Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 1054–1061

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Electric Power Systems Research
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/epsr

Saturation model for squirrel-cage induction motors
J. Pedra a,∗ , I. Candela b , A. Barrera c
a

Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIT-UPC, Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa, Spain
c
Asea Brown Boveri, S.A. Fabrica de Motores, Poligono Industrial S.O., 08192 Sant Quirze del Valles, Barcelona, Spain
b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 27 March 2008
Received in revised form 14 October 2008
Accepted 7 January 2009
Available online 10 February 2009
Keywords:
Induction motor modeling
Parameter estimation
Saturation

a b s t r a c t
An induction motor model which includes stator leakage reactance saturation, rotor leakage reactance
saturation and magnetizing reactance saturation is presented. This improved model is based on experimental data from 96 motors. The power range of the motors is between 11 and 90 kW. The effects on
the torque–speed and current–speed curves of each kind of saturation have been studied. In addition,
the parameters of magnetizing reactance saturation and stator leakage reactance saturation have been
studied for each motor, and an average value and its dispersion for each parameter are given. This model
is considerably more accurate than other models. In particular, it explains the significant differences
between theoretical and experimental torque–speed curves in the braking regime (s > 1).
© 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
The incorporation of magnetic saturation into induction
machine models is a complex topic that has received considerable
attention in the past few years. For simulation study, different nonlinear models for saturated induction motors have been elaborated
based on the equivalent circuit approach [1–14]. Ref. [1] presents
a comparative table with the main features of different models in
the bibliography. Most of the papers in the bibliography present a
dynamic d–q axis model with saturation. In this paper a steady-state
model with saturation has been chosen because all the experimental data have been obtained in steady-state test. Refs. [2,3] also
present dynamic double-cage saturated models, but the former
has saturation in the magnetizing reactance only whereas the latter includes the mutual rotor reactance saturation. In the authors’
opinion, the fitting of the model parameters to experimental data
becomes more complicated if dynamical models are used.
This paper experimentally justifies the need for a model with
three different saturations: magnetizing reactance saturation, stator leakage reactance saturation and rotor leakage reactance
saturation. The new saturation model for the induction motor has
been developed from the experimental data of the locked-rotor
test, the no-load test and the torque–speed curve. As is pointed
out in Ref. [2], representation of the rotor with two rotor windings
rather than with a single winding is known to lead to significant
improvement in the accuracy of simulation results for both deep-

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 934016728; fax: +34 934017433.
E-mail addresses: pedra@ee.upc.es (J. Pedra), candela@ee.upc.es (I. Candela),
amalia.barrera@es.abb.com (A. Barrera).
0378-7796/$ – see front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2009.01.004

bar and double-cage induction machines. Ref. [4] gives a detailed
justification of the use of a double-cage model. The influence of saturation on the skin effect has been represented by the saturation
of a fictitious outer-cage. This saturation explains the big difference between theory and test in the braking regime (s > 1), noted
in Ref. [5]. In the paper a study of the parameters’ influence on the
torque–speed curve has been made to justify the proposed model.

2. Induction motor model discussion
The aim of the paper is to propose a new model of induction
motor saturation and to check that a set of parameters in good
agreement with experimental data can be found.
Fig. 1 shows significant differences between the theoretical and
experimental torque–speed curves described in Ref. [5]. This book
points out that the industry has accumulated large amounts of data
on the torque–speed curves of induction motors of all power ranges
and that, in general, it has been noticed that there are significant differences between theory and test, especially in the braking regime
(s > 1), where a substantial rise of torque at the braking regime is
observed. A torque–speed curve similar to that in Fig. 1, where
the maximum torque has a value of 2 (relative value), the starting torque has a value of 1 and the torque in s = 2 is 3.5, is shown in
this book.
Fig. 2 shows the torque–speed measured values of an induction motor of 18.5 kW, where an anomalous torque increase near
zero speed can be observed. The torque–speed curves of 96 motors,
whose powers range between 90 and 11 kW, have been studied to
find out how many motors exhibit this special effect. The result is
that the torque–speed curve of about 40% of the motors have this

