Journal of

Dentistry and Oral Hygiene
Volume 5 Number 1 January 2013
ISSN 2006-9871

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ALiri. Southcrest Alberton. Changhua 500-06. Olfat Shaker Faculty of Medicine Cairo University Department of Medical Biochemistry. Dr. Muneer Gohar Babar International Medical University No. DCE (Ireland). 126. Dr. Sauvetre Université Libre de Bruxelles (Faculty of Medicine) 10 rue bavastro 06300 Nice France France. Off 7th Ave. Scardina Giuseppe Alessandro University of Palermo Department of Oral Sciences “G. Prof. Jordan . Kashmir. Associate Professor and Consultant Faculty of Dentistry. Cairo. Dr. 1449 Gauteng South Africa. Alexandria. Dr..H. UAE . Satyabodh S. Bukit Jalil. Jordanian Board. G-7/4. SE 14104 Huddinge. Malaysia. Misr Elgedida. Abeer Gawish Al-Azhar University Faculty Of Dental Medicine 4 elsheikh Makhlouf Street. Cairo. Department of Surgical Pathology. Egypt . Cairo Egypt. Pakistan. Department of Oral Health and Development Claremont Crescent. Alexandria university 1 Shamplion St. The University of Jordan. Massarita. Box 710193. Dr.J. Jalan 19/155B. Messina” Via del Vespro. Pei-Yi Chu Diagnostic and research pathologist. Prof. India. Mahmoud K.Editors Dr. Changhua Christian Hospital/ 135 Nan-Shiao Street. Amman 11171. Taiwan. Janine Owens University of Sheffield. Dr.O. Ayyaz Ali Khan Riphah International University IIDC&H. Murali Srinivasan Jebel Ali Hospital PO Box 49207. Egypt Madent Nasr 11884.Guttal SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital Sattur.S Hospital Srinagar. Sheffield S10 2TU United Kingdom Dr. AlAzhar University. . 129 90127 Palermo Italy. Sweden Dr. 57000 Kuala Lumpur. Prof. Fawad Javed Karolinska Institutet Box 4064. Azza A El-Housseiny Faculty of Dentistry. Dubai. FDS RCS (England). Imtiaz Wani S. Hussam M. P. Islamabad. Stockholm. Dr. Dharwad India . BD-OmS. PhD. Dr. Dr. Egypt . Denise Evans University of Johannesburg 4 Vlei street. Egypt.M. Abdel-Kader Faculty of Dental Medicine. E. Prof.

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M. Hasibur Rahman and Nazma Parvin Ansari 1 Short Communication Severe caries: A clinical dilemma Hansa Jain. Rahul Kathariya and Sanjyot Mulay 4 .International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene Table of Content: Volume 5 Number 1 January 2013 ARTICLES Case Report A case of recalcitrant oral lichen planus Md. Hadiuzzaman.

