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IRSTROKE
ACTUATORS

IRMOUNT

ASAM 011

I SOLATORS

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and buses. Airsprings were developed by Firestone to fill a need for a more efficient suspension system for highway trucks. Some parts. Airmount isolators and Airstroke actuators are capable of handling loads up to 100. trailers. Lasers Fans Holographs Anechoic chambers Electron microscopes Vibrating screens and sifters Optical benches Earthquake Spectrometers simulator Interferometers Vibrating conveyTest bed shakers ors and feeders Shock test equipment Inertial mass Forging hammers mountings Generator sets Vibrating test equipment Industrial machinery Seat springs .000 pounds and can be designed into systems to utilize up to fourteen inches of stroke. High strength versions designed to handle greater loads and pressures are also available on many of the styles. or for a completely different purpose. and all parts are not necessarily compatible with all three applications. A few of the typical applications currently include: Surface area presses Stamping presses Conveyors Clamping devices Assembly equipment Irrigation equipment Automotive alignment equipment Paper and textile machinery Sawmill machinery Material handling Valves Commercial laundry AIRMOUNT ISOLATORS Due to the unique capabilities of Airstroke and Airmount products. Billions of miles of actual use have proven the dependability and effectiveness of the air suspension concept using Airide springs by Firestone. provided the means for a suspension that reduced the amount of road shock and vibration transmitted into the vehicle. are designed for a particular application. however. They are basically the same product with the use of the product determining which name is applied to it. many applications are in use where the product is used for both actuation and isolation. as they were named. Airide® springs. Just a few of these applications include: Protective boots Flexible connectors Vacuum devices Shock absorbers Expansion chambers Drive couplings © Copyright 1998. The bellows itself is constructed from plies of cord-reinforced rubber with standard construction utilizing two plies of special cord fabric. Firestone Industrial Products Company 2 Airmount isolators are used as vibration isolators on many different types of equipment. Following is a partial list of just a few of the typical types of installations.The first successful application of airsprings for vibration isolation occurred during the late nineteen thirties. The standard airspring will operate in temperatures from –35°F to 135°F and special compounds are available on some parts to extend this range. Airmount isolators and Airstroke actuators are a further application and refinement of the Airide spring. Airsprings are highly engineered elastomeric bellows with specially designed metal end closures. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS AIRSTROKE ACTUATORS Airstroke actuators are used primarily in place of pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders.

75* 1.31 9.00 11.88 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4.20 6.75* 1.2 14.0 5.00 148-1 is 4Ply 4 N/A 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 N/A 4 4 4 4 4 4.88 2.5 22.9 37.75* 1.81 16.00 23.00 11.1 15.00 12.50 19.88 2.00 22.00 15.88 2.00 1.31 5.50 32.4 39 314 324 328 2.3 22.Selection Guide END CLOSURE OPTIONS Style Number Maximum Diameter at 100 PSIG (inches) High Strength Number Bead Plate Type Dim.0 11.25 9.9 13.25 6.50 N/A 4.81 16.31 5.20 6.75 1.7 15.88 13.50 19.68 6 6 6 6 8 8 12 12 12 12 12 18 24 24 24 32 40 N/A 