Defixiones from a Well Near the Southwest Corner of the Athenian Agora

Author(s): D. R. Jordan
Source: Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Vol. 54,
No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1985), pp. 205-255
Published by: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens
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DEFIXIONES FROM A WELL
NEAR THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF
THE ATHENIAN AGORA
(PLATES
C

65-68)

VER THE YEARS,excavationsof theAthenianAgorahaverecoveredsomehundred

defixiones or lead curse tablets, almost all of which were found, rolled up into scrolls,
in what were once undergroundbodies of water (see Fig. 1 and Tables 1 and 2, pp. 2082 10). In the Roman well that we shall call Well V, which was dug about 100 metersoutside
the southwest corner of the ancient Agora proper, in the valley to the northwest of the
Areiopagos, 17 such inscribedlead tablets were found, most of them badly corrodedor encrusted.The surfacesof only 14 have yielded readings;of these I present an editioprinceps
here. In the picture that they give of urgent personal concerns,transitorythough they may
now seem, the well's surviving curses illustrate a private side of life in Roman Athens seldom seen in the city's other remains;that these concernsexpress themselvesin invocationsin
which the names of the Egyptian god Seth-Typhon are mixed with those of the god of the
Old Testament is of a significancebeyondthe strictlyreligious. Beforewe examine the texts
themselves,however, it will be convenientto considercertainpreliminaryquestionsthat the
tablets raise.I
I I should like to thank H. A. Thompson, Director Emeritus of the AmericanExcavationsof the Athenian
Agora, both for permission to publish these 14 texts and for improving my manuscriptin several important
ways, and also T. L. Shear, Jr., Director, for permissionto publish IL 1737. To 0. Broneerand E. R. Gebhard, M. Chehab, B. F. Cook, F. F. Jones, Stephen G. Miller, Mr. Shear and Mr. Thompson, H. Whitehouse and J. Rea, W. H. Willis and K. J. Rigsby, and J. R. Wiseman and C. K. Williams, II, I am grateful
for the opportunityto examine and to cite here unpublisheddefixiones from Isthmia, Tyre, Cyprus, Antioch,
Nemea, the Athenian Agora, Oxyrhynchos,elsewhere in Egypt, and Corinth,respectively.For the map of the
Agora (Fig. 1) showing the wells and the cistern in which defixiones were found I am indebted to W. B.
Dinsmoor, Jr., and for the photographsof 8 and IL 1737 and of 7 and 9, to Eugene Vanderpool,Jr., and to
Robert K. Vincent, former photographersof the Agora Excavations.An earlier version of this article forms
part of a doctoral dissertationaccepted by the Department of Classics of Brown University; I acknowledge
with thanks A. L. Boegehold'simprovementsof a still earlier version. I am particularlygrateful to Morton
Smith for taking the time to read the penultimatemanuscriptand to offer many suggestions,severalof which I
have incorporatedinto the text below, and to M. B. Wallace, who with his usual kindness has tactfully removed numerous infelicities. If errorsremain, they are sure to be my own. I should like to thank V. W. Steel
for timely and fraternal help of a practicalnature in the preparationof the manuscript.
Study of the defixiones presentedhere was first undertakenby G. A. Stamiresin 1948, shortly after they
came to light. He entered preliminary transcriptionsof some of them in a notebook now in the files of the
Agora Excavations; I did not discover the notebook, however, until my own transcriptionswere virtually
complete,but when I did, I was glad to see in how many places our readings were the same and to be able to
compareour texts of several difficultpassages.
In referring to papyrological publications I use the abbreviationsrecommendedby J. F. Oates, R. S.

Bagnall, and W. H. Willis, Checklist of Editions of Greek Papyri and Ostraca, 2nd ed. (= Bulletin of the
American Society of Papyrologists, Supplement VIII), Missoula 1978.

Other abbreviationssupplementalto those designatedby the AJA are as follows:
Hesperia 54, 3

206

D. R. JORDAN

Defixiones are inscribedpieces of lead, usually in the form of thin sheets, intended to
bring supernatural power to bear against persons or animals.2 From the ancient world
Audollent

= A. Audollent,Defixionum tabellaequotquotinnotuerunttam in graecis Orientisquam in

Bonner

totius Occidentispartibuspraeter atticas in "Corporeinscriptionumatticarum"editas,
Paris 1904
= C. Bonner,Studiesin Magical Amuletschiefly Graeco-Egyptian(= Universityof Michigan Studies,Humanistic Series XLIX), Ann Arbor 1950
= A. Delatte and P. Derchain, Les intailles magiquesgreco-gyptiennes, Paris 1964

Delatte and
Derchain
Follet

= S. Follet, Athenes au IIe et au IIIe siecle: Etudes chronologiqueset prosopographiques,

Paris 1978
= E. Gabrici, "Rinvenimentinelle zone archeologichedi Panormoe di Lilibeo, II. Lilibeo,"
NSc, ser. 7, 2, 1941, pp. 271-302
= F. T. Gignac, A Grammarof the GreekPapyri of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, I,
Gignac
Phonology (= Testi e documentiper lo studiodell' antichita LV), Milan 1976
= T. Hopfner, Griechisch-agyptischerOffenbarungszauberI (= Studien zur PalaeograHopfner
phie und PapyruskundeXXI), 2nd ed., Amsterdam1974
= G. W. H. Lampe, A Patristic GreekLexicon, Oxford 1961
Lampe
= V. Martin, "Une tablette magique de la Bibliotheque de Geneve," Genava 6, 1928,
Martin
pp. 56-64
E. Mayser, Grammatikder griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemaerzeitmit Einschluss
Mayser
der gleichzeitigen Ostrakaund der in Agypten verfasstenInschriften,Berlin/Leipzig
1906-1934
= P. Moraux, Une defixionjudiciaire au Musee d'Istanbul (= Memoires de l'Academie
Moraux
royalede Belgique, Cl. des lettres ... LIV, ii), Brussels 1960
= K. Preisendanz,Papyri graecae magicae,diegriechischenZauberpapyri,2nd ed., rev. by
PGM
A. Henrichs, Stuttgart 1973
"QPVVLVA" = D. R. Jordan, "CIL VIII 19525(B).2 QPVVLVA = q(uem) p(eperit) vulva,"Philologus 120, 1976, pp. 127-132
Sepher ha-Razim = Sepher ha-Razim, the Bookof the Mysteries,trans. M. A. Morgan ( Texts and Translations XXV, Pseudepigraphaseries XI), Chico, California 1983
= D. Jordan, "Two Inscribed Lead Tablets from a Well in the Athenian Kerameikos,"
"TILT"
AthMitt 95, 1980, pp. 225-239
= D. Wortmann, "Neue magischeTexte," BonnJbb 168, 1968, pp. 56-111
Wortmann
= R. Wuinsch,Defixionum tabellae(= IG III, [3]), Berlin 1897
Wtinsch
Numbers after the abbreviations "Audollent","Delatte and Derchain", "PGM", "Wortmann",and
"Wuinsch"refer to texts, not to pages.
Numbers in bold type refer to the defixionesedited on pp. 213-250 below. The other defixionesfrom the
Agora are referredto by their inventorynumbers, which begin "IL"(for "Ironand Lead"). For the bibliography of these defixionesthat have been published, see Tables 1 and 2. This is the first of a series of articles in
which I hope to publish all the legible defixiones from the Agora. In the meantime, because the reader may
find it useful to be able to consult IL 1737 from Well VII, I print a preliminary transcriptionof it in the
Appendix (pp. 251-255 below).
Unless otherwise indicated,all dates below are A.D.
2 Defixiones came into popularity in the ancient world in the 5th centuryB.C. and remainedin use through
the 6th century of our era. These texts are most convenientlyconsultedin two corpora,that of Wuinsch,comprising tablets from Attica, all of which are in Greek, and that of Audollent, comprisingfurther tablets from
Attica and from the rest of the ancient world, in Greek, L.atin,and other languages as well. Both works,
however,are much out of date. For a checklistof Greek defixionesthat have cometo light subsequently,see my
"Surveyof Greek Defixiones Not Includedin the Special Corpora"(forthcomingin GRBS 26, 1985), and for
Latin defixiones not included by Audollent, see E. Besnier, "Recents travaux sur les defixionum tabellae
latines 1904-1914," RevPhil 44, 1920, pp. 5-30, and the lists compiledby E. Garcia Ruiz, "Estudiolinguistico de las defixiones latinas no incluidas en el corpus de Audollent,"Emerita 35, 1967 (pp. 55-89), p. 55,

Gabrici

DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA

207

outside the Agora area over a thousand examples have come to light; of those whose findspots can be identified(ca. 625) about half (ca. 325) come from tombsand cemeteries,others
largely from such undergroundbodies of water as wells (at least 200), baths (12), fountains
(6), a spring (1), and a cistern (1), and from sanctuariesof Demeter (ca. 60). Comparanda
from these sites suggest then that the presence of the Agora's numerous defixiones in its
bodies of water is not remarkable. It is not immediately evident, however, whether the
tablets were in situ when they were discoveredthere, for in none of these bodies do the
pottery and other objectsamong which the tablets were found make it clear whether or not
the tablets were, for example, discardedthere from elsewhere as debris.4The texts, however, are more informative:the Agora's 1st-centurydefixio from a cistern addressesthe Kvptat
vvp4oat, no doubt believed to be resident in the cistern'swaters, and the 3rd-centurytablets
from Wells IV and V have texts with phrases like c'Sravira
TaTa
ovolara (presumablythose
written on the tablets) VIxErat,
Kat'AXKtLc4aLOV
etc. (6, lines 27oVT'rW
/vXEt'o-OW To vop"Voa,
29); these latter defixiones are examples of sympathetic magic,5 the phrase referring no
doubt to the chill of the lead itself or of the water in the wells. In addition,a tablet that is in
many respects a congener of those published here, IL 1737 (see Appendix, pp. 251-255
below) from Well VII, preserves, unfortunatelyin a context that is not legible because of
note 1, and H. Solin, Eine neue Fluchtafelaus Ostia (= CommHumLitt42, fasc. 3), Helsinki 1968, "Anhang,"
pp. 23-31. The best introductionto defixionesand discussionof their importanceis tK. Preisendanz,"Fluchtafel (Defixion)," RAC VIII, Stuttgart 1972, cols. 1-24, where the pertinentbibliographyis cited.
I Defixiones from tombs and cemeteriesare too numerousto list here: see my forthcoming"Survey".Defixiones from wells include two from Isthmia (announcedby 0. Broneer,Isthmia, II, Topographyand Architecture, Princeton 1973, p. 115, late Roman) and five from Antioch (unpublished, late Roman). Also from
wells are two examples from the Athenian Kerameikos(K. Braun, "Der Dipylon-Brunnen B1,"AthMitt 85,
1970 [pp. 129-269], p. 197, late 4th centuryB.C.), but it is arguedelsewhere ("TILT," pp. 232-233) that they
were not in situ when found. Audollent 22-37 plus some 185 unpublished fragments (British Museum inv.
nos. 1891.4-18.18-39, Cyprus, Roman Imperial), accordingto a letter of July 14, 1890, in the recordsof the
Departmentof Greek and Roman Antiquities of the British Museum, from Capt. Gerald S. Handcockto A. S.
Murray, then Keeper of the Department, were found "bysome natives who were clearingout an ancient shaft
... at about 90 feet down, under a heap of bones." But their evidence, too, is ambiguous, for although the
depth of the shaft suggests that it was presumably a well, the tablets may have been depositedthere not because of some magical property of the well qua well but because of the presence of the bones (if, that is, the
bones were human) or may have been dumped into the shaft, along with the bones, as debris from a grave.
Defixiones from baths include Audollent 104, 105 (Bath, 2nd century), 114-120 (Bebryces) if genuine, and
124-126 (Volaterrae);those from fountains, four from Corinth (announcedby J. Wiseman, "The Gymnasium Area at Corinth, 1969-1970," Hesperia 41, 1972 [pp. 1-42], pp. 9-42, late Roman) and two from
Carthage (SEG IX, 837, 838, late Roman). Audollent 129 (near Arretium, lst century) comes from a spring,
and from a cistern comes a tablet published by H. C. Youtie and C. Bonner, "Two Curse Tablets from Beisan," TAPA 68, 1937 (pp. 43-77, 128), pp. 52-72, 128 (Nysa/Skythopolis, 4th century). For a list of defixiones from sanctuariesof Demeter see "TILT," p. 231, note 23.
4 As for objectsin Well V in particular, see pp. 212-213 below.
I W. S. Fox ("Submergedtabellae defixionum,"AJP 33, 1912, pp. 301-310) has thus convincinglyexplained the custom of sinking lead tablets into wells. He has adduced not only many of the tablets cited in
footnote3 above but also much comparativematerial from Europeanand Eastern cultures.To the last may be
added an interesting account of wells around Bombay, by R. P. Masani, Folkloreof Wells, Being a Study of
Water-Worshipin East and West, Bombay 1918, in a virtually inaccessiblevolume (partly available, however, in a French translation by L. Morin, "Le folklore des puits dans l'Inde et specialment a Bombay,"
RHR 103-104, 1931, pp. 221-271). For ancient sympathetic magic in general see T. Hopfner, "Mageia,"
RE XIV, Stuttgart 1928 (cols. 301-393), cols. 311-315. See also notef, pp. 241-242 below.

