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Printed on chlorine-free 100% PCW Recycled Paper, with Soy-Inks. www.environmentaloncology.

org

Center for Minority Health Addresses Health Disparities with


Programs and Partnerships
Continued from page 7
Center for Environmental Oncology
coordinated prostate cancer education This collaboration increases the capacity
and screening programs in the barber- of the CMH to fulfill its mission by inte-
shops. Now, the CMH and CEO plan to grating CIS services and tools into its ex-
partner with shops and salons to dissemi- isting infrastructure of research, training, Winter 2007
nate information on cancer and the envi- and service. Two program planning tools, Volume 1 • Number 3
ronment and on strategies to reduce one’s Cancer Control PLANET—a web portal
individual risk of developing the disease. on comprehensive cancer control plan- ADDITIONAL Winter 2007 • Volume 1 • Number 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ning and Consumer Health Profiles—a INTERNET RESOURCES Leaking Underground Storage Tanks:
Additional Tools to
an emerging public health risk
Address Health Disparities collection of geographic, demographic, Beyond Pesticides
PAGE 3
www.beyondpesticides.org
and health and lifestyle data position the
In 2003, the CMH received the subcontract Breast Cancer Fund
Maternal prenatal exposure to environmental
CMH to help partners identify the cancer tobacco smoke harms babies during pregnancy
to operate the National Cancer Institute’s www.breastcancerfund.org
burden in their community. CMH and CEO PAGE 5
(NCI) Atlantic Region Cancer Information Children’s Health and Environmental Coalition
will use these tools to further advance en- Center for Minority Health Addresses Health
Service (CIS) for Western, Pennsylvania. www.checnet.org
vironmental issues. Disparities with Programs and Partnerships
The CIS provides the latest and most ac- Department of Environmental Quality PAGE 6
Through its numerous partnerships and www.deq.state.mi.us/sid-web
curate cancer information for patients and How Many Light Bulbs Does it Take to
programs, the Center for Minority Health Environmental Working Group
their families, the public, and health pro- Change the World?
is making progress towards its mission www.ewg.org PAGE 8
fessionals. This is accomplished through
to eliminate racial and ethnic health Health Goods
its regional CIS Partnership Program pro- A Heads Up on Lice
disparities. www.healthgoods.com PAGE 10
vision of technical assistance as well as
Health Care Without Harm Fleeing From Fleas
program planning and implementation in
www.hcwh.org PAGE 11
partnership with organizations reaching
OSHA
underserved populations. UPCOMING EVENTS
www.osha.gov

A Head’s Up on Lice
The American Head Lice Information Center ABOUT A HUNDRED YEARS AGO February 8, 2007
www.headliceinfo.com 12 noon – 1 PM
Continued From Page 11 by: Devra L. Davis, PhD, MPH, Director, Center for Environmental Oncology of UPCI and
Environmental Health at the Movies,
The Collaborative on Health and the Environment Professor of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh and
holes with olive oil, the lice will die. • Thoroughly clean your child’s towels, Blue Vinyl
www.healthandenvironment.org
Ronald B. Herberman, MD, Director, UPCI and UPMC Cancer Centers <The World’s First Toxic Comedy> (Winner Sundance
However, it takes awhile for them linens, clothes, hats and toys by
The CDC Film Festival, Emmy Award Nominee for Best
to die, because head lice can shut adding a few drops of essential oils About a hundred years ago, scientists stud- of these materials, common to cigarette
www.cdc.gov Documentary and Best Research)
down their systems for hours. that repel or kill lice ied smoke by comparing the color of any smoke and smoke stacks, such as ben- Open to the Public
The E-House Company
Knowing how and when to use a plume they saw to various papers shaded zene, tars, cadmium, and butadiene, are UPMC Cancer Pavilion
• Wash in hot water and dry towels www.ehousecompany.com
smothering program is essential. light gray to dark black. Today, we can rely well-known causes of cancer and other 5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA
and linens on very high heat The Green Guide Herberman Auditorium, Room 202
Consult with your physician. www.thegreenguide.com on newly devised electronic eyes to mea- diseases in workers who have been highly
Followed by Panel Discussion.
• Place toys and stuffed animals (that sure the gases and particles in smoke and exposed. Other emissions include minis-
• The least expensive pumice-grade or The National Cancer Institute Free Healthy Lunch served.
cannot be cleaned) in plastic bags www.nci.nih.gov/cancertopics identify things that can be thousands of cule amounts of polonium 210—concen- Call 412-623-1175 for more details
restaurant-grade olive oil works best. and keep sealed for two weeks. This
Safe 2 Use
times smaller than a human hair. trated levels of which were recently used Continued on page 2
• Mineral oil (including baby oil) is will kill the lice. www.safe2use.com Cigarette smoke remains the best-stud- to kill a former KGB agent in Britain.
not recommended because it can be • Replace all combs, brushes and Venture Outdoors ied and best-known source of smoke that This newsletter expands on our prior two
harmful to mucous membranes. www.ventureoutdoors.org Citation
barrettes, or if possible boil items poses a public health threat at this time. issues (which you can access at www.
3 Do a reasonable job of cleaning the in water. adapted in part from
But, many of the particles and gases that environmentaloncology.org) and explains
infested person’s belongings and • Vacuum carpets and cars arise from the smoking of tobacco also oc- how important new advances in research 1. Davis, Devra, When Smoke Ran Like Water (New York:
Basic Books, A Member of the Perseus Book Groups, 2002)
home environment. cur at lower levels whenever fossil fuels are making it clear that regular exposures
www.whensmokeranlikewater.com
are burned to produce energy and fuel our to small amounts of benzene and other pol-
Please share this newsletter and be sure it is recycled. vehicles, or whenever accidents cause re- lutants can have grave consequences for
Photo on page 5 courtesy of Clean Air for Healthy Children and leases of these materials into the air. Some public health. Funding for this newletter is provided by the
12 Families (cigarette and smoke were added after photo was taken)
Continued on page 2 Highmark Foundation and the Heinz Endowments.
www.environmentaloncology.org CEO-UPCI CEO-UPCI www.environmentaloncology.org

