Industrial Electronics AID

1. Different kinds of switches.
- Make-Before-Break Switches: Make-before-break switches are those that will complete a new circuit
before breaking an old one. With this type of function, the next contact is made or closed before the
previous contact is broken or opened. This can also be referred to as a shorting type switch. A typical
application example for use of this type of function would be a computer switching from AC to a DC
backup system.
- Snap Action Switches: Snap Action Switches are switch devices that can open and/or close an electrical
circuit at a rapid speed. “Snap Action” occurs because of the rapid movement of the spring-assisted
moving contacts from one position to another, independent of the actuator speed.
2. Switches and their types. Pole, throw etc.
- Pole: A switch pole refers to the number of separate circuits that the switch controls. A single-pole
switch controls just one circuit. A double-pole switch controls two separate circuits.
- Throw: The number of throws indicates how many different output connections each switch pole can
connect its input to. The two most common types are single-throw and double-throw. The throw
number is basically the number of different circuits there are.
3. You can make a DP4T switch using 3 DPDT switches.
- A DP4T switch involves one pole being able to connect to 4 different circuits together with the second
pole. If you're talking about a motor, it will usually be connected between the tails of the two poles
while the throws signify the different circuit arrangements possible. This could be four different voltage
levels, for example.
- Position 1: the first DPDT switch unperturbed.
- Position 2: the first DPDT switch is on while the second DPDT switch is left unperturbed.
- Position 3: the first and second DPDT switches are on while the third DPDT switch is left unperturbed.
- Position 4: the first, second and third DPDT switches are all on.
4. Relays.
a. Relay Latch = you use pushbuttons so your relay will de-energize as soon as you let go of the button.
So you need a mechanism whereby the relay can retain power. This is achieved by using the "true"
output of the relay to power itself.

b. . Toggle Relay: the basic idea is to use one push-button to switch on/off a circuit.The poles of the two switches face each other i. The power switch or the first pole of the primary DPDT is connected to the positive side of the relays. Limit Switches and Motor Direction Control = the idea is to stop the motor only in the direction the limit switch is triggered so we are to disconnect only that part of the circuit. . The second one either supplies power to the positive side of the relays or the negative.You use two DPDT switches.Initial Button Press: . .Pressing the button again leads to the bottom of the relays being energized. . CASE 1 . The secondary relay has the same voltage on both of its ends so it de-energizes. c. This is because of the switches of the secondary relay in their un-energized state.This leads to the primary relay de-energizing. they have different un-energized states. The power switch is also reset. CASE 2 .The primary relay is initially energized as it is being supplied with power. . The first one supplies power to one of the two relays at one time.Pressing the switch leads to the secondary relay energizing which ends up disconnecting the primary relay and energizes the secondary relay. .e. .The first pole of both the switches is used to supply/disconnect power.This leads to the primary relay energizing once again.Second Button Press: .

7. Temperature Sensors. . Used to configure the prescaler etc. Allows you to adjust the size of a pulse. . Timers. For NORMAL mode. Instrumentation. n = 100 or 1000 etc. The OCRn bit = the value to which you want the timer to count. the temperature becomes 25 degree C so toggling does not happen. TCNT functions like OCRn. . .The width of the pulse corresponds to the servo angle. DC Motor Control. Switches in series = AND. . .We use the PWM pins on the ATMEGA16 and the Fast PWM Mode to generate PWM for servo motor control. Servo Motors: . Voltmeters. . Two OCR registers for timer 1. c. a heater that needs to be turned off if the temperature exceeds 80 degree C will turn on once again as the temperature goes down. TCNT in CTC mode needs to be initialized at 0. For example. A servo motor can go up to 180 degrees. Ladder diagrams. Timers are basically counters.Hysteresis is mainly used in temperature sensors/controls to prevent the system from toggling. . Thermistors and RTDs require external excitation while thermocouples are active in nature. TCCRn = holds the value of the time/counter control register. The TCNTn register = the instantaneous value of the counter register. LM35 and Ds18s20 are solid state temperature sensors. . on the AtMega16.Controlled via PWM. a pulse count or OCR value of 255 can be used to figure out the pulse width that corresponds to 180 degrees.For an 8 bit timer.5.They're mainly used for position control. An 8 bit timer can go up to 255 from 0. . 6. . Switches in parallel = OR. b. a. You can use either one of them. So we use hysteresis to change the set point to turn the heater on after say. Frequency Meters etc. a. . . 8. RTDs: PT-n where n is the nominal resistance or the resistance at 0 degree C.

Timer 2 has 3 clock select bits and 2 WGM bits.d. 3 CS bits + 1 WGM bit + gap of 2 bits + 1 WGM bit. f. Interrupt based timing operations use the OCIE bit to work. Turn off timer by setting TCCR = 0. Turn off timer by setting TCCR = 0. . Set TCCR = configures the mode and the clock select. . Set TCCR = configures the mode and the clock select. Timer 0 has 3 clock select bits and 2 WGM bits. Just configure the COM bits in the TCCR register and set WGM to FAST PWM. e. Both need to be configured simultaneously if you are doing some specialized stuff. . . . . Clear timer by setting TIFR's OCF register = 0. Timer 1 has two TCCR registers. Normal Mode: . Enable sei or global interrupts. OCIE1A and B and OCIE2 need to be high respectively in the TIMSK register. 3 CS bits + 1 WGM bit + gap of 2 bits + 1 WGM bit. . Set TCNT = the value you want your timer to count to. Clear timer by setting TIFR = 0. Usually it is TCCR1B that needs to be configured. while loop until TIFR register's OCF bit is 0. CTC Mode via Interrupts: . Set TCCR = configures the mode and the clock select. Set OCR = the value you want your timer to count to. . Set OCR = the value you want your timer to count to. CTC Mode: . while loop until TIFR register's TOV is 0. You can use the FAST PWM mode and the ATMEGA16's builtin PWM generator pins to drive your motors. g. Configure TIMSK. Format for the interrupt subroutine: interrupt[TIMERn_COMP] void nameofthefunction(void). . . . . . OCIE0. Set TCNT = 0. h. You are interested in the OCIEn bits. Set TCNT = 0.