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 N/A 11.75 3.45 3.88 2.0 5.4 3.00 9.7 26.31 11.5 224 26 20 20-2 22 22-1.68 N/A 12 12 18 24 24 32 40 A TYPE 2 bead plate Double Convolution 1/4 OR 3/4 NPT AIR INLET A A DOUBLE CONVOLUTION 25 255-1.50 3.88 2.7 12.50 inch.20 6.00 9.1 4.31 13.25 9.75 113 113-1 153-2 119** 121** 126** 138-1.75 1.20 6.5 21 21-2 233-2 28** 203** 29** 200 215 248-2 6.0 22.4 6. add . C Number (bolt circle of Bolts diameter) (each (inches) ring) TYPE 1 bead plate SHAPED SLEEVE 1M1A-0 1M1A-1 2M1A 2M2A 3.75 3.50 3.31 6.00 9.2 18.00 15.31 6 8 8 8 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 A B * On plates with a 3/4 inch NPT air inlet.25 6.6 10.5 8.20 6.20 6.20 6.4 6.00 23.1 16.20 6.3 END CLOSURES SEE INDIVIDUAL DATA PAGE SIDE PROFILE Single Convolution 1/4 NPT AIR INLET SINGLE CONVOLUTION 16 16ST 131 110 116 116-1 115 19 19-.50 19.1 12.5 15.9 37.00 9.25 6.6 12.75 2.9 13.4 202 210 205 201 218 207 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 5 5 5 1.9 10.75 1.25 9.4 20.50 6.00 12.50 32.2 15.20 6.31 11.88 2.1 9.0 5. 3 .20 6.8 12.00 1.1 17.2 11.9 18.75 2.25 6.6 12.50 32.00 11.31 6.25 6.5 8.75 2.00 3 2 2 5 5 5 6. ** When using the rolled plate end closure option.50 19.31 9.20 6.4 27.31 11.6 9.75 2.31 11.00 348-3 is 4Ply TYPE 5 bead plate REVERSIBLE SLEEVE 1X84D-1 4001 7002 7010 7012 1T12E-3 1T14C-1 1T14C-3 1T14C-7 1T15T-1 1T15S-6 1T15L-4 1T15M-0 1T15M-2 1T15M-4 1T15M-6 1T15M-9 1T19L-7 1T19L-11 C NOT AN AIRSTROKE ACTUATOR 3.0 9.5 17.00 12.68 6 N/A 6 6 6 6 8 12 12 12 12 N/A 18 24 24 32 40 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4.0 27.7 inch to heights shown.00 9.79 16.5 2.50 6.31 6.75 1.3 9.20 6.6 12.00 9.31 11.00 9.50 4.50 3.88 13.00 15. B dimension is 1.4 27.0 8.75* 2.50 4.0 9. B (inches) Bead Ring Type Dim.00 9.4 117 124 128 128-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 5 5 5 1.75* 2.2 20.20 6.31 13.1 9.88 2.00 9.50 5.81 16.4 12.00 248-2 is 4Ply TYPE 3 bead plate Triple Convolution 1/4 OR 3/4 NPT AIR INLET B A TYPE 4 bead ring Reversible Sleeve TRIPLE CONVOLUTION 352 313 333 312** 323** 320** 321 348-3 13.50 5.88 13.31 6.1 15.9 37.50 19.50 6.4 20.88 2.7 14.31 6.79 16.5 148-1 6.00 23.50 6.79 16.50 19.2 4.88 2.31 9.75 2.25 1.31 N/A 13.75 3.2 3/4 NPT AIR INLET SEE INDIVIDUAL DATA PAGE 1T28C-7 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 1.0 15.1 11. A (blind nut centers) (inches) Dim.25 6.

700 43.270 5.500 5.300 1.5 1.135 14.280 5. NO MAINTENANCE OR LUBRICATION REQUIRED Airstroke actuators have no internal rods. or sliding seals that would require lubrication or maintenance.5 5.420 2.8 SINGLE CONVOLUTION 16 16ST 131 110 116 116-1 115 19 19-.3 3.080 5.) will collapse to a very compact 5.1 3.0 2.5 4.1 3.033 14.1 6.030 19.700 5.0 2.122 3.830 6.0 10.690 620 580 850 940 1.930 2.8 REVERSIBLE SLEEVE 1X84D-1 4001 7002 7010 7012 1T12E-3 1T14C-1 1T14C-3 1T14C-7 1T15T-1 1T15S-6 1T15L-4 1T15M-0 1T15M-2 1T15M-4 1T15M-6 1T15M-9 1T19L-7 1T19L-11 DO NOT USE 1X84D-1 AS AN AIRSTROKE ACTUATOR 3.8 3.5 4.740 12.700 42.8 410 400 375 360 10.5 6.921 15.700 8. FLEXIBLE MEDIA An Airstroke actuator can do its work with either a liquid or gas.860 13.180 7.4 6.0 2.3 6.5 4.240 1.75 4.5 224 26 20 20-2 22 22-1. scoring.400 33.2 3.680 4.8 2. there is no breakaway friction as with conventional cylinders.0 4. pistons.730 4.0 5.550 3.8 7.5 4. SIDE LOADING CAPABILITY Airstroke actuators.080 5.9 11.8 7. within certain limits.830 5.840 5.2 7.8 9.300 40.340 9.0 2. are not affected by side loads as are conventional cylinders.1 3. Our smallest Airstroke actuator (2.5 21 21-2 233-2 28** 203** 29** 200 215 248-2 2.2 inches to 37 inches in diameter.650 5.600 25.0 2.250 4.100 660 