Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10e (Robbins/Judge

)
Chapter 2 Personality and Values
1) Which of the following statements about personality is correct?
A) Personality is always stable.
B) Personality is a part of a person.
C) Personality is an aggregate whole.
D) Personality is for the most part comprised of traits that cannot be measured.
E) Personality is the primary source of emotions in most people.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 14-15
Topic: Personality
2) Researchers have paid so much attention to personality traits in OB in order to ________.
A) help in employee selection and in understanding how to more effectively manage people.
B) enable the easy evaluation of employee performance
C) help identify which people in a workforce will work best together
D) understand the motivation of outstanding workers
E) exclude potential trouble-makers from work.
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 15
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
3) Studies of twins separated at birth and raised separately have confirmed the importance of
________ in shaping personality.
A) attitudes
B) heredity
C) environment
D) parental influence
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 16
Topic: Personality
4) Which of the following is not considered to be completely influenced by heredity?
A) facial attractiveness
B) energy level
C) personality
D) physical stature
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 16
Topic: Personality

1

5) You wish to hire a person who has an original mind, is skeptical, critical, independent, and
determined. Candidates for this position would ideally have what classification on the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator?
A) INTJs
B) ESTJs
C) ENTPs
D) ISFPs
E) ESTPs
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills
6) All of the following are classifications on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator except ________.
A) extroverted/introverted
B) sensing/intuitive
C) perceiving/judging
D) independent/dependent
E) thinking/feeling
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
7) Jason is outgoing, sociable, and assertive. According to the MBTI, he is considered
A) extraverted
B) feeling
C) perceiving
D) sensing
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills
8) How would someone who is described as an ESTJ on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator best be
described?
A) as a visionary
B) as a conceptualizer
C) as an innovator
D) as an organizer
E) as a leader
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality

2

9) What does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification of "E or I" stand for?
A) extroverted/intuitive
B) emotional/introverted
C) extroverted/introverted
D) emotional/intuitive
E) sane/reflective
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
10) What does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification of "S or N" stand for?
A) sensing/intuitive
B) sensing/thinking
C) emotional stability/intuitive
D) emotional stability/thinking
E) sane/reflective
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
11) You are assembling a team to work on a long-term project which requires creativity, stamina
and farsightedness. The only piece of information available to you is the Myers-Briggs Type of
each of the applicants. These results are shown below:
Candidate
Alan
Myers Briggs INTJ
Type

Brenda
ESTJ

Cameron Drusilla
ENTP
ESFP

Ellen
INFP

You need to choose a lead person for the team. This person must be a visionary; combining an
original mind with great drive. Who would be the best candidate based on their Myers-Briggs
Type?
A) Alan
B) Brenda
C) Cameron
D) Drusilla
E) Ellen
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

3

12) You are assembling a team to work on a long-term project which requires creativity, stamina
and farsightedness. The only piece of information available to you is the Myers-Briggs Type of
each of the applicants. These results are shown below:
Candidate
Alan
Myers Briggs INTJ
Type

Brenda
ESTJ

Cameron Drusilla
ENTP
ESFP

Ellen
INFP

You are looking for an organizer, a person on whom you can depend to be practical and realistic.
Who would be the best candidate based on their Myers-Briggs Type?
A) Alan
B) Brenda
C) Cameron
D) Drusilla
E) Ellen
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills
13) What is the major problem with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as a measure of
personality?
A) It is very difficult to administer.
B) It probably should not be used as a selection test for choosing among job candidates since it is
not necessarily a valid measure of personality.
C) It does not include enough dimensions to differentiate all the variety of human personality
D) It tends to overemphasize intuitive personality traits over analytical personality traits
E) It is very difficult to accurately interpret.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
14) A high score in which dimension of the Big Five model predicts good job performance for
all occupational groups?
A) extraversion
B) agreeableness
C) conscientiousness
D) emotional stability
E) openness to experience
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality

4

15) Which of the following is not included in the Big Five model?
A) agreeableness
B) conscientiousness
C) intuitiveness
D) emotional stability
E) extraversion
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality
16) Which dimension of the Big Five model refers to an individual's propensity to defer to
others?
A) conscientiousness
B) agreeableness
C) extraversion
D) feeling
E) emotional stability
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality
17) Which dimension of the Big Five model is a measure of reliability?
A) extraversion
B) agreeableness
C) conscientiousness
D) feeling
E) emotional stability
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality
18) You know that your customers are demanding and sometimes difficult. Which personality
dimension taps a person's ability to withstand stress?
A) extraversion
B) judging
C) conscientiousness
D) emotional stability
E) intellect
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

5

19) Jane Simpson rates low on conscientiousness. This would this lead you to suspect that which
of the following statements is most likely to be true about Jane?
A) She will be easily distracted.
B) She will find comfort in the familiar.
C) She will be nervous, depressed, and insecure.
D) She will be comfortable with solitude.
E) She will be very dim-witted.
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
20) You wish to predict how strong organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is in each of your
employees. Which of the five facets of personality will probably be of the most interest in this
case?
A) extraversion
B) agreeableness
C) conscientiousness
D) emotional stability
E) intellect
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
21) Of the Big Five, ________ is most strongly related to life satisfaction, to job satisfaction, and
to low stress levels.
A) self-esteem
B) emotional stability
C) agreeableness
D) conscientiousness
E) extroversion
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality
22) Which of the following is not true of extraverts?
A) Extraverts tend to be happier in their jobs and in their lives as a whole than intraverts.
B) Extraverts experience more positive emotions than introverts.
C) Extraverts less freely express their positive emotions than do introverts.
D) Extraverts have more friends than introverts.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 18-19
Topic: Personality

6

23) Which of the following is not a downside to conscientiousness?
A) Conscientious people don't adapt well to changing contexts.
B) Conscientious people have trouble learning complex tasks early in the training process.
C) Conscientious people are often less creative than those who are less conscientious.
D) Conscientious people are rarely considered structured individuals.
E) There are no downsides to conscientiousness.
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 20
Topic: Personality
24) James has been described as an agreeable individual. He is better liked on the job and is less
likely to engage in organizational deviance. What would we expect to be associated with his
agreeableness?
A) He will be happier than a disagreeable person - but only slightly more
B) He will likely choose other agreeable individuals as members of his team.
C) He will probably be a poorer negotiator and experience lower levels of career success.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 19-20
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
25) Which of the following statements about people with positive core self-evaluations is true?
A) They set goals which are easily obtainable.
B) They do not like themselves.
C) They seldom persist to reach their goals.
D) They view themselves as powerless over their environment.
E) They tend to be more committed to their goals.
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 20
Topic: Personality
26) What is the term used for the degree to which people like or dislike themselves?
A) core self-evaluation
B) authoritarianism
C) locus of control
D) Machiavellianism
E) efficacy
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 20
Topic: Personality

7

27) Mary has an opening for a position requiring the individual to demonstrate considerable
adaptability in adjusting their behavior by reading external cues. She should identify the
employee with a(n) ________ for a good fit.
A) high self-monitoring tendency
B) low self-monitoring tendency
C) internal locus of control
D) external locus of control
E) high SE
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 20-21
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
28) How would you describe an individual who is not capable of presenting striking
contradictions between who they are in public and who they are privately and does not pay close
attention to the behavior of others?
A) low Mach
B) high Mach
C) low self-monitoring
D) high self-monitoring
E) narcissistic
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 20-21
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
29) Which of the following statements about low self-monitors is true?
A) They have a low behavioral consistency between who they are and what they do.
B) They tend to rate their performance much more highly than do outside observers.
C) They tend to pay less attention to the behavior of others than high self-monitors.
D) They usually receive high performance ratings.
E) They tend to thrive in areas that require them to take risks.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 20-21
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities

8

30) High self-monitors will most likely be well-suited to which of following positions?
A) one that requires them to play a central role
B) one that requires them not to yield to outside pressure
C) one that requires them to operate independently for long periods of time
D) one that requires them to take risks
E) one that requires a great deal of creativity
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
31) What term is used to describe the personality of an individual who is aggressively involved
in an incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time?
A) Type A personality
B) Type B personality
C) proactive personality
D) narcissistic personality
E) high Mach personality
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
32) Which of the following is true of people with a Type A personality?
A) They tend to be more successful than people with a Type B personality.
B) They play for fun and relaxation.
C) They tend to emphasize quantity over quality.
D) They generally feel little need to discuss their achievements.
E) They are generally content with their place in the world.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
33) Which of the following behaviors is most likely to be exhibited in someone with a Type A
personality?
A) highly creative
B) enjoys leisure and quiet time alone
C) feels impatient with the rate of most events
D) concentrates on one task at a time
E) takes long lunches and plays pool
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality

9

34) Which of the following is a characteristic of the Type B personality?
A) A Type B suffers from a sense of time urgency, with its accompanying impatience.
B) A Type B struggles to achieve more with less.
C) A Type B strives to always multi-task.
D) A Type B can relax without guilt.
E) A Type B needs to discuss his or her achievements.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
35) People with which type of personality trait commonly make poor decisions because they
make them too quickly.
A) high self-esteem
B) Type As
C) Type Bs
D) self-monitors
E) extroverts
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
36) Which of the following terms best describes people who identify opportunities, show
initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs?
A) Type A personalities
B) high self-esteem
C) proactive personalities
D) high conscientiousness
E) high Mach
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
37) Which of the following personality traits is most likely to help achieve career success?
A) proactive personality
B) high SE
C) Type A
D) extrovert
E) agreeable
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

10

38) Which of the following terms describes basic convictions that "a specific mode of conduct or
end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct"?
A) values
B) attitudes
C) convictions
D) preferences
E) affectual preferences
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 22
Topic: Values
39) What does the content attribute of a value state?
A) that the value is complete
B) that the mode of conduct is important
C) that the value is strongly or weakly held
D) the behavior associated with that value
E) that the value is not transient
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 22
Topic: Values
40) When we rank an individual's values in order of their ________, we obtain the person's value
system.
A) intensity
B) content
C) context
D) social acceptance
E) social needs
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 22
Topic: Values
41) Which of the following statements about values is true?
A) Values are flexible.
B) Values are synonymous with attitudes.
C) Values tend to be consistent among occupational groups.
D) Values are fairly stable over time.
E) Values change easily when they are called into question.
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 22
Topic: Values

11

42) What is the difference between terminal and instrumental values, as proposed by Rokeach?
A) Terminal values are the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime,
while the instrumental values are the preferable modes of behavior in achieving these values.
B) Instrumental values are the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime,
while terminal values are the preferable modes of behavior in achieving theses values.
C) Terminal values are the highest values in a person's value system, while instrumental values
are the ones that are most often used.
D) Instrumental values are the values that are used in day to day life, terminal values are those
that come into play at times of great stress.
E) Terminal values are the values shared by the group as a whole, instrumental values are the
values that differ within a group and give rise to conflict.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 23
Topic: Values
43) Which of the following values would be most likely to be considered a terminal value by
Rokeach?
A) ambitious
B) broad-minded
C) helpful
D) a sense of accomplishment
E) self-controlled
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Page Ref: Exh 2-2
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills
44) Which category of dominant work values is most likely to characterize a 55-year-old
employee in the United States?
A) hard working, conservative, conforming, loyalty to the organization
B) team-orientated, honest, self-reliant, loyal to relationships.
C) success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority, loyalty to career
D) work/life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules, loyalty to relationships
E) confident, financial success, self-reliant but team-oriented, loyalty to both self and
relationships
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: Exh 2-2
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

12

45) What is the term used to describe the cohort of workers who entered the workforce in the
1950s and early 1960s?
A) boomers
B) nexters
C) Xers
D) veterans
E) Millennials
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 24
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
46) What is the term used to describe those members of the population whose lives have been
shaped by globalization, MTV, AIDS, and computers; and who value flexibility, life options, and
the achievement of job satisfaction?
A) veterans
B) boomers
C) nexters
D) Xers
E) hexers
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 24
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
47) Veterans are most likely to place the greatest importance on
A) a comfortable like and family security
B) social recognition
C) true friendship
D) happiness
E) meaningful work
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 24
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