About a Hundred Years Ago A Head’s Up on Lice


Continued From Page 1 Continued From Page 10
For nearly a quarter century, more than In truth, warnings about this problem from How are lice treated? soap and oils can be found in health
6,000 peer-reviewed studies conducted the public health community were provided food stores) to the lathered hair and
Lice are difficult to remove because of
in more than thirty different countries nearly 40 years ago. Warren Winkelstein, apply conditioner liberally
their size, life cycle, and their developed
have consistently confirmed that regu- working for the New York State Health
resistance to insecticides. If not treated • Rinse and rewash with this FLEEING FROM FLEAS
UPCOMING EVENTS lar exposures to amounts of air pollution Department in 1968, looked at 21 areas in
Continued from page 1 correctly, they can be a persistent and same mixture
that do not immediately kill people in the and around Buffalo, New York, and found Fleas are reddish brown to black, wingless external
recurring problem. Getting rid of head • After rewashing, do not rinse, but parasites that are generally found on the skin of
February 8, 2007 United States eventually cause between that deaths from lung disease more than
Pediatric Grand Rounds lice is a three-step process: wrap a towel around the head and cats, dogs and other animals. Although fleas prefer
40,000 and 100,000 people to die each doubled in the dirtiest areas, compared
Dr. Michael Shannon of Children’s Hospital of Boston 1 Kill all lice and nits. Beware of wait for 30 minutes domesticated animals, when supply is short, fleas
year. In addition, such exposures sicken to the cleanest. In 1955, Peter Stocks and
Department of Emergency Medicine will give an
millions more with chronic coughs and John Campbell interviewed men dying of medicated shampoos, creams, or will bite humans or other animals.
update on ‘Mercury’. • Comb clean hair through with a
Presented by the Departments on Pediatrics and lung diseases, including cancer, and cost lung cancer in North Wales and Liverpool, lotions. Familiar over-the-counter normal comb first What are symptoms of fleas?
Emergency Medicine of CHP the nation billions of dollars in work days England, and learned that nonsmokers brand names include: Rid, Nix, • Some cat fleas are suspected of transmitting
Shannon will also speak to the residents, Pronto and Clear. However, these • Comb from roots along the complete murine typhus to humans; however,
lost and damaged crops and materials. living in the most polluted zones died at 10
later at 12 noon about Global Climate Change. length of the hair with a nit-removing
The good news is that air pollution levels, times the rate of those living in the clean- products contain pesticides primarily the bites are the major nuisance.
February 13, 2007
(pyrethrin, permethrin, lindane, comb, strand by strand, until all • Bites itch and appear as a central
as detected by conventional measures, est areas. In 1958, a study of 187,783 Amer-
4-6 PM nits are removed (this takes a while).
have dropped dramatically—nearly fifty ican Army veterans by American Cancer malathion and others), also known red spot surrounded by a red halo.
A Talk by Tyrone Hayes, PhD
as pediculicides, and may not be Dampen hair as needed. • Some may have an allergic reaction to the bite.
Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley fold—from the days when most urban Society researchers Cuyler Hammond and
“From Silent Sprint to Silent Night: Hermaphroditic areas could be smelled before they could Harold Dorn found that the death rate from advisable for babies, pregnant • Work methodically over the whole How to manage fleas without using pesticides*
Frogs, Breast Cancer and Pesticides.”
be seen. But the full story of what air pol- lung cancer among those living in cities women, or people with chronic head for at least 30 minutes • Thoroughly clean pet beds and resting areas
Cooper Conference Center, Cooper classroom BC
lution means for our health remains to was twice that of residents of rural areas. disease such as asthma, cancer, both indoors and outdoors in hot soapy water
Please call 412-623-1175 for further information. • Wash and rinse the hair.
be written. What if this information had been made or AIDS. Moreover, pesticides can • Thoroughly and regularly vacuum floors, rugs,
February 14, 2007 Once dry, check thoroughly for
widely available to folks deciding where enter our soils and waterways and carpets, upholstered furniture, and crevices
12 -1 PM For instance, asthma rates have dou- any missed nits.
CME-accredited talk on ‘Radon’ by John Mallon, to live, and to city officials thinking about ultimately end up in our food and around corners to remove flea eggs and larvae
bled despite the control of convention- • Thoroughly clean the comb, hands, • Place vacuum bags in a sealed bag and throw
Radon Detection and Control what forms of transport and energy to drinking water.
UPMC Cancer Pavilion ally measured pollutants from cars. And bedding, and clothing. Pillows can out since flea eggs and larvae can survive
5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh PA what about unconventional, unmeasured permit? What if, at any point in the past 48 Lice can become resistant to repeated be placed in the freezer overnight. inside the bags
Herberman Conference Center, Room 201AB pollutants? Nobody is asking whether years, these reports had been used as the treatments with pesticides. “Retail Phar- You can comb a lice-repellant • Use a special comb to remove fleas from your
Please call 412-623-1175 to pre-register
tiny, growing emissions from degrading grounds for making the decisions about macy News” offers an extensive list of
for healthy free lunch. essential oil through the hair. pet and comb on regular intervals to reduce
tires—since some chemicals in synthetic public transport, light, heat and energy? alternatives to toxic pesticides including The best choices of repellent occurrence of fleas
March 12, 2007 How many lives might have been saved?1
rubber are highly allergenic—could play a the following: essential oils are tea tree, neem, • Spray your pet daily with a 50/50 mixture of
12 noon – 1 PM
Environmental Health at the Movies, role. Nor are questions being raised about We cannot erase history or ignore a vast • “Not Nice To Lice” contains filtered rosemary, lavender, eucalyptus, white vinegar and water
A Healthy Baby Girl whether other toxic pollutants or forms body of research showing how burning • Use an enzyme shampoo on your pet
and purified water, and natural and rose geranium. Add 10 drops
UPMC Cancer Pavilion of environmental degradation account fossil fuels affects our local and global • Mix brewer’s yeast, or vitamin B or garlic
5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA enzyme cleaners including Protease, of essential oil to 1 oz. oil. Comb
for why young African American chil- health. Because our environment is so tablets in with pet food.
Herberman Auditorium, Room 202 Lipase, Cellulase and Amylase through the hair. Or make a tea tree
dren have two to four times more asthma much cleaner today, it’s easy to think of • Rub animal’s coat with fennel, rue,
Followed by a Panel Discussion. oil shampoo by adding 10 drops of
• “LiceOut” is a non-toxic and rosemary
Free Healthy Lunch Served. than whites. pollution as something in the past, or af- tea tree oil to 1 oz. of shampoo.
Please call 412-623-1175 for more details. water-based gel • Place eucalyptus seeds and leaves where the
Using American Cancer Society informa- flicting some distant land we will never
2 Check for and remove all nits by • Repeat the process every few days animal sleeps
tion on half a million middle-class people see. This newsletter makes clear that
Continued on page 3 for at least two weeks *As a last resort and after consulting with a
decisions we make today about how and wet combing and manual nit picking
in 154 cities from 1982 to 1998, research- veterinarian, use topical liquid spot treatment
where we live and work affect our health or by smothering with olive oil. Smothering head lice with olive oil (after
ers in the Journal of the American Medical
and that of our children for generations Wet combing and manual nit picking: washing and combing hair) is safe and
Association in 2003 reported that the risk
to come. effective, but can be complicated.
of dying from lung cancer from regularly • Wash hair as normal, preferably with
Winter 2007 breathing air polluted with fine particu- a coconut-oil castile soap. Add a few • Lice breathe through holes in Winter 2007
lates at levels found today in America was their sides. When you cover these Volume 1 • Number 3
Volume 1 • Number 3 drops of tea tree oil and neem oil (the
about equal to that of living with a smoker. Continued on page 12

2 Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute 11
www.environmentaloncology.org CEO-UPCI CEO-UPCI www.environmentaloncology.org

Maternal prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has the


same harmful effects on the baby as active smoking
Continued From Page 5
whose mothers smoked than in the blood knows she is pregnant. Because of this,
of those babies whose mothers neither we concluded that smoking, and second-
smoked nor were exposed to second- ary exposure to tobacco smoke, should be
ary smoke. To our surprise, the blood of avoided by all women who are “likely to UPCOMING EVENTS
Continued from page 2
the babies whose mothers reported only become pregnant.”
April 5, 2007
secondary exposure had just as many mu- It is important to note, however, that all 2 – 4 PM
tant cells as those of the smoking moth- of the women who quit smoking reported Arlene Blum, renowned biophysical chemist,
ers, and the mutations were of the same ongoing exposure to secondary smoke, so
environmentalist, mountaineer and author
types, which were known to be caused by ‘The Dilemma of Flame Retardants: Science,
this might be the source of the increased History, Politics’
the carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Other mutation. What these data indicate is UPMC Cancer Pavilion
researchers have recently reported that that it is not enough for a woman to stop 5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA
developing babies are particularly sensi- smoking. In order to protect her child
Herberman Auditorium, Room 202A
tive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, from the effects of secondary exposure, April 6, 2007
PAHs, the major type of carcinogen found 5 – 7 PM, Byham Theater
a woman’s home and her workplace must In collaboration with Venture Outdoors Pittsburgh:
in tobacco smoke. be made smoke-free as well. In particu- Presenting Arlene Blum, biochemist, mountaineer.
To our dismay, our findings showed that lar, the father’s smoking during the baby’s Best known for leading the first American—and all
the blood of the children whose moth- development may have harmful effects on women’s ascent—of Annapurna I, considered one of
the world’s most dangerous mountains. First woman to
ers quit smoking during pregnancy also the health of the baby, effects that may attempt Mt. Everest. Author of Breaking Trail: A Climb-
had high numbers of mutant cells. This undermine the mother’s efforts to protect ing Life” And “Annapurna: A Woman’s Place.”
raises the possibility that tobacco smoke the health of her child.
Leaking underground storage tanks: Keynote speaker for the Banff Mountain Film Festival
Please call 412-623-1175 for further information.
damages babies before the mother even
an emerging public health risk April 11, 2007
A Head’s Up on Lice by: Evelyn Talbott, DrPH, Professor of Epidemiology, GSPH and Jeanne Zborowski, PhD, 12 noon – 1 PM
CME-accredited talk
by: Marcia Barr, BSCE, BBEC, Co-Director, Environmental Assessment and Control, Senior Research Specialist, Department of Epidemiology, GSPH, University of Pittsburgh
Dr. Joe Suyama, Department of Emergency Medicine,
Center for Environmental Oncology of UPCI After World War II, the automobile became Gasoline leaking from these tanks con- speaking on ‘Acute Effects of Toxic Exposures’
a fixture in the everyday life of Americans. taminates surrounding soil and ground- UPMC Cancer Pavilion
Head lice are tiny, wingless bugs about What are the symptoms?
5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA
the size of a sesame seed. They have six The exponential growth of automobile water causing both environmental and
• Itching and scratching often occurs, Herberman Auditorium, Room 202
legs with tiny claws and live only on hu- sales resulted in the construction of thou- human health risks. Benzene, a compo- Please call 412-623-1175 to pre-register
which may lead to small red bumps
man scalps. sands of gasoline stations across the coun- nent of gasoline, is categorized by the for free healthy lunch.
or sores.
try (2.2 million tanks!) Bare steel tanks, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) April 12, 2007
How to tell if your child has lice…
• Continued scratching may result with an average tank life expectancy of 15 as a proven human carcinogen and has 12 noon – 1 PM
• Lice can be seen with the naked eye in bacterial infection, which may – 30 years, were installed underground to been linked in occupational studies to in- CME-accredited talk
by separating hair strands with a fine Dr. Jonathan Weinkle, Medicine-Pediatrics Resident
require a topical or oral antibiotic. store gasoline. Since the 1980’s, corrosion creased cancer rates, particularly of the
INFORMATION ADAPTED and CEO Medical Consultant, speaking on
tooth comb. and faulty installation and operation have blood forming organs (leukemia, lympho-
FROM THE FOLLOWING WEBSITES: How are lice spread? ‘Environmental Health Advocacy’
• Adult lice are brownish tan in color resulted in widespread ground water con- ma, etc). While workers who regularly use (Focusing on the American Academy of Pediatrics
http://www.safe2use.com/nntl/sitemap-n.htm • Lice are highly contagious, but
tamination by gasoline (benzene, toluene, benzene have been consistently found to Priorities in this area.)
http://www.getipm.com/notnicetolice/rpn-article.htm and their eggs (nits) are yellow or tan.
cannot fly or jump. Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh
http://www.care2.com/channels/solutions/home/372 ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX compounds) have a number of serious health problems Room B213-214
• Nits may look like dandruff but cannot
http://www.liceout.com/ • Spreading occurs from head to and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). when compared to other workers without Free Healthy Lunch Served.
http://www.headliceinfo.com/faqs.htm be brushed or shaken off.
head contact, sharing of clothing, Because fifty percent of all Americans rely such exposures, few studies have exam- Please call 412-623-1175 for more details.
• Nits are easier to locate than lice. towels, bed linens (pillows), combs on groundwater for their drinking water, ined the health effects of a community ex-
and brushes, and hats. these leaking underground storage tanks posure to low-level benzene via gasoline
Winter 2007 Winter 2007
pose a significant public health hazard. or other spills.
Volume 1 • Number 3 Volume 1 • Number 3
Continued on page 11 Continued on page 4