1.604 11. while our largest triple convoluted Airstroke (37 inch/dia.380 2.7 inch to heights shown. (Please see page 14 in our Engineering Manual for acceptable media choices.980 3.5 710 660 660 5.670 10.760 2.030 1.200 19.430 78.030 1.460 38.8 8.500 3.370 2. Angular motion of up to 30 degrees is possible. This initial cost advantage is many times greater in the larger sizes.300 1.0 2. This misalignment capability eliminates potential rod bending.070 4.620 3.0 3.3 8.790 2.5 15.100 * To determine Airstroke force at other pressures.0 3.9 5.0 12.330 10.6 750 600 540 5. The force capability is 100.000 6.0 4. add .5 2.5 2.910 6.420 1.600 DOUBLE CONVOLUTION 25 255-1.0 2.200 780 1.2 13.0 2.930 4.950 8.0 3. Airide springs have proven longevity and durability to perform under adverse environmental conditions – a critical factor in machine design.0 9.5 690 750 760 6.460 5.730 3. and excessive seal wear common to conventional cylinders.® AIRSTROKE ACTUATORS Style Number Minimum Height (inches) Maximum Stroke (inches) 80 PSI Force* at Stroke of 1 Inch 3 Inches Maximum Stroke (pounds) (pounds) (pounds) Advantages of: SHAPED SLEEVE 1M1A-0 1M1A-1 2M1A 2M2A 1.6 280 310 310 3.400 3.990 43.600 7.4 5.010 4.200 74.450 5.0 15.0 7. DURABLE FOR LONG LIFE Airstroke actuators are another application of the proven Firestone Airide spring used on truck and bus suspensions.9 5.090 2.75 113 113-1 153-2 119** 121** 126** 138-1.8 4.900 35.550 6.910 17.450 22.0 8.6 4.700 3.9 3.4 8.25 570 600 640 5.350 2.7 10.990 8.7 2.900 10.0 10.753 6.790 4.3 4.500 6.300 77.000 22.850 5.2 inches in height.4 1.3 4.3 3.000 7.200 19.030 10.800 8.800 7.1 4.0 2.500 78.2 1.200 28.422 7.000 pounds.0 3. FRICTION FREE FOR IMMEDIATE RESPONSE Since Airstroke actuators have no sliding seals.890 8.6 3.5 148-1 1.610 1.0 5.530 12. Strokes of up to 14 inches are possible.160 53.230 3.800 10.0 9.9 1.350 2.0 7.300 11. This allows for the design of Airstroke actuators into applications where dirt or grit would destroy the seals on conventional cylinders.850 11.500 26.5 1.0 2.770 2.630 4.7 5.3 4.4 2.966 15.670 5.040 9.230 67.700 21. divide force shown by 80 PSIG and multiply result by new pressure.1 8.3 7.5 inches.564 13.3 3.280 24.700 52.2 inch/dia.0 3.5 12.8 3. COMPACT STARTING HEIGHT Airstroke actuators have a low profile compared to conventional cylinders.730 4.0 3.4 10.0 6.0 2.000 4.5 4.5 3.300 5.4 1.720 7.8 960 930 1.2 3. the initial cost of an Airstroke actuator is one-half or less than that of a conventional pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder of the same force capabilities. WIDE SIZE RANGE Airstroke actuators are available in sizes ranging from 2.5 2. ** When using the rolled plate end closure option.) ANGULAR CAPABILITY An Airstroke actuator possesses the unique capability of stroking through an arc without a clevis.5 4.0 2.125 7.700 10.8 4.720 5.6 4.390 26.8 8.0 2.310 10. FACTORY SEALED AND TESTED Most Airstroke actuators feature Firestone’s proven concept of crimped end plates.020 7.786 1.0 2.500 1.) collapses to just 1.400 26.450 14.0 7.680 10.470 6.370 2.990 9. 4 Why use an Airstroke actuator (rather than air or hydraulic cylinder) for actuation? LOW COST Generally.1 TRIPLE CONVOLUTION 352 313 333 312** 323** 320** 321 348-3 4.420 17.420 53.2 6.198 1.700 3.0 12.5 7.3 3.2 10.040 2.700 41.000 74.650 10.0 10.0 3.690 5. .350 16.780 8.060 6.7 6.0 3.900 8.850 4.570 1.1 7.4 3.300 4.2 3.5 11.5 2.180 3.200 24.690 2.550 1.5 1.000 21. The crimped design allows for pre-shipment testing and quicker installation on equipment.250 28.0 3.039 2.460 1.2 2. along with the design advantage of generally less complex linkages.8 14.210 6.1 8.0 450 490 470 10.

