LEP

5.3.02
-11

Hall effect in n-germanium with Cobra3

Related topics
Semiconductor, band theory, forbidden zone, intrinsic conduction, extrinsic conduction, valency band, conduction
band, Lorentz force, magneto resistance, Neyer-Neldel Rule.
Principle
The resistance and Hall voltage are measured on a rectangular strip of germanium as a function of the temperature and of
the magnetic field. From the results obtained the energy gap,
specific conductivity, type of charge carrier and the carrier
mobility are determined.
Equipment
Hall effect module,
Hall effect, n-Ge, carrier board
Coil, 600 turns
Iron core, U-shaped, laminated
Pole pieces, plane, 30x30x48 mm, 2
Hall probe, tangent., prot. cap
Power supply 0-12 V DC/6 V, 12 V AC
Tripod base -PASSSupport rod -PASS-, square, l = 250 mm
Right angle clamp -PASSConnecting cord, l = 500 mm, red
Connecting cord, l = 500 mm, blue
Connecting cord, l = 750 mm, black
Cobra3 Basic-Unit

11801.00
11802.01
06514.01
06501.00
06489.00
13610.02
13505.93
02002.55
02025.55
02040.55
07361.01
07361.04
07362.05
12150.00

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1
1
1
1
1
1
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Power supply, 12 V
Tesla measuring module
Cobra3 Software Hall
RS 232 data cable
PC, Windows® 95 or higher

12151.99
12109.00
14521.61
14602.00

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1
1
2

1. At constant room temperature and with a uniform magnetic field measure the Hall voltage as a function of the control current and plot the values on a graph (measurement
without compensation for error voltage).
2. At room temperature and with a constant control current,
measure the voltage across the specimen as a function of
the magnetic flux density B.
3. Keeping the control current constant measure the voltage
across the specimen as a function of temperature. From
the readings taken, calculate the energy gap of germanium.
4. At room temperature measure the Hall Voltage UH as a
function of the magnetic flux density B. From the readings
taken, determine the Hall coefficient RH and the sign of the
charge carriers. Also calculate the Hall mobility mH and the
carrier density n.
5. Measure the Hall voltage UH as a function of temperature
at uniform magnetic flux density B, and plot the readings
on a graph.

Fig.1: Experiment set-up for Hall Effect Measurements.

PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG • D-37070 Göttingen

25302-11

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1. avoid bending the plate. To perform the measurements. KG • D-37070 Göttingen . So you can be sure that the magnetic flux is measured directly on the Ge-sample.7. Start the measurement-screen by pressing the ”continue”button. Choose The Sample voltage as the measurement-channel and the Flux density as x-axis. You will receive a typical measurement like in Fig. Choose the measurement on ”key press”.02 -11 Hall effect in n-germanium with Cobra3 Set-up and Procedure The experimental set-up is shown in Fig. The module is directly connected with the 12 V~ output of the power unit over the ac-input on the backside of the module. 5: Calibration menu.6. which parameters have to be measured. so as not to damage the crystal in particular.LEP 5.1. You will receive the following window (Fig. as the current and voltage are only positive. which can be directly put into the groove in the module as shown in Fig. Set the control current to 30 mA. This is the start-screen which appears before every measurement. etc.4) Fig. e. The plate has to be brought up to the magnet very carefully.g. you can choose. 1. Determine the hall voltage as a function of the current from –30 mA up to 30 mA in steps of nearly 5 mA. At zero point. Continue. 2 25302-11 PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. The magnetic field has to be measured with a hall probe. Fig. The different measurements are controlled by the software. Fig. The Tesla-module is connected to the module-port of the Interface.3. start the software and choose as gauge the Cobra3 Hall-Effect. The polarity of the Hall voltage indicated is for negative charge carriers.. It has to be in the centre between the pole pieces. The test piece on the board has to be put into the hall-effekt-modul via the guide-groove. displayed. Choose the measurement on ”key press”. You can also calibrate the Tesla-module via ”options” (Fig.3): Fig. Here. The connection to the Analog In 2 – port of the Cobra3 BasicUnit is realized via a RS232 cable from the RS232-port of the module. You will get a typical graph as shown in Fig. you have to change the polarity to receive a positive magnetic induction. 2. 4: Example of measurement parameters. Determine the sample voltage as a function of the magnetic induction B. 3: Start menu of the software Cobra3 Hall effect. Continue. 2: Hall effect on a rectangular specimen. Choose The Hall voltage as the measurement-channel and the Sample current as x-axis. Set the magnetic field to a value of 250 mT by changing the voltage and current on the power supply.5). Hall voltage as a function of Sample current (Fig. Start with –300 mT by changing the polarity of the coil-current and increase the magnetic induction in steps of nearly 20 mT.