10 Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute 3
www.environmentaloncology.org CEO-UPCI CEO-UPCI www.environmentaloncology.org

Leaking underground storage tanks: an emerging public health risk How many light bulbs does it take to change the world?
Continued From Page 3 Continued From Page 8
In 2001 and 2002, our team of investigators The results of our University of Pittsburgh local Jewish community to engage all of dioxide alone (.001 tons CO2 per kWh in an
from the University of Pittsburgh carried study are consistent with what has been us in awareness, advocacy and action to 8,000 hour timeframe) from entering our
out an epidemiological study specifically observed in workers who regularly use conserve energy, reduce greenhouse gas atmosphere. (Source: Oak Ridge National
examining the health effects of the Trangu- benzene but with eight hour exposures, emissions, and promote energy legislation. Laboratory, The Impact of Environmental
POTENTIAL RISKS Citations
ch Gasoline Spill. The Tranguch Gasoline which are considerably greater. We have A feature of this program (easily achievable Externality Requirements on Renewable
FROM GASOLINE EXPOSURE 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact_fluorescent_lamp
Spill has been characterized as a leakage found that chronic low-level benzene ex- by each of us) is to change a few of your Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, July 1994). For
For more than a century, gasoline fueled engines 2. A 15-watt CFL produces an equivalent amount of light as a
of 50,000-900,000 gallons of gasoline from posure is tied with an increased risk for bulbs to CFLs. To date, with just 50,000 more information, visit www.coejl.org/
have been used in cars, trucks, locomotives and 60-watt incandescent bulb.
other motorized machinery.1 Engine exhausts contain
underground storage tanks in two munici- leukemia among residents living near the bulbs sold nationwide, the campaign climatechange.
palities located in northeastern Pennsyl- Tranguch spill site. While acute myeloge- 3. Based on shipping weights found at Target.com.
thousands of gases and particles and are considered has already kept 144,000 tons of carbon
by the International Agency for Research on Cancer vania. As a result of the spill, it is believed nous leukemia has been definitively linked 4. Assuming plant is fueled by coal.
of the World Health Organization to cause cancer.
that residents living within an EPA-defined to benzene exposure in workers, our study A LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF INCANDESCENT BULBS 5. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4922496.stm
A number of key chemicals in gasoline are known VERSUS COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS
to cause cancer or other serious health effects in
remediation area were chronically ex- is one of the first to suggest such an as- 6. Analysis based on hours of light produced (8,000 hours =
humans or in experimental animals, including benzene, posed to low-levels of benzene sourcing sociation in residents from environmental 8,000 hour timeframe1 60-watt 15-watt 1 CFL = 6 incandescent bulbs). Therefore, six
toluene, xylene, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).2 from the gasoline since at least 1990. In exposures in their homes. Incandescent Compact Fluorescent2 incandescent bulbs must be compared with one CFL.

Benzene response to community concerns, a study Purchase and replacement 6*$0.50 = $3.00 $2. 25 7. 0.00006452 lbs/1,000 kWh, varies regionally depending on
Scientists who worked on this study have costs (Includes energy to coal content.
This solvent, which is also released by cigarette examined 663 individuals from 275 house-
smoke, is known to cause cancer in humans.
met with the community to explain these manufacture the bulbs and
holds that had been exposed to benzene results and suggested general precautions lamps)
Long-term exposure to benzene in the workplace
can cause leukemia. Regularly breathing low to see whether they had a higher risk of to lower personal environmental exposure Energy required to manu- 1 kWh/bulb 4 kWh/bulb
levels can damage the nervous system and cause cancer and other diseases, compared to to other sources of benzene, like cigarette facture the bulb4,5
anemia and other problems of the blood.3 others in Pennsylvania. smoke and pumping gasoline as well as Operational costs per 8,000 $48.00 $12.00
Toluene and Xylene hours of light (using a cost
Using questionnaires, we collected per- housing cans of paint thinner, gasoline for
Although the link to cancer has not been of $.10 per kilowatt hour)
established, regular breathing of toluene causes sonal information on health, jobs, and lawn mowers and paint in close proxim-
Transportation costs per
birth defects and brain damage, and xylene can residence. Cancers that were reported ity to their living areas. Recommendations 6*$0.02/pound*2 ounces3 $0.02/pound*4 ounces3
8,000 hours of light = $0.015 = $0.005
cause loss of consciousness and even death at in these questionnaires were verified by were made to public health agencies and
high levels. Importantly, in addition to the amount Disposal costs per 8,000 6*$0.02/pound*2 ounces3 $0.02/pound*4 ounces3
physicians and cross-referenced with the community based on the study’s find-
of benzene already present in gasoline, the EPA hours of light = $0.015 = $0.005
has determined that incomplete combustion of the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry for the ings. They included screening the exposed
xylene and toluene also significantly contributes period January 1, 1990 to December 31, community in the future to see whether Life Cycle Cost6 $51.03/ 6 bulbs $14.26/ bulb
to the amount of benzene in auto exhaust. 3 2000. We calculated the rate of cancer in they develop other health problems. Pub- Mercury emissions result- 0.006 ounces/6,000 bulbs 0.004 ounces/1,000 bulbs
MTBE persons exposed to benzene from leak- lic health officials will be engaged in sur- ing from bulb manufac-
Many states, including Pennsylvania, Delaware, ture4,7
ing gasoline tanks and found that they veillance in the spill-affected area in order
Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington Mercury emissions result-
had nearly four times more leukemia than to determine the long-term impact of this 0.5 ounces/ 6,000 bulbs 0.12 ounces/ 1,000 bulbs
D.C. have banned this gasoline additive, because of ing from generating elec-
its capacity to cause cancer and damage the nervous other persons in the state. In fact, the risk low-level exposure to gasoline. tricity to power the bulb4,7
system. MTBE from leaking underground storage of all cancer in those exposed to benzene Our research is one of very few studies Non-monetized Mer- 0.506 ounces of mercu- 0.124 ounces of mercu-
tanks is found in ground water in many regions. 3 was not higher, but the risk of leukemia, a to extensively investigate exposures to cury Only Environmental ry/6,000 bulbs ry/1,000 bulbs
Sources cancer known to be tied to benzene, was Burden6
gasoline/benzene in a community setting.
1 http://www.inchem.org/documents/
greatly elevated. Four incident cases of Given the high prevalence of leaking un-
iarc/vol46/46-01.html
2 http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/EHSRM/EHS/ leukemia were reported (two acute my- derground gasoline tanks in the United
SARA/MSDS/gasolineunleaded2001.pdf elogenous, one chronic myelogenous, States, this exposure is far from unique.
3 http://www.epa.gov/ and one chronic lymphocytic). The resi- Therefore, it is important for communities
dential location of the acute myelogenous and public health agencies to cooperate
leukemia cases directly bordered the to assess and address health effects po-
more concentrated areas of gasoline as Winter 2007
Winter 2007 tentially resulting from such leaks.
projected by the US Army Corps of Engi-
Volume 1 • Number 3 Volume 1 • Number 3
neer and EPA.

4 Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute 9
www.environmentaloncology.org CEO-UPCI CEO-UPCI www.environmentaloncology.org

