Development of new seismic design concepts considering moderate

seismicity in Korea
Sung Pil Chang, Hyun Moo Koh & Jae Kwan Kim

Korea Earthquake Engineering Research Center (KEERC), School of Civil, Urban & Geosystem Engineering
Seoul National University, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea

ABSTRACT: A significant progress has been made in R&D on earthquake engineering and applications since
the Korean government has launched modern earthquake hazard reduction programs in 1990’s after
recognizing potential disastrous consequences of seismic events following the Northridge and Kobe
earthquakes. In particular, there are currently active researches on the development of new seismic design
concepts with the recognition that the design concept in low and moderate seismic regions cannot be the same
as in high seismic region. This paper introduces research activities on Life-Cycle Cost and Limited Ductility
Design concepts which have been developed suitable for the moderate seismicity in Korea.
1 INTRODUCTION
Korea has a long history of earthquakes. Earthquake
events are well documented in the historic
documents such as the Royal Chronicles of the
Chosun Dynasty. Nevertheless the damage level
caused by those historic and recent earthquakes was
not very high, and it is believed that Korea belongs
to a low to moderate seismicity zone. However, after
the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, there was a
growing concern on potential devastating disruption
of industrial and infrastructure systems that the
economy of Korea is so much relying on.
Accordingly, the Korean government has launched
modern earthquake hazard reduction programs that
include support to research activities on earthquake
engineering and improvement of seismic
performance
requirements
for
civil
and
infrastructure systems.
Since the foundation of Earthquake Engineering
Society of Korea (EESK) and Korea Earthquake
Engineering Research Center (KEERC), the two
leading organizations that execute a systematic
research and collaborate program in earthquake
engineering field with the support of Korea Science
and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) and the
Ministry of Construction and Transportation, a
significant progress has been made in applications
and R&D on modern earthquake hazard reduction
programs in Korea. In particular, there are currently
active researches on the development of new seismic
design concepts with the recognition that the design
concept in low and moderate seismic regions cannot
be the same as in high seismic region. Among them,

two main interests are Life-Cycle Cost concept and
Limited Ductility Design concept.
Optimal reliability level in the seismic design of a
structure is determined as the one that involves the
highest net life-cycle benefit to the society, or the
minimum life-cycle cost. The life-cycle cost mainly
consists of initial construction cost and damage cost
estimated by failure probability over entire life
cycle. A stochastic process, which can consider
characteristics of moderate seismicity in Korea, is
developed to evaluate the failure probability and
eventually the total life-cycle cost function.
Extensive study using this concept has been
performed to propose design guidelines for seismic
isolation of highway bridges in Korea.
In moderate seismicity regions, the gravity load
may govern the design. Nevertheless many frame
structures of conventional design possess
considerable amount of inherent lateral strength
though they may not show ductile failure mode.
Since the demand is not as severe as in high
seismicity regions, large inelastic deformation is not
required even under the Maximum Credible
Earthquake. The seismic design based on limited
ductility design seems appropriate in moderate
seismicity regions. The Korean research community
has started to develop new design procedure based
on limited ductility and reinforcement details that
can supply required ductility.

