# 5.

MOMENTS, COUPLES, FORCES SYSTEMS
& FORCE RESOLUTION

Concept of a Moment
body

CG
of the
body

(a) Translation
When the Force is
applied at the CG

(b) Translation & Rotation
When the Force is not
applied at he CG

Objective: To explain the concept of a Moment

(c) Rotation
When the Force is not
applied at the CG, & the
body is hinged at the CG

If the same force is applied at some other point as in second figure. If the point on the object is fixed against translation. uniform object.continued . rigid. then the object will both translate and rotate. it will slide the object such that every point moves an equal distance.If a Force P is applied at the midpoint of the free. The object is said to translate. (third figure) then the applied force causes the object to rotate only. Objective: Explanation of the Concept of Moment .

Moment of a Force This tendency of a force to produce rotation about some point is called the Moment of a force Objective: Definition of Moment in Statics .

Moment of a Force F d The tendency of a force to produce rotation of a body about some reference axis or point is called the MOMENT OF A FORCE M=Fxd Objective: An example to illustrate the definition of Moment in Statics .

375 #-in Objective: To explain the concept of Moment in Statics with everyday examples .F x d = -25 x 15 15” = .Common Examples in the Application of the Concept of Moment Example One: Closing the Door d Moment = Force x Perpendicular Distance = Fxd F Lever arm F= 25# 90 deg Example Two: Tightening the NUT M= .

Sign Convention for Moments - Clockwise negative + Anti-clockwise positive Objective: To illustrate the sign conventions for Moment in Statics .

What is the moment at A for the Noodle Beam fixed at A and loaded by Force F at B? A d F M=-Fd B Objective: To illustrate that Moment is always Force x Distance. irrespective of the shape of the structure .

y According to Varignon’s Theorem.x + Fx.d M= -Fy.Varignon’s Theorem F F x Fy Fx y = d A A M=-F. a Force can be resolved into its components and multiplied by the perpendicular distances for easy calculation of the Moment Objective: To explain Varignon’s Theorem .

d cosθ Proof of Varignon’s Theorem A A θ θ d d d sin θ Fy θ F Fx F F (d ) = Fy (d cos θ ) + Fx (d sin θ ) M about A= F x d Substitute for Fx and Fy F (d ) = F cos θ (d cos θ ) + F sin θ (d sin θ ) F (d ) = Fd cos 2 θ + Fd sin 2 θ Fd = Fd (cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ ) Fxd= Fd .

d using Varignon’s theorem.d sin θ = − Fd (cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ ) = − Fd On the Left hand side the Moment is got directly by multiplying F times d.F Proof Of Varignon’s Theorem F θ Fy Fx d d θ M about A= -F x d d sinθ d cosθ M = − Fy d cos θ − Fx d sin θ = − F cos θ . On the Right hand side it is proved the Moment is –F. Objective: To prove Varignon’s Theorem .d cos θ − F sin θ .

you are applying a couple to the wheel. Couples have pure rotational effects on the body with no capacity to translate the body in the vertical or horizontal direction.Concept of a Couple Plane of the couple F F d. (Because the sum of their horizontal and vertical components are zero) Objective: To explain the concept of a Couple in Statics . arm of the couple F d F When you grasp the opposite side of the steering wheel and turn it. but opposite sense. parallel lines of action. A couple is defined as two forces (coplanar) having the same magnitude.

lb M A = 10 × 2 + 10 × 2 = 40 ft. Objective: To explain that the effect of a Couple is independent of it’s point of application .lb 15’ 10’ M A = 10 × 2 + 10 × 2 A = 40 ft.lb A M A = 10 × 2 + 10 × 2 = 40 ft.D Effect of Couple applied at different points at the base 10lb of a Cantilever 10lb 2’ C 2’ 10lb 2’ 10lb 2’ B 10lb 2’ A 2’ 10lb 5’ M A = 10 × 2 + 10 × 2 = 40 ft.lb Thus it is clear that the effect of a couple at the base of the Cantilever is independent of it’s (couple’s) point of application.

Replace the above two Forces with a Couple= F.F F REPLACING A FORCE WITH A FORCE & A COUPLE d 1.d F Hence a Force can be replaced with an Equivalent Fore and a Couple at another point. Objective: To explain how a Force can be replaced by a Force and couple at another point . Introduce two equal and opposite forces at B (which does not alter the equilibrium of the structure) 2.

F F d F F d = .

FORCE SYSTEMS Objective: To explain various types of Force systems which occur in Construction .

y x Collinear Force System .

z x y Coplanar Force System .

z x y Coplanar parallel .

y x Coplanar Concurrent .

z y x Noncoplanar parallel .

z x y Noncoplanar concurrent .

z y x Noncoplanar nonconcurrent .

FORCE SYSTEMS Resolution of Forces into Rectangular Components y Fy F θ x Fx Fx = F cos θ Fy = F sin θ .

Sign convention for Forces Forces towards right Positive Forces upward Positive .

Resolution of a Force – How to Apply cos and sin y F sin θ F θ F cos θ F cos θ θ x F F sin θ F F θ F sin θ F cos θ F sin θ θ F θ F cos θ F sin θ F cos θ θ F cos θ F F sin θ .

Vector Addition By Component Method y y C R Ry A θ Cy x Rx Ay Ax α δ Ax = A cos α Ay = A sin α C x = C cos β C y = C sin β Bx = B cos δ B y = B sin δ B β Cx Bx By x Rx = C x − Ax − Bx R y = Ay + C y − By x R = (( Rx ) 2 + ( Ry ) 2 ) tan θ = Ry Rx θ = tan ( _1 Ry Rx ) .

Vector Addition by the component method y F2 y F2 y F1 α F1x F1 y β F2 x F1x = F1 cos α F1 y = F1 sin α F2 x = F 2cos β F2 y = F 2sin β Rx = F2 x − F1x Ry x R γ Rx R x R = ( Rx2 + R y2 ) γ = tan R y = F2 y − F1 y Objective: To add two vectors by the component method −1 Ry Rx .