Outer-cage rotor leakage reactance saturation changes very abruptly with the outer-cage rotor current. 3. In the authors’ opinion. Finally. which is necessary to obtain an abrupt variation of X(i). Magnetic saturation function In this paper the function used to represent non-linear reactance behavior is Xk (ik ) = Xak − Xbk p (1 + (|ik |/i0k ) k ) qk /pk + Xbk .Outer-cage rotor leakage reactance saturation works at greater currents than stator leakage reactance saturation. this saturation cannot be separated from the stator leakage inductance saturation. If the induction motor model is tested with only magnetizing and stator leakage reactance saturation. . [16]. it has been considered that the saturation effects of the mutual leakage inductance are included in the stator leakage inductance saturation. The test bed used for testing the induction motor consisted of the following main parts: Fig. for simplicity. qk influence the shape of the curve. the behavior of the motor model with or without mutual rotor inductance can be equivalent. showing the anomalous torque in the braking regime (s > 1). The nominal values will be indicated by subscript N.The torque–speed curve in the braking regime is always flat. 45 and 75 kW. The difference is the inclusion of parameter q. i0k is the current where saturation begins. the values of the locked-rotor test by subscript LR and the values of the no-load test by subscript NL. where a new saturation in the fictitious outer-cage of the rotor (saturation of X2d in Fig. as can be observed in Fig. . k = s to the stator leakage reactance saturation and k = r to the rotor leakage reactance saturation. .Magnetizing reactance saturation has little influence on torque–speed and current–speed curves for nominal voltages. This effect can only be justified by outer-cage rotor leakage reactance saturation. This behavior is confirmed by the manufacturer’s experience. Pedra et al. Fig. this model (with only two saturations) cannot explain the change in the curvature of the torque–speed curve near zero speed. the mutual rotor inductance has not been considered in the equivalent circuit of Fig. since. equipped with five test beds for testing motors of 1–90 kW. This behavior is characterized by: Fig. Steady-state equivalent circuit for the double-cage model of the three-phase induction motor. Xbk . which clearly show this effect. and on the maximum torque. 2.Stator leakage reactance saturation has a great influence on the starting torque and current. This function is similar to that used in Ref. The current on the axis has been normalized by the nominal current IN . Moreover. Experimental data All the experimental data used in this paper have been measured in the ABB laboratory.5. . 1. 4 shows the influence of the saturation parameters on the shape of the non-linear reactance X(i). the following can be stated: . Torque–speed measured points where the anomalous increase in torque near zero speed can be clearly observed. (1) where for Xak . Four motors of 18. .Outer-cage rotor leakage reactance saturation has a great influence on the torque–speed curve. These five parameters have a clear physical interpretation: - Xak reactance value in the linear zone Xbk reactance value in the saturated zone pk . The locked-rotor test only allows the saturation of one element to be determined. This is the main reason why all the leakage saturation is concentrated in the stator reactance. 3) is proposed. 3. if this saturation is considered in two reactances. [8]. 30. k = m corresponds to the magnetizing reactance saturation. 3.5 kW have three pole pairs. . 12 shows the influence of different parameter q values on the torque–speed curves of four motors. this saturation is necessary to represent the anomalous torque values near zero speed. [15]. Fig. but its influence on the current–speed curve is very small.Inner-cage rotor leakage saturation has little influence on the torque–speed curve near zero speed. This is essential to obtain the correct curvature of the torque–speed curve near zero speed. the authors do not know any experimental test to measure their value. Therefore. Fig. thus. as justified in Ref.J. shape. in the case of a linear model. Fig. 4. Mutual leakage inductance saturation affects both the outercage and inner-cage leakage inductances. have been chosen for detailed study. 3 shows the proposed non-linear model. 4. because the torque produced by this cage is low at this speed.loading machine and speed controller (DC machine and DC adjustable speed drive). pk . The motors of 75 and 45 kW have two pole pairs and the motors of 30 and 18. . Moreover. . a new saturation is introduced in the model. qk and i0k . / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 1054–1061 1055 To reproduce the special behavior of the torque–speed curve near zero speed (present in 40% of the studied motors). Torque–speed curve similar to that plotted in Ref.

