of gas including pressure vessel.3 Sec. This means that the flow rate should be double that required to maintain the required conditions for the turbine (2 times 100%). such that then ventilation between outer and inner walls will always be in operation when there is gas in the supply line. or vice versa. 904 Means for gas-freeing of the complete piping system are to be provided. continuous gas detection is to be provided. 902 A double “block and bleed” system arranged by two three-way valves in series is to be fitted on the gas supply line. c) Clearly identifiable colour code is to be used for the pipes.Rules for Ships / High Speed. provided compliance with the following minimum criteria: a) 10% non-destructive testing of welded connections is to be carried out. The ventilation system is to be independent of all other ventilation. January 2001 Pt. See 705. F 900 Special requirements for arrangement of fuel supply in mobile offshore units 901 The gas may be taken directly from the oil production facilities. 703 Measures are to be taken to prevent health risk to personnel being exposed to release of fire extinguishing medium.4 Ch. filters.e. 907 The minimum nominal wall thickness of the pipes for fuel in non-hazardous areas is to be designed for a pressure of at least 50% higher than normal working pressure but not less than 6. or in a manner providing easy escape routes from all relevant positions inside the enclosure. The ventilation is to take place at a pressure below that of the outside room. and the piping at the gas or crude oil control unit. diameter) and the arrangement (support etc. 802 The ventilation pipe and duct is to terminate at a ventilated hood or casing arranged to cover the areas occupied by flanges. Gas detection 15% LEL alarm. F 700 Gas turbine enclosure 701 An enclosure is to be fitted in case the requirements in E401 are not fulfilled. One “block and bleed” valve may be accepted for short supply lines located in hazardous area. 905 The switch-over from gas operation to oil operation. 804 There is to be an interlock between ventilation and gas supply with control logic documented. is to be located in hazardous area and separated from the engine and boiler room by gas-tight bulkheads. and in particular ensure that there is no possibility of formation of gas pockets in the room. is to be possible during normal running condition. F 600 Carbo blast system 601 The operation instruction of the carbo blast system is to ensure that the gas turbine’s hot section temperatures during blasting do not exceed maximum allowable operation temperatures. 25% LEL shutdown. b) Strength of pipes(wall thickness w. 909 Exposed (i. compressors. The enclosure is to include a system for fire detection and automatic fire extinguishing (see E400). 908 Full penetration butt-welded joints are normally to be used for enclosed fuel pipes in non-hazardous areas. The flow is as a minimum to be equivalent to 90 air changes per hour.) are such that the piping is able to withstand the maximum possible combined load from internal and external forces it may be exposed to. F 800 Special requirements for arrangement of ventilation in mobile offshore units 801 Ventilation of gas turbine room is to be carried out at a pressure.e. which clearly indicates that gas-freeing is not to take place through a recently extinguished combustion chamber. Risks for hot spots to be specially considered. The number of pressure fans is to be such that there is 2 times 100%. 906 A separate and independent supply line is to be arranged for each gas turbine. at least two exits should be arranged in the opposite ends of the enclosure. it is to be ensured that the gas turbine back-pressure does not exceed the maximum value specified by the gas turbine manufacturer.