A=0. Figure 2 shows an example of investigation results for cost effectiveness of isolated bridges according to acceleration coefficient and soil type. The design procedure determines optimal reliability level of isolated bridges as the one that involves the highest net lifecycle benefit to the society.1 2 10 initial Sg(ω) 10 Eiso/non 2 LIFE-CYCLE COST CONCEPT FOR SEISMIC DESIGN OF ISOLATED BRIDGES 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 7 10 10 8 10 9 10 3 Damage Scale. r iso/p=100 1.1. on the failure probability. flexible than in high seismic region. = 0.upgraded Sg(ω) Upgrade Spectral Density Function Soil Type = I.14 A=0. Therefore seismic design must take into account characteristics of ground motions expected at the site.35.28 A=0. Figure 1 describes the modeling procedure where upgrading of spectral density function is continued until the spectral density model converges to the design response spectrum. A 4-story . such as on ductility. The dynamic response of structures is a function of the ground motion and mechanical properties of structures. Cost Effectiveness of Isolated Bridges According to Acceleration Coefficient and Soil Type 3 LIMITED DUCTILITY DESIGN CONCEPT It is quite natural that the seismic design must be based on the dynamic response characteristics of structures under the earthquake loading. Especially the demand on the ductility capacity in the moderate seismicity region may not very large. Generation of Spectral Density Model Compatible with Response Spectrum The failure probability is calculated by crossing theory of spectrum analysis using the above spectral density model and limit states defined for superstructures. Some of investigation results show that seismic isolation of bridges may be more cost-effective in low and moderate seismic region. It has been observed in many tests that structures without seismic detailing may have significant amount of lateral resisting capacity. isolators and piers. or the minimum lifecycle cost. riso/p=100 1 Soil Type I Soil Type II Soil Type III Soil Type IV Response Spectrum RSAs(ω) Time Domain Analysis 3 Damage Scale. the design codes and underlying design concept for isolators and isolated bridges usually follow those in high seismic region. which may not be appropriate to low and moderate seismic region. It was shown (Koh & Song 1999. are presented in detail in KEERC (2000). Koh et al. However. V f(m ) 0. Vf(m ) Figure 2.0 2 10 Simulation f(t) repeat and obtain mean maximum acceleration Figure 1. In the procedure input ground motion is modeled as the spectral density function compatible with design response spectrum for combinations of acceleration and site coefficients. The investigation results are being used to propose tentative design guidelines for seismic isolation of bridges in Korea. site conditions and dynamic characteristics of isolated bridges. Optimal design procedure and design considerations for seismic isolation of bridges in such regions can be based on life-cycle cost concept. The life-cycle cost mainly consists of initial construction cost and damage cost estimated by failure probability over entire life cycle.00 0. Ductility of piers and its effects on cost effectiveness are considered by stochastic linearization. 2000) that the spectral density model generated reflects properly characteristics of the acceleration and site coefficients specified in the code. and that optimal stiffness of isolators in such regions can be designed as more 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 3 Acceleration Coeff. More results.0 Enon/iso Seismic isolators are often used for bridges in low and moderate seismic region in order to reduce high cost usually caused by seismic performance requirements in such regions. response modification factor and effects of intensity of input ground motion. Total life-cycle cost function is defined for cost optimization by considering the effects of design parameters. 1999. such as stiffness of isolators and piers and dynamic characteristics of bridges.42 A=0. Koh et al. The earthquake ground motion is local.80 A=1.

25 T=2. lap splice in plastic hinge zone is allowed implicitly in Korea Bridge Code.5 and 4. 1999). however. The ratio of steel is 1%. The pier is of solid circular section. The inelastic behavior characteristic of the bridge pier designed conventionally has been investigated by 1/3. The maximum ductility ratio is estimated to be 2.0 ξ = 0. It appears that this structure may withstand the design earthquake without collapse but may fail in the event of MCE. Shaking table test results of 1/3 scale model of unreinforced brick building model demonstrated that properly constructed masonry building could have considerable amount of laterally load resisting capacity. It is worthwhile from this experimental result to note that avoiding lap splice in the plastic hinge zone can significantly enhance the seismic performance of a RC pier (Chang el al. The periods are calculated based on secant stiffness. Load-displacement curve of 4-story concrete frame structure The capacity of a conventionally designed bridge pier is analyzed (Kim and Kim 1998b). A capacity curve is obtained in longitudinal direction using 3-D nonlinear analysis method. By improving joint details. It has lap spliced longitudinal bars in the plastic hinge zone and small amount of transverse reinforcements with no hook.20 These results indicate very clearly that conventionally designed frame structures possess considerable amount of inherent lateral strength though they may not show ductile failure mode.5m. The PGA at the elastic limit is found to be 0. It is assumed that the walls are separated from the frames and do not contribute to the building stiffness. But a much simpler detailing such as continuous longitudinal bars with less amount of transverse reinforcement could be introduced as an alternative detailing if the seismic performance objective is satisfied. Large amount of a transverse reinforcement with end hook is. Even to reach 1.b).35G or higher (Ryu et al. however. -300 D isplacem ent(m m ) Figure 4. SA(g) 0.09g 200 C2-a SC-C LateralForce(kN ) Safety 0. This large amount and complex assembling of transverse reinforcement cause high cost in construction of a bridge.18 C a=0.15 C1-a SC-L C a=0.30 T=1.5 scale model test. More extensive research on various structural type is to be conducted to develop seismic detailing appropriate in low to moderate seismicity regions. But it has adequate amount of resistance to the design wind load.94 ξ = 0. As pointed out by Bertero (Bertero 2000).7. the present design approach requires the structures . At several points on the curve PGA thresholds and maximum drift ratios are calculated. It is converted into ADRS spectra and compared with demand spectra in Figure 3.23g. Additional model which has continuous bars instead of lap spliced one was tested together in order to investigate the influence of lap splice in the plastic hinge zone into seismic performance. The model is not detailed for the lateral load such as wind and earthquake. In performance-based design. Their loaddisplacement curves are obtained and compared together in the Figure 4. Very similar observations can be founded in the NCEER report on full-scale prototype and 1/3 scale model of a conventionally bridge pier (NCEER 1996a.reinforced concrete building (Kim and Kim 1998a) is designed according to the Korean Building Code. 2000) C a=0.0 % drift ratio the PGA needs exceed 0.10 Functional 0.05 100 0 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 -100 0 -200 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 SD (cm ) Figure 3.32 300 0. the longitudinal bars are assumed continuous in plastic hinge region.05 0. The displacement ductility is 1. In the above analysis. 25G and it collapsed at the PGA=0. the ductility may increase to prevent premature brittle shear failure.39 ξ = 0.5 in the lap-spliced model and continuous one respectively.12g.09 T=0. multiple performance levels are being under consideration.22g 0. its height 13m and diameter 2. required to confine core concrete effectively so that large ductility can be achieved. Comparison of Load-displacement Curves Between Lap Splice Model and Continuous One Similar to AASHTO requirements applicable for seismic zone 1 and 2. Serious cracks were initiated at PGA=0.