D. R. JORDAN

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from which I have taken the information about the dates of the contexts given above. 62-65 [ = SEG XXX. 1000 (IL 948 + 949. p. pp. p. W. for a partial drawing see Picture Books of the Athenian Agora no. AJA 37. BullEp 1976. 245-248. cf. Leiden 1981. 326].C. . G. R. Elderkin. and the number after the colon is the number that the excavators have assigned to the deposit within that square. 325. 17 IL 1695. p. Hope. G. ed. 48) Well V C 18:2 Second half of 1st through first half of 3rd century 17 IL 948 + 949. Robert. Shear. 389-395 [photograph. Elderkin. 1980. 548. D. IL 72. 44]. IL 1703-IL 1718 Well II C 9:16 1st or 2nd century 1 IL 493 (ed. 1) defixiones Number of defixiones Inventory numbers and bibliography of defixiones Well I* J 5:1t Late 4th and 3rd century B. fig. 43-49 [photograph. J. p. Glotta 58. 1. For these deposits there exist summaries in the excavation records in the Stoa of Attalos. pp. L. IL 1000 edited here) Well VI C 17:3 3rd century (Herulian destruction fill) 1 IL 1049 Well VII R 13:10 3rd century 1 Well VIII S 13:1 Late 3rd to early 5th century 1 IL 1737 (see Appendix) IL 1722 *The Roman numerals I-VIII above are assigned to the wells simply for the sake of convenience in the present publication. and Worship:Aspects of Religious Mentality in the Ancient World. 391 Well IV J 12:2 Late 2nd or 3rd century 44 plus many fragments IL 64-IL 107 (announced by T. 1937. ill. 1933. The wells are not so designated in other literature about the Athenian Agora. Jordan. Versnel. and Faith. 37) Cistern B 21:1 Late 1st or early 2nd century 1 IL 976 Well III D 12:1 Late 2nd or 3rd century 2 IL 372 (ed. 1975. H. D. and L. ed. cf. IL]. IL 950-IL 960. Robert.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA TABLE 209 1: UndergroundBodies of Water in the Athenian Agora that have Yielded Defixiones Location Context of (see Fig. BullEp 1938. 384-389 [photograph. pp. tIn locations given in the form J 5:1 the letter and number refer to the grid pattern as given in Figure 1. pp. p. IL 950-Il 964. G. 19. 382. IL 964. R. 23. Hesperia 5. pp. 22-23. W. Hesperia 6 1937. and L. fig. Jordan. Hesperia 6. ZPE 19. Elderkin. J. Hesperia 4. S. [ Studies in Greek and Roman Religion II]. 2]. p. 1936. W. pp.

Wycherley (The Athenian Agora. Collingwoodand R. Corinth:MF 69-118 (5th or 6th century). no.or 6th-centuryexample found at Corinth.although they point out that there are objections that can be raised to such an identification. (footnote3 above). 83-140. votive deposits found within it show that its cult was female (Shear. Although there is no explicit evidencefor the identity of who was worshiped at the shrine. p. The Roman Inscriptionsof Britain. 65-68) 6 The inference would not be necessarilyvalid.none. 369). the presenceof the defixiones among pottery from the shrine is easily paralleled. 1973 (pp.for inferencesabout the identityof the shrine'sdeity or heroines. or heroine. which is describedby T. pp. "The Athenian Agora: Excavations of 1972. who put them there? Here again the answer must be elicited from the texts themselves.Nimfas (sic). 84). Let us call them A.for Well I also contained objectsobviouslydumpedfrom elsewherethan the rectangularshrine. Kroll. JORDAN TABLE2: Concordanceof Defixiones in Table 1 and their Findspots Inv.7 If defixiones were deliberatelydepositedin undergroundbodies of water in the Agora. The defixionesfrom Well I are badly damaged. addressedto the aytat Kat tcrXvpatvvi(fpat.. esp.We may then with some confidenceinfer that in at least the 1st and the 3rd centuriesof our era undergroundbodies of water in the area of the Agora were consideredmagically appropriaterepositoriesfor defixiones and may assume that the lst.C. G. A. Jr. E. p.from the "Fountainof the Lamps".Sanctuariesof Demeter have yielded some sixty defixiones (footnote 3 above). and C. XIV.siv[e v]os. In any case. of the 4th or the 3rd century B. B.. 360-369. H. Shear. whose skillful.uti vos.210 D. Findspot Inv. with a man's name followed by the phrase hunc ego aput vostrum numen demando. 111 inscribedlead tablets. pp. [si]vequo alio nomine voltisadpel[l]ari. 2nd century). 123) tentatively identify the site as the Leokorion. The Agoraof Athens. elegant. L. R. P. Findspot IL IL IL IL IL IL IL Well IV Well III Well III Well II Well V Well V Cistern at B 21:1 IL IL IL IL IL IL Well Well Well Well Well Well 64-IL107 372 391 493 948 + 949 950-IL 964 976 1000 1049 1695 1703-IL1718 1722 1737 V VI I I VIII VII encrustation. 359-407). Thompson and R. No.however. pp. with the phrase qu[i]mihi Vilbiamin[v]olavit. 154. fluent semicursive(see Pls. 45pE'ar[t. Wiseman.g. 1977.sic liquat com[o](do) aqua. . hero. however. Princeton 1972. I. one would not be justified in assuming that the defixiones from Well I were necessarilyfound in situ there. op. cit.announced by J.several of them not yet unrolled. found in Well I among much pottery that had evidently been cleared out from a near-by rectangular shrine. Wright." Hesperia 42. and their texts that have been read have not revealedthe name of any deity.The handwritingshows that the texts from Well V were written by two or possiblythree persons. p. Aqu'a'eferventes. 4950. the defixionestoo may have been dumpedinto the well from some place other than the shrine.6 Similar inferences may be drawn from texts of 2nd-centurydefixiones found at Bath and near Arretium and from that of a 5th. "An Archive of the Athenian Cavalry. A. Near Arretium:Audollent 129 (from a spring. e.the phrase ev r4. Oxford 1965. probably from the Hipparcheion. One should avoid using the deposit of the defixiones."Hesperia 46.devoveo.desacrifico.etc. No. for the 17 considerablyearlier defixiones.and 3rd-centurytablets found in them were in fact in situ. 7 Bath: R. recordingthe values of the horses of the Attic cavalry (J. but if it was Demeter who was worshipedat the rectangularshrine.sanctuariesof other identifiabledeities or heroines.

6 and 7.Unless the suggestion (pp. his letters uneven in size and evidently executed with little confidence. I 7). C. They consist of 11 invocationsof Seth-Typhon. It seems reasonable to assume that A was not writing simply on his9 own behalf against all these people but rather as a professional. which are for the most part formulaic. 233-236 below) that A was a trained scribe and that B was A's apprenticemakes it unlikely.many of them. G. 1 I regret that I cannot illustrate the hand. it is probablybecausethe instrumentused for inscribing7 had a thinner point or the lead of 7 was somewhat softer. Cole. chaps. possibly a handbookfor practicingmagicians.in Apuleius' novel (3.11its text may in fact be anotherexample of A's work. I tentativelyposit the existence of a third writer. becausethe script on the remainingtablet (14). The tablets are so badly corrodedand often so fragmentarythat it is difficult to assess the handwriting with any confidence. however. that he consulted.they also include an invocationof an unnamed ghost (12). rolled up. Smith. and one of the speakers in Lucian's Dialogues of Courtesansrecommendsa witch near the Kerameikoswho for a drachma and a loaf would bring back lost lovers with her spells (4. three of them (7-9) spells to upset amatoryrelations. these are of course charactersfrom fiction. We may wonder if he was A's apprentice. but their authors must have meant them to appear to their 2ndcentury readers acceptablyverisimilar. 11) too fragmentaryto reveal their purposes. is badly encrusted. "CouldGreek Women Read and Write?"in Reflectionsof Womenin Antiquity. 9 was intendedto stop the advancesof two men. I When referringto A. Magic as a professionalpractice in the Agora should not surprise us. more delicateappearancethan that on 8 and 9. . 219-245. if the writing on 7 and IL 1737 has a somewhatlacier. 10For some discussion of the figure of the practicingmagician in antiquity see M. B's writing (Fig.and the remaining two (10. they may one or all have been female. I use the masculinepronounsimply for the sake of convenience.4). or C. Leosthenesand Pius.with the result that it is difficultto get a clear idea of the hand's character.8 inscribed 12 tablets (1-12) from Well V. As for the tablets illustratedhere (Pls. San Francisco 1978. S. 81-139.88oK07ros ("inscriberof lead defixiones"?)of Wiinsch 100.. 8 It is to be hoped that eventuallymore of Well IV's texts will becomelegible as the scienceof the treatment of lead advancesand that they can be published beforetoo long. 8 was intended to interruptthe relations of a pair of lovers named Juliana and Polynikos and no doubt to benefit one or more persons interested in either or both of the two. for Lucius in Apuleius' Metamorphosestells us of a mysteriousjuggler who could be hired in front of the Stoa Poikile to make personsappear out of thin air (I . as I shall try to show below.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 211 is to be recognized in defixiones invoking Seth-Typhon that were found in Wells III (IL 372) and VII (IL 1737) and in some found in Well IV. Foley. P. pp.the tablet. 65-68).uoAv. with her laminae litteratae. The letters on 14 are too faintly incised to be traced or photographed. 230) the female(?) . B. I assign at least one tablet from Well IV to him. a written model. Jesus the Magician. 2) is crude.4). towards the same Juliana and to cool their interest in her. appears somewhat more florid. New York/London/Paris 1981. are still as they were found.10A's texts. One immediatelythinks of the sorceressesin Theokritos'secondIdyll and of Pamphile. because of their fragility. His one text (13) from Well V follows the same formula as A's invocationsof Seth-Typhon:he and A were evidentlyusing the same model or copies of the same model. the part of it that is legible does not follow the formula of any of the other texts from the well. ed. H. In any case. six of them (1-6) spells to spoil the performancesof athletes. while similar to A's.at least from time to time. show certain inconsistenciesthat suggest. as was Lucian's witch referredto below. pp. cites (p.