How many light bulbs does it take to


change the world?
by: Marcia Barr, BSCE, BBEC, Co-Director, Environmental Assessment and Control, Center
for Environmental Oncology of UPCI, and Devra Davis, PhD, MPH, Director, Center for
Environmental Oncology of UPCI
An old joke goes: “How many psychiatrists watt CFL produces the same amount of “Studies have shown that mothers
does it take to change a light bulb?” The light (lumens) as a 60-watt incandescent who live in zones with higher air
answer is simple, “None. The light bulb bulb. Using a cost of $.10 per kilowatt
has to want to change itself.” Today, hour, the cost to operate a single 15- pollution have babies with smaller
the Pittsburgh region can save millions watt CFL for 8,000 hours is $12 while the heads and lower birth weights.”
of dollars, if each one of us would swap cost to operate six 60-watt incandescent
a single incandescent light bulb in our bulbs for the same length of time is four Perera, F. P., Rauh, V., Tsai, Wei-Yann, Kinney, P., Camann,
home for a single compact fluorescent times that amount ($48). Now consider the D., Barr, D., Bernert, T., Garfinkel, R., Tu, Yi-Hsuan, Diaz, D.
lamp (CFL). Although they initially cost environmental impact. If we assume that Dietrich, J., and Whyatt, R. M. Effects of Transplacental
Exposure to Environmental Pollutants on Birth Outcomes
more to buy, CFLs cost much less to use the power plant producing the electricity
in a Multiethnic Population. Children’s Health. February
because they require one-fourth as much for your home is also fueled by coal, that 2003, Environmental Health Perspectives. Volume 111,
electricity to produce the same amount of power plant will burn more coal and emit Maternal prenatal exposure to environmental Number 2: 201-205
lighting, and last about six times longer more particulates, greenhouse gases,
tobacco smoke harms babies during pregnancy
than incandescents. This means that the and mercury to power an incandescent
by: Stephen G. Grant, PhD, Center for Environmental Oncology of UPCI
bulb than a CFL. Even though compact
total cost of using CFLs over their life cycle
Before becoming pregnant, many women It is well known that exposures such as to-
is much cheaper than incandescent light fluorescent lamps contain low levels of
who smoke decide that they will quit if and
bacco smoke can cause damage to DNA,
bulbs. Refer to the below table titled “A life
mercury (while incandescents contain no
when they become pregnant. Whatever the genetic material, which, if it is not
Cycle Assessment of Incandescent Bulbs mercury), the use of CFLs results in less
their thoughts on the dangers of smoking repaired, becomes an irreversible “muta-
Versus Compact Fluorescent Lamps.” contamination because they last longer
overall, they prefer not to take a chancetion.” Accumulation of such mutations
The math is simple. CFLs are typically and use less electricity to produce light. with the health of their baby. They recog-
occurs with age and leads to the diseases
guaranteed to last for 8,000 hours1. Since Although CFLs are double the weight of nize that the problems that arise during the
of aging, such as cancer. Thus, a child
an incandescent bulb is only guaranteed incandescents, they are 3 times cheaper development of a child are likely to havewho experiences mutagenic exposure in
for 1,250 hours on average, approximately to transport and dispose of (using a factor the womb might begin life with a greater
life-long ramifications for his or her well-
6 incandescent bulbs (8,000/1,250) have of 6 for bulb longevity described above and being. lifetime risk of developing cancer or at a
to be bought to provide the same amount assuming costs of about $0.02 per pound
In a recent study, performed under the greater risk of developing cancer at an
of lighting as a single CFL. Because most for transportation and $0.02 per pound for
auspices of the Center for Environmental early age.
of our local electricity comes from coal, disposal). If every household in our city
Oncology, researchers examined cells The number of mutated cord blood cells
when we make this switch we do much were to replace just one incandescent
from the cord blood of babies who were and the type of mutations they carried
more than save money on our energy bills. bulb with a CFL that was on continuously,
born to mothers who either: were determined by a well-established
We reduce the amount of coal that needs we would save more than $12 million
1) smoked throughout pregnancy, testing procedure using a gene that should
to be burned to keep our homes, schools, dollars annually, chiefly in the form of
have no associated health effects.
and businesses lit, and thereby lower reduced costs for electricity. 2) quit smoking when they Citation
the amount of air pollution in the form At this time of year, when daylight is became pregnant, or Cells with mutations were found in blood
Grant, S.G. (2005) Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects
of ultra-fine particulates, mercury, and scarce, the holidays of Christmas, samples from all of the babies in the study,
3) were non-smokers and also of active and passive maternal tobacco smoke exposure on in
greenhouse gases. because a background frequency of DNA utero mutagenesis at the HPRT locus. BMC Pediatrics 5: 20
Kwanzaa and Hanukah feature lighting as reported whether they had significant
damage and mutation is unavoidable.
Now let’s look at the cost to use the bulb. part of their celebrations. A nationwide exposure to secondary (environmental)
However, nearly twice as many mutated
CFLs use about one quarter of the power campaign, “A light among nations” is tobacco smoke (whether they lived or
cells were found in the blood of the babies
Winter 2007 of an incandescent. In other words, a 15- being spearheaded in Pittsburgh by the worked with smokers). Winter 2007
Volume 1 • Number 3 Continued on page 10 Volume 1 • Number 3
Continued on page 9

8 Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute 5
www.environmentaloncology.org CEO-UPCI CEO-UPCI www.environmentaloncology.org

Center for Minority Health Addresses Health Disparities with


Programs and Partnerships
Continued from page 6
which Drs. Davis and Thomas made their search need to be directed toward under-
commitment to make the African Ameri- standing why younger African American
can community a partner in health promo- women are at a significantly higher risk of Continued from page 6
BLUE-COLLAR WORK &
tion and disease prevention. developing breast cancer.
INCREASED CANCER RISK • Blue-collar women exposed to solvents in
Designated as a center of excellence in Although there are many potential factors the chemical and pharmaceutical industries
Do higher exposures to certain workplaces and
health by the National Institutes of Health, that could contribute to the difference in experience increased risk of breast cancer.
environments account in part for the fact that some
types of cancer are higher in African Americans? the CMH is at the forefront of program- breast cancer incidence among African
• 1 in 3 African Americans works as textile
ming to help reduce health disparities. American and white women, environ-
pressing machine operators, bus drivers, or
• 1 in 8 Americans is African American.1 Following the directive of the U.S. De- mental hormones are strong candidates,
barbers.
partment of Health and Human Services according to Dr. Davis. In particular, cer-
• African American men are twice as likely
(DHHS) Healthy People 2010 initiative, the tain direct hormonal additives, along with • Women employed in the paper and pulp
to have increased cancer incidence from Stephen Thomas, PhD (standing, right) and Tom Boyd, shop owner, (standing, left)
with customer at Big Tom’s Barber Shop. CMH provides community education in hormone-mimicking compounds, such as industry have shown increased rates of ovarian,
occupational exposures as White men.
the disease areas of cancer, immuniza- bisphenol A, a widely used plasticizer, lung and bladder cancer.
• 1 in 5 African Americans works in household
cleaning and building services, or laundering
Center for Environmental Oncology and tion, mental health, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, and preservatives, called parabens, are
• Numerous studies have demonstrated that
and heart disease. frequently used in personal care products
and dry-cleaning. the Center for Minority Health Join Forces to To further investigate racial disparities used in the African American community,
diesel truck drivers are approximately 50% more
likely to get lung cancer than are other workers.
• Compared with the general U.S. population, Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in breast cancer incidence, researchers including deodorants, antiperspirants and
by: Lora Ann Bray, BS, CCRP, Partnership Program Coordinator, NCI Cancer Information from the CEO and from Pitt’s GSPH, ana- many cosmetic, food and pharmaceuti- • A 2003 study demonstrated an increased risk
dry-cleaning workers are at an increased risk
Service; Mario C. Browne, MPH, CAC, Project Director, CMH; and Stephen B. Thomas, lyzed breast cancer incidence among Af- cal products. These materials have been among male hairdressers for cancers of the
for cancers of the esophagus, larynx, lung,
Ph.D., FAAHB, Director, Center for Minority Health, Philip Hallen Professor of Community shown to accelerate breast cancer cell upper aerodigestive tract, lung, and colon;
and cervix. They are also at an increased risk rican American and white women in the
growth in cell cultures. among female hairdressers, an increased risk
for cancer mortality, in general. Health and Social Justice, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh. United States from 1975 to 2002. This study
for cancers of the pancreas, lung, cervix, and
In 2004, Devra L. Davis, PhD, MPH, Direc- to federal statistics, for example, the in- found that the chances of getting breast Partnering with the African American
skin (especially the scalp and neck) was noted.
Continued on page 7
tor, Center for Environmental Oncology of fant death rate among African Americans cancer in newer generations are about 21 Community for Health Promotion & Dis-
UPCI and Dr. Stephen Thomas, Director of is still more than double that of whites; percent higher in whites and 41 percent ease Prevention 1. List of workplace and cancer statistics derived from the
the Center for Minority Health (CMH) in the Vietnamese women suffer from cervical higher in African Americans than in pre- The CMH has established a trusted rela- website: http://iccnetwork.org/cancerfacts/cfs8.htm
Graduate School of Public Health (GSPH) cancer at nearly five times the rate for vious generations of women. According tionship with several African American
at the University of Pittsburgh launched white women; Hispanics accounted for 20 to researchers at the Center for Environ- owned barbershops and beauty salons
an innovative collaborative partnership percent of the new cases of tuberculosis; mental Oncology of UPCI., these findings in Pittsburgh. Through its H.A.I.R. (Health
focused on the elimination of racial and and American Indians and Alaska Natives suggest that significant resources and re- Advocates In Reach) initiative, the CMH
ethnic health disparities. According to have disproportionately high death rates
the 2000 U.S. Census, approximately 30 from unintentional injuries and suicide.
percent of the population belongs to a ra- Closing the health disparity gap will re-
cial or ethnic minority group. By the year quire a multidisciplinary approach that ad-
2030, that number will grow to approxi- dresses both individual and environmental
mately 40 percent of the U.S. population. factors associated with chronic diseases
While life expectancy and overall health such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovas-
of the American people have improved cular disease. Increasing access to health
over the past 50 years, racial and ethnic care and improving prevention, screening,
1.)Bottom left picture - Mario Browne, MPH, 2.)Bottom right picture- Dr. Chisara Asomugha,
minorities continue to suffer from a dis- and treatment services for all Americans (in blue shirt) and Staff members from Pediatrician, taking community resident’s blood
proportionate burden of premature illness is paramount to eliminating racial and eth- UPMC Emergency Services Dept. at Willie pressure at Wade’s Barber Shop.
Winter 2007 and death compared to whites. According nic health disparities. This is the context in
Tee’s Barber Shop. Winter 2007
Volume 1 • Number 3 Volume 1 • Number 3
Continued on page 7 Continued on page 12

