chapter 1:-Introduction

What is warehouse??
[7]In its simplest form, “warehousing” is the storage of goods until they are needed. The goal of
warehouse operations is to satisfy customers’ needs and requirements while utilizing space, equipment,
and labor effectively. The goods must be accessible and protected. Meeting this goal requires constant
planning and ongoing change.
according to[1] frazelle the warehouses are classified into following:Raw Material Warehouse where raw materials are held at or near the point of induction into a
manufacturing facility.
work in progress warehouse where partially completed assemblies and products are held at various
points along an assembly or production line
finished goods warehouse where inventory is held to balance and buffer the variation between
production schedules and demand.
Distribution and warehouse distribution centre where accumulation or consolidation of products from
various points of manufacture within a single firm, for a combined shipment to common customers.
fulfillment warehouse for receiving , picking and shipping orders for individual customers.
[7] The Various operations carried out at warehouse:Dock Operations
The basic dock functions are unloading and loading carrier shipments, checking the shipments for damage, and
verifying the counts stated on the delivery receipt. The driver should note all damage and shortages on the delivery
receipt before the receipt is signed. All delivery and/or shipment paperwork should be routed to the proper
department within the organization.
Basic dock equipment usually includes a hand truck and a pallet jack. If there is a high volume of shipments, the
pallet jack may need to be electric or there may need to be a powered lift truck. In the end, the characteristics of the
shipments usually determine the equipment needed.
Space directly adjacent to the dock doors should be sufficient to accommodate the average daily volume of receipts
and outbound shipments. Just how much space depends on the time it takes receiving to check shipments and move
them into the storage systems, your ability to control when carriers deliver and/or pick up shipments, and how soon
outbound shipments start being staged each day. There should also be space for empty pallets, containers, carts,
and the like used to hold inbound goods. You might save floor space by storing these above and/or between the dock
doors.
Unless you expect to receive inbound shipments continuously throughout the day, it usually makes sense to handle
inbound and outbound shipments in the same area of the warehouse. Doing so usually requires less space, less
equipment, and fewer personnel.

The higher the ceiling. Because the height of cartons usually varies. And if copies of the product are to be routed or stored. Picking Operations Picking operations is defined as the assembly of products ordered by customers. This widely accepted method. The standard pallet is 40 inches wide and 48 inches deep. This method is usually referred to as bulk storage. It is also the function best suited for gathering information needed for keeping product details accurate and current. receiving should handle their delivery and storage. lining pallets up in rows and stacking pallets of like product on top of each other. The height of the pallet plus the height of the cartons stacked on the pallet determine the height of the unit load. and it should be documented on the receiving reports. the more cost effective rack storage usually becomes. and the updating of storage records so that the product can be found easily when it is needed. usually referred to as rack storage. Storage Operations Storage functions are usually an extension of receiving department duties. There are two basic methodologies for setting up a storage system:  You can simply use the floor. Receiving also should pull the stock needed to process backorders. customers expect their orders to be processed quickly. Retrieval of products from holding locations may also be assigned to storage operations and/or may be a function of picking operations. . The basic functions of storage are the movement of products from the dock area to a holding location. Receiving usually needs a desk. This is a simple function. we might consider setting up the storage area to accommodate the various volumes because it will make better use of the storage space. This can be a valid option for a warehouse with a very low ceiling. we can work with equipment vendors to determine which pallet racks and lift trucks best meet the needs. and other furniture or equipment associated with the duties to be handled. Once we know the unit load specs. preparing receiving reports. efficiency should be a major goal. The unit loads will normally be cartons stacked on wood pallets. Generally it is best to select equipment that somewhat exceeds the weight requirements. we must know the dimensions and weights of the unit loads to be handled. The added degree of safety is well worth the slightly higher cost.Receiving Operations Receiving duties often include the dock functions. the recording of the location and quantity. The size of the product received usually varies from a few cartons to a few pallets. The basic functions of receiving include verifying product quantity. The pallet used determines the width and depth of the unit load. A small office or a designated space near or in the dock area is all the space normally required. The receiving function is the starting point for inventory control in the warehouse. usually makes good use of available space and is cost effective so long as the ceiling height allows at least three levels of full pallet storage. Storage normally occupies most available warehouse space. we will need to set the height at a level that best accommodates the various carton heights. and routing those reports to designated departments. It can also be a good option for storing many pallets of the same product. Receiving also should prepare received products for movement into the storage and picking systems.  You can install pallet rack and/or shelving in rows. not just accurately. a filing cabinet. Any and all essential data should be gathered at this stage. yet it is time consuming. If this is the situation. After all. Before selecting storage equipment. As you evaluate and/or setup your picking operations. a computer.