cited by Thompson. 71-74. 327-368]. pp. no. was about to compete in the Athenaia or the Panathenaia. one can scarcelyavoid associationwith the Panathenaics.editor of IG 112. 320 and 340.. and by J. I should prefer.the Papers of a Memorial Symposiumfor Rodney S. . as if writing on lead was a slower process. Mr. R... 2239.would point to a date in the early 4th century after Christ. lines 13/14 (see the note ad loc. any closer date than "late Roman". pp. to suspendjudgment as to whether they were still included in the celebrationsat such a late date. therefore the medium may have influenced the characterof the tablets' handwriting.Hesperia 20.decoratedwith "a nude male figure. . DeVries. what is commonerin defixiones of the 2nd centuryand afterwards. On the contextof the tablets within the well itself. the inscriptionprovidesa late attestationfor the celebrationof the festival."The State Prison of Athens. 1959. 14 The dates of these inscriptions are assigned by Follet. 114) to the beginning of the 5th century. On the opposite side is preservedthe lower part of a long-robed figure. in view of the lack of explicit mention of the games in the inscriptionhonoringPlutarch.2245) and in 263/4 or 267/8 (Hesperia 11. 37) respectively. pp.the male figure is clearly an athlete bearing the palm of victory. Philadelphia 1980."in From Athens to Gordion.in view of the open bottom. no. Kirchner. on the basis of its letter forms. holding some slenderobjectin his hand. line 156 (for the date of which see Follet. p. 17-31.212 D. Graindor(Albumd'inscriptions attiques d'epoqueimpe'riale. Thompson has been kind enough to contributethe following note: "The curses were found at the 12 Well V serveda house of Roman date built abovethe ruins of the "PorosBuilding". however. then we may regard these dates as approximatelatter termini for the inscribingof the tablets. The result is that it would be prematureto equate any of the persons named on the tablets with persons named in stone inscriptions. K.. Gand/Paris 1924. for argumentsfor the use of the building in classical times see E. If their 5th-centurydatings are right. the well itself was in use from the secondhalf of the 1st through the first half of the 3rd century of our era. pp. but the Attalos of the defixio is of coursenot necessarily the Attalos of the stone inscription. an epigram honoring a man named Plutarch for thrice paying for the sacred ship in the Panathenaicprocession. 6's intended victim. 13 There in fact existed an Attalos son of Attalos who appears in a list of ephebesof 238/9 or 241/2.is assigned by P. 241). and if the customof the games died out about the time of these last epigraphical attestationsof them. [= Recueil de travauxpublics par la faculte'de philosophie et lettres de l'Universite de Gand LIII-LIV]. Crosby.maternallineage (see note e below. on the basis of the handwriting on the tablets. 1942. games last explicitly attestedin 255/6 (IG 112. 168-187 (plan.12I am reluctantto try to assign. 3818.. this is chiefly because with the exception of the ephebe Attalos son of Attalos in 413 the persons whose lineage is recordedon the tablets are given not paternal but. From phrases at 6. slant. and the like of letters written on lead with those on papyrus or potterymay be misleading. 1960 [pp. p. Vanderpool. . Writing on lead is generally less cursivethan writing on these other materials.must be considered as purely symbolic. its function.and comparisonof forms. ed. no evidentconnectionbetween the magical use of the well and the function(s)of the earlier or later construction. "asalso [its] floral ornament.which usually give patronymicsif they note lineage. IG 112. 84). general fluidity. There may be a later artistic referenceto the Panathenaicgames:H. Young(= UniversityMuseum Papers I)." with an open bottom.. p. p.which is describedby M. 169).for the only reliably dated bodies of handwriting of the period are on papyrus and pottery. 366) has published the preserved"lowerpart of a large amphora-likevessel . As to the purpose of the vase. V p. Nor have I had any successin identifying with known persons the intended victims of the tablets. A."IG 112. There is.14if Alkidamoswas in fact about to competein either of these games. and the female figure may be a last pitiful representationof Athena. Thompson ("Activitiesin the Athenian Agora. If it is indeed to be consideredas a prize vase. 1951. s. . to ante med. The context providedby the well" in which it was found."Hesperia 29. presumablyfemale. JORDAN As for the date of Well V's tablets.) and 25/26 we may tentatively infer that the athlete Alkidamos.

there being little likelihood that they will be mistaken for Greek words. another of A's productions. Below I present (I) A's texts: (A) his curses directed against athletes (1-6) and (B) lovers (7-9). it is occasionallyimpossible to know whether to assume a lost letter.was also found in a 3rd-century context. if viewed out of context. [?] is meant to express the uncertainty. five (1-5) are directedagainst wrestlers. with notes (pp. and (D) his invocation of a ghost (12). when the area was devastated. 267. without the rectangularbrackets. 240-247. would be compatible with more than one reading. CURSES INSCRIBED BY A A. and I leave chiefly to others the challenge of further interpretation.* The writing on the tablets is often irregularlyspaced.-Ed. B's and C's curses from Well V were found mingled among A's and were no doubt contemporarywith his.D. in all likelihoodbefore A. I would remind readersthat[_c. and in damaged areas. I then (E) discuss A's use of a formulary and print his formulaic texts together in parallel form. One may assume thereforethat they were droppedin while the well was still open and probablystill in use. inscribedby A. are necessarilytentative. My notes on their syncretictheology.e.the sixth (6) against a racer. * [Where the number of missing letters is clear. on the otherhand. I consider that the main contributionthat I offer below is the transcribingof these often quite difficult texts. I. I dot all letters whose traces. [?]. 11). In editing the texts I follow the Leiden Conventionbut introduceone sign. (C) his two fragmentarycurses of unclear purpose (10.I print the readableletters in capitals so as not to prejudicethe articulation.3 ._ca.in Table 1 we see that Well VII's tablet. they are indicatedhere by subscriptdots.means that traces of approximatelythree letters survive but are too indistinct to be individually described. that is not in commonuse. I regret that it has been impossible. lettered a through q) on the magical and other matter that the texts have in common.In my opinion one could put the date of depositaroundthe middleof the 3rd cent.when magical appellatives have been so damaged (as in 12). if one may use such a term for what their medleys of magical names and such imply.] .3] meansthatapproximately threelettersarelost. 1 print them in lower-case letters. especially in passages whose sense is obscure. only when in my opinion the dotted readings given in the printed texts are not guaranteed by context or parallels do I list the other possibilities.because most of the surfacesare badly corroded or encrustedor because their letters are too faintly incised for photographyor tracing. with some notes on the peculiarities and problems in the individual texts.if these are passages of Greek prose rather than of magical appellatives.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 213 level [in Well V] where the upper (dumped) fill changed to the fill of the period of use containingwhole pots. His CURSES DIRECTED AGAINST ATHLETES Of A's six curses intendedto harm athletes. There follow (II) B's and (III) C's texts with notes and also an appendix with a preliminary text of IL 1737 from Well VII. however."A's texts were presumablyall more or less contemporarywith one another. to illustrate more than a few of the inscriptionsfrom the well.In several passages the surfaces of the tablets are too damagedfor words to be discernedor restored. i.

Z4s' i rOI ris AO?s Kara4 sa* <at a Z2H'Ezv b Ka['] Kat 1r7jVWracriV. 1-3. No. wrapabt'c[&IL4] 10 [o-oL]EVirvXLavov). OVETEKIEvEvrvXLa. 1. pp. Hadrumetum (Audollent 272-295. Berytos (SEG VII.139 m. against runners. #<atis r[O2w]o- paK ar[o]vs 8q -ov a'. 1952/53. Egger. from Isthmia (IM-2820. the Agora has yielded apparentlythe only defixiones against wrestlers. 2nd or 3rd century?). L'va v7) AAXELV7)H1E[p]7rEpOapwqvaIata. 'q a tv*savrovo KparatEBer7rvr. as well as scattered examples from Lepcis Magna (J. Av.AAo~v(or 7rapao-KEvq. IL 950 Bpoop/3a/3ap/3[o 7rapabico/At . late Roman). rule out the possibility that three separate persons named Eutychian were among A's intendedvictims. II. late Roman). 108-110. and Rome (Audollent 159-187. SEG IX. pp. that of 2 is identifiedonly as a 7raAa-qrrjswho is to competeagainst a Secundus. of course. remarksabout the difficultexamples from Corinth and Isthmia are based on my own preliminary . announcedby 0. 56-61. and Damaskos (SEG VII. 4th century). 4th century). R. intended to affect a performanceEv T(O KtLpKc but only partly read as yet. 0. ca. 400). Wiseman. Greece outside the Agora. [I']va KaraKat'[v]Co rrB. p[/3]a/3a[p o p/3a/3op/3op/3aLrB (rot EV1rvXLavov. Broneer. Kat a x. 837. Rea. p. Among them those intended to affect the performancesof charioteersare the most abundant:there are the well-known groups from Carthage (Audollent 232-244. 1972-1973. 115.214 D.rlV 'IEAAL 7. each directedagainst a wrestler named Eutychian. 838. Hesperia 41. MelRome 25.raAaLtLV E'rV7 [ !- ]EI ev rjj . 1943. announcedby J. 2nd or 3rd century?).ovrn. 92-96. 213. has yielded only two defixionesagainst athletes. JORDAN There are numerous published defixiones that may be cited as parallels to A's curses against athletes. IIIp. Inv. AgainstEutychian H.may well have the same athlete as their target: the Eutychian of 1 is given maternal lineage and his trainer(?) Aithales is alluded to. 0.voyzN4/lr?). 2nd or 3rd century?)are also defixionesagainst venatoresof the arena. 0. A. A.As far as I know. 2nd or 3rd century?). ca. and from Oxyrhynchos(Wortmann 12. 180. p. Libya Antiqua 9-10. med. W.Isthmia.115. BAntFr. av ETEKEIv EV7vXtLa. EV7TEoE Moco[v-] yraAaty. and another.D.Princeton 1973. Topographyand Architecture.15So far. Audin. 33.Kpa- [raLE]Tv4&wJKoAXAot ToviovovYjolq IaO[acoX] Kat Ea.E 5 cUpC&oTO vat aWxva o+Vva'?r4. Grenier.0025 m. "Avae A7ro14ecptovptye E' aaLf 6 15 These autopsy. A. and that of 3 is identified as a pupil of Aithales who is to compete against a Hegoumenos. one from Corinth (MF-69-114. 1972. H. The identifications do not. 234. 1905. p. OJh 35.1st century?)and from Carthage (Audollent246-254. 4th century)there is one against runners. L. From Caerleonin Wales (R. pp. however.