6 Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute 7
www.environmentaloncology.org CEO-UPCI CEO-UPCI www.environmentaloncology.org

Center for Minority Health Addresses Health Disparities with


Programs and Partnerships
Continued from page 6
which Drs. Davis and Thomas made their search need to be directed toward under-
commitment to make the African Ameri- standing why younger African American
can community a partner in health promo- women are at a significantly higher risk of Continued from page 6
BLUE-COLLAR WORK &
tion and disease prevention. developing breast cancer.
INCREASED CANCER RISK • Blue-collar women exposed to solvents in
Designated as a center of excellence in Although there are many potential factors the chemical and pharmaceutical industries
Do higher exposures to certain workplaces and
health by the National Institutes of Health, that could contribute to the difference in experience increased risk of breast cancer.
environments account in part for the fact that some
types of cancer are higher in African Americans? the CMH is at the forefront of program- breast cancer incidence among African
• 1 in 3 African Americans works as textile
ming to help reduce health disparities. American and white women, environ-
pressing machine operators, bus drivers, or
• 1 in 8 Americans is African American.1 Following the directive of the U.S. De- mental hormones are strong candidates,
barbers.
partment of Health and Human Services according to Dr. Davis. In particular, cer-
• African American men are twice as likely
(DHHS) Healthy People 2010 initiative, the tain direct hormonal additives, along with • Women employed in the paper and pulp
to have increased cancer incidence from Stephen Thomas, PhD (standing, right) and Tom Boyd, shop owner, (standing, left)
with customer at Big Tom’s Barber Shop. CMH provides community education in hormone-mimicking compounds, such as industry have shown increased rates of ovarian,
occupational exposures as White men.
the disease areas of cancer, immuniza- bisphenol A, a widely used plasticizer, lung and bladder cancer.
• 1 in 5 African Americans works in household
cleaning and building services, or laundering
Center for Environmental Oncology and tion, mental health, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, and preservatives, called parabens, are
• Numerous studies have demonstrated that
and heart disease. frequently used in personal care products
and dry-cleaning. the Center for Minority Health Join Forces to To further investigate racial disparities used in the African American community,
diesel truck drivers are approximately 50% more
likely to get lung cancer than are other workers.
• Compared with the general U.S. population, Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in breast cancer incidence, researchers including deodorants, antiperspirants and
by: Lora Ann Bray, BS, CCRP, Partnership Program Coordinator, NCI Cancer Information from the CEO and from Pitt’s GSPH, ana- many cosmetic, food and pharmaceuti- • A 2003 study demonstrated an increased risk
dry-cleaning workers are at an increased risk
Service; Mario C. Browne, MPH, CAC, Project Director, CMH; and Stephen B. Thomas, lyzed breast cancer incidence among Af- cal products. These materials have been among male hairdressers for cancers of the
for cancers of the esophagus, larynx, lung,
Ph.D., FAAHB, Director, Center for Minority Health, Philip Hallen Professor of Community shown to accelerate breast cancer cell upper aerodigestive tract, lung, and colon;
and cervix. They are also at an increased risk rican American and white women in the
growth in cell cultures. among female hairdressers, an increased risk
for cancer mortality, in general. Health and Social Justice, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh. United States from 1975 to 2002. This study
for cancers of the pancreas, lung, cervix, and
In 2004, Devra L. Davis, PhD, MPH, Direc- to federal statistics, for example, the in- found that the chances of getting breast Partnering with the African American
skin (especially the scalp and neck) was noted.
Continued on page 7
tor, Center for Environmental Oncology of fant death rate among African Americans cancer in newer generations are about 21 Community for Health Promotion & Dis-
UPCI and Dr. Stephen Thomas, Director of is still more than double that of whites; percent higher in whites and 41 percent ease Prevention 1. List of workplace and cancer statistics derived from the
the Center for Minority Health (CMH) in the Vietnamese women suffer from cervical higher in African Americans than in pre- The CMH has established a trusted rela- website: http://iccnetwork.org/cancerfacts/cfs8.htm
Graduate School of Public Health (GSPH) cancer at nearly five times the rate for vious generations of women. According tionship with several African American
at the University of Pittsburgh launched white women; Hispanics accounted for 20 to researchers at the Center for Environ- owned barbershops and beauty salons
an innovative collaborative partnership percent of the new cases of tuberculosis; mental Oncology of UPCI., these findings in Pittsburgh. Through its H.A.I.R. (Health
focused on the elimination of racial and and American Indians and Alaska Natives suggest that significant resources and re- Advocates In Reach) initiative, the CMH
ethnic health disparities. According to have disproportionately high death rates
the 2000 U.S. Census, approximately 30 from unintentional injuries and suicide.
percent of the population belongs to a ra- Closing the health disparity gap will re-
cial or ethnic minority group. By the year quire a multidisciplinary approach that ad-
2030, that number will grow to approxi- dresses both individual and environmental
mately 40 percent of the U.S. population. factors associated with chronic diseases
While life expectancy and overall health such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovas-
of the American people have improved cular disease. Increasing access to health
over the past 50 years, racial and ethnic care and improving prevention, screening,
1.)Bottom left picture - Mario Browne, MPH, 2.)Bottom right picture- Dr. Chisara Asomugha,
minorities continue to suffer from a dis- and treatment services for all Americans (in blue shirt) and Staff members from Pediatrician, taking community resident’s blood
proportionate burden of premature illness is paramount to eliminating racial and eth- UPMC Emergency Services Dept. at Willie pressure at Wade’s Barber Shop.
Winter 2007 and death compared to whites. According nic health disparities. This is the context in
Tee’s Barber Shop. Winter 2007
Volume 1 • Number 3 Volume 1 • Number 3
Continued on page 7 Continued on page 12

6 Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute 7
www.environmentaloncology.org CEO-UPCI CEO-UPCI www.environmentaloncology.org

How many light bulbs does it take to


change the world?
by: Marcia Barr, BSCE, BBEC, Co-Director, Environmental Assessment and Control, Center
for Environmental Oncology of UPCI, and Devra Davis, PhD, MPH, Director, Center for
Environmental Oncology of UPCI
An old joke goes: “How many psychiatrists watt CFL produces the same amount of “Studies have shown that mothers
does it take to change a light bulb?” The light (lumens) as a 60-watt incandescent who live in zones with higher air
answer is simple, “None. The light bulb bulb. Using a cost of $.10 per kilowatt
has to want to change itself.” Today, hour, the cost to operate a single 15- pollution have babies with smaller
the Pittsburgh region can save millions watt CFL for 8,000 hours is $12 while the heads and lower birth weights.”
of dollars, if each one of us would swap cost to operate six 60-watt incandescent
a single incandescent light bulb in our bulbs for the same length of time is four Perera, F. P., Rauh, V., Tsai, Wei-Yann, Kinney, P., Camann,
home for a single compact fluorescent times that amount ($48). Now consider the D., Barr, D., Bernert, T., Garfinkel, R., Tu, Yi-Hsuan, Diaz, D.
lamp (CFL). Although they initially cost environmental impact. If we assume that Dietrich, J., and Whyatt, R. M. Effects of Transplacental
Exposure to Environmental Pollutants on Birth Outcomes
more to buy, CFLs cost much less to use the power plant producing the electricity
in a Multiethnic Population. Children’s Health. February
because they require one-fourth as much for your home is also fueled by coal, that 2003, Environmental Health Perspectives. Volume 111,
electricity to produce the same amount of power plant will burn more coal and emit Maternal prenatal exposure to environmental Number 2: 201-205
lighting, and last about six times longer more particulates, greenhouse gases,
tobacco smoke harms babies during pregnancy
than incandescents. This means that the and mercury to power an incandescent
by: Stephen G. Grant, PhD, Center for Environmental Oncology of UPCI
bulb than a CFL. Even though compact
total cost of using CFLs over their life cycle
Before becoming pregnant, many women It is well known that exposures such as to-
is much cheaper than incandescent light fluorescent lamps contain low levels of
who smoke decide that they will quit if and
bacco smoke can cause damage to DNA,
bulbs. Refer to the below table titled “A life
mercury (while incandescents contain no
when they become pregnant. Whatever the genetic material, which, if it is not
Cycle Assessment of Incandescent Bulbs mercury), the use of CFLs results in less
their thoughts on the dangers of smoking repaired, becomes an irreversible “muta-
Versus Compact Fluorescent Lamps.” contamination because they last longer
overall, they prefer not to take a chancetion.” Accumulation of such mutations
The math is simple. CFLs are typically and use less electricity to produce light. with the health of their baby. They recog-
occurs with age and leads to the diseases
guaranteed to last for 8,000 hours1. Since Although CFLs are double the weight of nize that the problems that arise during the
of aging, such as cancer. Thus, a child
an incandescent bulb is only guaranteed incandescents, they are 3 times cheaper development of a child are likely to havewho experiences mutagenic exposure in
for 1,250 hours on average, approximately to transport and dispose of (using a factor the womb might begin life with a greater
life-long ramifications for his or her well-
6 incandescent bulbs (8,000/1,250) have of 6 for bulb longevity described above and being. lifetime risk of developing cancer or at a
to be bought to provide the same amount assuming costs of about $0.02 per pound
In a recent study, performed under the greater risk of developing cancer at an
of lighting as a single CFL. Because most for transportation and $0.02 per pound for
auspices of the Center for Environmental early age.
of our local electricity comes from coal, disposal). If every household in our city
Oncology, researchers examined cells The number of mutated cord blood cells
when we make this switch we do much were to replace just one incandescent
from the cord blood of babies who were and the type of mutations they carried
more than save money on our energy bills. bulb with a CFL that was on continuously,
born to mothers who either: were determined by a well-established
We reduce the amount of coal that needs we would save more than $12 million
1) smoked throughout pregnancy, testing procedure using a gene that should
to be burned to keep our homes, schools, dollars annually, chiefly in the form of
have no associated health effects.
and businesses lit, and thereby lower reduced costs for electricity. 2) quit smoking when they Citation
the amount of air pollution in the form At this time of year, when daylight is became pregnant, or Cells with mutations were found in blood
Grant, S.G. (2005) Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects
of ultra-fine particulates, mercury, and scarce, the holidays of Christmas, samples from all of the babies in the study,
3) were non-smokers and also of active and passive maternal tobacco smoke exposure on in
greenhouse gases. because a background frequency of DNA utero mutagenesis at the HPRT locus. BMC Pediatrics 5: 20
Kwanzaa and Hanukah feature lighting as reported whether they had significant
damage and mutation is unavoidable.
Now let’s look at the cost to use the bulb. part of their celebrations. A nationwide exposure to secondary (environmental)
However, nearly twice as many mutated
CFLs use about one quarter of the power campaign, “A light among nations” is tobacco smoke (whether they lived or
cells were found in the blood of the babies
Winter 2007 of an incandescent. In other words, a 15- being spearheaded in Pittsburgh by the worked with smokers). Winter 2007
Volume 1 • Number 3 Continued on page 10 Volume 1 • Number 3
Continued on page 9