and whether it is a two ply or high strength (fabric) air spring. ANGULAR CAPABILITY VACUUM An Airstroke actuator can stroke through an arc without a clevis. the selection is relatively easy. An Airstroke actuator can withstand a small amount of vacuum without injury to the bellows. Measure force at the height between the plate centers. It is generally best to use only single convoluted air springs under vacuum. to increase stroke. many parts are available with internal rubber bumpers. and allow the end crimp seal to open up. Make sure that you follow all of the guidelines shown in the Do’s and Don’ts section below.Select the smallest part with the necessary stroke to meet your force requirements. or slightly above the PINCH POINT of the bellows. Please note that the air spring forces are not additive in this configuration. therefore. a single convoluted air spring may be out of line by as much as 1 inch. the center plate (or plates) connecting the two or more Airstroke actuators MUST BE GUIDED. Reversible sleeve type (1T) parts may also stroke through an arc. Our “rule of thumb” for convoluted type actuators is one inch misalignment allowed per convolution. DESIGN ENVELOPE Adequate clearance should be provided around the Airstroke actuator to prevent puncturing or rubbing of the bellows. Measure maximum height at the side separated the furthest. including a) a chain. 1. a straight line interpolation will approximate the value. SELECT THE END CLOSURES AND AIR INLET SIZE: Most Airstroke actuators are available with either permanently attached plates or bead ring (flange) attachments. Once this is determined. generally decreases as height increases. Failure to install an up-stop could result in a reduced bellow life. then a second actuator or coil spring may be required.) Most parts with plates are available with either 1/4" or 3/4" NPT air fittings. the total stroke is decreased. In this case. an up stop is required to prevent the air spring from overextending. Once this data is known. (See end closure options chart for attachments. If an external down stop cannot be used. The maximum amount of acceptable vacuum is dependent upon the bellow’s size. and Maximum Stroke. If your stroke is between these values. Do’s and Don’ts DOWN AND UP STOPS Positive stops in both directions (compression and extension) should always be used with Airstroke actuators.) STACKING It is permissible to stack actuators. divide the force by 100 and multiply by your available pressure. In EXTENSION. Some applications require the use of fail safe mechanisms (such as a mechanical lock-out on a scissors lift) to prevent damage or injury in the event of an air system failure. DIMENSIONAL DATA CAN BE FOUND ON PAGE 3: The maximum STROKE CAPABILITY of an Airstroke actuator is the difference between the maximum useable height and the minimum height. When using an actuator with the mounting plates at an angle to each other. Angular motion of up to 30 degrees is possible. GUIDING FAIL SAFE DEVICES An Airstroke actuator follows the path of least resistance. the height in use. and a triple convoluted air spring by 3 inches. Measure minimum height at the side collapsed the most. b. An external down stop can be something as simple as a steel block and should be sized at or slightly greater than the minimum height of the Airstroke actuator. In COMPRESSION. If an internal rubber bumper is required. You should always check our Engineering Manual and Design Guide for more exact information. The higher the force required the larger in diameter the part. 1. See Engineering Manual and Design Guide. Gravity acting on the load may be all that’s required. or any portion thereof. This is often easily accomplished in the mounting geometry. There are many ways to design-in an up-stop. For strokes of less than 3 to 4 inches.) If the load is not sufficient. 4. observe the following: a. a double convoluted by 2 inches. HORIZONTAL MISALIGNMENT The upper and lower bead plate centers (or mounting plate centers in the case of a bead ring type attachment) may be out of line somewhat without injury to the bellows. please note that the minimum height is increased. So. etc. Before selecting the correct Airstroke actuator you need to know certain attributes of your application.Airstroke Actuator Selection Procedure ® Refer to the selection guide on page 4 for Airstroke actuator force and stroke capabilities. This information is intended to give a general guide to part capabilities. the higher the minimum height. care must be taken to prevent the bellows from rubbing (internally) against itself where it rolls over the piston. therefore. one on top of another. 5 . If you have less than 100 psi available. The bellows can be damaged if allowed to constantly bottom out. or c) contacting a metal stop. The longer the stroke. RETURN An Airstroke actuator is a single acting device. For more detailed information please obtain a copy of Firestone’s Engineering Manual and Design Guide. STROKE: 3. the minimum height shown for each air spring is at. and therefore. Notice that the force It is important to make sure that the part you select will fit in the available space. 2. Use the shortest style that will give you the necessary stroke for your application. 50% of Maximum Stroke. therefore. and attachment locations. 2. FORCE: Read the forces from the chart for 100 psi at 1 inch. c. however. the actuator should always be guided. To return the actuator to its minimum height for another cycle or stroke. This entire stroke. (A high strength Airstroke bellows has a “stiffer” wall than a two ply. may be used. These measurements must fall within the guide lines for that particular part. some return force must be used. b) a cable. (Refer to the order block section in the Engineering Manual for the force required to return convoluted Airstroke actuators to minimum height. air fittings. a down stop is required to prevent this. it is less susceptible to dimpling and deformation inward). you can choose the general style of part you would need. (Refer to the selection guide on page 3 for the maximum diameter at 100 psi for each Airstroke bellows. the Single Convolution parts are generally the most efficient.

rather than a coil spring or other type of isolator? UNSURPASSED ISOLATION CAPABILITY Airmount isolators can provide the highest degree of isolation of any type vibration isolator. will allow the use of the same Airmount isolator at each mounting point of an unevenly loaded machine. In order to achieve similar results from a conventional coil spring isolator. ACCURATE HEIGHT CONTROL Airmount isolators provide accurate height control through regulation of internal air pressure. WIDE SIZE RANGE Airmount isolators are capable of isolating loads of 100 pounds per mounting point to over 85. combined with accurate height control. They are also quiet in themselves. a real deflection of 9 inches would be required. 6 WASHING MACHINE .000 pounds per mounting point.5 inches.Advantages of: VIBRATING SCREEN Why use an Airmount isolator. VERSATILE Airmount isolators can be used not only to protect structural members from vibrating machinery. This unique feature. but are also widely used to protect delicate equipment from structurally transmitted vibration. Lower system frequencies can be accomplished by the use of an additional reservoir. EXTENDED EQUIPMENT LIFE Airmount isolators extend equipment life through their superior isolation capabilities. This feature eliminates the reduction in isolation efficiency caused by fatigue and permanent set found in other types of vibration isolators. since there is no spring chatter as found in conventional coil springs. Coil springs providing equal isolation would require a free height of 5 to 25 inches. BIN HOPPER CONSTANT ISOLATION EFFICIENCY Airmount isolators are unique in that the system’s natural frequency does not change significantly with changes in load. DELICATE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT COMPACT INSTALLED HEIGHT Airmount isolators can carry the loads and provide the isolation described above at installed heights as low as 2. BLOWER AND MOTOR EFFECTIVE NOISE REDUCTION Airmount isolators reduce structurally transmitted noise. System natural frequencies as low as 60 cycles per minute (1 Hertz) are available.