13

48) What cohort of workers in the United States is most likely to balk at having to work
extensive overtime and weekends?
A) Veterans
B) Boomers
C) Nexters
D) Xers
E) Traditionalists
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Page Ref: Exh 2-3
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
49) What term is used for those who entered the United States workforce from the mid-1960s
through the mid-1980s?
A) Veterans
B) Boomers
C) Nexters
D) Xers
E) Traditionalists
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: Exh 2-3
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
50) As you work with Tom, who is 27 years old, you are likely to find that he ________.
A) desires financial success
B) prefers leisure time
C) sees the company merely as a vehicle for his career
D) highly values security
E) is not interested in work at all
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: Exh 2-3
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
51) What cohort of workers in the United States is most loyal to their careers?
A) Veterans
B) Boomers
C) Nexters
D) Xers
E) Traditionalists
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: Exh 2-3
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

14

52) The most recent entrants to the United States workforce are ________.
A) Veterans
B) Boomers
C) Nexters
D) Xers
E) Traditionalists
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Page Ref: Exh 2-3
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
53) What cohort of workers values loyalty to both self and relationships?
A) Veterans
B) Boomers
C) Nexters
D) Xers
E) Traditionalists
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: Exh 2-3
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
54) Holland's personality-job fit theory is based on the notion of fit between an individual's
________ and ________.
A) personality characteristics; the job requirements
B) satisfaction; the job
C) ability to perform the job; motivation
D) motivation; on-the-job performance
E) personality characteristics; job satisfaction
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 25-26
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
55) According to Holland's personality job fit theory, what are consequences of a good fit
between personality and occupation?
A) a low level of stress
B) a high level of accomplishment
C) high satisfaction and low turnover
D) maximum performance and efficiency
E) a high rate of turnover
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 25-26
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace

15

56) ________ developed a Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire that contains 160
occupational titles.
A) Maslow
B) Holland
C) Hofstede
D) Herzberg
E) Surber
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 26
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
57) According to Holland, the closer two fields are in the hexagon, the ________ they are.
A) more dissimilar
B) more compatible
C) less compatible
D) more difficult to categorize
E) less related to any occupation
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 26
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
58) The "enterprising" personality from Holland's typology of personality and congruent
occupations would exhibit which of the following personality characteristics?
A) imaginative, disorderly, idealistic
B) shy, genuine, persistent
C) sociable, friendly, cooperative
D) self-confident, ambitious, energetic
E) conforming, efficient, practical
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Page Ref: Exh 2-4
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills
59) You are seeking to fill the position of corporate accountant, and have administered Holland's
Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire to all candidates. You would suspect that the
questionnaire would indicate that the best candidates for the position would have which of the
following personality types?
A) conventional
B) realistic
C) enterprising
D) investigative
E) social
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: Exh 2-4
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

16

60) Monica is majoring in interior design. Her personality type is "realistic" according to
Holland's Typology. Which of the following statements is correct?
A) Monica's personality type is well-suited to her major.
B) Monica is better suited to be a bank teller.
C) Interior design is incongruent with her personality type.
D) Interior design is congruent with a "social" personality type.
E) Monica prefers activities that do not require strength.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: Exh 2-4
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills
61) The "realistic" personality from Holland's typology of personality and congruent occupations
would be well suited for which of the following jobs?
A) painter
B) accountant
C) mechanic
D) lawyer
E) biologist
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: Exh 2-4
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
62) The "social" personality from Holland's typology of personality would be well suited for
which of the following jobs?
A) assembly-line worker
B) economist
C) teacher
D) bank teller
E) lawyer
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: Exh 2-4
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
63) Which of Holland's personality types prefers activities that involve thinking and
understanding?
A) realistic
B) investigative
C) social
D) conventional
E) artistic
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: Exh 2-4
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills
17