8 Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute 5
www.environmentaloncology.org CEO-UPCI CEO-UPCI www.environmentaloncology.org

Leaking underground storage tanks: an emerging public health risk How many light bulbs does it take to change the world?
Continued From Page 3 Continued From Page 8
In 2001 and 2002, our team of investigators The results of our University of Pittsburgh local Jewish community to engage all of dioxide alone (.001 tons CO2 per kWh in an
from the University of Pittsburgh carried study are consistent with what has been us in awareness, advocacy and action to 8,000 hour timeframe) from entering our
out an epidemiological study specifically observed in workers who regularly use conserve energy, reduce greenhouse gas atmosphere. (Source: Oak Ridge National
examining the health effects of the Trangu- benzene but with eight hour exposures, emissions, and promote energy legislation. Laboratory, The Impact of Environmental
POTENTIAL RISKS Citations
ch Gasoline Spill. The Tranguch Gasoline which are considerably greater. We have A feature of this program (easily achievable Externality Requirements on Renewable
FROM GASOLINE EXPOSURE 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact_fluorescent_lamp
Spill has been characterized as a leakage found that chronic low-level benzene ex- by each of us) is to change a few of your Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, July 1994). For
For more than a century, gasoline fueled engines 2. A 15-watt CFL produces an equivalent amount of light as a
of 50,000-900,000 gallons of gasoline from posure is tied with an increased risk for bulbs to CFLs. To date, with just 50,000 more information, visit www.coejl.org/
have been used in cars, trucks, locomotives and 60-watt incandescent bulb.
other motorized machinery.1 Engine exhausts contain
underground storage tanks in two munici- leukemia among residents living near the bulbs sold nationwide, the campaign climatechange.
palities located in northeastern Pennsyl- Tranguch spill site. While acute myeloge- 3. Based on shipping weights found at Target.com.
thousands of gases and particles and are considered has already kept 144,000 tons of carbon
by the International Agency for Research on Cancer vania. As a result of the spill, it is believed nous leukemia has been definitively linked 4. Assuming plant is fueled by coal.
of the World Health Organization to cause cancer.
that residents living within an EPA-defined to benzene exposure in workers, our study A LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF INCANDESCENT BULBS 5. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4922496.stm
A number of key chemicals in gasoline are known VERSUS COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS
to cause cancer or other serious health effects in
remediation area were chronically ex- is one of the first to suggest such an as- 6. Analysis based on hours of light produced (8,000 hours =
humans or in experimental animals, including benzene, posed to low-levels of benzene sourcing sociation in residents from environmental 8,000 hour timeframe1 60-watt 15-watt 1 CFL = 6 incandescent bulbs). Therefore, six
toluene, xylene, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).2 from the gasoline since at least 1990. In exposures in their homes. Incandescent Compact Fluorescent2 incandescent bulbs must be compared with one CFL.

Benzene response to community concerns, a study Purchase and replacement 6*$0.50 = $3.00 $2. 25 7. 0.00006452 lbs/1,000 kWh, varies regionally depending on
Scientists who worked on this study have costs (Includes energy to coal content.
This solvent, which is also released by cigarette examined 663 individuals from 275 house-
smoke, is known to cause cancer in humans.
met with the community to explain these manufacture the bulbs and
holds that had been exposed to benzene results and suggested general precautions lamps)
Long-term exposure to benzene in the workplace
can cause leukemia. Regularly breathing low to see whether they had a higher risk of to lower personal environmental exposure Energy required to manu- 1 kWh/bulb 4 kWh/bulb
levels can damage the nervous system and cause cancer and other diseases, compared to to other sources of benzene, like cigarette facture the bulb4,5
anemia and other problems of the blood.3 others in Pennsylvania. smoke and pumping gasoline as well as Operational costs per 8,000 $48.00 $12.00
Toluene and Xylene hours of light (using a cost
Using questionnaires, we collected per- housing cans of paint thinner, gasoline for
Although the link to cancer has not been of $.10 per kilowatt hour)
established, regular breathing of toluene causes sonal information on health, jobs, and lawn mowers and paint in close proxim-
Transportation costs per
birth defects and brain damage, and xylene can residence. Cancers that were reported ity to their living areas. Recommendations 6*$0.02/pound*2 ounces3 $0.02/pound*4 ounces3
8,000 hours of light = $0.015 = $0.005
cause loss of consciousness and even death at in these questionnaires were verified by were made to public health agencies and
high levels. Importantly, in addition to the amount Disposal costs per 8,000 6*$0.02/pound*2 ounces3 $0.02/pound*4 ounces3
physicians and cross-referenced with the community based on the study’s find-
of benzene already present in gasoline, the EPA hours of light = $0.015 = $0.005
has determined that incomplete combustion of the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry for the ings. They included screening the exposed
xylene and toluene also significantly contributes period January 1, 1990 to December 31, community in the future to see whether Life Cycle Cost6 $51.03/ 6 bulbs $14.26/ bulb
to the amount of benzene in auto exhaust. 3 2000. We calculated the rate of cancer in they develop other health problems. Pub- Mercury emissions result- 0.006 ounces/6,000 bulbs 0.004 ounces/1,000 bulbs
MTBE persons exposed to benzene from leak- lic health officials will be engaged in sur- ing from bulb manufac-
Many states, including Pennsylvania, Delaware, ture4,7
ing gasoline tanks and found that they veillance in the spill-affected area in order
Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington Mercury emissions result-
had nearly four times more leukemia than to determine the long-term impact of this 0.5 ounces/ 6,000 bulbs 0.12 ounces/ 1,000 bulbs
D.C. have banned this gasoline additive, because of ing from generating elec-
its capacity to cause cancer and damage the nervous other persons in the state. In fact, the risk low-level exposure to gasoline. tricity to power the bulb4,7
system. MTBE from leaking underground storage of all cancer in those exposed to benzene Our research is one of very few studies Non-monetized Mer- 0.506 ounces of mercu- 0.124 ounces of mercu-
tanks is found in ground water in many regions. 3 was not higher, but the risk of leukemia, a to extensively investigate exposures to cury Only Environmental ry/6,000 bulbs ry/1,000 bulbs
Sources cancer known to be tied to benzene, was Burden6
gasoline/benzene in a community setting.
1 http://www.inchem.org/documents/
greatly elevated. Four incident cases of Given the high prevalence of leaking un-
iarc/vol46/46-01.html
2 http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/EHSRM/EHS/ leukemia were reported (two acute my- derground gasoline tanks in the United
SARA/MSDS/gasolineunleaded2001.pdf elogenous, one chronic myelogenous, States, this exposure is far from unique.
3 http://www.epa.gov/ and one chronic lymphocytic). The resi- Therefore, it is important for communities
dential location of the acute myelogenous and public health agencies to cooperate
leukemia cases directly bordered the to assess and address health effects po-
more concentrated areas of gasoline as Winter 2007
Winter 2007 tentially resulting from such leaks.
projected by the US Army Corps of Engi-
Volume 1 • Number 3 Volume 1 • Number 3
neer and EPA.