2008). or bullous type lesions cause burning sensation and pain. 1986). Pakfetrat et al.016 ISSN 2141-2472 ©2013 Academic Journals Case Report A case of recalcitrant oral lichen planus Md. OLP affects primarily middle-aged adults and is rare in children (Laeijendecker et al. pp. Bangladesh. but it reappears. in January 2008. There are few reports of childhood OLP in children in the literature (Pakfetrat et al... the reported prevalence rates in Indian population are 2. 2001) and is usually asymptomatic. It affects 1 to 2% of the general adult population (Sousa and Rosa. E-mail: dr_cosmoderma@yahoo. oral paste and even systemic steroids. gray-white oral mucosal discoloration and discomfort that had not improved after empiric treatment with topical triamcinolone acetonide. There was no family . mucobuccal fold. The reticular type has been reported to occur significantly more often in *Corresponding author. The reticular form is the most common type and is presented as papules and plaques with interlacing white keratotic lines (Wickham striae) with an erythematous border. There were no associated skin and nail changes found. Alam and Hamburger (2001) describe a rare case involving a 7-year-old child affected with OLP who was successfully treated with topical application of corticosteroid cream and plaque control regime. Community Based Medical College. Patel et al. 2001).academicjournals. Bangladesh. erosive. Laeijendecker et al. 2002. 2006. men as compared to women (Chainani-Wu et al. the tongue. 2000). surgical excision. Finally. Chainani-Wu et al. Although.5897/JDOH11. He also visited many doctors for the remedy and took oral antibiotics and antifungal.. 2008). There was no relapse after 2 years follow up. 2009. OLP is classified into reticular. and less commonly. Mymensingh. some improvement were noted from systemic and local steroids. and bullous types (Greenberg and Glick. INTRODUCTION Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by mucosal lesions of varying appearance and severity (Setterfield et al. gingiva. Community Based Medical College. Hadiuzzaman1. He has no history of exposure other than his wife.Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene Vol. atrophic.. Here.. patient was cured by surgical excision. steroids. OLP has been reported to be more frequent in females (Ingafou et al. Treatments were given with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. a 52-year-old male presented with a 10-year history of persistent. M. 2003. January 2013 Available online at http://www. Most of the non-ulcerative type of OLP improved with topical and systemic medications and recurrence is common. 2 Department of Pathology.6% (Murti et al. 2003). 2011 Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology that often involves the mucous membranes. Accepted 1 December. 2001) and occurs more predominantly in Asians (Alam and Hamburger. 2009. CASE REPORT A married male of 52-year-old came to the Community Based Medical College Hospital.. and lips (Edwards and Kelsch. but little improvement was noted. Hasibur Rahman1 and Nazma Parvin Ansari2 1 Department of Dermatology and VD. Alam and Hamburger. Key words: Oral lichen planus (OLP).1-3. palate.. The patient had no other medical or dental problems and was otherwise Healthy without any systemic complaints..org/JDOH DOI: 10. 2005)... The striae are typically located bilaterally on the buccal mucosa.com. intralesional triamcinolone and systemic prednisolone. Eisen. but the improvement was not satisfactory. 2002). relapse. The clinical presentation of OLP ranges from mild painless white keratotic lesions to painful erosions and ulcerations (Scully and Carrozzo. 5(1). Erosive. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of OLP. He had been previously treated with a 5-week course of triamcinolone acetonide orabase cream. 2001. with a 10year history of persistent gray-white oral mucosal ulceration that caused discomfort and fear of cancer. 2005). atrophic.

OLP has a prevalence rate reported between 0. and plaque-like).. 2007. the patient had lived in village. 2006). 2007.2 J.. systemic medication. van der Meij et al. but the result was not even satisfactory. Mazzarella et al. 2004. Lodi et al.. Lesion on right oral buccal mucosa. B. The tongue. Yamamoto and Osaki. Mucosal biopsy for histopathology reveals positive finding for OLP (Figures 1 and 2). Buccal mucosa is involved in 90% of the cases and the gingival in more than 50%. papular.evidence proving a causal relationship is lacking (Lodi et al. hepatitis C virus. 2005. Thornhill et al. 2006). 2004. Annual monitoring via clinical examination and/or histopathologic analysis is recommended for potential malignant transformation. DISCUSSION A. Mignogna et al. Development of oral squamouscell carcinoma in OLP has been reported at a rate of 0.. atrophic. Juneja et al. Exact cause is not yet known. Although. he did not experience blistering and had no history of skin cancer. Differential diagnosis includes oral lichenoid reactions and other white or gray-colored oral lesions (Al-Hashimi et al. Dent. discoid lupus erythematosus and graft-versushost-disease (Al-Hashimi et al. The reticulate clinical presentation displaying the characteristic Wickham's striae is the most common.. It most commonly affects patients of ages 30 to 60 years and is found more frequently in women. 2004). 1995. B. Actinic cheilitis typically occurs in older patients and is accompanied by additional manifestations of dermatoheliosis (Al-Hashimi et al... 2005). which can occur with chronic inflammation (Juneja et al. and contact sensitivity. however.. Diagnosis may be made using clinical features alone or may require clinicopathologic correlation for atypical presentations or to rule out malignant conditions (Eisen et al. Topical steroid.g. This pattern also can appear in other oral lichenoid reactions.1 and 4%. Figure 1. hepatic function panel. bullous. Oral lichenoid drug reactions can be caused by hypoglycemic agents.2 .. 2007. 2006)... 2005. we decided to excise the lesion and follow the case for future out come. 2007). Laeijendecker et al. Silverman et al. numerous clinical forms may be observed in isolation or in combination (e. other mucosal areas and nails appeared normal. gingivae. 2005. history of any skin or dental disorders.. Oral lichenoid contact lesions most commonly result from dental amalgams used in restorative procedures (Laeijendecker et al. 15% of OLP will also have skin lesions. trauma. erosive. A complete blood count. While OLP is frequently observed in patients with cutaneous lichen planus. 2006. Total body cutaneous examination including hairs reveals no abnormality. Histopathology features include basal keratinocyte apoptosis and a lichenoid interface lymphocytic reaction. antinuclear antibody. it may be the only finding in approximately 25%... There was no lymphadenopathy. Laeijendecker et al.. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and less frequently penicillamine or gold salts. erythema multiforme. however... A persistent gray-white oral mucosal ulceration was present on the inner surface of the right check. Xue et al. hydroxychloroquine and even intralesional steroid were given to the patient. Finally. Histological features of the lesion. 1985. and thyroid function panel were normal. OLP may involve any part of the mouth. and rheumatoid factor were negative. systemic steroid. Bascones et al. After 2 years follow up. 2006. we did not find any recurrence.. Oral Hyg. 2004. Hepatitis B virus. Figure 2. comprehensive metabolic panel. Carrozzo et al. 2005.. Ingafou et al. 2006).. The patient is non-smoker and does not have the habit of betel leaf chewing. Ichimura et al.. pigmented. 2005. Postulated initiating events that may trigger OLP include infection. A growing body of evidence supports an immunopathologic mechanism that involves dysregulation of cellular immunity.