64) Which one of the following statements is true about the six personality types developed in
Holland's personality-job fit theory? Each of the six types has a ________.
A) supplemental personality style
B) congruent personality style
C) congruent occupation
D) supplemental occupational environment
E) supplemental skill set
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 27
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
65) It's more important today that employees' personalities fit with
A) their manager's personality
B) the overall organization's culture
C) the characteristics of the job
D) the recruiter's personality
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 27
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
66) A study of the EU found which of the Big Five personality factors was a valid predictor of
performance across jobs and occupational groups?
A) agreeableness
B) extraversion
C) openness to experience
D) conscientiousness
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 27-28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
67) Which of the following researchers produced a comprehensive analysis for analyzing
variations among cultures?
A) Maslow
B) Hofstede
C) Festinger
D) Skinner
E) Freud
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

18

68) Which of the following is not one of Hofstede's five dimensions of national culture?
A) power distance
B) flexibility versus rigidity
C) individualism versus collectivism:
D) long-term versus short-term orientation:
E) uncertainty avoidance
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
69) What is the measure of the extent to which people in a country accept the fact that power in
institutions and organizations is distributed unequally?
A) caste acceptance
B) collectivism
C) power distance
D) masculinity
E) rigidity
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
70) Which dimension of Hofstede's framework is the degree to which people prefer to act as
individuals rather than as members of groups?
A) power distance
B) individualism vs. collectivism
C) masculinity vs. femininity
D) uncertainty avoidance
E) long-term vs. short-term orientation
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
71) Which of Hofstede's cultural dimensions emphasizes a tight social framework in which
people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them?
A) long-term orientation
B) masculinity
C) individualism
D) collectivism
E) femininity
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

19

72) According to Hofstede, people in cultures with ________ value thrift, persistence, and
tradition.
A) high power distance
B) low power distance
C) long-term orientation
D) short-term orientation
E) low uncertainty avoidance
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
73) According to Hofstede, cultures that score ________ tend to emphasize laws and regulations.
A) high on power distance
B) high on uncertainty avoidance
C) low on power distance
D) low on uncertainty avoidance
E) high on masculinity
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
74) Which of Hofstede's dimensions is the degree to which people in a country prefer structured
to unstructured situations?
A) collectivism
B) power distance
C) long-term orientation
D) uncertainty avoidance
E) idiocentricity
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
75) According to Hofstede, high femininity cultures
A) emphasize equality between men and women.
B) favor achievement and power.
C) emphasize feminine roles.
D) have increased anxiety about ambiguity.
E) are rule-oriented.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

20

76) According to Hofstede, which country scored as the most individualistic nation of all?
A) Japan
B) Korea
C) Great Britain
D) United States
E) China
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
77) The gender differentiation cultural dimension identified by GLOBE is the equivalent of
which of Hofstede's dimensions?
A) power distance
B) uncertainty avoidance
C) masculinity-femininity
D) future orientation
E) individualism-collectivism
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
78) According to Hofstede, the Unites States scores high in ________ and low in ________.
A) power distance; uncertainty avoidance
B) individualism; power distance
C) uncertainty avoidance; individualism
D) uncertainty avoidance; masculinity
E) femininity; masculinity
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
79) All of the following are weaknesses of Hofstede's cultural dimensions pointed out by critics
EXCEPT:
A) The original data are from 30 years ago.
B) The original data were based on only four companies: IBM, Disney, Coca-Cola, and
McDonald's.
C) Most researchers are unaware of the judgment calls Hofstede had to make.
D) Some of the Hofstede results are unexpected.
E) Few researchers have read the details of Hofstede's methodology closely.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications

21

80) The GLOBE team identified ________ dimensions on which national cultures differ.
A) 3
B) 5
C) 7
D) 9
E) 15
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
81) Which of the following is not one of the cultural dimensions identified by the GLOBE team?
A) performance orientation
B) future orientation
C) humane orientation
D) age differentiation
E) power distance
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
82) Which of the following cultural dimensions identified by GLOBE does not have an
equivalent in Hofstede?
A) future orientation
B) power distance
C) performance orientation
D) individualism/collectivism
E) gender differentiation
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