Table G2 Vibration measurement requirements for core engine and system Test type Measurements Reference to test requirements Verification of core engine lateral critiB912.Rules for Ships / High Speed.4 Ch. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . Table G1 Vibration analysis requirements for components Reference to Component Analysis type design requirements Turbine Natural frequencies and mode shapes. respectively.Verification of core engine vibration D211. fuel pipes lubricating oil pipes and electrical wires are to be arranged to allow for the maximum possible engine movement as limited by the elastic mounts. casting and curing are to be carried out in accordance with maker’s instructions. 103 Unless otherwise stated. — component — core engine — system behaviour. b) For mounting on epoxy resin. D300. In cases where the gas generator and the power turbine have not been tested together. B304 blades Campbell diagrams Natural frequencies and mode shapes. and A201. 301 Alignment and foundation Alignment of engines The engine is to be aligned in relation to the aligned shafting and gearbox. it must be verified that the resin is type approved. D212 tion test levels Verification of core engine and system Quay test vibration levels I107 Verification of core engine and system Sea trial I203.2 – Page 49 d) Alarm for detected gas in machinery room with maximum concentration of 25% of lower explosion limit (LEL). B316 Disks Campbell diagrams FoundaNatural frequency calculations upon F203 tions request G 300 Tests and measurements 301 Requirements for measurement verification of actual vibration behaviour for core engine and system are located as shown in Table G2. Impellers B305 Campbell diagrams Rotors Natural frequencies and stability B315 Natural frequencies and mode shapes. and D400) shall be conducted on board. B913. allowed tolerances and experience with sink-in. I209 vibration levels 303 Resilient mounted engines and base frames a) The mounts are to be type approved. the surveyor is to supervise the conformity of the installation according to the requirements given in this sub section. c) All connections to the engine such as couplings. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. 202 Vibration analysis requirements pertaining to gas turbine components are defined in part B. Analysis 201 Requirements for documentation of vibration analysis for core engine and system behaviour are described in A500 and A600 (foundation system only). Vibration G 100 General H 200 101 Vibration behaviour for gas turbines shall be evaluated on the following design levels. 5 Recommended arrangements of hoses and pipes Application 101 This sub section applies to the gas turbine installation with accessories. Type test cal speeds and vibration levels during B914. H 300 The evaluation shall consist of a combination of analytical calculations and test measurements. 302 Rigid fastening of engines a) The accuracy of the fit between chocks and mounting pad. Assembly of gas turbines supplied in modules 201 The assembly of modules is to be done in accordance to the gas turbine manufacturer’s specification. Installation Inspections H 100 Fig. For a summary of where the relevant component requirements are located. Mixing. B916 mechanical running test Certifica. January 2001 Pt. the certification test (see D200. respectively the base plate is to be better than 0.5. b) When alignment is carried out. G. Dependent on installation.3 Sec. intake and exhaust ducts. The approved shaft alignment specification is to be followed. H. see Table G1. See Fig.1 mm. G 200 102 In general the installation shall be in accordance with approved drawings and specifications fulfilling the requirements in F. sink-in of the rubber should be accounted for in order to ensure the following time-dependant items: — approved distance or clearance to stoppers (or second level if dual characteristic mounts) — that coupling alignment is within acceptable tolerances in the alignment specification. the distances are to be verified one or two weeks after fully loaded mounts.

H 800 Control and monitoring 801 All sensor signals to gas turbine control system and protection system to be verified loop checked and calibrated. H 700 Piping and cables 701 Clamping of pipes and cables is to be in accordance with Ch. H 600 Fire prevention 601 Requirements for arrangement as defined in E400 shall be checked in situ. including fuel and lubrication systems 501 Fuel and lubrication system flexible hoses are to be of an approved type. a complete new quay trial must be performed. after the test. 104 Lubricating oil pressure and temperature are to be monitored and recorded during the test. Filtered vibration signals will not be accepted during the testing. B600. Shipboard Testing I 100 Quay trial 101 The testing described in 100 applies to all gas turbines in addition to installation inspections as described in H. 102 The test purpose is to verify system integration. the readings are to be taken at steady state conditions. stopping — safe operating characteristics throughout its specified operating envelope. The manufacturer’s acceptance criteria are to be fulfilled. 602 In case of automatic release of a fire extinguishing medium hazardous to personnel inside the enclosure. and finally through coast down and stop. pausing for the manufacturer's specified minimum fuel drainage time. The parameters of the control system governing these sequences shall be that of the approved sequences and time constants. including typical start-stop cycles. piping. Weld slag to be carefully removed from all welds in the inlet ducting. lubrication. tested functions and operating parameters are within specified limits. Minimum time required for restart of engine is to be checked in order to verify that start can be achieved before thermal interlock occurs. In such cases. The Society may require additional measurements at certain specific speeds. Such special cases will be individually considered by the Society. I 200 Sea trial 201 The sea trial is to include testing found necessary by the Society to demonstrate: — starting. electric motors. The vicinity of the flexible bellow is not to include potentials for wear and chafe. As a minimum the engine is to be run for 90 minutes at the maximum continuous power in service. 