Murphy R (2005). Report of an international consensus meeting-Part 1. Med. topical calcineurin inhibitors. Watson JJ (2001). Silverman B. J.. Med. The possible premalignant character of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: A prospective five-year follow-up study of 192 patients. Lockhart PB. Int. Oral Pathol. Biol. Mast H.Hadiuzzaman et al. Oral Dis. 2007. Histochemical analysis of pathological alterations in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions. Eisen D (2002). 43(8):742-748. Oral Oncol. Wang SZ. Frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells in oral lichen planus. reticular forms. Pindborg JJ (1986). Characteristic cytokines generated by keratinocytes and mononuclear infiltrates in oral lichen planus. Simmons RK. Lodi G. Holmstrup P. Bascones C. Acevedo A. High proliferative activity and chromosomal instability in oral lichen planus. Am. J. Oral Surg. Maraki D. Osaki T (1995). Yamamoto T. Carrozzo M. A clinical study of 674 patients with oral lichen planus in China. Oral. Oral Med. Black MM. Additionally. Venereol. Dermatol. Paediatr. Med. Dent. 2007). 34:467-472. Oral Maxillofac. Neumann HM (2005). Testing for HCV in a patient with OLP would be considered reasonable (Buajeeb et al. Premalignant nature of oral lichen planus. Rosa LE (2008). Scully C. OLP and HCV have been frequently associated in anecdotal reports. 100:164-178. Neumann HA (2005). The management of oral lichen planus. Sugerman PB. Epstein JB. Boecking A. Oral Maxillofac. Clin. Oral Pathol. Bravo M. J. 151:1172-1181. Eisenberg E. Oral Endod. Adamo D. Oral Radiol. Oral Pathol. Exp. Laeijendecker R. Curtoni ES. Endodontol. 2006. Pathol. Theaker ED (2006). to 0. Fedele S. 25:176-82. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma polymorphisms contribute to susceptibility to oral lichen planus. Oral Pathol. Mignogna MD. Laeijendecker R. Assoc. Chen XM. hydroxychloroquine.. 22:299-304. 46:207-14. Oral lichen planus: Patient profile. Lo Russo L. 20:953957. Hiratsuka K. Glick M (2003). Routine screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is controversial. Oral lichen planus and hepatitis C virus infection. Sakamaki H (2006). Carrozzo M. J. 104:784-788. Fan MW. 2007. Lozada-Nur F. Burket’s Oral Medicine. Expression profile of chemokines and chemokine receptors in epithelial cell layers of oral lichen planus. Giuliano M (2006). 35:167174. van der Waal I (2007). Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Pakfetrat A. Dermatol. 12:463-8. Silverman S Jr. J. 60:30-34. a causative role for HCV has not been demonstrated in prospective studies. Patel S. Bascones A (2005). 11:338-349. Assoc. Li Y. C. Oral lichen planus and allergy to dental amalgam restorations. Oral Radiol. Alam F. Oral Cir. Dermatol. Carrozzo M. Thongprasom K (2005). J. Jontell M. Oral Pathol. Porter SR. Dametto E. Farnedi A. Oral Pathol. Lodi et al. Oral lichen planus in childhood: A report of three cases. Megahed M. Oral Surg.. Wray D. J. 2005). Viral infections and aetiopathopathogenesis. van Joost T. Griffiths M. Marchetti C. Management of non-ulcerative OLP typically involves medical modalities. Yalcinkaya S. Oral Surg.. Current controversies in oral lichen planus: Report of an international consensus meeting-Part 2. Syrjänen S (2007). Oral Med. malignant potential. Lodi G. Bez. J. 298:381-388. Oral lichen planus: A retrospective study of 690 British patients. J. Mehta FS. Radiol. Yeoman CM. Carrozzo M (2008). The role of histopathological characteristics in distinguishing amalgamassociated oral lichenoid reactions and oral lichen planus. Gonzalez-Moles MA. George T. Esparza G. Sugerman PB. Greenberg MS. Eisen D. Ogura N. Oral lichen planus: Clinical and histopathological considerations. Oral lichen planus in childhood. Migliorati CA. which include topical or intralesional glucocorticoids. J. Derm. Femiano F. Dermatol. 46:15-21. Thornhill MH. 35:233-240. Mattila et al. . Edwards PC. Acta Derm. Basir-Shabestari S. 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Oral Surg. Javadzadeh-Bolouri A. Warnakulasuriya S. Kelsch R (2002). topical or oral retinoids. Silverman S Jr. Gupta PC. 89-95. Mutat. J. Acad. Fasano ME. Tank B. The clinical features. 141:906-907. Oral Sci. 4:185-193. Falaki F (2009). Braz. Matrix metalloproteinase gene expression in oral lichen planus: 3 Erosive vs. Boaz K (2006). 100:40-51. J. Dent. Demarosi F. Xue JL. remission.. disease progression and treatment responses. Oral lichen planus: Clinical presentation and management. Hamburger J (2001). Leao JC. 35:1140-1144. Immune activation and chronic inflammation as the cause of malignancy in oral lichen planus: Is there any evidence? Oral Oncol. Oral Pathol. Pemberton MN.. Broccoletti R.. Endodontol. Oral Med. Leao JC. Gorsky M. 10th ed. Juneja M. Med. Dermatol. 50:873881. Ichimura M. Malignant potential of oral lichen planus: Observations in 722 patients from India. Endod. pp. 15:118-22.. Griffiths M. Foschini MP (2006). Giuliani M. 15:71-7. 132:901-909. Am. Oral lichen planus: A retrospective study of 420 Iranian patients. Scully C. Van Joost T. Lichen planus and hepatitis C virus: A multicentre study of patients with oral lesions and a systematic review. Dekker SK. Lozada-Nur F. Kraivaphan P. Chainani-Wu N. Hamilton: BC Decker Inc. Lodi G. Tank B. Ingafou M. Pession A. 122(1):87-94. patients should avoid possible mutagens such as tobacco and alcohol (Montebugnoli et al. Bhonsle RB. Uboldi de Capei M. Scully C (2006). Acad. Bucal 14:E315-8. 2006. Oral. Laeijendecker et al. Laeijendecker R. REFERENCES Setterfield JF. Nair R. Neumann HA (2005). 35:227-232. Schifter M. De Rosa A. Gombos F. Arch. Thongprasom K (2005). Paediatr. (2006). Challacombe SJ (2000). Int. Oral Radiol. Int. Br. J. Pomjanski N.