22

83) Country
Country A
Country B
Country C
Country D
Country E

In-group
collectivism
4
3
2
5
1

Individualism/ Performance
collectivism orientation
3
1
5
2
1
3
2
4
4
5

Humane
orientation
2
1
5
3
4

Power
distance
5
3
4
1
2

The above table shows the relative rankings of five countries in five of GLOBE's cultural
dimensions. In which country are people most likely to identify with and take pride in the
company they work for?
A) Country A
B) Country B
C) Country C
D) Country D
E) Country E
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
84) Country
Country A
Country B
Country C
Country D
Country E

In-group
collectivism
4
3
2
5
1

Individualism/ Performance
collectivism orientation
3
1
5
2
1
3
2
4
4
5

Humane
orientation
2
1
5
3
4

Power
distance
5
3
4
1
2

According to the above table, in which country are people most likely to be rewarded for being
altruistic, caring, and kind to others?
A) Country A
B) Country B
C) Country C
D) Country D
E) Country E
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

23

85) Which of the following statements is true of the GLOBE project?
A) The GLOBE dimensions replaced Hofstede's work.
B) The GLOBE project confirmed that Hofstede's dimensions are no longer valid.
C) The GLOBE dimensions have confirmed Hofstede's work.
D) The GLOBE framework recognizes that a country's cultural values do not change.
E) It is not expected that future cross-cultural studies will use the GLOBE dimensions to assess
differences between countries.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
86) Behavior is shaped by our personalities.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 14
Topic: What Is Perception?
87) Personality looks at the parts of the person rather than the aggregate whole.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 15
Topic: Personality
88) A trait can be described as a characteristic or behavior that is sometimes exhibited in a few
situations.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 16
Topic: Personality
89) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a 100-question personality test that types four
characteristics into sixteen personality types.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
90) In the Myers-Briggs typology, N stands for intuitive.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
91) In the Myers-Briggs typology, S stands for sensible.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality

24

92) Because MBTI results are job related, it is an excellent selection test for choosing job
candidates.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
93) In the Myers-Briggs typology, P stands for preparedness.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
94) If you were looking for an employee who was an organizer, you would probably choose one
whose type is INFP.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
95) A substantial body of research supports the MBTI as a valid measure of personality.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
96) An impressive body of research supports that five basic personality dimensions underlie all
others.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality
97) The Big Five Model factor termed "extraversion" is probably a good predictor of job
performance in most professions.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 17-18
Topic: Personality
98) Conscientiousness refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality
99) Agreeable people tend to be less trusting than disagreeable people.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality

25

100) Extraverts are more likely to be absent from work than introverts.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality
101) Intraverts tend to be more impulsive than extroverts.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 18
Topic: Personality
102) Individuals who score high on openness to experience are more creative in science and in
art than those who score low. Because creativity is important to leadership, open people are more
likely to be effective leaders.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 19
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
103) Agreeableness is associated with lower levels of career success. This may be due in part
because agreeable individuals are poorer negotiators.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 19
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
104) Self-monitoring refers to an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external,
situational factors.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 20
Topic: Personality
105) High self-monitors tend to pay less attention to the behavior of other people than do low
self monitors.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 20-21
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
106) Low self-monitors show high behavioral consistency.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 20-21
Topic: Personality

26

107) Individuals with Type B personalities exhibit characteristics highly prized by the North
American culture.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
108) Zack is always moving and is impatient. He prefers work to leisure and seems obsessed
with numbers. Zack probably has a Type B personality.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills
109) People with Type A personalities are rarely concerned with time.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
110) Those individuals with Type A personalities tend to be more at risk for cardiovascular
disease.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
111) People with Type B personalities tend to operate under more stress than those with Type A
personalities.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
112) Proactive personalities are more likely to act as change agents within an organization.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
113) The content attribute of a value says that a mode of conduct is important.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 22
Topic: Values