Determine the Hall voltage as a function of the temperature. 5. Continue. Choose The Hall voltage as the measurement-channel and the sample temperature as x-axis. Start the measurement by activating the heating coil with the ”on/off”-knob on the backside of the module and start the measurement in the software. A typical measurement is shown in Fig. Continue. 7: Change of resistance as a function of the magnetic flux density. Set the current to a value of 30 mA. At zero point.8. Choose The Sample voltage as the measurement-channel and the sample temperature as x-axis. Choose the measurement ”every 1 s”. Theory and evaluation When a current-carrying conductor in the form of a rectangular strip is placed in a magnetic field with the lines of force at right angles to the current. Determine the Hall voltage as a function of the magnetic induction. Set the current to a value of 30 mA. The module automatically controls and stops the heating. You will receive a typical curve as shown in Fig. Choose the measurement ”every 1 s”. 10: Hall voltage as a function of temperature. e = elementary charge). but the voltage changes according to a change in temperature.9. Choose The Hall voltage as the measurement-channel and the Flux density as x-axis. After a channel modification (compare evaluation) you will receive a curve like Fig. The magnetic field is off. Set the current to 30 mA and the magnetic induction to 300 mT. U–1 is approximately equal to s. 6: Hall voltage as a function of current Fig. Fig. KG • D-37070 Göttingen 25302-11 3 . Fig. 4. 8: The reciprocal specimen voltage as a function of the reciprocal absolute temperature (Since I was constant during the experiment.02 -11 Hall effect in n-germanium with Cobra3 3. This phenomenon is due to the Lorentz force: the charge carriers which give rise to the current flow through the specimen are deflected in the magnetic field B as a function of their sign and of their velocity v: S F e1S v B 2 (F = force acting on charge carriers. Start with –300 mT by changing the polarity of the coil-current and increase the magnetic induction in steps of nearly 20 mT.LEP 5. Fig. The current remains nearly constant during the measurement. you have to change the polarity. the graph is therefore the same as a plot of the conductivity against the reciprocal temperature.) Fig. 9: Hall voltage as a function of the magnetic flux density. Start the measurement by activating the heating coil with the ”on/off”-knob on the backside of the module and starting the software. Continue. a transverse e. Choose the measurement on ”key press”.3. – the so called Hall voltage – is set up across the strip. m.10. PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. Determine the change in voltage dependent on the change in temperature for a temperature range of room temperature to a maximum of 170°C. f.

02 -11 Hall effect in n-germanium with Cobra3 Since negative and positive charge carriers have opposite directions of motion in the semiconductor. the current is due mainly to electrons (as in the case of an n-doped specimen). obviously quadratic change of resistance with increasing field strength. For intrinsic conduction. Now. Remember the procedure with the parameters in Fig. Fig.50 ± 0. therefore. Hence Eg is obtained.12. In the case of hole conduction (p-doped specimen) it becomes positively charged.87 · 103 K with a standard deviation sb = ± 0. KG • D-37070 Göttingen .3 · 103 K. 4 25302-11 2k · T 1 gives slope 1. If the directions of the current and magnetic field are known. do as follows: Choose the channel modification in the analysis-menu. With the measured values in Fig.625 · 10 5 Taking eV K we obtain Eg = b · 2k = (0.LEP 5. 2. The change of resistance of the specimen in a magnetic field is connected with a decrease of the mean free path of the charge carriers. Continue. Fig. both are deflected in the same direction. Therefore. 7 shows a non-linear. and k is Botzmann’s constant. (Since the experiment was performed with a constant current.04) eV. the charge carriers which produce the current are deflected to the front edge of the specimen. Set the parameters as shown in Fig.11. you have the desired graph. A graph of loge s against 1/T will be linear with a slope of b  Eg 2k . Fig.3. Fig. With the directions of control current und magnetic field illustrated in Fig. If. the front edge becomes negatively charged. PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. 11: Parameters for the first channel modification. use he channel modification in the anaylsis-menu. 8. To determine the regression line. 3. 6 shows that a linear relation exists between the current land the Hall voltage UH: UH = a · I Eg b   Eg 2k   2. the polarity of the Hall voltage tells us whether the current is predominantly due to the drift of negative charges or to the drift of positive charges. choose the ”Regression”-icon. 4. k  8. s can be replaced by U-1 [ U = voltage across the specimen] ). 12: Parameters for the second channel modification. the regression formulation ln s  ln s0  (a = proportionality factor) 2. To receive the necessary graph. the relationship between the conductivity s and the absolute temperature T is: s  s0 · exp a  Eg 2 kT b where Eg is the energy gap between the valency and conduction bands.

it can be assumed that the increase of charge carriers (transition from extrinsic to intrinsic conduction) with the associated reduction of the drift velocity v is responsible for this.3.257 ±0.3 Ω. then 5.602 · 10–19 As. Using the values from Fig. PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. regression with the formulation gives the slope b = 0. with the standard deviation sb + 0.8 · 10 3 m 10–3m As l . R0 = 37. e · RH and I = 3 . (The same current for a higher number of charge carriers means a lower drift velocity). The drift velocity is in turn related to the Hall voltage by the Lorentz force. if l = 0.6 Ω–1 m–1.0 · 1020 m–3.030 A. These values are usually given a negative sign in the case of electron conduction. carrier mobility mH. The electron concentration n of n-doped specimen is given by 1 n . its cross-sectional area A and its resistance R0 (cf. and the carrier density n are all connected by the Hall coefficient RH: UH d RH  · . only the magnitude of the Hall voltage and Hall coefficient has been used here.02 -11 Hall effect in n-germanium with Cobra3 The conductivity s0. R·A . Since the experiment was performed with a constant current. Fig.144 VT-1. KG • D-37070 Göttingen 25302-11 5 . 7.0052 UH = U0 + b · B RH  Thus.2 · 103 Using the same values above. As m3 m2 Taking e = elementary charge = 1. B I n s0 = 53.004 VT-1.LEP 5.02 m. 9 shows alinearrelationbetween the Hall voltage and the magnetic flux density B. The conductivity at room temperature is calculated from the length l of the specimen. we obtain with the standard deviation sRH  ±0. mH  RH · s0 The Hall mobility mH of the charge carriers can now be determined from the expression 1 e · RH mH = RH · so Fig. this gives mH  10. Note For the sake of simplicity. 10 shows that the Hall voltage decreases with increasing temperature. The Hall coefficient RH is then given by UH d d ·  b· B I I Thus. if the thickness of specimen d = 1 · 0. A = 1 · 10–5m2. then RH  4. Experiment 2): s0  Vs n = 13.

02 -11 6 Hall effect in n-germanium with Cobra3 25302-11 PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co.LEP 5. KG • D-37070 Göttingen .3.