603 For mobile offshore units. deceleration. 202 Prior to the start of the sea trial. H 400 Inlet and outlet passages 401 Bolts and nuts in the inlet ducting are to be properly secured. that are delivered as integral parts of the fuel oil. etc. valves.Rules for Ships / High Speed.3 Sec. an additional fire extinguishing plant is to be fitted in the engine room in such a way that it is possible for an approved fire extinguishing medium to be directed on to the gas turbines. Activation of the fire extinguisher is to automatically stop the exhaust fan of the enclosure. B700 and B1000.2 – Page 50 The intake and exhaust ducting flexible bellows are to be of approved type and checked for compliance with the maximum possible engine or base frame movements. 107 The quay trial is to be considered complete if no damage occurs to the turbine or associated auxiliaries. acceleration. H 500 On-engine ancillaries. are to be checked against the engine manufacturer’s quality system as found relevant. When possible. The manufacturer is to provide the Society with the vibration acceptance criteria that are to be used during the test. The sea trial procedure is to be approved by the Society prior to testing. This shall be checked through a function test with simulated release of extinguishing medium.6. 502 On-engine ancillaries such as pumps. 403 Welds in exhaust ducting are to be checked by relevant NDT method and be performed in accordance with quality requirements in ISO 5817 or equivalent. Such DET NORSKE VERITAS . filters. 106 The monitoring and control system used in the test is to be representative of the type approved monitoring and control system. See H802 and 102. and down to idle. hydraulic and pneumatic operation and cooling systems for the engine. 103 The quay trial may be conducted at no-load condition. Control software version to be checked against certificate. before attempting a normal start. 802 The control and monitoring instrumentation is to be installed in accordance with Ch. vibration measurements are to be performed for all shafts in the entire permissible speed range. idling. to the extent related to the gas turbine (see E100). modifications to the design are performed. If. 203 The sea trial is to include vibration measurements. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. B500. leakage into the machinery room is not to endanger a safe escape of personnel. control system behaviour and the functioning of auxiliary systems. I. General considerations and requirements pertaining to the shipboard testing are found in B400. 402 It is to be verified that no leakage exist in exhaust ducting and flexible bellow. for example by welding. The unfiltered vibration signals are to be recorded at a constant speed increase from zero to 100% of rated power turbine speed (105% for generator drives).6. 205 When possible the test is to demonstrate the gas turbine's capacity to perform satisfactorily during load alterations that are likely to occur during the actual operating conditions. 204 The acceleration and deceleration of the gas turbine is to be witnessed by the Society. and the reasons for the changes are to be presented to the Society's type approval centre in due time before testing. The enclosure is to be inspected for deficiencies that may preclude satisfaction of this requirement. The filtration is to be verified through oil analysis and particle counting according to NAS 1638 or ISO 4406 or equivalent. January 2001 Pt. The sea trial must simulate the conditions in which the engine is expected to operate in service. The recommended values are to be stated in the operating instructions. 503 Flushing is to be performed in accordance with requirements in Ch. coolers. The parameters are to be within the manufacturer's recommended values. except in special cases.9 and checked accordingly.6. There must be at least one false engine start. see Ch. Deviations from the type approved monitoring and control system. and the vibration requirements are met. the engine and the control and monitoring system are to demonstrate trouble free running at no load for 20 minutes.4 Ch. or equivalent. 105 The lubricating oil filtration is to be as specified by the manufacturer.

this to be performed in the fastest time permitted by the controls of the gas turbine core engine. Crash-stop conditions shall be tested from full speed. the test shall include full speed turn (shortest radius) in both port and starboard directions. light craft and naval surface craft. January 2001 Pt. Vibration levels shall not increase significantly. 209 Sea trials of engines for high speed. I 300 Boroscope inspection 301 Boroscope inspection may be required by the Society after the sea trial.3 Sec. see E401. light craft and naval surface craft For high speed.4 Ch.Rules for Ships / High Speed. See D402. Where surface temperatures exceed 220°C. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft.2 – Page 51 load variations may for instance be 100% instantaneous load shed. the test shall be performed during the sea trial. 208 Sea trial of engines for generating sets If the overspeed protective function and speed control system have not been tested during the certification test or quay trial. 207 Sea trial of propulsion engines In addition to the test profile defined in 201 the engine is to be tested at power levels agreed with the Society prior to the sea trial. DET NORSKE V ERITAS . except when the engine is fitted in an enclosure. 206 The temperature of hot surfaces is to be checked during full load testing. It is advised to use thermographic analyses for documentation. See B1000 for particulars and requirements. The number of points should be sufficient to establish the speed – power relationship. remedial actions as described in E401 are required.