aAA yevO-Oco] E'\yAvros. Roman?]). 'A7ro. referringto the day on which its intendedvictim. line 2 we learn Line 18. since the latter would have a plural name (cf. 15." AnatStud 12. 4[v4iL]:-6Et Line 15. unless it is here a terminustechnicusof the athletic world and "release"can be understoodin the pregnant sense of "present"for the competitionor "enter"someone in the competition (after releasing/promoting him from training?). 2547-2578).20). "Hebdomas. Is: Es' Line 12. and W. "discharge". At 3.).let Eutychiangrow cold and not be strongthis coming Friday.'Qs ravra r olvoldara 4l[xE-] ra<t>. 1st century). Lines 7. "sell"(e. 'A8pLacvELa. 2nd or 3rd century?See "QPVVLVA".. Lord Apomx Phriourinx over the blacking out and chilling of Eutychian. Kubitschek. 16.v\w usually means "undo".g. but let him be weak. KoAxotx[Gw\]w4. Munich 1928. mighty Betpyt. 4. E. yVr["']E[i']rvXtavos 15 [eiv] 7rnv] otvo-rapa 215 [/v-] KatL et7 EVOP r[w] a vKLV. pp. is tantalizing."release". Boll. Wiesbaden 1962. in orderthat he may fall and disgracehimself.p.Hava67jvaLa. Antiphon. whom Eutychia bore. or possibly "defraythe expenses of" (G. As these names grow cold."RE VII. And if he does wrestle. Bind in the unilluminatedaion of oblivionand chill and destroyalso the wrestling that he is going to do in the . In none of these meanings does the verb describethe usual activitiesof the trainer.av [II-] TEKEvEvivXt'a.ETor Q): The possible topographicalreference. I hand over to you Eutychian. 30-38.is to compete. E'yAvros-:E'KA- "('Borphor'syllables) -babaie. lines 10/11 in Cie/ Merccuri (Carthage. pp. whom Eutychia bore. Mozoune Alcheine Perpertharonalaia. B. no. which may refer to one of the Delia in Attica (see 0. is not clearto me. a charioteer.olv 7TOAvEL AlWcA?)S. E'vT7 jAEAAovffy 7rapao-KEV (line 15: -Lv) "this coming Friday":There is ample evidencethat the seven-dayweek was in popular use in the Greek and Roman world by at least the 2nd century:see F. that you may chill him and his purposes. Bean and T." Lines 6/7. ov ETEKEv EvrvXLa. cols. "dismiss".and the like. We may compare Audollent 253. oVrco4vyXj-Oco EVIrVXLavls. p. The traces are compatible with a reading i /[AI]co. but I have not been able to find any explicit indicationthat athletic conteststook place at any of these sites. 1962 (pp. . so let Eutychian grow cold. Kolchoicheilops. 2573-2575. Grundriss der antiken Zeitrechnung (= Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft I.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA EVrvXLavov. Mighty Typhon Kolchoi Tontonon Seth Sathaoch Ea. Rubensohn. is the . for a summaryof the often disputed evidencefor them). this coming Friday. 185-217).possiblythe same athlete as this tablet'sintendedvictim. for the date). Mitford. Stuttgart 1912 (cols. "SitesOld and New in Rough Cilicia. vel sim. note 4. \H/[1-2 ]Et (H or T. 199.ua6r)rrs of Aithales (see the note ad loc.). The meaning of the phrase o'va7ToAv'ELAW60A7Xs that a wrestler Eutychian.likelier here than a referenceto a festival. lines 15/16 [Kilikia. it may also mean "pay"(e. I provisionallytranslate "promotes"but should welcome a better explanation of the verb. whom Aithales promotes. TebtunisPapyri 490a. 129. whom Eutychia bore."set free". .g. vii). 7rapaO-KLv^: -0TKEVr Line 16. V. and in your dark air also those with him. Lines 3.Das Delion von Paros. whom Eutychia bore. I hand over to you Eutychian. 40-41.

Lwa E1K7TEKWf 10 [yj?). knowledge. Io7r /rE wraAa'co[v /Aq)EvL'. mighty Betpy.ELV?) rkrEpapwgva Iata. IL 960 KparatE Bp pop/3a/ap0op/3a/3ap0op/8ap/3op/3a/3a B7-wv. and in your dark air also those with him.0025 m. s. that you may chill Eutychian and his purposes and his power. 'Eazv Yrpo _EKO^VlTOV Kara*'7 E9rv [x]Ao[L]x6tcELA. III p. reckoning. The translation above is meant simply to represent what is on the tablet.] . EYTYXIANTONO tablet. <'Earv be KaL -raXa. Line 8.. chill <him> and do not allow Eutychian to wrestle. H. Let him be deaf. the T squeezed in above the N and the 0: Evidently the writer sought to correct his mistake but only made matters worse by inserting T in the wrong place. OT)s'.AaAo[sI. q-T . aq 4]F or o-v]s. R. dumb. Bind in the unilluminated aion of oblivion and chill and destroy also the wrestling of Eutychian. EVrvXLavoov: final v correctedfrom s-. line 6. as comparison with the parallel texts in section E suggests (see p. [Is]:ELS Line 14.$va1kLV. KparatE Tv4i4kv KoA-] AaLwrov. who is going to wrestle with Secundus. Lines 8/9.] a." Line 2.lo[ -] [EVTrvLtav[o]]v7waAdTaL. The writer seems to have omitted something here. y& co)E'rvtaVoi3 s-tavo av 7[aAaL-] xEra0.e. e Eorw K<o4os. suggest. Morzoune Alcheine Perpertharona Iaia.W Ka[t] o Yv4'1A[4lV]Ka[' r]' 5 KaL Ls rOvC4J v 8v. 0. W. <and if he does wrestle>" (i. so let Eutychian's name and breath.146. harmless. impulse. No.. charm. L. 74[apa-] 8[L'8C0]1Al'ro-L E'VrVXLavolv. o[i'rcs 4v-] I "J]v[ola Kat *4Vivy. I hand over to you Eutychian. Is. Inv. o-ov aEpa Kat roV oVv a Vr0. 7raAaL'/LV: -ELV Line 5. "('Borphor' syllables) -babaie. Mighty Typhon.059 m. and not fighting against anyone. If with regard to Secundus you chill him and do not allow Eutychian to wrestle. ca. let Eutychian the wrestler grow cold. his strength. mindless. 0."] . corrected to the genitive. As these names grow cold.] o AoyL)o csS. in order that he may fall and disgrace himself.a] Vovs. M[op]ovv?) AAX. as an evident omission in line 8 or 9 and another mistake. Against Eutychian H. Smith suggests that the original sense ran: "If <he is going to wrestle> with Secundus. knowledge grow cold. JORDAN 216 2. A7 s-[s-L s rw-rova a 7) V T Ar LKaL 7TOAEOr?[s-] KatLrq'v aW va KaL Kaara/[v]fs' wacriv EVrvXtavoov 7a- IKat a Kat ao-yX. The tablet is rather carelessly written.7v LOTokqv. 7rapabibtCO ot Evirvxtav{'r'1olv <r><Iv> 1AE'KovrawraAaL'LvJSEKoVlThc. without repairing the error. r opyr 7) E7TLO-7]7)/4. [M. wrestler. Av.. Lines 2/3.r Vr&A?)v. med. Lva Kara/vf' EvrvXLaV.>) "mayhe fall and disgrace himself. 237 below). 15 7TL7[O/AL7T). aK<EpaLOSI. Kolchoicheilops. reading in line 9 -raXai-aL. EV'-vXLav69 in line 14. I hand over to you Eutychian.4lyl7rc 4II V Qs r-dra ovL^ara -a aL. his wrestling. 0.D. ).

- .. which would also allow a restoration 7raAaio-a[t w0xvv]: cf. 0.0125 m. and in your dark air also the wrestling that Eutychian is going to do. No.EI Line 14. Evirtx]Lavo. so too let Eutychian's name and breath. line 4. And if he does wrestle. that you may chill him and destroy (him) and make (him) slack.Lr8iEVL (?)]I Line 15. line 13. Kolchoicheilops. lines 14/15. 0. Ev']rtx[a]vo[i]: -7vX- Line 3. mind. [Ert/Lrov7nj: -. line 5. 6. mindless.raAaZL-at EvrtX]Lavdos. 0. 7rpa'n-ws9would also be appropriate (cf. Av. The parallels as set out in section E show that A or his model did not object to repeating such nouns as E7rt7r0o. rV I'EAALtELrtXtavoos] crv KgKat a7ToAE sq KLatrrBv ca. 8-11. Morzoune Alcheine Pepertharona Iaia. uionXvErw rpC1/TrwS [lraAaL']Etv.. . ov[rco]s Ka[' EU]rtx4a]vo[i ]v)e'oO E tLr]0V7 pr O [o volAaKaL] )[/n) ]OV]g.. I]s:./n rat -raAaZoat. the pupil of Aithales. The traces of w[ may be read -a[. and with a little squeezing 1EKOOVlJC might fit..avovv. Mighty Typhon Kolchloi Tontonon Seth Sathaoch Ea.41 hryX v o'Aws1. and those with him. 4..V ?7TLTT4/n.. charm.. Kat ro[6] 5 ovv av[4r(. rp'o 'HyovIAEvoovHI1TOHN[8VI a. 4v[y rwco Ev-] [8]COIA orot EVrtXtLavlo ca.lines 11/12. harmless.7rnand Ertajtq in this sequence.7rEpOappcovaIata. [v4o/tara 4]vXEraL. Against Eutychian H. lines 20/2 1).- .073.. . lines 26/27. Kpa-] [v7n AAXELV]7)re. III p.6. I offer /UbEvJt simply by way of example. . Is. impulse. EVrtxtaLaov.. mighty Bepty.. 4. n7 E7TLTT7- n WL-] 15 [WroVlr4.. L. E'WL7ro]VW7. aKE'p]atos. in order that he may fall and disgrace himself. med." .7 _ K]a/ap)a/3co[p /[CO p/3op/3a/3aLB K[paLatE BE7T7v. line 12. so that he cannot wrestle. I hand over to you Eutychian.line 6. 27 [7rLXLav]os [Kal [ 4v."E[oro a7-ovsa .-max.002 m. I hand over to you Eutychian. I/'TE [- . .- Line 2. Ka] I rOI [to4-] <aLa7ToA[Eo)]s? [Ka'L7To-ys'] bo orov a4[p]a K[a'tm a'p krqArV. raz o-] 'Qs] ra[ira ?. As these names grow cold. "V I1AAL 7. [ rE] [?pytL0]AElVos0. reckoning grow cold. 10 .. o Ao]ytoAOs'. MopLov-] 7r'on Ka[L] [ oot [EV]r[LXtavo'v. 3. ca. H. let Eutychian grow cold . knowledge. knowledge. IL 957 [_ _ ca.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 217 Line 16. W. ' n. neither having any impulse nor .uj / ioJxwv b'Awsc [7raAaZtat 1j&8Ev.-TrE -raAa&'C0[vu /8EvL'] does not occur in the well's other texts. i[ap]aL1C0odL` 10 [raLETv]4@Iv KoAXXot Tov[4rovov] ln SaOawx Ea..1A7W "('Borphor' syllables) -babaie. but cf. . hearing nothing. Let him be-mindless. the participles at the ends of 4. harmless.] ra[pab-] AlWaAovs lAaOqrpl-v. LO'a ['E]a[4V]8 'atK a[A]aL'. [Evrtxtavo's]. 31 . Bind in the unilluminated aion of oblivion and chill and destroy also the wrestling that Eutychian is going to do with Hegoumenos . AZis ']s ro v r i9 [At\]O[n)]s a47rt[o-rov aLW]va Kat K[ama-] 7aAr[v. ["Avaf Mo14] [c1?ptovpt]yE 7L 0avCLEL KaL*'[et. Inv. lines 20/21.07`w[s0 Kara]/v6ls' [avrow] vrov C roTvov..IAEV &Kcot$Vw. Lord Apomx Phriourinx over blacking out and chilling. EV/rtxtav]os.raAaL4[a]t7 c'7rXs. aK4patov. Ko]AXoLXLL[X]Cw4. charm.