1472 0. Relation of impedance–current.1261 0. The range of power of the motors varies from 11 to 90 kW at a line voltage of 400 V. 4.0662 0. have been calculated for each motor using a least-square algorithm to fit test data to the curve (1).0145 3. respectively.0375. . No-load test: magnetizing reactance saturation 4. 5.1056 J. The locked-rotor test plays a major role in stator leakage reactance saturation. X1d = x1d Zb .0076 0. of the proposed saturation curve.0075 0.variable three-phase sinusoidal voltage source.1. X(i). Relation of impedance–current in the no-load test. The parameters which best characterize non-linear behavior are pm .No-load test. with the value k = m. The no-load test determines the magnetizing reactance saturation. 30. The saturation voltage u0 is a better parameter than . 1. The non-linear parameters. The real values of the motor parameters are Rs = rs Zb .0829 0.2218 0.4424 3.0208 0.Locked-rotor test.5. Pedra et al. In this type of saturation. . The saturation parameters of xm (im ) for the four motors. 5 represent the experimental measurements of the impedance in the no-load test for four motors of 18. 1.torque transducer mounted on the motor axis and speed and current sensors.1 and 1. xam .0045 0.1588 0.25. Linear parameters Induction motors are usually Delta or isolated Wye connected. / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 1054–1061 Fig.Torque–speed curve. qm and i0m .0355 0. . Fig.75. Xm = xm Zb Xsd = xsd Zb .0397 In the no-load test (s = 0). u0 and xbm /xam .1111 0. the reason being that the rate of change with current in this type of saturation is slow.1270 3. 0. the stator leakage inductance has been considered linear because its influence is negligible in this test.1416 0. The impedance that is measured in this case is ZNL (im ) = |Rs + jXsd + jXm |  Xm (im ). 1.2.1106 0. Table 1 shows the linear parameters of the four induction motors expressed in p.u.1644 0.0181 0.1124 0. 5 shows a good agreement between the experimental data and the values predicted by the non-linear model.1466 0. The no-load test has been made at voltages: 0. (4) The dots in Fig. . xbm . The shape of the torque–speed curve near zero speed is greatly influenced by the rotor leakage reactance saturation. The experimental data on the non-linear behavior of the squirrel-cage induction motor have been obtained from: .0641 0. xam .1479 0.05.25. which are represented by a continuous line. Xsd  Xm . 0. X2d = x2d Zb . pm . 45 and 75 kW.0039 0. P (3) where U is the rated line voltage and P the rated mechanical power.35. are detailed in Table 2. P (kW) rs xsd xm r1 x1d r2 x2d 75 45 30 18. R2 = r2 Zb .0176 0. Table 3 shows the average value and its dispersion (standard deviation) for the saturation parameters of the 96 induction motors studied. R1 = r1 Zb . Magnetizing reactance saturation has been studied in 96 induction motors. Table 1 Linear parameters of double-cage model. The parameters in the steady-state equivalent circuit have been calculated considering that the motor is Wye connected. 4. (2) where the impedance base is Zb = Fig. the non-linear parameter qm always has value 1.95.5 0. pm . qm and i0m .1358 0. U2 .5. xbm . 0. 1.7235 3. 0.