a hybrid picking system should be considered. This method is common when pickers must travel long distances to assemble orders. Pallet racks likely will be used in a storage picking system. At the same time. such as a carousel. (The use of other equipment.) Before we decide how to set up your picking system. a stand-alone picking system is likely the best choice. most orders can be assembled without having to travel through the entire picking system. is also possible.  in the second case stock is moved to picker. single or batch picking can be equally effective. This method works best when the products are shipped in case quantities or when most orders include a lot of full cases. we must decide how we will assemble customer orders. a storage picking system may be your best option. this is a storage picking system.  Determine the percentage of orders with two or three line items. Packing Operations Packing is the process of packaging for shipment the products ordered by customers. regardless of the picking system used. picking one order at a time makes good sense. (2) Evaluate the line-item characteristics of the orders:  Determine the percentage of orders with one line item.) A hybrid picking system might use all the equipment mentioned above.  the third is the combination of the above. This usually means that the picker pulls fast-moving products from storage locations and slow-moving products from a separate picking system. approximately one-half of the orders can be assembled without having to travel through the entire system. orders are separated and checked for accuracy during the packing phase. but it could be in a defined section of the storage area. and pallet racks might all be used in a standalone picking system. parts of both concepts can be combined. batch picking should be considered. for single picking. If the sum is less than 40%.Experts suggest that there are two basic ways to set up a picking system. orders are checked only if we . If we single pick and use a stand-alone pick system.  we can pull one order at a time. Thus there are three ways:  in the first way picker will pull the products directly from the storage locations. If the percentage is less than 25. If they are batch picked. If we pick one order at a time. evaluation of the following order characteristics offers the best solution for order picking operations (1) Determine the percentage of orders that contain a number of full cases:    If the percentage exceeds 50. There are two ways to accomplish this:  we can batch pick. this is called as stand-alone picking system.  Determine the percentage of orders with four or five line items. Static shelving. If the sum is 40%-60%.  If the sum of the above percentages is 60 or more. If we single pick. If the percentage is 25 to 50. carton flow racks. This method is common when travel is not a major factor and when customer orders average one to a few products. This usually means the picking system is a stand-alone system. This is called a hybrid picking system. pulling multiple orders at one time. The equipment needed to hold the products will vary according to the picking method you use. these orders can be sorted by zone.

