11.1 External signals are converted into responses with the cell

Evolution of Cell Signaling
o Yeast: two mating types, called a and . Both secrete
chemical signals designed to bind to receptors in the other
sex. – results in fusion, or mating of two opposite types of cells.
o Signal transduction pathway: series of steps in which signal on
cell’s surface converted into specific cellular response.
o Similarities in signal transduction between yeast and
mammals suggested early version cell-signaling mechanism
evolved before first multicellular creatures appeared.

Local and Long-Distance Signaling
o Cells in multicellular usually communicate via chemical
messengers for cell both adjacent and non-adjacent.
o Cell-cell recognition: communication via direct contact btwn
membrane-bound cell surface molecules – important in
embryonic development/immune response.
o Local regulators: messenger molecules influence cells in

Ex: growth factors.

o Paracrine signaling: numerous cell receive/respond to local
regulator produced by single cell.

 Response – transduced signal triggers specific cellular response. o Hormones used for long-distance signaling. o Endocrine signaling: cells release hormone molecules into circulatory system. o Three stages:  Reception – target cell’s detection o/ signal molecule from outside cell. Electrical signal  chemical signal  electrical signal. travel to target cells.o Synaptic signaling: electrical signal triggers secretion of chemical signal – occurs in animal nervous system  neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across synapse. convert to glucose 6 phosphate.  The Three Stages of Cell Signaling: o Sutherland – animal hormone stimulates breakdown of glycogen into glucose 1 phosphate. . o Transmission of signal thru nervous system example o/ long distance signaling. Sometimes single step. most like sequence of changes in series  signal transduction pathway.  Transduction – binding of signal cell changes receptor protein.

o Some signaling molecules can pass because hydrophobic or small enough  steroid hormones and thyroid hormones and nitric oxide.11.  Intracellular Receptors: o Found in either cytoplasm or nucleus of target cells  chemical messenger passes through target cell’s plasma membrane. causing it to change shape  Most signal receptors plasma membrane proteins. .2 Reception: A signal molecule binds to receptor protein.  Receptors in Plasma Membrane o Most water-soluble signal molecules bind to specific sites on receptor proteins in cells plasma membrane.