Torque–speed curve: rotor leakage reactance saturation The dots in Fig. Assuming that the influence of magnetizing reactance saturation and rotor leakage reactance saturation is negligible in the locked-rotor test.1 Table 3 Manufacturer data of no-load test (s = 0).0 0.25IN ) and zR (IST ) are shown in Table 4.25IN have been made by the usual testing procedure in the ABB factory.74 10.059 ±0.90 1. (6) (7) The dots in Fig.25 iST ≈ 7 0.0 1.75IN . u = 1).27 0.3468 0. 45 and 75 kW. With the help of Table 3. Pedra et al.0352 Table 4 Manufacturer data of locked-rotor test (s = 1).0705 ± 0. The measurements have been made at √ reduced voltage (u = 1/ 3 = 0. For simplicity the mutual rotor reactance has not been considered in Fig. This is the main reason why. defined in Table 4. Relation of impedance–current in the locked-rotor test. 7 represents the torque–speed curve calculated with the linear parameters of Table 1 and the .38 30 m s r 4. IN .043 0. and given the magnetizing reactance xam = xm .05 0.1428 1.75 1 1. = ZST (1) |Rs + jXsd (1) + Z p | (10) The above values indicate that there is a significant change in the motor impedance in the locked-rotor test when the current has a value near the nominal value (i ≈ 1). 4. 7 represent the torque–speed measurements of four induction motors.75 0.951 ± 0.034 ±0.5 m s r 4. Fig. zR (1. pm = 4.164 ± 0.245 ± 0. it has been assumed that saturation in the locked-rotor test is entirely assigned to the stator leakage reactance.363 ± 0. xas .0 3.951 0.784 ± 0.0 9.059 ± 0. The saturation parameters of xs (is ) for the four motors.75) = = 1.0 0.04 0. The relative impedance zR . a typical set of non-linear parameters can be determined as pm = 4. These measurements.577) to avoid overheating of the motor during the test.p | (9) |Rs + jXsd (7) + Z p | ZST (7) = 0.3 10. The expression of the starting impedance is Z ST = Rs + jXsd + 1 .80 0.1733 0.75) + Z p | ZST (0.2166 1 0. in this paper.0 10.p | ZST (1.164 .0 1. xam xbm = 0. The average value and dispersion (standard deviation) of zR (0. xbs .9 2.718 xam i0m = u0 = 1.03 0. IN and 1. 30.0 1. i = I/IN u = U/UN z(i) = Z/ZN zR (i) = z(i)/z(1) (zR ) 0. Three measurements of the locked-rotor current and voltage at 0.90 1.716 0.90 2. (1/jXm ) + 1/(R1 + jX1d ) + 1/(R2 + jX2d ) ZST (is ) = |Rs + jXsd (is ) + Z p |. which are represented by a continuous line.70 0. it is impossible to determine the degree of saturation affecting each reactance.J. 4.1447 0. 6. / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 1054–1061 1057 Table 2 Saturation parameters of double-cage model.1822 0. The solid line in Fig.0 1. together with that of the starting current (measured at nominal voltage. has been cal- culated for each motor with the three measurements of impedance at 0.0 1. Locked-rotor test: stator leakage reactance saturation It should be noted that the locked-rotor test only allows the variation of the sum of the stator and rotor reactances to be determined. P (kW) k pk qk i0k xbk /xak 75 m s r 4. 3.25) = − 0. are detailed with the value k = s in Table 2.75IN .0 10.034.0 2.137 xbm /xam = 0.0 7.118 xam = 3.5 0. i0m = 1. the average values of the impedances in Table 4 indicate that |Rs + jXsd (0.396 ± 0.98 0.4.070 the saturation current i0 because it has a lower dispersion.357 0.096 ± 1.65 0. ZST (1) |Rs + jXsd (1) + Z.03 0.1822 0.0 1.50 0.0 0.25IN and the starting impedance at IST .32 0.0 10.49 10.2 45 m s r 4. allow statorleakage inductance saturation to be estimated.1929 0.204 i0m = 0.0 2. Stator leakage reactance saturation has been studied in 96 motors. respectively. 1. qs and i0s . 6 represent the experimental measurements of the impedance in the locked-rotor test for four motors of 18.070.5. (5) Fig.8 10. 6 shows a good agreement between the experimental data and the values predicted by the non-linear model.0705xam . ZST (1) |Rs + jXsd (1) + Z p | (8) |Rs + jXsd (1.043.25) + Z.128 xbm = 0.1 18.784 ±0.5 4. Thus.3. ps .75IN ).035 0.9 10.096.