The tasks performed usually include weighing each carton. we will likely pack on the conveyor itself. labeled. transportation and the handling of returns. Shipping Operations Shipping operations is where the final steps are taken to prepare orders for shipment via the requested mode of transit. production. Work Principle:. anticipation of changing future requirement. equipment. we might also need some equipment to apply or affix labels to the cartons. Unit Load:. If we do not use a conveyor system. they are sorted to pallets or tubs so they can be moved to the shipping dock for carrier pickup. The important characteristics of a system is that the parts. a bill of loading is completed.objectives and functional specification of the proposed methods are completely defined at the outset. order selection. and the cartons are sealed.do not hold pickers accountable for accuracy of the orders. we will need a packing table. If we do use a conveyor. products are packed into shipping cartons.Material movement and storage activities should be fully integrated to form a coordinated. It is usually considered shipping’s responsibility to ensure that all shipments are picked up the day they are ready to ship and that all shipping paperwork is routed to the correct departments at the end of each shipping day. box knives. according to Siddhanta [2]Ray material handling is the art and science involving the moving. storage. shipping. System  Principle:. modularity and throughput. controls and software should be  standardized within the limits of achieving overall performance objectives and with sacrificing needed flexibility . and applying address labels generated by the manifest system. recording shipment information in a manifest system. the following are the [2]10 principles which should be followed while designing a new material handling system at a facility: Planning Principles:. Environmental Principle:-Environmental impact and energy consumption should be considered as criteria when designing or selecting alternative equipment and material handling systems . If the shipment mode requires it. Standardization Principle:-Material handling methods. packaging and storing of substances in any form. Ergonomic Principle :-Human capabilities and limitations must be recognized and respected in the design  of material handling tasks and equipments to ensure safe and effective operations. If the shipment is going by truck or air-freight carrier. The shipping carton should be of such strength that it cannot be bent or crushed easily. After packages are processed.All material handling should be the result of a deliberate plan where the needs. operational system which spans receiving. correct postage is applied. Material handling systems In order to carry out these functions .various material handling systems are used. and various stamps. If packages are poorly packed. called subsystems.Material handling work should be minimized without sacrificing productivity or the level of  service required of the operation. and it should be packed so that the products will not shift during transit.  performance . the air space is filled with a packing media. the possibility of damage increases greatly. and otherwise marked as needed.Principle Unit loads shall be appropriately sized and configured in a way which achieves the  material flow and inventory objectives at each stage in the supply chain. If the shipment is going by mail. assembly. The equipment needed in the packing area includes tape machines. Space Utilization Principle:. inspection. are interrelated and guided by an objective for which the system exists.Effective and efficient use must be made of all available space. unitizing. cartons are stamped. A general definition of the term could be: a complex unity formed of many often diverse parts subject to a common plan or serving a common purpose. As a general rule. packaging. The term ‘‘system’’ has many meaning depending on the field where applied.

improve consistency and predictability. (viii) Unitization generally provides a basis for standardization of handling system and equipment within the plant as well as at the receiving and shipping points for transportation.Material handling operations should be mechanized and/or automated where  feasible to improve operational efficiency. (v) Unitized load. Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials. Material Handling Equipments Are Classified Into:• Transport Equipment • Positioning Equipment • Unit Load Formation Equipment • Storage Equipment • Identification and Control Equipment the each of these in detail are Transport Equipments:. storage. transportation and the handling of returns. almost universally. The basic concept is to move maximum load at a time so that the number of moves for a definite quantity of load to be moved is minimum and so is the cost of handling. etc. The major advantages are:(i) It permits handling of larger loads at a time and thereby reduces handling and transportation costs.These equipment are used to move materials from one location to other(e.). which make them very popular in the material handling and packaging industries. [4]A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another..g. (iv) It offers safer handling and transportation compared to those of loose materials. order selection. too large for manual handling. so arranged or restrained that the mass can be picked up and moved as a single object. which necessitates capital investment. (ii) Loading and unloading time of unit load is substantially less than when handled as loose/ individual material. between workplaces. (iii) Unitization essentially means deployment of equipment. Life Cycle Principle:. between a loading dock and a storage area. production. Movement of the empty containers results in additional handling cost and problem. and which upon being released will retain its initial arrangement for subsequent movement. Material also can be transported manually using no equipments. Unitization [2]Unitization of load is an important concept in Materials Handling. (iii) Unitized loads are less susceptible to damage and loss during movement from one place to another. wherever. uniform stacking to greater heights and increased storage space utilization. shipping. Transport type of equipments include various types of conveyors . These unitization medium increase the weight of the final load to be handled. (v) There is possibility of damage due to mishandling of large amount of load. inspection. assembly.Material movement and storage activities should be fully integrated to form a coordinated. The conveyors offer the following advantages . Automation Principle:. unitizing. or bulk material. [2]unitized load may be defined as: ‘‘A number of items. (vi) Movement of unitized materials may get hampered due to absence of transfer equipment. (vi) For unitized load. packaging. This offers a number of advantages like stable storage. (vii) The process of unitization often protects loads from foreign elements. The concept is practiced. even made of irregular shaped items. increase responsiveness. possible.A thorough economic analysis should account for the entire life cycle of all material  handling equipment and resulting systems System Principle:. (ii) Unitization generally involves additional support and material for restraining the loose articles. and industrial trucks. operational system which spans receiving. individual item labeling may be avoided. cranes. (iv) Containers are often used for unitization. Conveyor systems allow quick and efficient transportation for a wide variety of materials. There are also disadvantages associated with unitization of loads These are: (i) There is a cost of unitization and de-unitization. generally become stable and well shaped.