.4 Feb. 1996a. J. If premature local failure can be prevented. Journal of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers.). I. earthquake engineering. & Ha. of Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference-Fall.. the natural conclusion will be seismic design based on the limited ductility (Figure 5). Improvement of seismic design and seismic performance of bridges. Y. 2000. 30 Jan.M. 1100. It is very likely that the members proportioned for the gravity load may have significant amount of lateral load carrying capacity. Koh.. Auckland. NCEER. Technical Report NCEER-96-0008. 2000. Load V Vi=Vci+Vs+Vp Pn . REFERENCES Koh. One approach is Life-Cycle Cost concept and the other is limited ductility design. J. & Kim.. 19(I-4): 539-550.H. & Lim. Optimal design and cost effectiveness of seismically isolated bridges based on minimum life-cycle cost. & Kim... Innovative Approaches. Seismic Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Structure without Seismic Detailing and Implications to the Seismic Design in the Region of Moderate Seismicity. Buffalo. world conf. Fall 2000.M. I.M.H. Nominal Flexure Strength P Vf=Vcf+Vs+Vp 1st Yielding Target δy µ=2 µ=4 δu Displacement Figure 5. Kim. NCEER. seminar. 1996b. Performance-Based Seismic Engineering: Conventional vs. J. Hong Kong. 2000: Paper No. 2000. Proc. Korea. pp 335-340. Auckland. Limited Ductility Seismic Design in Moderate Seismicity Regions. & Song. earthquake engineering. Tokyo.B.K. From the above observations.. Technical Report NCEER-96-0009..K.V. Proc. Development of rational and economical design procedure will help adoption of seismic design to many countries in moderate seismicity regions. Bertero.W.K. D. of Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea. Proc. . the demand for inelastic deformation will not be very large even under the Maximum Credible Earthquake. there are zones of moderate seismic hazard level. Proc. Ha.. the gravity load may govern the design. Korea Earthquake Engineering Research Center. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. If the required performance is to limit the damage.4 Feb.H.P. Final report to the Ministry of Construction and Transportation. Seismic response of Unreinforced Masonry Residential Building. Seismic isolation. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. Seismic Evaluation of a 30-Year Old NonDuctile Highway Bridge Pier and Its Retrofit. 1999. Kim. the progress will be greatly accelerated. 23-25 August 1999. New York.. The research results and experience on the new seismic design for moderate seismicity regions be of benefit to many countries. Proc. Chae.M. J. & Kim. Workshop on Earthquake Engineering for Regions of Moderate Seismicity. but the damage level will be too severe for the structure to have of any economic value after strong earthquake. There are many countries that belong to moderate seismicity regions. Concept of Limited Ductility Design 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS New developments in the seismic design concept in Korea are summarized. Buffalo. In H. 30 Jan. New York. of Intern. H. Koh (ed. Even though the structure may not collapse. 1998. KEERC 2000. pp 141-156.. H. New Zealand. S. Even in a country of strong earthquakes. of the First International Summer Symposium. Proc. J. D.. If the research toward this direction can be coordinated through participation of researchers world wide. Song. 2000: Paper No. Ryu. J. J. B. & Hahm. intern.M. passive energy dissipation and active control of vibrations of structures.H. seismic performance levels may have to be defined based on limited damage instead of large ductility. Japan . Koh. August 6. 1999. Cheju.. H. Kim. world conf.. October 7-8. KSCE. Kim I. H. D. New Zealand. Evaluation of economic efficiency for seismic-isolated bridges based on minimum life-cycle cost.undergo large amount of inelastic deformation before developing their full capacity. Cost effectiveness of seismic isolation for bridges in low and moderate seismic region. 1998b. 1999.K. Song. Jin. Seismic Performance of a Model Reinforced Concrete Bridge Pier Before and After Retrofit. Chang. Hence the present design concept based on large amount ductility may not be adequate even in the high seismicity regions.H. V. In moderate seismicity regions. 2074. 1998a. H. Proc.. The influence of lap splice of longitudinal bars in the plastic hinge zone on the nonlinear behavior characteristics of RC piers and ne seismic detailing concept in moderate seismicity regions. PostSMiRT conf.