Tel: +918983370741. Herein. 5(1). It involves all population groups in the world with divergent intensity from caries free to rampant caries (Utreja et al.com. cariogenic bacteria and cariogenic diet as stated by Tanzer et al. who reported complaints of pain. A general physical examination revealed a mesomorphic stature. Dr. However. But despite hundreds of research investigations. (2001). .. 2013 The microbial etiology of dental caries is discussed in terms of the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota. the prevalence of caries is more in the adolescent years (Siu et al. Key words: Dental caries. The predominant reasons which affect psychological and social aspects of any individual are aesthetics. However. dietary carbohydrate. DY Patil Vidhyapeeth University. 1996). INTRODUCTION Oral diseases are a universal problem. This case report emphasizes the proper evaluation of history. CASE REPORT Herein. India. Rahul Kathariya* and Sanjyot Mulay Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology.. in case of anterior carious involvement and inability to masticate properly due to posterior teeth involvement. which leads to proper diagnosis and treatment planning. after a history of a severe accident. inability to chew and various decayed teeth. The plurality of factors involved and the otherwise durable nature of tissues invaded make dental caries one of the most unusual diseases. caries. but also helps to establish lifelong healthy habits. January 2013 Available online at http://www. 2012). we found grossly destructed teeth with a decayed. but they are often a low priority for health policy-makers due to the absence of any alarming consequences. a case is presented in which there is severe involvement by caries of multiple permanent teeth in a 23-year-old male.academicjournals. they can affect individuals severely due to their impact on psychological and social aspects of one’s life (Chen and Hunter. a case is presented in which the main cause of the caries for this pampered patient was compromised oral hygiene maintenance.411018. M = 5. pH lowering and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. its aetiology is still perplexing. Dental caries is a diet bacterial disease resulting from interactions among a susceptible host. once established is perpetual and does not confer immunity. 2002). in which he lost his digits. Dr. Accepted 3 January. the appearance of his teeth posed a psychological problem: he lacked self-confidence and hesitated in smiling freely (Figures 1 and 2). Pune.010 ISSN 2141-2472 ©2013 Academic Journals Short Communication Severe caries: A clinical dilemma Hansa Jain. 4-6. E-mail: rkathariya@gmail. which. pp. which he lost in an accident 12 years back. 2010). *Corresponding author. well nourished and a fingerless right palm. but a study by Majewski states that due to the presence of various unique factors present in the teenage years.5897/JDOH12. DY Patil Dental College and Hospital. plaque. On clinical examination. saliva. The world health organisation (WHO) recognises dental caries as a pandemic disease affecting all age groups in almost similar frequency (Gathecha et al.Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene Vol.org/JDOH DOI:10. missing and filled teeth (DMFT) of 20 (D = 16. F = 0) with generalized gingivitis. Here. Educating people about the etiopathology and introduction of preventive and maintenance strategies does not only assists in meeting the special oral needs of the adolescent population. etiology. we present a case of severe caries seen in an adolescent individual who suffered from high caries index which along with other factors led to development of psychological and social inferiority in this young fellow.. Pimpri.