It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places. Wheel conveyers.  They can be installed almost anywhere. http://aaupwiki. machine vision system falls under this category.wikipedia. there are many varieties of conveyors in the market specific to particular purpose for which they are used. The vehicle/truck is physically moved along with the load from one point to another via a flat or slightly inclined route. that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. casters and carts.wikipedia. skids.org/wiki/Conveyor_system 5. Products such as pallet racking.Chain conveyers Slat conveyers among the few. which when done by human labor would be strenuous and expensive. gravity flow . the above information should be considered while designing and implementing . sleep sheets.php/Warehouse_Operations . single deep rack. shrink wrap. gantry cranes and stacker cranes depending on its use. Many of these products are often referred to as "catalog" items because they generally have globally accepted standards and are often sold as stock materials out of Material handling catalogs. tote pans. various types of racking systems fall under this category i. Conveyors are able to safely transport materials from one level to another. [5]Crane is a type of machine. http://en. among others. Also.wikipedia. Vikas V. Cranes are commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight. generally equipped with a hoist.Identification and control equipment is used to collect and communicate the information that is used to coordinate the flow of materials within a facility and between a facility and its suppliers and customers. which are equipped to fit individual needs. Shinde Aspects of Materials Handling Laxmi Publications ltd. http://en. RF tags .  They can move loads of all shapes. the cranes are classified into jib crane. cartons. shelving. bulk load containers. Keshava Chanda Arora. [2] Storage Equipments:. double deep rack. Belt conveyer. many have advanced safety features that help prevent accidents. Bibliography 1. including the hydraulic. wire ropes or chains. cantilever type etc.org/wiki/Material-handling_equipment 7. mechanical and fully automated systems.edu/index. intermodal containers. bridge crane. It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a human. powered truck or forklift truck. Roller conveyers . in the construction industry for the movement of materials and in the manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment. intermittently. The major types of unit load formation equipment are pallets. belong to storage and handling. sizes and weights. these can be furthur classified into hand truck.e.The equipment that falls under this description is usually non-automated storage equipment. palletizer's and conventional stripper plate palletizers. Tata McGraw hill edition 2. [1] Identification and Control Equipment:. 4. bags.princeton. [2] unit Load Formation equipments:. and are much safer than using a forklift or other machine to move materials. and sheaves. bar codes. magnetic stripes . http://en.Unit load formation equipment is used to restrict materials so that they maintain their integrity when handled as single load during transport and for storage. where primary function is maneuvering or transporting. Edward Frazelle (2004) world-class Warehousing And Material Handling.  There are a variety of options available for running conveying systems.org/wiki/Crane_(machine) 6.siddharta Ray(2008) Introduction To Material Handling New Age international Publisher 3. [2]Industrial Trucks:-These are manual or power driven vehicles suitable for movement of mixed or unitized load. The scope of the project is to study and design a new material handling system which will improve the productivity at the warehouse .