4 Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute 9
www.environmentaloncology.org CEO-UPCI CEO-UPCI www.environmentaloncology.org

Maternal prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has the


same harmful effects on the baby as active smoking
Continued From Page 5
whose mothers smoked than in the blood knows she is pregnant. Because of this,
of those babies whose mothers neither we concluded that smoking, and second-
smoked nor were exposed to second- ary exposure to tobacco smoke, should be
ary smoke. To our surprise, the blood of avoided by all women who are “likely to UPCOMING EVENTS
Continued from page 2
the babies whose mothers reported only become pregnant.”
April 5, 2007
secondary exposure had just as many mu- It is important to note, however, that all 2 – 4 PM
tant cells as those of the smoking moth- of the women who quit smoking reported Arlene Blum, renowned biophysical chemist,
ers, and the mutations were of the same ongoing exposure to secondary smoke, so
environmentalist, mountaineer and author
types, which were known to be caused by ‘The Dilemma of Flame Retardants: Science,
this might be the source of the increased History, Politics’
the carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Other mutation. What these data indicate is UPMC Cancer Pavilion
researchers have recently reported that that it is not enough for a woman to stop 5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA
developing babies are particularly sensi- smoking. In order to protect her child
Herberman Auditorium, Room 202A
tive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, from the effects of secondary exposure, April 6, 2007
PAHs, the major type of carcinogen found 5 – 7 PM, Byham Theater
a woman’s home and her workplace must In collaboration with Venture Outdoors Pittsburgh:
in tobacco smoke. be made smoke-free as well. In particu- Presenting Arlene Blum, biochemist, mountaineer.
To our dismay, our findings showed that lar, the father’s smoking during the baby’s Best known for leading the first American—and all
the blood of the children whose moth- development may have harmful effects on women’s ascent—of Annapurna I, considered one of
the world’s most dangerous mountains. First woman to
ers quit smoking during pregnancy also the health of the baby, effects that may attempt Mt. Everest. Author of Breaking Trail: A Climb-
had high numbers of mutant cells. This undermine the mother’s efforts to protect ing Life” And “Annapurna: A Woman’s Place.”
raises the possibility that tobacco smoke the health of her child.
Leaking underground storage tanks: Keynote speaker for the Banff Mountain Film Festival
Please call 412-623-1175 for further information.
damages babies before the mother even
an emerging public health risk April 11, 2007
A Head’s Up on Lice by: Evelyn Talbott, DrPH, Professor of Epidemiology, GSPH and Jeanne Zborowski, PhD, 12 noon – 1 PM
CME-accredited talk
by: Marcia Barr, BSCE, BBEC, Co-Director, Environmental Assessment and Control, Senior Research Specialist, Department of Epidemiology, GSPH, University of Pittsburgh
Dr. Joe Suyama, Department of Emergency Medicine,
Center for Environmental Oncology of UPCI After World War II, the automobile became Gasoline leaking from these tanks con- speaking on ‘Acute Effects of Toxic Exposures’
a fixture in the everyday life of Americans. taminates surrounding soil and ground- UPMC Cancer Pavilion
Head lice are tiny, wingless bugs about What are the symptoms?
5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA
the size of a sesame seed. They have six The exponential growth of automobile water causing both environmental and
• Itching and scratching often occurs, Herberman Auditorium, Room 202
legs with tiny claws and live only on hu- sales resulted in the construction of thou- human health risks. Benzene, a compo- Please call 412-623-1175 to pre-register
which may lead to small red bumps
man scalps. sands of gasoline stations across the coun- nent of gasoline, is categorized by the for free healthy lunch.
or sores.
try (2.2 million tanks!) Bare steel tanks, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) April 12, 2007
How to tell if your child has lice…
• Continued scratching may result with an average tank life expectancy of 15 as a proven human carcinogen and has 12 noon – 1 PM
• Lice can be seen with the naked eye in bacterial infection, which may – 30 years, were installed underground to been linked in occupational studies to in- CME-accredited talk
by separating hair strands with a fine Dr. Jonathan Weinkle, Medicine-Pediatrics Resident
require a topical or oral antibiotic. store gasoline. Since the 1980’s, corrosion creased cancer rates, particularly of the
INFORMATION ADAPTED and CEO Medical Consultant, speaking on
tooth comb. and faulty installation and operation have blood forming organs (leukemia, lympho-
FROM THE FOLLOWING WEBSITES: How are lice spread? ‘Environmental Health Advocacy’
• Adult lice are brownish tan in color resulted in widespread ground water con- ma, etc). While workers who regularly use (Focusing on the American Academy of Pediatrics
http://www.safe2use.com/nntl/sitemap-n.htm • Lice are highly contagious, but
tamination by gasoline (benzene, toluene, benzene have been consistently found to Priorities in this area.)
http://www.getipm.com/notnicetolice/rpn-article.htm and their eggs (nits) are yellow or tan.
cannot fly or jump. Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh
http://www.care2.com/channels/solutions/home/372 ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX compounds) have a number of serious health problems Room B213-214
• Nits may look like dandruff but cannot
http://www.liceout.com/ • Spreading occurs from head to and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). when compared to other workers without Free Healthy Lunch Served.
http://www.headliceinfo.com/faqs.htm be brushed or shaken off.
head contact, sharing of clothing, Because fifty percent of all Americans rely such exposures, few studies have exam- Please call 412-623-1175 for more details.
• Nits are easier to locate than lice. towels, bed linens (pillows), combs on groundwater for their drinking water, ined the health effects of a community ex-
and brushes, and hats. these leaking underground storage tanks posure to low-level benzene via gasoline
Winter 2007 Winter 2007
pose a significant public health hazard. or other spills.
Volume 1 • Number 3 Volume 1 • Number 3
Continued on page 11 Continued on page 4

10 Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute 3
www.environmentaloncology.org CEO-UPCI CEO-UPCI www.environmentaloncology.org

About a Hundred Years Ago A Head’s Up on Lice


Continued From Page 1 Continued From Page 10
For nearly a quarter century, more than In truth, warnings about this problem from How are lice treated? soap and oils can be found in health
6,000 peer-reviewed studies conducted the public health community were provided food stores) to the lathered hair and
Lice are difficult to remove because of
in more than thirty different countries nearly 40 years ago. Warren Winkelstein, apply conditioner liberally
their size, life cycle, and their developed
have consistently confirmed that regu- working for the New York State Health
resistance to insecticides. If not treated • Rinse and rewash with this FLEEING FROM FLEAS
UPCOMING EVENTS lar exposures to amounts of air pollution Department in 1968, looked at 21 areas in
Continued from page 1 correctly, they can be a persistent and same mixture
that do not immediately kill people in the and around Buffalo, New York, and found Fleas are reddish brown to black, wingless external
recurring problem. Getting rid of head • After rewashing, do not rinse, but parasites that are generally found on the skin of
February 8, 2007 United States eventually cause between that deaths from lung disease more than
Pediatric Grand Rounds lice is a three-step process: wrap a towel around the head and cats, dogs and other animals. Although fleas prefer
40,000 and 100,000 people to die each doubled in the dirtiest areas, compared
Dr. Michael Shannon of Children’s Hospital of Boston 1 Kill all lice and nits. Beware of wait for 30 minutes domesticated animals, when supply is short, fleas
year. In addition, such exposures sicken to the cleanest. In 1955, Peter Stocks and
Department of Emergency Medicine will give an
millions more with chronic coughs and John Campbell interviewed men dying of medicated shampoos, creams, or will bite humans or other animals.
update on ‘Mercury’. • Comb clean hair through with a
Presented by the Departments on Pediatrics and lung diseases, including cancer, and cost lung cancer in North Wales and Liverpool, lotions. Familiar over-the-counter normal comb first What are symptoms of fleas?
Emergency Medicine of CHP the nation billions of dollars in work days England, and learned that nonsmokers brand names include: Rid, Nix, • Some cat fleas are suspected of transmitting
Shannon will also speak to the residents, Pronto and Clear. However, these • Comb from roots along the complete murine typhus to humans; however,
lost and damaged crops and materials. living in the most polluted zones died at 10
later at 12 noon about Global Climate Change. length of the hair with a nit-removing
The good news is that air pollution levels, times the rate of those living in the clean- products contain pesticides primarily the bites are the major nuisance.
February 13, 2007
(pyrethrin, permethrin, lindane, comb, strand by strand, until all • Bites itch and appear as a central
as detected by conventional measures, est areas. In 1958, a study of 187,783 Amer-
4-6 PM nits are removed (this takes a while).
have dropped dramatically—nearly fifty ican Army veterans by American Cancer malathion and others), also known red spot surrounded by a red halo.
A Talk by Tyrone Hayes, PhD
as pediculicides, and may not be Dampen hair as needed. • Some may have an allergic reaction to the bite.
Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley fold—from the days when most urban Society researchers Cuyler Hammond and
“From Silent Sprint to Silent Night: Hermaphroditic areas could be smelled before they could Harold Dorn found that the death rate from advisable for babies, pregnant • Work methodically over the whole How to manage fleas without using pesticides*
Frogs, Breast Cancer and Pesticides.”
be seen. But the full story of what air pol- lung cancer among those living in cities women, or people with chronic head for at least 30 minutes • Thoroughly clean pet beds and resting areas
Cooper Conference Center, Cooper classroom BC
lution means for our health remains to was twice that of residents of rural areas. disease such as asthma, cancer, both indoors and outdoors in hot soapy water
Please call 412-623-1175 for further information. • Wash and rinse the hair.
be written. What if this information had been made or AIDS. Moreover, pesticides can • Thoroughly and regularly vacuum floors, rugs,
February 14, 2007 Once dry, check thoroughly for
widely available to folks deciding where enter our soils and waterways and carpets, upholstered furniture, and crevices
12 -1 PM For instance, asthma rates have dou- any missed nits.
CME-accredited talk on ‘Radon’ by John Mallon, to live, and to city officials thinking about ultimately end up in our food and around corners to remove flea eggs and larvae
bled despite the control of convention- • Thoroughly clean the comb, hands, • Place vacuum bags in a sealed bag and throw
Radon Detection and Control what forms of transport and energy to drinking water.
UPMC Cancer Pavilion ally measured pollutants from cars. And bedding, and clothing. Pillows can out since flea eggs and larvae can survive
5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh PA what about unconventional, unmeasured permit? What if, at any point in the past 48 Lice can become resistant to repeated be placed in the freezer overnight. inside the bags
Herberman Conference Center, Room 201AB pollutants? Nobody is asking whether years, these reports had been used as the treatments with pesticides. “Retail Phar- You can comb a lice-repellant • Use a special comb to remove fleas from your
Please call 412-623-1175 to pre-register
tiny, growing emissions from degrading grounds for making the decisions about macy News” offers an extensive list of
for healthy free lunch. essential oil through the hair. pet and comb on regular intervals to reduce
tires—since some chemicals in synthetic public transport, light, heat and energy? alternatives to toxic pesticides including The best choices of repellent occurrence of fleas
March 12, 2007 How many lives might have been saved?1
rubber are highly allergenic—could play a the following: essential oils are tea tree, neem, • Spray your pet daily with a 50/50 mixture of
12 noon – 1 PM
Environmental Health at the Movies, role. Nor are questions being raised about We cannot erase history or ignore a vast • “Not Nice To Lice” contains filtered rosemary, lavender, eucalyptus, white vinegar and water
A Healthy Baby Girl whether other toxic pollutants or forms body of research showing how burning • Use an enzyme shampoo on your pet
and purified water, and natural and rose geranium. Add 10 drops
UPMC Cancer Pavilion of environmental degradation account fossil fuels affects our local and global • Mix brewer’s yeast, or vitamin B or garlic
5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA enzyme cleaners including Protease, of essential oil to 1 oz. oil. Comb
for why young African American chil- health. Because our environment is so tablets in with pet food.
Herberman Auditorium, Room 202 Lipase, Cellulase and Amylase through the hair. Or make a tea tree
dren have two to four times more asthma much cleaner today, it’s easy to think of • Rub animal’s coat with fennel, rue,
Followed by a Panel Discussion. oil shampoo by adding 10 drops of
• “LiceOut” is a non-toxic and rosemary
Free Healthy Lunch Served. than whites. pollution as something in the past, or af- tea tree oil to 1 oz. of shampoo.
Please call 412-623-1175 for more details. water-based gel • Place eucalyptus seeds and leaves where the
Using American Cancer Society informa- flicting some distant land we will never
2 Check for and remove all nits by • Repeat the process every few days animal sleeps
tion on half a million middle-class people see. This newsletter makes clear that
Continued on page 3 for at least two weeks *As a last resort and after consulting with a
decisions we make today about how and wet combing and manual nit picking
in 154 cities from 1982 to 1998, research- veterinarian, use topical liquid spot treatment
where we live and work affect our health or by smothering with olive oil. Smothering head lice with olive oil (after
ers in the Journal of the American Medical
and that of our children for generations Wet combing and manual nit picking: washing and combing hair) is safe and
Association in 2003 reported that the risk
to come. effective, but can be complicated.
of dying from lung cancer from regularly • Wash hair as normal, preferably with
Winter 2007 breathing air polluted with fine particu- a coconut-oil castile soap. Add a few • Lice breathe through holes in Winter 2007
lates at levels found today in America was their sides. When you cover these Volume 1 • Number 3
Volume 1 • Number 3 drops of tea tree oil and neem oil (the
about equal to that of living with a smoker. Continued on page 12