Line 7. for it falls either in lacunae (lines 4. however.. lines 9/10.. JORDAN Line 2. 0.g.. Kolchoicheilops. . [rop I-qOla0aw]X Ea.in these instances.097 m. Lord Apomx Phriourinx over blacking out and chilling and powerlessness. 7) IE7L(TT71lL7).7 0 vIOVS. As these names grow cold." Lines 10/11. Monoune Alcheine Pepertharona Iaia. ca.KoAXotXEtAco4I. 71 E7rTTT77)/L (Tuio.2 ]OI[ 22 ] . having no impulse . 9.reckoning grow cold. Line 12.LEXXEtEv'TtXtavo]/ 7raXa^to[a]t restoredafter 1. in the wrestling . i'v 1. .line 16. med. mighty Bepty. but fall. Plato.. 54d5.218 D. which curses one Tyche. TO\ HN[ and assume a topographical reference? I have found no likely word beginning HN-. HIYTOHN[: Articulate '. /J. EV-TVXin 1 and 2. once with iota.. No. lines 9-14. line 6.013. let Attalos the ephebe grow cold and do not let him wrestle (and come out) first.0oLt ATTaXrOp -_ . son of Attalos. but the phrase does not appear in the well's parallels. Line 4. 'oX[v$/cv. A or the composerof the model that he used was elsewhere capableof omitting the objectsof such verbs:cf. aAAX [rHE7TEpoa]pw[v]a Iata. The omission should not be viewed as an eccentricity.. wrestling.. 'v LE'XAXEt7raXaio-at Ev?rtX]tavo and lines 6/7.-EL. It is unclear how the name was spelled elsewhere on this tablet. Lines 18/19. mindless. so too let Attalos' name and breath./vy 'TC "ATTa20 Xos 0oEfr/3Os' Kat XV1 tXVETW 7TpCO- 10 . IL 956 ?C- Bcop4op/3a[- a.] 's rcX7)v. -navelsim. "Avae Awro14 Inv. 'Qsf Tav^aTa 4VXETE. knowledge. 18 . rOV A16aciovs. The meaning and the length of [Kal Irq 7raXa ro 7rpos ZEKcovV0ov]vel sim. Movovr?..ia6rjTrrs'elsewhere with this meaning. KpaTEE:-TatE Line 22.003 m. KpaTEE Tv4&3p KOXXXOtTOYTO- TWS C r7aAat]Etv. W. dumb. 20 . Crito. aXaXtos. E.. III p. . 4. impulse. IL 1737. . . Av. wrapaboiwt (Tot "AT15 TaXOV Teo)EV4)O7)0V TO ) 'ATTCaXOV [vL]o. completely. LO'XVCOV Line 2. yL~/REv0rS~ ca-. "Ar/raXov rov Ain/3ro r `'Arra'Xov/ [v']'v: See footnote 13 abovefor such an Attalos in an Attic ephebic list. R. avi/o-Xvi:The word is apparentlyunattestedelsewhere as a noun. L. Against Attalos H. [Ka\ 7rotjo-yqs]simply exempli gratia. 12 11 [ 1-2 EAGH 12 traces 13 [ 2-3 ] Xwogs. A spelling the name six times with upsilon. 12) or in a badly corroded area (line 13). Line 3. 0. 4. not having any strength at all.. lIVXETE: -Tat "('Borphor'syllables) -babaie.Q NIYK[] ca. I hand over to you Attalos the ephebe. would be suitable.however:cf. I hand over to you Attalos . Let him be deaf.prjfv: Aithales' pupil in the sense of his trainee? I do not find .but internal consistencyneed not be assumed:cf. avovs'.jv Lines 14-16. e..7rapabibnt'8 ] _ ca. 25 OVTOS' KaL ATTCXOV KatD? 4vX).] AXEL.. 0. Mighty Typhon Kolchloi Tontonon Seth SathaochEa. I have restoredthe spelling -rtX.ya6. 20 ------- [papatL KpaTEE BE7TTTV. ?) o3ovLara 4v Ey'O Opfy?). [KparEE]. EvrtXtavdv so spelled here but cf. but it seems a natural interpretationhere.r>n.g..- 4-9 traces (Dptovptye E7Tta44av-EL] KaLt*v/eIt Kat aVtorXvC.. 0 XOY- "EoTTCOKW(PoOS'. TO opo/l 7 W7WT/17T?.9 op- r OAWS9/L77)&V. H. 6.- ca. 9.

1st century]. the action (?). a[a-Xrtov]65 restoredfrom lines 6/7. although both occur in the parallels. [Ka]ra7rE'o' a&r]Xyvuo'j.057. ]ON. Lord Apomx Phriourinx over blacking out and chilling. Z jv]wvos [caA3]NAPIA[ ]KA [-22z3-]NH[-ca. Lines 11/12.198 m. that you may chill . Line 3. IL 955 (For the text of 5. unless Z2. . Bind in the unilluminated air of oblivion and chill and destroy the wrestling . but its incompleteiterations 17 .r ](T or a) II[ leave no choices but HlEwprsqor HE7rp7sq for the nominative form. in order that he may fall down and disgrace himself. Neither this noun nor 7aSsg which follows. aE'pa: see note i. *v//[6L]: -6Et "('Borphor'syllables) -babaie mighty Betpy. neither of them paralleled in the well's texts. Against Petres H. . L. 0. [Kara]TldrrWv and k[al K]]aaT7TL7rT7-ov [Ka]rasE(o7. see p. Inv. Mozoune Alcheine PepertharronaIaia. who is to wrestle . is found in the parallels. Line 5. 0. Line 4. ..here there is not enough room for both. Kolchloicheilops. AN[ ]N. .may well be Egyptian. p. Av. howeverit is to be accented.the knowledge. flva [c]ar[adv] is to be restored. ?[Lo]vv-L'ov Mta6?p-': Dionysios' trainee (see note on 3.. / [Ka'L Line 6.. HE[rp7p]v7o'VMaKE80'v[a: name. so let the mind. 7Tpa/esL or 7rpa/[yMtadELa.BGUVII. I hand over to you Petres the Makedonian . the mode (?). p. the reckoning.g. line 4: &E'pa. but let him fall and disgracehimself. but cf. the ordering (of his life?).. 220) Line 4. As these names grow cold. line 8 and 13 B.oror) 6 irE 7 10 HET. H.. max. IL 72. ]v (acc. but cf. a'-L]oT7oV The parallels have apva here..o.002 m. Possibly the intended victim's name (genitive) rather than 4vXE(L)o0-c stood in the lacuna.may be a congenerof names like and is thereforerestoredhere.g. and those with him. Z[ 'vo]va. but cf. No. Line 11. 1599. E.. as the initial letters IlE-suggest) nor any attestationof a name HErprS. does not occur in the parallels. The latter. 1s: EL9s Lines9/10. falling down and disgracing himself. let Petres grow cold . line 12. aAXXa: Cf. And if indeed Petres the pupil of Dionysios does wrestle. the use of the latter (plural) in anothertablet written by A. . Zenon's bearingon the curse is unclear. grow cold. . aAXa.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 219 5.. ]Z[ or ]'[: E.W. 8. Petres is the only person named in the well's iE'rpos and HE7-paLosg texts who is identifiedas a non-Athenian.) 1 ] (FIorT. where it is also adjacentto a word with the letters NAPI. from Well IV. I hand over to you Petres the pupil of Dionysios. 4 ]: Z Iv]wvos is restoredfrom line 10.. 243 below. 0. 3[La]L'T[r)v"mode of life" I restore here exempligratia." Nowhere does the tablet fully preservethe intendedvictim's Line 1. line 28 [Philadelphia. There is apparently no sure instanceof a Greek name beginning HlEw-(the name HlEirp-in a papyrusreceipt..E.. line 6. line 2 above)? Line 8.. Mighty Typhon Kolchloi Tontonon Seth Sathaoch Ea..

. t1[.4.o -[ . -] H[ET]pfl[s -ET irvyjrov 7ipa[Ta raz 6vd]Mara 1k[vxErat....K-- [e.. aAAaK[a ~~~~~v]ca3 aV'T[. wrapa]03' ca3 5 (?).. 10 _ca...5.. ]N... Ko])A.4_ [eL. ]AFONH-4 ca a'elpaKal KaTa*evl 23 N [dov P]aOtET' /V TOV o] Z[L4o]vvor1vMaO2pTi'g. aAAa '7TEOfl KaLaO ... 0 -[---------------I 5[sq Kat] a o T' V MaKE8 'v[a c-2 7 KaTa*EBET-7V.. [DoAv]ay 0 2 3 ca.. OV 'rcAXav] 3_[ _KA[ ) K]qTa7rL'7TTC0V Tr)sX )07s a'0co'TL]aT0V . [h ca.g. IL 955 a- [_ 4 c..-]ON. 2'QsraTaKal 47 [.otxEti\w4r...-] Z-uaw7vw 10 [it. 'raXa't'v ca7 T'/V 8[La]'T[njv [_ p.. No.l /3[jpa30p3a3al) _]Ca-4 [- a -4 ... med.. III p.5ca.ca..E'OVa ]NA[ ]AT[.. nI- C.O a.. 6 \oyto7. 3 E s Kat qeg ]AN[ ____c..-4]HE ' KaLtv[A'7r]o4 'ptovpty &[av]woEt [KparaL]'Tv4c7v KoXX\ot T[O]VTOVOV O la0acX Ea...O...]NH[- KaLa[axrXtov]&v.x. :Oot Mo(ovvij AXXELvf lHerEpOapp[wvalata...-'JvaK[aa]+6[8 ] -____c.. 35_ _ __ _ .c..oi"rwsV 'n *vXE'0'0wK]aL(?) o vovs.. A\^aS TiTV -a3 -ca.i ca.'Eav o [Kara]7rLrwTCv [Ka0 &ojxtwiovtio.. Inv.-]T[ ]NAPIQ[..ovfl - ca.t . COPTl tfE[Tp'q]V ]N] aO ... Ko]~~~~X vo .. Tr']V TaetV. 3 Ca 4 .- apab'8. 4 .. KaI 7raXat'rHE[Tptjg ['Rlva[Ka]ra7reofl TOv ZtOVVrlET[p'v] iOw.Eor4TTij.

