Detail Classification

CE671 – Lecture 25 & 26

Categories A through C

Category A
Refers to base metal condition
– Plain material

Edges & surfaces of cleaned
– Plates
– Rolled shapes

Flame cut must have ANSI surface
quality of 1000 μ-in or better

1

Category A
Poor Quality Surface

Crack Initiating in
Base Metal at Flaw

Plug Welds are Not Base Metal

2

Category A Cont’d
Unlikely Category A will ever control
– CAFL = 24.0 ksi

Considerable scatter in the data
– Especially in near threshold

Copes require special consideration

Copes
Copes, although base metal are
subjected to:
– Stress concentrations due to geometry
– Flame cut edges (poor quality)
– Hardened material
– Can reduce to Category B or C
– Must be ground for Category A to apply

Copes Must be Ground to
a Sufficient Radius

Bad

Good

3

2. 4 .3. Category A – Base Metal (a) Coped Beam Flange (b) Blocked Beam Flanges Figure 2. Blocked. Coped. or Short-Cut Flanges Category B General Includes welded and bolted details Welded details – Longitudinal & transverse welds – Includes fillet. partial and full pen.Figure 2.

Category B Longitudinal Welds Primary stresses are parallel to weld and weld toe Includes fillet. Category B – Longitudinal Full Penetration Groove Weld 5 .4. partial and full pen. Does not apply to ends of welds Example Category B Longitudinal Welds Full Penetration Groove Weld With Backing Bar Removed B Figure 2.

Category B – Web-to-flange Connections and Longitudinal Stiffener Fillet Weld B Figure 2. Category B – Longitudinal Fillet Weld Category B Transverse Welds Applies to full penetration groove welds Weld reinforcement must be removed and ground smooth – This removes weld toe Weld soundness established by NDT – Internal flaws may result in cracking 6 .6.5.Full Penetration Groove Weld or Fillet Weld B B Figure 2.

Category B – Transverse Groove Weld. NDI and Ground Flush 7 .8.Example Category B Transverse Welds Full Penetration Groove Weld With Backing Bar Removed B Figure 2. Category B .7.Transverse Full Penetration Groove Weld B Groove Weld Web Splice Ground Flush With NDI of Tension Portion of Web B NDI and Ground Flush Figure 2.

Straight Transition R ≥ 24” B NDI and Ground Flush Figure 2. Category B – Transverse Groove Weld. Category B – Transverse Groove Weld. Curved Transition Category B Groove Welded Attachments Attached to flanges or webs Transition radius > 24 inches – Ensures smooth stress flow Can be longitudinally or transversely loaded 8 .10.Slope Not Greater Than 1 in 21/2 B NDI and Ground Flush Base Metal Other Than A514 / A517 B NDI and Ground Flush Figure 2.9.

11. Category B – Groove Welded Attachment.Category B Groove Welded Attachments Longitudinally loaded – Can be full or partial penetration – Ends ground smooth (minimize SCF at toe) Transversely loaded – Full penetration only – Partial penetration has lack-of-fusion zone Acts as pre-crack or internal flaw – Weld reinforcement must be removed Plates must be of equal thickness – Weld soundness established by NDT Category B Groove Welded Attachments R ≥ 24” R Groove Weld End Weld Ground Smooth R Figure 2. Weld Parallel to Stress 9 .

R ≥ 24” t = td’ R Groove Weld Reinforcement Removed td R t Figure 2. Weld Transverse to Stress Category B Bolted Connections Gross section away from fully-tightened bolts (friction connection) Net section through bolt holes of bearing type connection with tight bolts – Bearing for strength limit state – Do not apply Cochrane’s Rule (S2/4g) Should account for shear lag See “Guide to Design Criteria for Riveted and Bolted Connections” for more Example Category B Bolted Connections 10 . Category B – Groove-Welded Attachment.12.

Category B – Bolted Connection Category B' .13.General Introduced in 1987 (NCHRP 286) – Longitudinally loaded welds w/o backing bars removed – Partial and full penetration welds – A514 and A517 transverse groove welds Addressed degraded fatigue performance due to presence of: – Larger initial defects – Blow holes – Root gap flaws 11 .Example Category B Bolted Connections Gross Section if Friction-Type Connection Net Section if Bearing-Type Connection Figure 2.

Full Penetration Groove Weld With Backing Bar Not Removed B' Figure 2.16.15. Category B' – Partial Penetration Groove Weld Partial Penetration Groove Weld Figure 2. Category B' – Longitudinal Full Penetration Groove Weld Backing Bar not Removed Partial Penetration Groove Weld B' Figure 2. Category B' – Partial Penetration Groove Weld Connections 12 .14.

groove welds w/o reinforcement ground smooth – Susceptibility to weld toe cracking Groove welded attachment Shear studs Influence of Attachment Length on Detail Category Short Attachment Long Attachment 13 .General Short welded attachments – L < 2. A514 or A517 Steel Category C .0 in – Applies to groove or fillet welds Transverse full pen. Category B' – Transverse Groove Welded Connections.17.Slope not Greater Than 1 in 21/2 NDI and Ground Flush A514 / A517 Base Metal NDI and Ground Flush Figure 2.