the disturbing (forcing) frequency. the fan is only going at 800 rpm due to the reduction in the fan drive system. the 224 will transmit 40% less energy through to the roof. 97. ■ The #224 Airmount isolator will provide 97. ff. Care must be taken to insure that the lowest unbalanced disturbing speed is used for isolator selection. The system is to be mounted on a flat roof top so there are no space constraints. The disturbing frequency is typically related in some way to the equipment.. we strongly urge you to obtain our Engineering Manual and Design Guide. Sample Problem Consider the example of a fan and motor mounted on a common base. 2. so it will easily do the job. Although for the purposes of this discussion it is not necessary to be extremely exact. we know that the lowest disturbing frequency needs our attention.8% isolation. 7 . In any vibration isolation application. Just as the disturbing frequency is a characteristic of the application. In the next step we will look at both parts. (95. This is normally expressed in cycles per minute (cpm) or cycles per second (hertz. in many designs it will be more important. Lets suppose that the forced frequency was 600 cpm. the natural frequency is dependent upon the specific part selected. This point is very near the diagonal line referencing 95% isolation. A good rule of thumb is to select an isolator whose natural frequency is less than or equal to one-third of the disturbing frequency.0 and 7. load. or disturbance. This value should be used in designing the surrounding equipment. 1.5% isolation is 2. With reference to the Firestone line of air springs. due to offset positioning. each and two at 1600 lbs. ■ ■ The #110 Airmount isolator will carry 1790 lbs. but would not handle the 1600 lb. but the general theory and terms bear some explanation. Contact Firestone. we could have used the graph on page 9. In any vibration isolation application. Our natural frequency for a #224 is shown as 124 cpm on the selection chart. the loads per mounting point show two at 1400 lbs. the natural frequency. Although these situations would appear to be distinctly different. fn. 4. or 10 hz.2% transmission.5 is 40% less than 4. we see that we should provide safety stops at 6. we need to determine the smallest diameter part capable of supporting the load at each point.5% transmission. The disturbance may also be generated by a device that affects the surroundings.5 inches.0 inches to prevent the system from over-traveling in case of some extreme disturbance. a vibrating screen.Airmount Isolator Basics ® A detailed discussion of vibration isolation is beyond the scope of this brochure. It is usually best to use the same isolator in all mounting locations if possible. Common examples would be a power unit. the greater the effectiveness of the isolation system. In general. is the key parameter in question. The motor speed is 1650 rpm.2) This is often the difference between a satisfactory isolation system and one that will not be appreciated. ■ It should be noted here that if we had used a disturbing frequency other than 800 cpm. however. First.5%. they are analytically equivalent. and is necessary to select an isolator. Comparing the Isolation percentage in the far right column of the selection guide on page 8. If you are designing an isolation system. 3. that generates concern. This disturbance may be coming from the environment. usually a rotational speed. The combined weight of the unit is 6000 lbs.) We could also use the #224 Airmount isolator in the double convolution section. or a fan unit where it would be the fan speed. Rounding this off to 120 cpm or 2 hz. We would use this number to determine our approximate effectiveness. 2. or your local Firestone distributor. That would be the speed of the fan at 800 cpm. we can find where these two values intersect on the graph. the natural frequency is determined by the spring rate of the isolator and the load supported by the isolator. A quick check of the selection chart shows that the design height of a #224 is 6. An example would be a coordinate measuring machine in a metal stamping plant whose floor vibrations make delicate measurement impossible. From the discussion above and the information in the sample problem. Natural frequencies are listed on the selection chart for each Firestone air spring. Paying specific attention to the Do’s and Don’ts. hz). (Note that the 131 would support the lower requirement of 1400 lbs. where ff would be the speed of the eccentrics. there will be some source of vibration. to discuss any more complicated problems. is a characteristic of the isolation system. However. The lower the natural frequency compared to the disturbing frequency.8% isolation is 4. An example of this could be a vibrating screen or power unit in an office setting. While this doesn’t seem like a big difference. where the disturbing frequency would be the motor rotational speed. we see the following: ■ At 800 cpm the #110 isolator will yield a 95.