1. 304 Vibration levels are to be recorded for speeds varying from idle to 110% of rated speed. 203 For instrumentation and automation. integrated steam and drain piping. but not less than 2 bar). Accepted methods may be: — ultrasonic testing (rotors and blades) — magnetic particle testing (or dye penetrant) — hydraulic pressure testing (integrated valves and piping 2 times design pressure. This is to be proved and documented as above. 305 After the test a lubricating oil sample is to be tested for traces of metallic particles. Special attention is to be paid to potential consequences of leaks of combustible liquids or gases and mechanical damage to rotating parts.1. Should the manufacturer not be in possession of a valid quality system certificate. All exterior surface temperature is to be less than 220°C. The manoeuvring system is not to cause any harmful effects. otherwise 1. Arrangement B. DET NORSKE VERITAS . B 200 Testing of components 201 Mechanical properties and chemical composition of power transmitting parts. 202 Any probable single failure in any of the turbines is for an extended period of time not to result in loss of manoeuveability. C. The remaining unbalance is not to exceed the limit tolerated by the bearing arrangement with respect to critical speeds. Any flying object from a damaged rotor is not to penetrate into space where secondary damage may result in fire. C 200 Arrangement of propulsion machinery 201 The turbine installation is to allow for efficient changeover between ahead and astern running. and drains are to be such as to prevent harmful effects to the turbine. 203 All rotors are to be dynamically balanced in minimum two planes. 102 Subject to approval is the steam turbine itself with foundation.9 Sec. 306 For turbines driving electric generators the capability of supplying 110% of its rated power for a period of 15 minutes is to be demonstrated. other support systems. A 200 Documentation 201 The following drawings and specifications are to be submitted: — — — — — — — — — general technical specifications general arrangement including general description sections showing rotors.9 Sec. as well as parts subject to pressure. 302 The workshop testing should be conducted in accordance with an approved test program. gland sealing. 203 The turbine is to have an efficient turning gear.4 Ch. the steam turbine is to be tested in the workshop and a complete test report is to be worked out. C 100 General Arrangement 101 The turbine exterior and the immediate environment are to be such as to prevent conceivable hazardous situations from occuring. corrected to standard reference conditions and recorded: — — — — — ambient pressure and temperature inlet pressure and temperature exhaust pressure and temperature speed of shafts lubricating oil temperature and pressure 303 The control and monitoring systems are to be tested according to Ch. Based on this assessment a survey arrangement with the manufacturer may be established. bearings and casings sections showing typical blades and blade fastening schematic showing conditions and flow masses at all supply and exhaust points on the turbines integrated steam and drain piping foundation and fastening lubrication oil system test programs as given in B302 and F201 Upon special request: — — — — vibration calculation of rotors and/or blades performance characteristics with functional description specification of reliability and availability (R & A) analysis proving the specified R & A data. Certification and Testing B 100 General 101 The turbine is to be delivered with a NV certificate. 202 Operating instructions are to be worked out and are to cover all normal operations as well as emergency operations and actions. lubricating oil systems. 102 The arrangement of steam supply.5 times. and the control and monitoring systems. flooding or injury to personnel. including computer based control and monitoring.Rules for Ships / High Speed. and a visual inspection of internal parts is to be carried out to the extent as requested by the surveyor. an assessment of the quality system elements which are in operation at the manufacturer's works is to be made. are to be proved and documented through the manufacturer's quality system. January 2001 Pt. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. At each speed setting at which vibration levels are to be measured the running is to be of such length of time that steady state conditions are ensured. see Ch. B 300 Workshop testing 301 Prior to delivery. General A 100 Application 101 The rules in this section apply to steam turbines used as propulsion engines and for driving auxiliaries. extractions.3 Sec. 202 The materials of parts mentioned in 201 are to be free from defects which may lead to damages. As a minimum the following parameters are to be measured. The extent of the testing is to be sufficient to demonstrate the turbine's compliance with its general performance specification.3 – Page 52 SECTION 3 STEAM TURBINES A. 102 The manufacturer is to have in operation a certified quality system.