Influence of Attachment Length on Detail Category Longer attachments “attract” more stress Increases stress concentration at ends Category C Short Attachments Transverse connection plates – Attached to flange or web Short attachments on flange or web Groove or fillet welded Weld toe cracking is concern Example of Crack at Category C Detail (Weld Toe Crack Transverse Connection Plate) 14 .

Category C – Fillet Welded Connection (Not Load Carrying) L < 2” C L L Groove Weld or Fillet Weld Figure 2.22.C C Figure 2.19. Category C – Groove of Fillet Welded Short Attachment 15 .27. Category C – Transverse Gusset Plate on Web C Fillet Weld Continuous Member Figure 2.

Category C Transverse Full Pen. Not Ground Flush Stress Range Note weld toe C Groove Weld Web Splice Not Ground Flush With NDI of Tension Portion of Web C NDI and Not Ground Flush Figure 2.20. NDI but Not Ground Flush 16 . Category C – Transverse Groove Welded Splice.5 Weld reinforcement not ground smooth Example Category C Full Pen. Welds Full penetration groove welds Weld soundness established by NDT Flange or web splices (same thickness) Butt joints with transition no > 1 to 2.

Category C – Longitudinal Groove Welded Attachment.23.Slope not Greater Than 1 in 21/2 C NDI and Not Ground Flush C NDI and Not Ground Flush Figure 2. End Weld Ground Smooth R R C C Figure 2. Category C – Transverse Groove Welded Flange Splice. Intermediate Transition Radius 17 .21. NDI but Not Ground Flush Category C Groove Welded Attachments Longitudinal groove welded attachments Plates of equal thickness Transition radius between 6” & 24” End welds ground smooth 6” ≤ R < 24” Groove Weld.

24. Intermediate Transition Radius 6” ≤ R < 24” t = td Groove Weld Not Ground Flush R R C C Figure 2. Category C – Transverse Groove Welded Attachment. Weld Not Ground Flush 18 . Category C – Transverse Groove Welded Attachment.25.Category C Groove Welded Attachments Base metal of transversely loaded groove welded attachments Plates of equal thickness Weld soundness established by NDT – Transverse direction Transition radius between 6” & 24” End welds may or may not be ground smooth 6” ≤ R < 24” t = td Groove Weld. Ground Smooth td R R C C t Figure 2.

General Only applies to transverse stiffeners Applies stiffener-to-web & stiffenerto-flange welds Applies to groove or fillet welds – Weld toe condition is critical Does not apply to transverse connection plates 19 .Example Category C Shear Studs C L C C if L < 2” Figure 2.28. Category C –Shear Connectors Category C' .

18. Category C' – Transverse Stiffeners on Web Categories D through E 20 .Example of Category C' C' C' tw C' d C' d C' d d = (4 ~6) tw C' Figure 2.

29.0” < L < 4. Category D – Groove or Fillet Welded Attachment.General Intermediate welded attachments Welded connections with sharp transitions Riveted members and joints Category D Intermediate Welded Attachments Groove or fillet welded attachments Parallel to direction of stress – 2. Intermediate Length 21 .Category D .0” – L < 12 x tattachment 2” ≤ L < 4” L ≤ 12t Fillet or Groove Weld t t L L D D Figure 2.

0” – Longitudinally loaded full or partial penetration welds with ends ground smooth – Transversely loaded full penetration welds Applies to base metal of attachment Plates of equal thickness Either w/ or w/o reinforcement removed Soundness established by NDT 22 . Category D – Welded Gusset Plate on Rolled Shape. Intermediate Length Category D Groove Welded Attachments Attachments with transition radius between 2. Intermediate Length 2” ≤ L < 4” L ≤ 12t Groove or Fillet Weld L D t Figure 2.2” ≤ L < 4” L ≤ 12t Groove or Fillet Weld D L t Figure 2.0” < R < 6.30. Category D – Welded Gusset Plate.31.

6” > R ≥ 2” . Groove Weld t R R td D D Figure 2. Unequal Plate Thickness 23 . t ≠ td Ground Flush. Category D – Longitudinally Welded Attachment.0” Unequal plate thickness Weld reinforcement removed Note no NDT required R ≥ 2” . t = td Groove Weld End Welds Ground Smooth R R D D Figure 2. Short Transition Radius Category D Groove Welded Attachments Transversely loaded groove welded attachments – – – – – Base metal of attachment Minimum transition radius of 2.34. Category D – Transversely Welded Attachment.32.

Transition Radius 2” or More Category D Riveted Connections Applies to net section of connection w/o application of S2/4g Category D for resistance Note that full-scale test data suggests: – Category D for CAFL – Category C for finite life Not a lower-bound curve – Not permitted in AASHTO 24 .0” Unequal plate thickness End welds ground smooth (Difficult) Note no NDT required Should also check as cruciform – To be discussed R ≥ 2” Fillet Weld End Ground Smooth R R D D Figure 2.35.Category D Fillet Welded Attachments Transversely loaded fillet welded attachments – – – – – Base metal of attachment Minimum transition radius of 2. Category D – Fillet Welded Attachment.