0 93.0 3.0 6.1 95.7 96.5 4.540 77 82 77 80 77 73 70 68 95.5 99.5 10.8 98.3 99.8 92.1 97.2 99.0 DO NOT USE 2M1A AS AN AIRMOUNT ISOLATOR 2.2 95.8 97.0 99.620 85. SHAPED SLEEVE 1M1A-0 1M1A-1 2M1A 2M2A 2.9 98. At the intersection of the forced frequency and natural frequency lines you will be able to determine the approximate percentage of isolation by comparing this point with the diagonal lines representing these percentages. in most cases. the double convoluted part will show a higher percentage of isolation (less transmitted vibration) than the single convoluted air spring.350 34.5 95.2 97.2 97.9 96.1 96.0 3. turn to the individual data page in the Engineering Manual and Design Guide for that part in order to determine the specific internal pressure required and the percentage of isolation attainable.0 94.200 12.75 113 113-1 153-2 119** 121** 126** 138-1.8 97.5 9.9 86.3 79.5 9.8 99.7 96.8 SINGLE CONVOLUTION 16 16ST 131 110 116 116-1 115 19 19-.2 93.120 18.2 98.1 95.5 1120 1000 1510 1790 2360 2530 3010 5680 5260 8800 10.6 98. 90.6 95.0 REVERSIBLE SLEEVE 1X84D-1* 4001 7002 7010 7012 1T12E-3 1T14C-1 1T14C-3 1T14C-7 1T15T-1 1T15S-6 1T15L-4 1T15M-0 1T15M-2 1T15M-4 1T15M-6 1T15M-9 1T19L-7 1T19L-11 8.0 18.2 98.6 87.5 98.5 6. .0 593 162 90.0 5.2 86.5 9.6 94.5 9.5 98. Also.5 98.5 8.5 5.1 99.2 98.730 3.5 15.385 14.1 82.0 14.7 96.0 13.1 99.1 82.740 41. Please notice that in the range of 210 to 63. LOAD CAPACITY 91.3 90. At frequencies of 1500 cpm and above.0 74.2 99.5 87.0 97.5 99.0 99.6 89.8 96.0 7.0 5.9 95. add .4 80.4 92.2 99.25 9.5 4.9 6463 8960 8940 13.5 95.6 98.5 96.5 96.2 95.2 80. ** When using the rolled plate end closure option.1 99.5 6.2 97.0 12.0 98. At disturbing frequencies of 800 to 1500 cpm the gap closes considerably.0 5.0 1180 1524 1940 2140 2720 3238 5400 5310 8330 9210 9917 12.5 10.5 97.4 94.1 95. DETERMINE ISOLATION EFFECTIVENESS Locate the forced frequency on the vertical axis of the chart on page 9. The double convoluted part is used at a design height somewhat higher than its single convolution equivalent.1 99.5 7. once a preliminary part selection has been made.0 5.530 19.5 13.0 18.0 15.890 25.5 96.2 98. the double convoluted part is a significantly better vibration isolator than the single convoluted part. Make sure that the design height falls within the height restrictions.4 97.0 9. the difference is negligible. find both a single and double convoluted style part which will support the load.5 4.6 94.1 97.3 96.890 pounds you will. Consider only the 1M1A and the single and double convoluted types at first.1 96.200 237 240 181 162 163 139 166 156 156 150 133 121 138 142 133 124 118 87.5 10.5 5.7 92.620 40.® Airmount Isolator Selection Procedure AIRMOUNT ISOLATORS Style Number Design Height Load (at Natural Design Height) Frequency at 100 PSIG (@ 80 PSIG) (pounds) fn(cpm) ® % of Isolation at Forced Frequency 400 CPM 800 CPM % % Refer to the selection guide on this page for Airmount isolator capabilities.290 41.5 10.7 13.5 10. Therefore.3 97.5 12. DETERMINE EXACT INTERNAL PRESSURE AND ISOLATION EFFECTIVENESS The chances are that your specific vibration problem does not fall neatly into the load and disturbing frequency criteria as presented in the selection guide.5 224 26 20 20-2 22 22-1.5 85.7 98.4 98.0 11.0 5.7 93.7 94.1 97.0 11.9 99.9 99.9 98.8 154 129 126 111 116 97 106 106 105 95 89 101 97 92 93 86 83 82.0 13.0 5.8 95.5 4.7 95. DOUBLE CONVOLUTION 25 255-1.1 98.5 21 21-2 233-2 28** 203** 29** 200 215 248-2 5.0 14. 8 CONSULT FIRESTONE FOR USE AS AN AIRMOUNT † TRIPLE CONVOLUTION The Airmount isolator SHOULD BE USED AT THE DESIGN HEIGHT GIVEN.5 96.8 97.5 8.900 82.4 98.8 96.6 98.8 98.0 91.5 11.6 90.5 87.7 inch to heights shown.2 96.0 8.0 83.0 6. 4.0 96.520 18.0 96.660 26. The reason for this is that the double convoluted part has a greater internal volume of air than the single convoluted version of the same size.3 680 380 820 810 1000 770 3220 3240 3240 5490 5340 6930 6990 7510 7170 7000 7120 8898 8711 71 105 114 83 75 73 86 76 64 97 74 82 94 86 71 67 58 70 63 96.0 * Do not inflate above 80 PSI.7 91.8 98.5 570 220 3.5 15. It is normally best to design for pressures in the 60 to 80 psig range.0 5.0 8.5 148-1 3.2 99.7 97.4 2.5 9. Locate the natural frequencies of the parts selected above and find these values on the horizontal axis of the Isolation Chart. † Except for 1X84D-1. At disturbing frequencies in the 400 to 800 cpm range.6 96.5 5.4 92.7 89.450 28. DETERMINE DESIGN HEIGHT 352 313 333 312** 323** 320** 321 348-3 13.5 99.5 11.3 98.5 90.0 198 232 1.3 97.0 15.980 79.5 Select one or two Airmount isolators that can support the load at each mounting point.9 95.1 95.5 89.4 93.5 10.8 99.