and a dotted line represents the curve calculated at reduced voltage (u = 1/3 = 0. the non-linear parameters of the rotor leakage reactance are calculated by trial and error to obtain good agreement with the measured data in the torque–speed curve and current–speed curve near zero speed. A good agreement between the experimental data and the values predicted by the non-linear model can be observed. the parameters of the 75 kW motor in Tables 1 and 2 are rs = 0.333) IN(u=1) = 1. The manufacturer data are conveniently modified to obtain good agreement with the torque–speed and current–speed measured points (the starting torque must normally be undervalued). the measured data in the locked-rotor test.732IN(u=0.4424 ) + 0.4424 − 0. 3. are detailed with the value k = r in Table 2.3468)) 0. The saturation parameters of the inner-cage rotor leakage reactance. where the torque increases near zero speed can be noted.577) = 9TN(u=0. r1 = 0.1058 J.1358.65 · 0.0829.03 · 3. Pedra et al. This fact agrees with the manufacturer experience. This saturation substantially affects the torque–speed curve and some iterations (by means of which. Study of the saturation model effects In this section.0176. the non-linear parameters of the magnetizing reactance are calculated by trial and error to obtain good agreement with the measured data in the no-load test.1106 − 0. In each case. xbr . A more detailed justification of the shape of the torque–speed curve is provided in the Section 5. x2d = x2d (i2 ). 7. 7. r2 = 0. pr . non-linear parameters of Table 2 at reduced voltage (u = 0.1106 10 2/10 + 0. as can be verified in Fig.65 · 0. As an example.0829 10 3/10 (13) + 0. the effects of each type of saturation on the torque–speed curve are studied. (1 + (|i2 |/1. Finally.0039. Torque–speed and current–speed curves and measured torque and current data of four squirrel-cage induction motors at three different voltages.333) (11) The particular behavior of the torque–speed curve. All the curves have been normalized with their own nominal torque and nominal current to make different torque–speed and current–speed curves comparable. / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 1054–1061 Fig. Next.2 · 0. This behavior is perfectly explained by the model proposed in Fig. The effects of outer-cage saturation agree with the significant differences between theoretical and experimental torque–speed curves explained in Ref. The relation between the different nominal torque and current is TN(u=1) = 3TN(u=0. this effect can only be justified by the outer-cage rotor leakage reactance saturation.577) = 3IN(u=0.577). Parameter determination The process to obtain linear and non-linear parameters is mainly a trial and error method. qr and i0r .49 1/4.2 · 0. the linear model (parameters of Table 1) is compared to the saturated model with . [17]. first the torque–speed measurements and then the locked-rotor test measurements are adjusted) must be made to obtain good parameters. [5]. xm = xm (im ) xsd = xsd (is ).9) ) 0. In the author’s opinion. where xm (im ) = xs (is ) = 4.49 (1 + ((|im |/0. In the same figure a dashed line represents the torque–speed curve calculated with the nominal voltage. X2d (i2 ). for the four motors. a set of linear parameters is obtained from the manufacturer data using the algorithm of Ref.1106 (1 + (|is |/0. xar . This saturation does not significantly affect the torque–speed curve and affects only slightly the current–speed curve near zero slip. The influence of this saturation on the current–speed curve near zero speed is very little.716) ) 5. 7 show this effect. The four motors in Fig.5. In the first step.3.4424 4. Then.0829 − 0.03 · 3. u = 1.333). x1d = 0.1261. the non-linear parameters of the stator leakage reactance are calculated by trial and error to obtain good agreement with (12) x2 (i2 ) = 3.

8 shows the influence of magnetizing reactance saturation.1. then the current increases but the torque decreases. Influence of stator leakage reactance saturation on the torque–speed and current–speed curves. Magnetizing reactance saturation Fig. Fig. / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 1054–1061 1059 Fig. The range of speed is between s = 0. on the torque–speed and current–speed curves for two motors.J. It must be remembered that the current values are normalized with different values of nominal current for each voltage (11). Stator leakage reactance saturation Fig.2.5 and s = 0. The torque–speed and current–speed curves for three different voltages.e. the other two saturations have been eliminated. 5. 8 is in agreement with the experimental data of the no-load test in Fig. i.732. Influence of rotor leakage reactance saturation on the torque–speed and current–speed curves. Pedra et al. only one type of saturation. 5. u = 1 and 0. Fig. . and the case when the motor is linear are also represented. the influence on the torque and current is negligible. When the voltage is lower than u = 1. and when the voltage is higher.333. xsd . The torque–speed and current–speed curves for two different voltages. xm (im ). 10. 5. u = 1. The change in current with voltage at s = 0 shown in Fig.577. are also plotted in Fig. 8. 9. 9 shows the influence of stator leakage reactance saturation.. since the influence of saturation for higher slips is negligible. on the torque–speed and current–speed curves for two motors. 1 and 0. Influence of magnetizing reactance saturation on the torque–speed and current–speed curves. 8.