Category D Common Riveted Details Example of Fatigue Crack in Riveted Member Example of Fatigue Crack in Riveted Member 25 .

Category D – Riveted Connections Category E and E' General Lowest fatigue strength details Category E' generally applies to similar category E details w/ thicker plates – Flanges greater than 0.0 in – Introduced 1974 26 .36.Example of Fatigue Crack in Riveted Member I-95 Over Susquehanna River Base Metal at Net Section of Riveted Connections D Figure 2.8 in – Attachment plate > 1.

wider than flange (E') – Without welds across ends – Coupled with thickness effect may be worse than E' Category E or E' Typical Cover Plate Terminations Category E or E' No Welds Across Ends of C. 27 . wider than flange (E or E') – With welds across ends C.P.Category E or E' Ends of Partial Length Cover PL’s Base metal of main member at toe C.P.P.P. narrower than flange (E or E') – Square or tapered ends – With or w/o welds across ends C.

37.E tf ≤ 0.8” End Welded tf Cover Plate with Square or Tapered Ends End Not Welded Figure 2. Category E or E’ – Ends of Welded Cover Plate E tf ≤ 0.0” Category E' 28 .8” and With End Weld E’ tf > 0. Category E or E’ – Ends of Welded Cover Plate Category E or E' Longitudinal Welded Attachments Base metal of main member at toe Groove or fillet welded attachments L > 4” or 12 x tplate Plate thickness – tplate < 1.0” Category E – tplate > 1.38.8” E’ tf > 0.8” or Without End Weld tf Cover Plate Wider Than Flange Figure 2.

Welded Attachment Example Category E Longit.0” E’ t ≥ 1. Category E or E’ – Longitudinally Welded Attachment Example Category E Longit.39. Welded Attachment 29 .0” Fillet Weld or Groove Weld t t t L L E or E’ E or E’ Figure 2.L > 12t or L > 4” E t < 1.

0” Groove or Fillet Weld td L t E or E’ Figure 2. Category E or E’ – Longitudinally Welded Attachment (Lap Joints) Example of Longitudinal Welded Flange Attachment 30 .Example of Longitudinal Welded Attachment I-84 Bridge… Actually worse than Category E' L > 12t or L > 4” E td < 1.0” E’ td ≥ 1.40.

0” – With or w/o end welds ground smooth Groove or Fillet Welds. Category E – Longitudinally Welded Attachment.Category E Longitudinal Welded Attachments Base metal of main member at toe Groove or fillet welded attachments with curved transitions – Transition radius 0” < R < 2. Weld Ends not Ground Flush R R Figure 2.42. Any Transition Radius Longitudinally Welded Attachment – (Shear Lag) (Bencia-Martinez Bridge) Longitudinal Weld Retrofit Hole Chord 31 .

45.0” Category E Intermittent Fillet Welds Specifications consider Category E Test data suggests higher category – Category D or possibly C However. Category E – Intermittent Fillet Welds 32 .Category E Transversely Loaded Attachments Base metal of groove welded attachment with weld soundness established by NDT – Transition radius 0” < R < 2. not a good details to use Resistance set at Category E to discourage use Applies at weld toe Figure 2.0” – Equal plate thickness OR – Unequal plate thickness – Weld reinforcement not removed – Transition radius less than 2.

5” than fatigue strength is reduced Discontinuous Member t ≤ 0.Load Carrying Fillet Welded Cruciform Connection Fillet welded intersecting plates If discontinuous plate is less than 0. Category C – Fillet Welded Connection (Load Carrying) Cracking Modes .5” thick than Category C applies – Lack of fusion zone is small – Weld toe cracking will control – Appropriate weld size must be used If discontinuous plate is > 0.CJP CJP is susceptible to toe cracking Can be compared to category C 33 .26. F Figure 2.5” C Fillet Weld Satisfies Cat.

2 0.375 0.3/16 Penetration 1/2 Fillet .1/8 Penetration Min Weld .75 Plate Thickness (in) 0.PJP PJP is susceptible to throat cracking Use equation provided in ballot to determine fatigue resistance Objective is to design the fatigue strength of PJP to match CJP – i..8 Min Weld (AASHTO) 3/8 Fillet .Cracking Modes .2 Cat C (CJP) 1 0.6 0.e. toe cracking Comparison of Welds 1.625 0.4 0.6 1.1/8 Penetration 1/2 Fillet .5 0.4 1.875 1 Cracking Modes – CJP or PJP If load induces twisting about web.8 0.1/8 Penetration 1. toe cracking will likely control 34 .

59⎜ 2a ⎟ + 0.167 R R⎜ ⎟ tp ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ w 2a Sr tp Where: Sr = Reduced fatigue strength SrC = Fatigue strength of Category C Questions ? 35 .65 − 0.72⎜ w ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ tp ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ tp ⎟ C ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎝ ⎠ S =S ⎜ 0.Fillet Welded Cruciform Connection Reduced fatigue strength calculated as follows: ⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 0.