A . IL 958 [B]qp0op. hearing nothing about Apollonian nor having any impulse against Apollonian.whom Ph-us-a bore. Ls.\W*. 4v'e4: -6Et Line 32.]KpaTaE c. mighty Betpy.096 m. L. evidently a terminus technicus of the racecourse.:ELS' Line 12.aap0opPaPap0 opflaflop0oplaf3at7)cKparae BET7TV. 9. p. And if he does get past. E64EvYOE: -XOLine 14. KE: KaL Line 23. H. va Ka- aVTOY Ka2tTi/V Ta/V'6S Kat LS'TOY 0- (/JL77Y. 7TpOS vacat arot] Lines 7. Mighty Typhon Kolchlo Pontonon Seth Sathaoch Ea. ^ (ovY avT'c. Let him be deaf. P YS A: Of the first letter representedby a dot there is a low loop opening into a corrodedarea at the upper right: a or o.083 (top).223. 'I2ovG-Ka?'Favib-ra? Line 12. 0. 0.ov.] 'avovs. Morzoune Alcheine Pepertharona Iaia. impulse. Bind in the unilluminatedaiornof oblivion and chill (him) and do not allow him to get past the starting lines of the Athenaia. KaL a7&[o]Kaj ao-xi/r/X[O?o-. 5 ETEKEY (D YE (0- ov A. I E7)TUTT7)/kl7). No.221 DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 6.8ap.] /tl7TE OpytcO/lEVOS 35 'A7roX[rXcvtavov. (1S' TaVaTaTa o'vo/laTa 'AOrvaL'oE KE4Epx7. 7Tap<a> 0ot 'ALK oa. AXXvrrPH1E7TE[pOapwOY-] a Iata. S)'6' EY. III p.025 m. tAK Tat.in a similar phrase in lines 25/26. 109) is suggested by 4epEpXq/raL in lines 14/15 and confirmedby 4eEPXEOa. ca. knowledge. Inv.ELY 'AAK'- /Vyr)TW 25 balos' KaALL?) 46EpXEO-O I [T]O[Si] 'opovs 'aY WVY. aKEpEos-. dumb. mindless. in order that he may veer off course and disgrace himself. aXa- [Aos. I hand over to you Alkidamos. 7rapaoiW44 TO 4VXEL-OW 30 xI. so too let Alkidamos' name and breath. The verb.K. aKE'pEos7:-patos' "('Borphor'syllables) -babaie. 7) opy7). I hand overto you Alkidamos. of lower margin 0. H. med. W.uop.occurs in several Carthaginian . that you may chill him and his purposes.003 m. q)or1q(Tov aEpaKat TOVS' . OVTO KaL aL&w<a> KaL KaTa*v/?4s' Kat /l7) a 'AAK[rba. y*vXE- a4LOV oPo/la Kat D *v- c. (bottom) Av. [TOV]S' OpOVS' {O'povs-} 'AO?)vaL'cOV. O Aoywtos. reckoninggrow cold. A? 'LS'TOU 10 T 7S X7)s a/TOTOY 15 rae. As these names grow cold. Of the seconduncertainletter there is a verticalwith possibly the beginning of a stroke rising to the right from its bottom:L. or r. 0. "EO-T KW4OS'. Lord Apomx Phriourinx over blackingout and chilling. 0. and in your dark air also those with him. harmless.let Alkidamosgrow cold and do not let him get past the starting lines of the Athenaia. 20 Tv4[4v] KoAXAoHOyTOPoPI-qOlaOawx Ea.'tva "Avae [Awr]o[r]e PDpwovpLye KaL /v'et KoA- E7TL aoavfElt xoLXEt." Line 5. I . /rL7Ep aK[O]Vcov 7TEpL TOVi 'A7ro[rxovt-] aprovi. Kolchoicheilops. keVEOEvz0 for keEX0zV: Assumptionof the interchangeof A and v (see Gignac.]MopCovvr. Against Alkidamos H.

1934. 714 and Pollux.22. 68 A. and P. by the time of Horapollon (4th century?)it could be used with no equestrianassociations:&ETova 7ToKEKa/IEvo vxovra To poyfo0 (2.g.LTr7o. with its sacred ecumenicalcompetitions (see Follet. Lines 33/34 and 35. 0. b409b23.24. Hesperia 50. "WiederverwendeteStartbl6ckevom Stadion in Ephesos. of a miser turning from his path in orderto avoid contributingmoney.make the readingof the last two lettersinevitable. lines 18-21. may include equestrian metaphors. e. Lines 13/14.?) have phrases that are similar to one another. 4th century B. Evidently. Athenaios. 23.xIII. 353.e.96). announced by Stephen G."Ojh 52. and from Boiotia (E. as lines 12/13 and 25/26 imply. E'naOEo-[O]atXapi[a]v / [TiS] KOLThSq[7r]pO OE[o8W)]pa[v]. 1978-1980. Rhetoric.I) for the Panathenaia. of which only five other attestationscan be cited. [7]OgV[4] o'povg(Oor -. 10-15. The verb a&roKac4. Ziebarth. R. "starting lines" (see suggest. The name restored here is the only one I find that will fit the available space. 'AOrvaL'cv. i'Va / t' 8vvaa-oo-avr7j a'pLov y'pa aWObpOq WXOdrES ev / c FLTE U/ TE PEXEvT7 v. Two from Attica (Audollent 68. 331-343. The object of the verb EXAOdEV before vr7.The word is presumablynot the analogue of the genitive Lr7ra4uo of the Carthaginiantexts but is the name of the festival of the Athenaia. 1981. the gates of the carceres of the racecourse. lines 10/11. v or v): The restoration[v]is guaranteedby the preservedletter the first in the Carthaginian defixiones 'OpovSof line 26. 234. Broneer. leaves it ambiguous whether he was a charioteeror a runner. applies here to the foot race. vAixvas' Trw L7T7a FEp7Ta7-EW. At Xenophon. De re equestri. /A7)TEV/ELKiOaL. Plutarch. the name is also used occasionally(e. Presumably o'povshas a meaning here analogous to 7rvAX^vEs. 4th century B. e. however. Roos. for attestationsin the Roman periodand footnote14 abovefor discussionof the final date of the competitions). Characteres. although the word is unattestedelsewhere in this sense.C. The answer is to be sought in the nature of the games themselves:none of the attestations gathered by Follet (see the note on lines 13/14 above) for the Athenaia and the Panathenaia in the Roman period indicates that around the time of the curse against Alkidamos either set of games included equestrian events.?. pp. 109-113). Its use at Theophrastos. ."Hesperia 27. even if its more immediate that a'4o]Ka'f suggestion may be the chariot race. p.222 D. were intended to turn persons from the bodily parts of others. pp. 1. His CURSES DIRECTED AGAINST LOVERS From outside the Agora Greece has produced only seven defixiones concerning erotic matters. Alkidamos was a racer of some kind. Miller. three from Nemea (SEG XXX. 320). 22. but this is not clear. 69. We may then provisionallyconcludethat Alkidamoswas a runner and "veeroffcourse" vel sim. Themistokles. VIII. Line 15: a'[o]Ka4lfr. pp. Pausanias. nos. Was Apollonian the competitorof Alkidamosin the race? Was the intention that Alkidamos should hear nothing of Apollonian'scurse against him? B.205 it is used as the opposite of op6o8po1E'w in passages discussing turning the course of horses. i. a recurrentephebic meet at Athens held from 189/90 through at least 255/6 (see Follet. IL 367 and IL 372. 'AO7)va4/cov: Traces of the end of the word here and of line 26.56Ie.g. all of them spells to interrupt such affairs.2. At any rate. y q6 4EEA TOLVo Line 13. 1-37]. late Hellenistic?).when consideredin the light of one another. Hellenistic?).C. and at Aristotle. being presumably the equivalent of T7raPE'EsL or Or7raTLOsE. SBBerl 33.g.of turning a corner while strolling.v quoted above is 7rvAXWvs &r7raOLWV. JORDAN defixiones directed against charioteers. pp. 1958 [pp. 1040-1042. cf. . pp.attestedonly on as LSJ the Carthaginian tablets. 64-65."Excavationsat Isthmia.9.Audollent 234-238 (2nd or 3rd century?).

III. and in the Department of Egyptian Antiquities of the Ashmolean Museum. 'v] o-[o] TpopLtpav.KpaTaLE Tvopv KoVXXotTo[VToVoV] t 'aav4ao-rEtKaL] X[rqOX]aOaoXEa. 304* (3rd century?). p. ov' E"TEKE)Tpoop41. med.AZ^9l 4[w] Os K'Lr[avi-] []oTuorTov atoa KatKaTa*v?4ys Kata'aoAr [Trf] (?) T7v7(vT7OELav. Karav/fs' Kat a EK KaEtfl. one from Tyre. Kat LsTo)] Tov o-vvo-T4av[o]'Tasav9Tovs'. 203-210 (3rd century). TroTvyyEv'E'o[at. 1913/14. 3rd century or earlier).o-ara rTaZAov K Two defixiones with spells against couples have come to light outside Greece. and the other was meant to stop the &afrVK-q rTa#tXE4LaTa K?) T'a oavvovotac. 7ra[pabtb&)/k] Kat Kap4r[obcopav. Robert. 65). [7v E'ETEKE) avTovs' Ka'tTTv) yi)-] vtaV. 6225 (2nd century?). 0. ca. Literary and Epigraphical Testimonia. E. 2 (Oxyrhynchos. 2nd century?). No. pp.6224. from Oxyrhynchos (0.KatTpo-] BE7rTTV. nine from Hadrumetum. p. L. and two of unrecordedprovenance. H.uoV yEE'o-OaL.o'vE'TEKEV Tpooi4l.Ko. max. 1717 (near Antinoopolis?3rd or 4th century). 7 (P1. 222-223. The AthenianAgora.M. Av. MemInst 67. Martin (3rd or 4th century). note 1 (assignedto Hadrumetumor Carthageby Robert. Trjv] [4]EtAt'av avT&n^. Against Karpodora and Trophimas H. 231 (3rd century?). Kat K[ap7nobTh-] s [avrovs o'-] [pa]s."AmtlBer 35.Tpo(pta^. Porphyrios. Kat Kap7robcopa. 0."ZPE 24.3rd century?). 1981. Wycherley.t oot Ka]pwrobdpav. qvrjOoZo-av 11 crvy-] 16 Carthage:Audollent 227.\.16 A woman named Juliana figures in 8 and 9." Provenanceunrecorded:P.W. 'y 7rn7. J. Egypt: PSI I.7_ -op.three from Carthage. '[T]EKEV Elotas'.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 223 one example cursed among other things tq o-vvovo-ta and TO 'rvyLov of a woman. 0. SEG VIII.'E'aabeKat a ayS.r Kat Tvr7t'o-ooovavT[&V]KaLTqv7L [FLr]vav7T&fl aTv147)OEtav. yycEv'Ea(Tat. Found wrapped inside 11. Inv. and unpublished examples in the Rare Book and Manuscript Collection of the Perkins Library. at least twelve from Egypt. 230.JSav. 8's text suggests that she was a prostitute. [rq]v>'[TEK]EV El[o-Ltas>. XXVI. Hadrumetum:Audollent 264-271. o'E7-T[Kf Tpopi' q. 35.directedagainst a marriedpair. Gueraud. /vyy7T&oT[po]Oqfta[s. Audollent38 (Alexandria. L. 'AvOdELpas.3a[? E'otcis'. Oxford."tardif"[Prof. Tyre: M.Iat a[orn. 1977. There are quite a few defixiones from outside Greece that were intended to promote rather than prevent erotic conquest. 't'va]KaTaLvf?[v[s' i j . Sijpesteijn. 3rd or 4th century).w-1 10 . Robert in conversation]). 202-212. III p.053.002 m."Liebeszauber. '7no' yr] TV crvvava7rEao-Ew. r[apabt'b8o. one from Cumae (Audollent 198. 28 (Hermopolis Magna.MooovvqA\XELrvHerEpOapwta Iata. 574 (Hawara. against two men. rs' 'ETEKEVEto-ttags. 3rd century).one of them has the phrase (in Greek) "May Juvinus lie awake in his love for me. .7 aatr)K KpaTaLE] ?c.pap[_ cca.070 m.Sammelbuch. "Avae A'roq4 (povpwpv 5 [C]oo br1 o-ovaEpa Kat 15 /v'[6t]. The institution in the Agora area was notorious:see R.3rd or 4th century). "Ein antiker Liebeszauber aus Agypten.Xo\LXEL. 15 ?_ Bopoop. the other. pp. Duke University. To orvvava7rEo-EW. Plaumann. pp.Wortmann 1. Chehab has kindly allowed me to examine some tablets from his excavations of an early Christian cemetery. IL 1000 a. 1935-1937. pp. 89-90 (3rd or 4th century?).o]v [f'TEKEV] TP[o]Pt4jL. Princeton 1957.