21. 2. We also perceived that the boy was a right handed individual and had lost his right hand digits.. Root pieces: 25. Proximal carious lesions with 11. The boy being an adolescent at that time was given his medication in the form of oral syrups. we found that they coincided and followed the time after his unfortunate accident. hospitalisation and medications also contributed to the cause. Moreover.Jain et al. 22. 36. 48. 12. Mandibular arch showing the number of decayed. This made us conclude that the days of adolescence play a crucial role in development of rampant caries in otherwise healthy individual. 16. the consumption of this sugar-containing syrup can lead to formation of rampant caries (Siu et al. 27. increased intake of sticky carbohydrates. he was a pampered kid. 13. totally ignorant of the fact that it will hamper his oral health in near future. Maxillary arch showing the number of decayed. filled and treated teeth. missing. 35. 37. as it would have been difficult for him to brush properly with his left hand (Figure 3). Missing teeth: 15. filled and treated teeth. The patient suffered from: 1. The parents gave into his every demand and supplied him daily with chocolates and candies. 2002). as also contemplated in this case. 3. inability to maintain proper oral hygiene . and the only survival of the mishap. 18. 23. In this situation. Deep occlusal carious lesions with 17. 47. Together with poor oral hygiene. 46. As we tallied the dates of the onset of caries in his oral cavity. psychological reasons. missing. which would also have accounted to decreased pH of the oral cavity. He was not able to maintain proper oral hygiene. Occlusal carious lesions with 26. It has been observed that sugar-containing syrups are potentially cariogenic. 4. Being the only offspring to his parents. and 5. 38. 34. 5 Figure 1. DISCUSSION Figure 2.

Prim. Chawla HS (2010). Tanzer JM. Pedod. Gathecha G. Oral health and quality of life in New Zealand: A social perspective. Hunter P (1996). Dent. Dental caries and oral health practices among 12 year old children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts. Educ. to get regular oral prophylaxis and follow up along with fluoride supplements. The microbiology of primary dental caries in humans. Amputated digits of the right hand. J. Chu FC. J. Livingston J. Thompson AM (2001).6 J.5% teeth of this young boy. Siu AS. 65:1028-1037. J. Smith P (2012). Sci. . we would like to emphasize on the importance of taking not only proper case history. Conclusion Conclusively. Soc. Tewari A. Oral Hyg. Makokha A. Dent. abstain from chocolates and candies. moderate caries and no caries. 43:1213-1222. Omolo J. Figure 3. Dent. but also its critical correlations with the concerned disease. 28:278-281. Pan Afr. as well as medicated sugar syrups. We advised him to use an electrically powered toothbrush. since both play a substantial role in the diagnosis and management of the disease and the patient. A study of influence of sugars on the modulations of dental plaque pH in children with rampant caries. Prev. Utreja D. In this situation. Yip HK (2002). Care 1:27-30. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank the patient and his family for their cooperation. 12:42. Cough syrup addiction and rampant caries: A report of two cases. we thought it is important to educate the patient about different ways to maintain proper oral hygiene so that his remaining teeth can be saved. Med. Dent. REFERENCES Chen MS. Kenya. all lead to the decay of 62. Indian Soc. Med. Wanzala P. in addition to routine restorative treatments.

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