67 0. the lateral rate varies from 1/5 to 1/2 of the vertical rate (only the larger high strength parts get as high as 1/2).7 15 13. The lateral rate decreases as the isolator’s height decreases. follow this guideline: The distance between the narrowest mounting points should be at least twice the height of the center of gravity above the mounting points. 9 .33 300 5..7 CPM HERTZ NATURAL FREQUENCY (fn) Airmount Vibration Isolator Do’s and Don’ts CENTER OF GRAVITY LATERAL RATES AND STABILITY Airmount isolator systems are inherently soft (easily deflected). 212 Ibs. Consider a #22 at 80 psig: Height 9.5 inch 7.Airmount Vibration Isolation Chart 41.500 lbs.00 400 500 600 800 1000 6. At design height and without an auxiliary reservoir. First.5 99 98 97 96 95 90 80 70 60 25 1500 16.g.2 250 3. or lateral. the single and double convoluted parts follow this pattern.3 16.50 40 50 60 0.0 80 100 1. because that is the point of maximum lateral rate or stability.400 Ibs.3 200 2. consider the location of the center of gravity (c.33 1.7 10 1000 900 800 700 600 8.83 1. Where this is not possible.3 11.7 100 30 0.5 150 1.7 400 5./in./in. i.3 500 Re so na nc e FORCED (DISTURBING) FREQUENCY (ff) HERTZ CPM 50 3000 6. the Airmount isolators should be located on the same plane (parallel to the ground) as the center of gravity.). — Notice that the #22 becomes unstable in the horizontal.5 inch Lateral Rate Vertical Rate 325 Ibs. precautions must be taken to ensure that the system is stable.2 2000 P Is erc ol e at nt io n 99./in.67 150 2.9 99./in. Unstable 1. direction when moving down only two inches from design height. A single and double convoluted air spring SHOULD BE USED AT THE DESIGN HEIGHT GIVEN. 1.33 10.50 200 3.67 8.e.5 inch (design height) 8. Ideally.0 300 Amplification 4.7 2500 33.0 13. therefore.

. So. one possible solution would be to add an inertia base in order to increase the ratio of the total suspended mass to the moving unbalanced mass. 3. there must be a free flow of air between the air spring and reservoir. a #116 will lose approximately 30 psig over a period of one year (from 100 psig to 70 psig). Again. Three Point Leveled System–Automatic height control can be provided by adding height control valves to the system. Attempting to use more than three control points often results in the valves “hunting”or “fighting one another”. LOW PRESSURE OPERATION The lateral rate of a single and double convoluted style isolator decreases with decreasing internal air pressure (becomes unstable). The air springs should always be connected in clusters so the mass is supported with only THREE REGULATORS.001 inch. or slow down from full operating speed). 2. DAMPING Damping is defined as a ratio of System Damping to Critical Damping. because air will permeate through the bellows. When this happens. The damping ratio inherent in an Airmount isolator is in the order of . as the hole in the mounting plate can be sized as large as the inside diameter of the bellows. while a machine is building up to speed and slowing down. a double convoluted Airmount isolator has a lower natural frequency than a single convoluted type (of the same size) because it has more internal air volume. the amplitude of movement may be exaggerated. EFFECT OF AN AUXILIARY RESERVOIR There is a direct relationship between natural frequency and isolation effectiveness. TRIPLE CONVOLUTED AND REVERSIBLE SLEEVE TYPE PARTS Both of these types are unstable laterally (except for the 1M1A). Three Point Regulated System–The Airmount isolators can be connected directly to the factory compressed air system using pressure regulating valves. in extension. each air spring can be inflated individually. the larger the amplitude of movement. . It is dependent on: 1) The ratio of the unbalanced moving mass to the total suspended mass and. however. In order for the reservoir to work properly. INITIAL INSTALLATION NEVER use Airmount isolators to lift equipment into place. the better the isolator (or higher percentage of isolation). Due to low natural frequencies. Therefore. AMPLIFICATION of movement occurs. respectively. do not use these two types as Airmount isolators without consulting Firestone (for special guidelines and precautions). three leveling valves.) SAFETY STOPS It is normally recommended that positive stops be installed in all directions. (i. The addition of damping to the isolation system (shock absorbers) will reduce the large amplitude of movement experienced during resonance. If the amplitude of movement is too great. 