2 Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Center for Environmental Oncology — University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute 11
Printed on chlorine-free 100% PCW Recycled Paper, with Soy-Inks. www.environmentaloncology.org

Center for Minority Health Addresses Health Disparities with


Programs and Partnerships
Continued from page 7
Center for Environmental Oncology
coordinated prostate cancer education This collaboration increases the capacity
and screening programs in the barber- of the CMH to fulfill its mission by inte-
shops. Now, the CMH and CEO plan to grating CIS services and tools into its ex-
partner with shops and salons to dissemi- isting infrastructure of research, training, Winter 2007
nate information on cancer and the envi- and service. Two program planning tools, Volume 1 • Number 3
ronment and on strategies to reduce one’s Cancer Control PLANET—a web portal
individual risk of developing the disease. on comprehensive cancer control plan- ADDITIONAL Winter 2007 • Volume 1 • Number 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ning and Consumer Health Profiles—a INTERNET RESOURCES Leaking Underground Storage Tanks:
Additional Tools to
an emerging public health risk
Address Health Disparities collection of geographic, demographic, Beyond Pesticides
PAGE 3
www.beyondpesticides.org
and health and lifestyle data position the
In 2003, the CMH received the subcontract Breast Cancer Fund
Maternal prenatal exposure to environmental
CMH to help partners identify the cancer tobacco smoke harms babies during pregnancy
to operate the National Cancer Institute’s www.breastcancerfund.org
burden in their community. CMH and CEO PAGE 5
(NCI) Atlantic Region Cancer Information Children’s Health and Environmental Coalition
will use these tools to further advance en- Center for Minority Health Addresses Health
Service (CIS) for Western, Pennsylvania. www.checnet.org
vironmental issues. Disparities with Programs and Partnerships
The CIS provides the latest and most ac- Department of Environmental Quality PAGE 6
Through its numerous partnerships and www.deq.state.mi.us/sid-web
curate cancer information for patients and How Many Light Bulbs Does it Take to
programs, the Center for Minority Health Environmental Working Group
their families, the public, and health pro- Change the World?
is making progress towards its mission www.ewg.org PAGE 8
fessionals. This is accomplished through
to eliminate racial and ethnic health Health Goods
its regional CIS Partnership Program pro- A Heads Up on Lice
disparities. www.healthgoods.com PAGE 10
vision of technical assistance as well as
Health Care Without Harm Fleeing From Fleas
program planning and implementation in
www.hcwh.org PAGE 11
partnership with organizations reaching
OSHA
underserved populations. UPCOMING EVENTS
www.osha.gov

A Head’s Up on Lice
The American Head Lice Information Center ABOUT A HUNDRED YEARS AGO February 8, 2007
www.headliceinfo.com 12 noon – 1 PM
Continued From Page 11 by: Devra L. Davis, PhD, MPH, Director, Center for Environmental Oncology of UPCI and
Environmental Health at the Movies,
The Collaborative on Health and the Environment Professor of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh and
holes with olive oil, the lice will die. • Thoroughly clean your child’s towels, Blue Vinyl
www.healthandenvironment.org
Ronald B. Herberman, MD, Director, UPCI and UPMC Cancer Centers <The World’s First Toxic Comedy> (Winner Sundance
However, it takes awhile for them linens, clothes, hats and toys by
The CDC Film Festival, Emmy Award Nominee for Best
to die, because head lice can shut adding a few drops of essential oils About a hundred years ago, scientists stud- of these materials, common to cigarette
www.cdc.gov Documentary and Best Research)
down their systems for hours. that repel or kill lice ied smoke by comparing the color of any smoke and smoke stacks, such as ben- Open to the Public
The E-House Company
Knowing how and when to use a plume they saw to various papers shaded zene, tars, cadmium, and butadiene, are UPMC Cancer Pavilion
• Wash in hot water and dry towels www.ehousecompany.com
smothering program is essential. light gray to dark black. Today, we can rely well-known causes of cancer and other 5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA
and linens on very high heat The Green Guide Herberman Auditorium, Room 202
Consult with your physician. www.thegreenguide.com on newly devised electronic eyes to mea- diseases in workers who have been highly
Followed by Panel Discussion.
• Place toys and stuffed animals (that sure the gases and particles in smoke and exposed. Other emissions include minis-
• The least expensive pumice-grade or The National Cancer Institute Free Healthy Lunch served.
cannot be cleaned) in plastic bags www.nci.nih.gov/cancertopics identify things that can be thousands of cule amounts of polonium 210—concen- Call 412-623-1175 for more details
restaurant-grade olive oil works best. and keep sealed for two weeks. This
Safe 2 Use
times smaller than a human hair. trated levels of which were recently used Continued on page 2
• Mineral oil (including baby oil) is will kill the lice. www.safe2use.com Cigarette smoke remains the best-stud- to kill a former KGB agent in Britain.
not recommended because it can be • Replace all combs, brushes and Venture Outdoors ied and best-known source of smoke that This newsletter expands on our prior two
harmful to mucous membranes. www.ventureoutdoors.org Citation
barrettes, or if possible boil items poses a public health threat at this time. issues (which you can access at www.
3 Do a reasonable job of cleaning the in water. adapted in part from
But, many of the particles and gases that environmentaloncology.org) and explains
infested person’s belongings and • Vacuum carpets and cars arise from the smoking of tobacco also oc- how important new advances in research 1. Davis, Devra, When Smoke Ran Like Water (New York:
Basic Books, A Member of the Perseus Book Groups, 2002)
home environment. cur at lower levels whenever fossil fuels are making it clear that regular exposures
www.whensmokeranlikewater.com
are burned to produce energy and fuel our to small amounts of benzene and other pol-
Please share this newsletter and be sure it is recycled. vehicles, or whenever accidents cause re- lutants can have grave consequences for
Photo on page 5 courtesy of Clean Air for Healthy Children and leases of these materials into the air. Some public health. Funding for this newletter is provided by the
12 Families (cigarette and smoke were added after photo was taken)
Continued on page 2 Highmark Foundation and the Heinz Endowments.