27

114) When we rank an individual's values in terms of the intensity of those values, we obtain that
person's value system.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 22
Topic: Values
115) Values cannot be classified because of their spiritual and theological basis.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 22
Topic: Values
116) Values tend to be stable and enduring.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 22
Topic: Values
117) People always act in ways consistent with their values.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 22
Topic: Values
118) Instrumental values are preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving one's terminal
values.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 23
Topic: Values
119) Milton Rokeach developed a survey that assesses terminal and instrumental values.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 23
Topic: Values
120) RVS values are fairly stable and consistent across groups.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 23
Topic: Values
121) Boomers place a great deal of emphasis on achievement and material success.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 24
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

28

122) Veterans tend to be more loyal to their country and less loyal to their employer.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 24
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
123) The loyalty of Boomers is to their careers.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: Exh 2-3
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
124) The lives of Xers have been shaped by war, women's lib, AIDS, and computers.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 25
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
125) Terminal values such as a sense of accomplishment and social recognition rank high with
Nexters.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 25
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
126) A significant portion of our values are often established at an early age.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 25
Topic: Values
127) Individuals with Holland's "investigative" personality are well suited for careers as small
business managers.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: Exh 2-4
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
128) Holland's "conventional" personality, placed in the position of a cost accountant, is likely to
be dissatisfied and quit.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: Exh 2-4
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

29

129) In Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire, adjacent categories are quite
similar while diagonally opposite ones are highly dissimilar.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 26
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
130) It is more important that employees' personalities fit with the overall organization's culture
than with the characteristics of any specific job.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 27
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace
131) The five personality factors identified in the Big Five Model appear in almost all
cross-cultural studies.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 27
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
132) Each culture has a common personality type.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 27-28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
133) Geert Hofstede produced a very widely referenced approach for analyzing variations among
cultures.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
134) Collectivism refers to a cultural attribute describing a loosely knit social framework in
which people tend to the interests of their immediate family.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
135) Organizations in a society high in uncertainty avoidance are likely to have more rules.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

30

136) It is consistent for a country with a democratic government to rank below average on power
distance.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
137) The U.S. culture ranked above average on power distance according to Hofstede.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
138) The GLOBE research program is an ongoing cross-cultural investigation of leadership and
national culture.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
139) GLOBE's future orientation dimension is essentially equivalent to Hofstede's
long-term/short-term orientation.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills
140) The GLOBE dimensions have replaced Hofstede's dimensions.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 47
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
141) What is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and how might it be used by managers?
Answer: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is one of the most widely used personality
frameworks. It is essentially a 100-question personality test that asks people how they usually
feel or act in particular situations. On the basis of the answers individuals give to the test, they
are classified as extroverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or
feeling (T or F), and perceiving or judging (P or J). These classifications are then combined into
sixteen personality types. The MBTI has a place in training and development, since it can help
employees to better understand themselves. It can also provide aid to teams by helping members
better understand each other. It can also provide career guidance, but should not be used as a
selection test.
Page Ref: 17
Topic: Personality

31

142) Discuss the "Big Five" model of personality.
Answer: The five-factor model of personality is typically called the "Big Five." In addition to
providing a unifying personality framework, research on the Big Five also has found important
relationships between these personality dimensions and job performance. The five key traits in
the Big Five personality model are extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional
stability, and openness to experience. Extroversion captures one's comfort level with
relationships. Agreeableness refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others.
Conscientiousness is a measure of reliability. Emotional stability taps a person's ability to
withstand stress. Openness to experience addresses one's range of interests and fascination with
novelty.
Page Ref: 17-19
Topic: Personality
143) What is self monitoring? Discuss how high self monitors differ from low self monitors.
Answer: Self monitoring refers to an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external,
situational factors. High self monitors show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behavior
to external situational factors. They are highly sensitive to external cues and can behave
differently in different situations. They are also capable of presenting striking contradictions
between their public persona and their private self. Low self monitors can't disguise themselves
and tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in very situation. High self monitors are
more capable of conforming and tend to receive better performance ratings than low self
monitors. High self monitoring managers receive more career promotions and are more likely to
occupy central positions in the organization.
Page Ref: 20-21
Topic: Personality
144) Describe the Type B personality.
Answer: Type B personalities do not suffer from a sense of time urgency or with its
accompanying impatience. They feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or
accomplishments. Type B's play for fun and relaxation, and can relax without guilt. They are
rarely harried by the desire to obtain an increasing number of things.
Page Ref: 21
Topic: Personality
145) Explain why values are important to the study of organizational behavior.
Answer: Values lay the foundation for understanding people's attitudes and motivation. Values
also influence our perceptions. As individuals enter an organization with preconceived notions of
what "ought" to be, they contain interpretations of right and wrong - based upon their values.
Values can cloud objectivity and rationality. Furthermore, values generally influence attitudes
and behavior. Organizations are interested in whether the individual's values are aligned with the
organization's.
Page Ref: 22
Topic: Values
AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