Influence of the outer. Influence of parameter qr of the rotor leakage reactance saturation on the torque–speed and current–speed curves. which represents the case without saturation. In this case. Fig. The lower plots of Fig. . Outer-cage rotor leakage reactance saturation Fig.577. magnetizing and stator leakage. which corresponds to a current close to the nominal current.333. The upper plots of Fig. and the curve with voltage u = 0. / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 1054–1061 Fig. The outer-cage current has a clear dependence of the slip. as observed in Fig. Pedra et al. i0s ≈ 1. The plot of the impedance variation with the slip for the 18. 11.5 kW motor shows how the rotor leakage reactance change suddenly and this justifies the change in the torque–speed curve near s = 1. 11. have been eliminated.and inner-cage on torque–speed and current–speed curves. 10 shows the influence of outer-cage rotor leakage reactance saturation on the torque–speed and current–speed curves for two different motors and three different voltages. for two motors at voltage u = 0. 11 shows the torque–speed and current–speed curves of the outer-cage.14. 6.1060 J. the inner-cage and their sum (the modulus of their fasorial sum). the influence of saturation is very important for slip values greater than the nominal slip. which is “quasi” linear and enables the saturation model to be developed. Therefore. The usual value of i0s for stator leakage reactance saturation is near the nominal current. Variation of the outer-cage impedance with the slip.3. The middle plots of Fig. 5. It can be observed that outer-cage rotor leakage reactance saturation may explain the significant differences between the theoretical and experimental torque–speed curves mentioned in Ref. It must be remembered that the current values are normalized with different values of nominal current for each voltage (11). The main change caused by saturation is produced near u ≈ 1/7 = 0. [5]. 12. The other saturations. 11 show the variation of the outer-cage rotor leakage reactance with the slip. 11 show the currents of the outerand inner-cage. where the current is high. 9 is in agreement with the experimental data of the locked-rotor test in Fig. The change in current with voltage at s = 1 shown in Fig. There is a great distance between the linear curve. 11 show the great influence of the outercage on the braking regime (s > 1) and the low influence of the innercage. the three saturations are active. Fig.

Experimental characterization procedure for use with an advanced induction machine model. A new saturation model of the induction motor correctly explaining the experimental data is proposed. Córcoles.A.S. [15] F. Corcoles. [8] J. [17] J. Aliprantis. Since 1994 she is with the Asea Brown Boveri S. The most important conclusion of this study is that outer-cage rotor leakage saturation can satisfactorily explain the high values of the torque–speed curve in the braking regime (s > 1). 143 (1) (1996) 69–77. Ignacio Candela was born in Bilbao (Spain) in 1962. 279–280. References [1] S. IEEE Trans. Healey. 28 (2) (1992) 343–349. Modeling and simulation of induction motors with saturable leakage reactances. S. Yao. [12] S. Double-cage induction motor parameters estimation from manufacturers data. Pedra. Salichs. General method of magnetising flux saturation modelling in d–q axis models of double-cage induction machines. 7 can also be observed. CRC Press. Salichs. Energy Convers.T. 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The importance of parameter qr to achieve the shape of the torque–speed curve which matches the experimental data of Fig. A transient induction motor model including saturation and deep bar effect. Spain. Power System Stability and Control. Nasar. T. Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICYT) under the project (DPI2004-00544). Amalia Barrera was born in Barcelona (Spain) in 1967. Steady-state and transient analyses of an induction machine with saturation of the magnetizing branch.D. respectively. L. which have been characterized in four motors in great detail. Modeling of saturated AC machines including air gap flux harmonic components. Levi. Since 1985 he has been professor in the Electrical Engineering Department of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Barcelona.C. T. His main field of research is power system quality and electrical machines. IEEE Trans.A. Pedra. L. R. Fabrica de Motores for providing the experimental data.J. Boldea. R. She received her B. Analysis of the induction machine parameter identification.C. IEEE Trans. Clarendon Press. IEEE Trans. An induction machine model for predicting inverter-machine interaction. R. M. McGraw-Hill. in 1994.577. / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 1054–1061 Fig. [11] V. 6. J. Joaquín Pedra was born in Barcelona (Spain) in 1957. Lipo. The model has three different saturation effects. [5] I.S.