January 2001 Pt. as well as parts critical to the function of the turbine. (The hand trip gear is understood to be any device which is operated manually irrespective of the way the action is performed.1. covering vibration of the rotor as well as blade vibrations. If emergency pumps are used these are to be arranged so that their operation is not affected by failure of the power supply. the inlet steam pressure exceeds the pressure for which the exhaust casing and associated piping up to exhaust valve are designed. to have a separate overspeed device arranged and adjusted so that the rated speed of the turbine cannot be exceeded by more than 15%.Rules for Ships / High Speed. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft.9. E 400 Monitoring 401 For monitoring of propulsion steam turbines. for auxiliary turbines. Table E1 Monitoring of propulsion steam turbines Failure Lubrication oil pressure Lubrication oil level Bearing temperature Hydraulic oil pressure Vibration level Axial displacement Overspeed Power loss of monitoring system Automatic shutdown of turbine Condensate level Condenser pressure Low Lower Low High Low High High Required monitoring (Stated by an x) Automatic Alarm shutdown of turbine x x x x x x x Comments Each separate system In system tank Fore and aft bearings See 200 High High x x x x DET NORSKE V ERITAS If "one-level" type installation . 104 Where exhaust steam from auxiliary systems is led to the propulsion turbine. 202 Ahead turbines are to be provided with a quick acting device which will automatically shut off the steam supply in the case of dangerous lowering of oil pressure in the bearing lubricating system. 103 Arrangement is to be provided for shutting off the steam to the propulsion turbines by suitable hand trip gear situated at the manoeuvring stand and at the turbine itself.3 Sec. E. complemented with results from development testing.4 Ch. the steam supply must be cut off at activation of the overspeed protective device. is to include a full vibration analysis with measurements as necessary. This device is to be so arranged as not to prevent the admission of steam to the astern turbine for braking purposes.3 – Page 53 204 Efficient steam strainers are to be provided close to the inlets to ahead and astern high pressure turbines or alternatively at the inlets to manoeuvring valves. mechanically or by means of external power). as well as full scale testing if practicable. means to relieve the excess pressure are to be provided. Design and Construction D 100 Design 101 The design and construction is to be such as to enable the steam turbine to meet the general requirements with regard to environmental conditions. in addition to a speed governor. i. D. E 200 Propulsion steam turbines 201 The steam turbine is. 203 Propulsion turbines are to be provided with a satisfactory emergency supply of lubricating oil which will come into use automatically when the pressure drops below a predetermined value. Hand tripping for auxiliary turbines is to be arranged in the vicinity of the turbine overspeed protective device. When. The valve discharge outlets are to be visible and suitably guarded if necessary. 102 The reliability and availability (R & A) of new propulsion turbines is to be proved through a design analysis. 402 For monitoring of auxiliary steam turbines. see Table E2. It is to include a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and is to consider all highly loaded (stress and temperature) parts. see Table E1. if required. The emergency supply may be obtained from a gravity tank containing sufficient oil to maintain adequate lubrication until the turbine is brought to rest or by equivalent means. E 300 Auxiliary steam turbines 301 Auxiliary turbines are in addition to the speed governor to have a separate overspeed protective device preventing the rated speed from being exceeded by more than 15%. 102 Automatic or semiautomatic control systems are to provide controlled load changes to avoid thermal shocks and other unacceptable transients. Control and Monitoring E 100 General 101 The requirements in this item are additional to those given in Ch. Suitable arrangement for cooling the bearings after stopping may also be required. functional capability and to reliability and availability as outlined in Ch. 103 The design analysis. 105 A sentinel valve or equivalent is to be provided at the exhaust end of all turbines.e.

Upon completion of the sea tri- als.3 Sec. the turbine is to be tested according to an approved test programme.Rules for Ships / High Speed. 202 The control and monitoring systems are to be tested according to E100 to E400 as well as to Ch.4 Ch. 204 After sea trial lubrication oil filters are to be examined for particles.3 – Page 54 Table E2 Monitoring of auxiliary steam turbines Failure Lubrication oil pressure Lubrication oil temperature Lubrication oil level Overspeed Automatic shutdown of turbine Power loss of monitoring system Condenser pressure Low Lower High Low Required monitoring (Stated by an x) Automatic Alarm shutdown of turbine x x x x Comments In system tank See 300 x x x High F. F 200 Sea trial 201 During sea trials. Testing On Board F 100 Testing before sea trial 101 Turbines driving electrical generators are subject to tests according to the requirements in E300.1. January 2001 Pt. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. 203 Turbine vibration levels are to be measured. The measurements are to be made in such a way that hull and foundation vibrations are excluded from the recordings to the extent possible. a copy of the complete test journal is to be handed over to the surveyor. DET NORSKE VERITAS .9 Sec.