so let Karpodora'sname grow cold to Trophimas.. R. and Karpodora. whom Isias bore. Lord Apomx Phriourinx over blacking out and chilling. vvqr0ot'o-av:-0&rtv Line 18.literally "theirentrance".). It may imply in itself nothing more than this.. 'rOobov avi-[c&0]. whom Trophime bore. reckoning. for examples of the verb a'ywin love charms)and would assume that "thewriter suspects . whom Isias bore-chill (them) and do not allow them to be together. grow cold. line 4 guarantee the restoration. Smith suggeststhis translation(see notej..e. Eto-tas'. be united. and in your dark air also those bringing them together. si TavTa Ta ?owoa[Ta 20 [pLtu]a *XE'0-0( To ovo[Fa ca.[t ` XAI. then in order that he may fall and disgrace himself. without sexual implication. 'L r[o'v / a]0rTLoTTo0 aLWva:The parallels have Tfjs' AiOqgbefore a?LAJrXL4TT.. conversationof theirs-of Trophimas. [rav'/Tr2]v:There is room at the end of line 6 for three letters at most and at the beginning of line 7 for two letters at most.q'E"rt7ro7rq. 243244 below. will confirm. but there is not enough room.g.20. Mighty Typhon Kolchloi Tontonon Seth Sathaoch Ea. 0-vVO-Ta)a[o]LTas: OrVO0TLine 8. L'o-obov:cEuLine 4.let Trophimas. a phrase used in a spell to separate lovers. PGM XIII. whom Trophime bore.but there is no space in the lacuna here. may.drinktogether . vacat?] line 16. but the word ELo-obosis used of a paramour'svisit at Lysias.----T-. union. charm.0'.whom Isias bore. Lines 5/6. o-vv4ay[EZ]v: o-vuo- [vrvrtEtV]: ovpair- "('Borphor'syllables) -babaie. o] [Vovs. lines 323/324: Iu or-vv/yeve'o-Oco TOV) EVt. fvXETata. Line 4. mind.lines 9. mighty Beptyt. [Etotacs]. [ls]. as far as I see. knowledge. at table. which would suggest r[27v o-rop/y7]v vel sim. whom Trophime bore. and (her) breath.whom Isias bore.v. that you may chill them and their purposes and their visiting and their intimacy. lying together. 1. whom Trophime bore. o-vv[OrOLtav:Line 7 and 9.The term. pp. 12. crvPavarTEorELv:The verb otherwise does not occur before the Patristic writers (see LSJ and Lampe s. I hand over to you Karpodora. denoteor imply sexual O'ELV. [6y]ELAt'av: -ytXLine 15. The verbs avarLW7TT and aVvuL7W7TW"recline" are frequentlyattested but. but LSJ cite a Latin gloss concubo. Bind in your unilluminatedaion and chill and destroythis (?) intimacy. intercourse. I hand over to you Trophimas. Line 4. Kolchloicheilops. F?) oTvv ay[EfL]2. El[o-tas':'IlLine 2. line 5.is no doubt used of Karpodora'sand Trophimas' visits to one another. Lines 6/7. so that they cannot lie together. in an erotic contextsuch as here.vv.as a glance at the entries in LSJ s. impulse. and of Karpodora.D. and Trophimas. like -vvaval7rEOvyyEvEo-Oat.. And if you do bring (them together).and 0Alt'a below. t' 8ELva ETE'pcpavbpt r-vyyEEro-[OaL:Cf. As these names grow cold. Ls':ELS' Line 5.eat together. where it is used with the neutral meaning "reclinetogether".. it does not occur in this passage in the parallels. 13.OVTC)sKapwrob&1pas &wtTpo-] Kat ?e4vvXql. as a restoration here. JORDAN 224 KoL~L'O7jvat. Morzoune Alcheine Perpertharoialaia. and Karpodora. IrT/ 4LPov r Line 10..] q'E7TL[Of-Tr1 [o'] Xo[Yt0-. go to bed together. Whatever the missing word was. /v'[6t]: -<eL Line 17. "yysy:"bring(them together)"?[M.q'opyq/..

va pabibco. suggests that . Lines 19/20. line 9.u' /IL7TrEAaLKaCELv or . of a wrestler. (Hawara.U7TE. Lines 17/18. however. Aristotle. with the prefix from the preceding verbs. a phrase in a papyrus formulary. I3. I . lines 4/5. (Egypt.002 m. introduceeither into its printed texts. l' /3PLv?O?7Tco. .rrE rTVYL1a-6?vaL.. 0. 3rd century) and Martin.IS! LS!TOV . Kal Ls T06 O(ovaEpa KaLTOVS!7TpGOr 004)&q 7TG/JEGVoVs. D ayaLr?lovaE)TOTE 7)LwrEL (so edd. /} 7rTV.. 351-354. 8. for on strictlygrammaticalgrounds it is unlikely here. from similar phrases that appear in a papyrus formulary.g. Z. and many codd.'ivv rV60 IrE LT mann 4. (or -. IL 948 + 949 ca. (Upper Egypt. Av.up'O-V.8.u]a) or Tpo00Lta &Ew Kapewo/8'p]Ja:See note q. III p. A may in fact have had in mind the phrase from his curses directedagainst athletes. 5th century). line 6 [Ka]Tar'o-r). line 45. in quotationsof the passage in writers contemporary with A's texts).Kat a oq . 7ra-] AEoo-OE r1V Kat HnE[OLv]Tovsk 7rpGo-EpXILEPV[Gvs9 'IovAt-] K[a]Ta4f?4s avTGvs Ka[ T yv-]W avfl. For examples of [o] spelled OLbefore o. p. 66). and E'KWE'o-r may have a literal meaning (cf. H. SEG VIII."] Lines 10-13: The "if"clause does not occur on the other two tablets cursing lovers but is found on those cursing athletes. PGM LXI. lines 18/19. suggeststhe fittingnessof the expressionin mattersof human affections. 0. The broadermeaning of KzrTLTco. A ) OVK I Corinthians. implies failure in an agonistic situation and therefore may be appropriatewhether the ayrv is athletic or erotic. I restorehere. V3K ( possible parallel for the phrase EKWTE'O2J.and 6. Iv.8LELV. because its preservedverbs tend not to be so explicit. -o-av for -0-L I cannot parallel. . L.067. a-vy] KoLK0FL)vaL: Not in the well's other texts. u9 XatKaa]a/-at may be in order as a supplement on our tablet. 247 below..0 7ryTl]/a-at do not.82. D ETEKEP MapKLa. of a runner. 3rd or 4th century). I456ai8 or to lose an election (Polybios. Wort(L'Va) y.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 225 that Beptyt is being invoked-probably by Trophimas-[also] to perform an aywy and to bring Karpodorato him (Trophimas).etc. L?) aLVyKaO . med. EUT7JTaorrqE avrr'v fayLV.101 m.8). 243-244 below. and in a papyrus love charm. line 5): Possibly only an informal phonetic spelling rather than a false step in the directionof an optative. Kapwoaa'pas EAwTpo /tl]a p. pp.07roS bvvrjOWOo-wV 5 /L1s!TOsEopyao-T7pLV To r1 7rpo-7rEPlfaL 'IovAtavij o4[o]vi AaAro-at. PGM IV. Inv. pu79 13E Lv7.) Line 17.uqL/tvELV.prefixes in the surrounding verbs on the tablet as well as the space available in the lacuna suggest that the prefix should be restoredhere as well. M. but the a-vv. Analytica posteriora.. there being no obvious subjectin the tVa clause.etc. Line 18: . tury). in phrases with a&xr1Ruov?1o-y athletic events. W. 201. 574. V FL7'TE /3LV7OtpvaL. No.however. 7T E/LLV E 4ayELV (late 3rd century). Fl7)TE#ayE v(4th cenWVyLO-1Trc. avvr?q6oZoav for -fo-Lv (cf. line in such "if"clauses) more appropriateto 15 a'T[o]0aKc4/. KpaTaLE Bcopocopp3ap3apjwoppa[p]p3appopp3ap3[appo]pp3ap3atrj B[E7rTv. // rEpLra[T 71a. t/ caa-rj 'va uF4. lines ) L'Va plrj bvvqO^? 8Eva / 7r7ErvEW. Against Leosthenes and Pius H. 0.but see Tischendorff'sapaox2JXr(VEL paratus criticusfor EK7TL'7TTEL.. 5. with echoes in two defixiones. not in the well's other texts.(On the "if" clauses see also notej.] IovA Lav)sg bvvrjoi^otvLO KaO[LCELV] ' [T]oAEoo-OEvrqs HE1OS.a variant reading. whether to be hissed from a stage (e. 8 (P1.see Gignac.i`-ot pijv.