10 STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN/ RESONANCE AND AMPLIFICATION Resonance is the condition where the forced frequency of the vibrating system is at the natural frequency of the suspension. A good “rule of thumb” is 10:1. A bead ring attachment is the best end closure choice for this. ISOLATING AN UNBALANCED MASS The primary concern in this case is the amplitude of movement. the lower the natural frequency. The pressure in each must be checked periodically. (Refer to the selection guide on page 3 for the maximum diameter at 100 psi for each Airmount bellows. or in this case. due to the lateral instability at lower air spring heights as discussed previously. We can use this principle to lower the natural frequency of an air spring by adding an auxiliary reservoir (pressure vessel) externally to the isolator. 2) The ratio of the speed of the unbalanced moving mass (forced frequency) to the natural frequency of the Airmounts. This effectively increases the air spring volume and reduces its natural frequency. Tank Valve System–With a TANK VALVE in each isolator. there should be only THREE POINTS OF CONTROL.) Positioning of the vertical stops depends upon the amplitude of movement. The longer the machine takes to go through resonance (to build up to. A 3/4" NPT air inlet will restrict the flow of air somewhat on large parts. DESIGN ENVELOPE Adequate clearance should be provided around the isolator to prevent puncturing or rubbing of the bellows. Truck type leveling valves can provide accuracy to ±1/16 inch. Generally. Consult Firestone if you plan on operating an Airmount isolator at less than 40 psig. For an idea of the permeation rate. and for lateral displacements. This eliminates the need for periodic inspections.03. This damping number is so small that the formulas we use assume it to be zero. A good “rule of thumb” is ±1/2 inch from design height for vertical stops and also ±1/2 inch (horizontally) for lateral stops. As previously mentioned. The equipment should be rested on stops set slightly below design height and raised into position for isolation.PLUMBING SYSTEMS There are three basic ways of controlling an air suspended isolation system: 1. it should be mounted as close as possible to the isolator. both during normal operation and during startup and shutdown. but it can be used where amplitudes are small. There are sensing systems available to control heights within ±.e. in compression. both can be excellent isolators.

00 INCH 1/8-NPTF CONVOLUTED AIR SPRINGS WITH STEEL BEAD RINGS (#22 is shown. with rolled plates instead of bead rings) 11 .50 INCH 1. with bead rings instead of crimped bead plate) 1M1A AIRSTROKE actuator BLIND NUT AIR INLET UPPER BEAD PLATE CLAMP RING BELLOWS GIRDLE HOOP LOWER BEAD PLATE LARGE CONVOLUTED AIR SPRINGS WITH ROLLED PLATES (#203 is shown.Standard Types AIR INLET UPPER BEAD PLATE AIR INLET UPPER BEAD PLATE BLIND NUT BLIND NUT BELLOWS END CLOSURE BELLOWS GIRDLE HOOP BUMPER STUD PISTON LOWER BEAD PLATE BELLOWS THREADED HOLE CONVOLUTED AIR SPRINGS WITH CRIMPED BEAD PLATES REVERSIBLE SLEEVE AIR SPRINGS WITH CRIMPED BEAD PLATES (#22 is shown) (1T15M-6 is shown) MOUNTING PLATE AIR INLET BEAD RING BOLT 5/16-18 UNC BELLOWS 3. BELLOWS GIRDLE HOOP BEAD RING LOCKWASHERS AND NUTS 1.0 IN.

A. Indiana 46032 1-800-888-0650 www. The material. .S.firestoneindustrial. Carmel. express or implied. testing and actual applications and is believed to be reliable and accurate. 12650 Hamilton Crossing Blvd. Printed in U. makes no warranty. herein. of this information. It is suggested that competent professional assistance be employed for specific applications. Anyone making use of this data does so at his/her own risk and assumes all liability resulting from such use.com ASAM 011 PLEASE NOTE: The information contained in this publication is intended to provide a general guide to the characteristics and applications of these products. however.TYPICAL APPLICATIONS Friction Pad SCISSORS LIFT AND TILT TABLE Airstroke Actuator ROLLER FRICTION BRAKE Paper Press Platen WEB TENSIONING DEVICE FORMING PRESS DISTRIBUTED BY: Request our Engineering Manual & Design Guide for more extensive and specific part information. Firestone. was developed through engineering design and development.