32

146) Discuss the Rokeach Value Survey. Include definitions and discussion of terminal values
and instrumental values.
Answer: Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). The RVS consists of two
sets of values, with each set containing 18 individual value items. One set, called terminal values,
refers to desirable end-states of existence. These are goals that a person would like to achieve
during his or her lifetime. The other set, called instrumental values, refers to preferable modes of
behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. People in the same occupations or
categories tend to hold similar values.
Page Ref: 23
Topic: Values
147) Discuss the cohort groups in the workforce and their dominant work values.
Answer: Veterans entered the workforce in the 1950s or early 1960s. There are hardworking,
conservative, and conforming. They are loyal to the organization. Boomers entered the
workforce between 1965 and 1985. They values success, achievement, and ambition. They
dislike authority and are loyal to their career. Xers entered the workforce between 1985 and 2000.
They value work-life balance, are team-oriented, dislike rules and are loyal to relationships.
Nexters entered the workforce after 2000. They are confident, value financial success, are
self-reliant, but team oriented, and are loyal to both self and relationships.
Page Ref: 24 and Exh 2-3
Topic: Values
148) Describe what is meant by the terms "person-job fit" and "person-organization fit."
Answer: The person-job fit theory was developed by John Holland. It is based on the notion of
fit between an individual's personality characteristics and his or her occupational environment.
The theory argues that satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest when personality and
occupation are in agreement. The key points of this model are: (1) there do appear to be intrinsic
differences in personality among individuals, (2) there are different types of jobs, and (3) people
in job environments congruent with their personality types should be more satisfied and less
likely to voluntarily resign than should people in incongruent jobs.
The person-organization fit essentially argues that people leave organizations that are not
compatible with their personalities. People with high extraversion, for example, fit better with
aggressive and team-oriented cultures, while people with high agreeableness will match up better
with a supportive organizational climate
Page Ref: 25-27
Topic: Linking an Individual's Personality and Values to the Workplace

33

149) Name and describe the value dimensions of culture identified by Hofstede.
Answer: Power distance is the degree to which people accept that power in institutions and
organizations is distributed unequally. Individualism/collectivism is the degree to which people
prefer to act as individuals or as members of a group. Masculinity/femininity is the degree to
which values such as assertiveness, the acquisition of money and material goods and competition
prevail versus the degree to which people value relationships, and show sensitivity and concern
for the welfare of others. Uncertainty avoidance is the degree to which people prefer structured
over unstructured situations. Long-term/short-term orientation is the degree to which people look
to the future or to the past and present. The latter emphasizes respect for tradition and fulfilling
social obligations.
Page Ref: 28
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
150) Compare Hofstede's cultural dimensions with the GLOBE framework.
Answer: The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness research program
identified nine dimensions on which national cultures differ. Assertiveness is essentially
equivalent to Hofstede's quantity-of-life dimensions. Future orientation is equivalent to
Hofstede's long-term/short term orientation. Gender differentiation is the extent to which a
society maximizes gender role differences. Uncertainty avoidance, power distance, and
individualism/collectivism were also identified by Hofstede. In-group collectivism encompasses
the extent to which members of a society take pride in membership in small groups. Performance
orientation is the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for
performance improvement and excellence. Humane orientation is defined as the degree to which
a society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring, and kind
to others. This is close to Hofstede's quality-of-life dimension.
Page Ref: 30
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

34