7rpoo--rELrtaL: -.rO-LV(cf. p. and (their) breath. rEp' AEoo-'Yov ' fHEtrpos ' IovAtaLrlv. OjtAio-aL: -pkLALine 12. whom Markia bore. Alkaios. let Leosthenes and Pius grow cold. mindless." CP 43.O`WOs!/Lr? b'cov- 86 vX D o Aoyto-pos. D c pyo. /7)TE OpyLo/LEIo /J4)T]E AyoTs 6 voos. 4. 13. Ta oL'oClaTaE'rL'yov- o-]T4L'q. KEpatot. for the word is euphemistically so used: cf. Epyao-TvpwLV:-pLOv -io-tLV Line 6. who visit Juliana. rpooEvoro0eV0ovs!: -korLine 9. her place of business. 1948. (?) Ka'AEoo-OElVrV 10 Covvr AAXELl-lHEp7rEpapcova lata. Symposium. AEoo-E'v7s!. so too let Leosthenes' and Pius' names grow cold to Juliana.38 Cv be oTE KL appoa0LOLTOaaLr0()CLV )aL /LOVOE7lZ0To ) /lotO acLpKEL r)TE LS a)Tpo-EA6) vErpaoraTc4oVTaL /I1E)the verb is used of a visit with the purpose of sexual gratification. mind. Georgacas. aVoEs.226 D. KpaTaLt X. KoAXoL- 7VY)Tco AEoOE[L'V)S!] KaL HEJLOS. rpoo-EpXouEdv[ovs 'JovAta]lvjj: The participle means literally "visiting" or "frequenting" (e. . R. aKOvovo-a [' Iov]Atav' OV. 6. (they) having no impulse towards or speaking to Juliana. pp. Tat AaAo-at 'IovAtav ^. 6. LIX. harmless. J.*r- Line 7. and in your dark air also the messengers sent. D ovoLaTa OVTCOSJ aTaVXfTaL. "AvaeA7ro14 [4D]pwvptLy6A a4+aL Mov- VgV. for the omission of omicron. mighty Bepty. 201. 7. line 17): See Gignac. 243-260. so that they cannot speak with Juliana. AEoo-EOrY7). further.47 7r. 9. 'L TO epyao-Tr pLVfor -pLoV: See D. a'AaAot. 5. ls!:ElS! bVV700wOtvlV: Line 5. but in at least one instance (Xenophon. ItKparEL "visit him as teacher". that Leosthenes and Pius cannot sit in Juliana's place of business or send messages to Juliana. charm. knowledge. Let them be deaf. As these names grow cold. Xenophon.g. Lines 2. wapabiboyod o-ot AEo0o/LELAo-aL E l-lpOK{poK}Ao<v> IjO Tvvo KoAXAoHlOVTOVOV [I]aOacoXEa.E Vcoy. JORDAN T7S AvOs &js s KatL. Line 5. "On the Nominal Endings -L9. reckoning. Fr. Mighty Typhon Kolchlo Pontonon Seth Sathaoch Ea. impulse." Lines 2/3. Memorabilia 1. D "Eo-[TCO]o-aV Kw4foL. I hand over to you Leosthenes and Pius. aVVT/OOUY LVfor . Kolchoicheilops. that you may chill them and their purposes. impulse. 7. -tV in Later Greek. so that they cannot speak together or walk about. Juliana hearing nothing about Leosthenes and Pius.2. knowledge. Lord Apomx Phriourinx over blacking out and chilling. Juliana's EpyyaL-T7JpLoV(line 5). Kat 4itvt. 10. but the fact that it is two men who pay the visit(s) suggests it. KaL HEWoV.I. Demosthenes. and it is clear from the sentence's context that the visit was one for which money would usually be paid. I hand over to you Leosthenes and Pius. dumb. 18. The use of the verb on the tablet does not of course imply in itself that the Juliana whom Leosthenes and Pius visit is a prostitute. may be a brothel.67. as LSJ translate). aEpa KaLKaTa f aTLOTGv KaLFLh. Monzoune Alcheine Perpertharona Iaia. *V/c: -&t "('Borphor' syllables) -babaie. Bind in the unilluminated air of oblivion and chill and do not allow Proklos (?) and Leosthenes and Pius to have conversation. fQ[S!Ta]vTaTa 15 KaLAEoo-0fov KaLHELOV [*rvx]Oco Atavjj Kat D D) E~)TOT7)/I. AEoo-EYov:AEoLines 5.

"Eo-Tw'o-av /Kw4[o4. line 8. D. L.AfS 'SLTOPt] 5 ToVs' TOv Co4o) T71 aLWwa caL KaTa[*Vf6l Kal a-] S'LSTO aVTO yPEv-OaL. 1980. KaO[1)o-OaL E. The Latin verbsedereif used in such a contextwould no doubthave had an erotic connotation: see N. Herescu. [KpaTEE]:-TaLE -PLKLine 3. aKEpE[o: -patot . pp. 278-279. Inv.EI5: KaO[LCELv EV TC M W EpyaO-TT)pLWV K. HOAOVPELKO[V: Lines 5. a]AaAot. 0.[. max. HIoAv]/-vdL'KOV:-VLKLine 18.wapal8t'8W. p. middle form of the verb rpoo-reaprc. "Le sens "erotique'de sedere.. Av. (LSJ cite no instanceof a restoredfrom Isokrates. The tablet's FIPOKPOKAO I assume.) Line 8. line 4. 243 below. .qO la0awX] Ka'L 4V6L. Somethingof the sort may be meant here. The aorist infinitiveor the infinitiveof anotherverb.092 m.those who are sent with the messagesreferredto at line 6.9: K. pp.uos. 7. whateverthe correctrestorationof the verb. Line 7.line 5 ['sj: EL'S Line 11.DEFIXIONESFROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 227 and XVIII. to be a graphic error for the accusative of the proper name Jpo'KAos0.-22.c aLo-S 'IovAt-] 7'L aavL0E[L Kal WMo-] yEvE-OaL. Avo-KpaTEE: -TaLE Line 12.67: &7' TOL9 C.] TO avTO KoAXAo HorvTovo[v (tpLOVpLy& Kal Kal a[7roAX'oY. ovTO) KaI 'Io[v]Atav sviXrvX lo-O T[o ovolka &rt floAv-] ." Glotta 38.-aKovwov rEp[L] L7)85EvOs9 AYTAAAAAAA[- Line 1. o Aoyw-] PELKOV T Kal 7) 41VX[? K]aL7) opy7).evidently in 8 as well it is the intermediarieswho are being cursed. those who bring Karpodoraand Trophimas together. med. [/trv6]: -6fEt Lines 16/17.VII. "Ava Aro04 KaL . [M. and A. 0. ca. 67). KOAXOL-] 'IOVALa[v7j YaL 00-Topy] _ _ avTcOP Kat B 'ovvELta KcLTOo-vPav[a7rEo-E-v __ca. MoVCoVVvr [AAXELVnHE7rEp-] A70719 aoWTLfTOV js7 a'VTO OapwLa Iata."Glotta58. III p. loAV'VELKOV. but the well's other parallels have aWPva here. 10. E'T (cf.W. for want of a better explanation. o vos'.. but the appearance of a third party at Leosthenes' and Pius' conversation is unexpected.] Kat HOAVloELKO.?6_ -]p/3a/3opap/3a/3[atLBKpaTEE] BETWV.7 XELtXC0r.LIX./wp4)op83a/3ap(Pop/3a.070. H.rj aov aEpa KaLtTOVS (TV%[aVTOLSL. a'K IE[oL. Kat av-] u0 co.KaO wvTaL)is also possible. Against Juliana and Polynikos H. 1960.dr-ot'IovALav7r. No.see note i. 7) ETLT/LO . lsL. aVoES. 125-134. Smith: some mangled adverb?] 9 (P1. Booth. aEpa occursin this phrase at 5. upoor uEPuoydvovS: The persons cursedat this point in 7 are the -vVorTa'v[o]VraS. 7. p. 'gs Ta[vTa Ta o'v64aTa 4v-] XEu.99. 7rvETEKEV 07@ra 4VI6tS MapKLa. 10 ?offS a& xjovo-aaL Avo-KpaTEE Tvopv Ea. Line 9.apa8L'8C0'L OL o-OHAVPELuO[v av?fr. 0. IL 952 . nAvq'EV] . LvaiKaTaytvf?4 avTov[S Kat T7)P YVNo-] Kat T7)V0-Topy7)V Kat T7)V0-VP7)OrEaP[avrTA1. Demosthenes. rV ETE[KEV MapKCia. J. xfrVy?)TW HOAVVELKOS' KaL 15 IEI Kat aKacTa-TaG-La avTcop.ca.003 m. "Surles sens obscenesde sederedans Martial 11.

whom Markia bore. Av-rTKpaTEE (-rEs cannot be read) for -TaLE: AvO-KpaTaLoS is hitherto unattested. that you may chill and destroy (them) and make (them) disgracethemselvesand not allow them to be in the same place.v: then correctedhimself with the insertionabovethe line and continuedin the plural. which Lines 7. lines 24/25 the word is dividedXoyt/o-us0.. 2. iAvifJsq Kat a[tyovat: For the restorationa[roAXo-ysE cf. and Polynikos.g.) Ka't L9. KaL 71 0-TOpyr) restoredexempli gratia from line 4. "may be joined to words expressing negation in order to increase their bad does not in itself have a bad sense.. he has revertedto the singular. Let them be deaf. Evilly mighty Typhon Kolchlo Pontonon Seth Sathaoch Ea. line 6.that you may chill them and their purposesand love and intimacy. mind. Monzoune Alcheine Pepertharoia Iaia. etc. mighty Betpy. Lines 9/10. innocent. Lines 18.as LSJ note s. so too let Juliana's name grow cold to Polynikos. JORDAN "('Borphor'syllables) -babaie. lines 16-20 and in 2-7. but lovers seem more probable. lines 9/10. ' Lines 17/18.cf. not]ro-ys'. C. o-vv[rOEtav. Bind in the unilluminatedaion of oblivion and chill (them) and do not allow them to be in the same place. line 4. to their . . Line 1. Lines 4/5. but bvor-."The adjectiveKparatasL with Seth-Typhon in the well's texts that makes its intensiveprefix appropriatehere.I. but it is no doubt its association senses. guaranteethe restoration.and themselvesin your dark air and those with them. although at 2. and it is only the final passages of 10 that are preserved. At line 19. is neededto govern the infinitive. Another verb. R. reckoning. EO-rTo-av and aKoK&v. the participial phrase in the singular at 8.Just as these names grow cold. 11 may be directed against either an athlete or lovers. ts ro avro yEvio-0 a: Evidentlyan alternativeexpressionfor toiovyEvE'o-Oat. Kolchoicheilops. occurs in this position at 7. whom Markia bore. with the result that the text is compatible with either interpretation. although I note that av w cannot. What I offer is simply exempli gratia. Line 11. [avirCv. the pairs in 7 and 9 and the menage in 8). Line 13. A evidently began the sentence thinking in the singular. Kat a'V]/ro'V 1: The parallels in 7 and 8 would suggest simply (aV-i^v. but TOYS at the beginning of line 5 demandssome other restorationhere. impulse..v. confusion. The variation from the formula I cannot diagnose. I hand over to you Polynikos and Juliana. but these are of course not necessarily the only two possibilities.. lines 18/19 after the phrase that begins with the plural Ei->rcwoav. dumb.228 D.. Lord Apomx Phriourinx over blacking out and chilling. knowledge. 10. The final passages of A's curses are the same whether athletes or lovers are the targets. 19.". line 5. appear in this position after 7.. however. 1.for lack of space in the lacuna. mindless. HIS FRAGMENTARY CURSESOF UNCLEARPURPOSE Two of A's texts (10 and 11) are too fragmentary to reveal why they were written. hearing nothing about anything.let Polynikos and Juliana and their love and intimacy and lying together grow cold. If these are the only two possibilities. e. the similar phrases f7TL ro avro and o'ovi are used as reinforcementsof one another at Acts. and (her) breath. the fact that the preserved part of 10 names only one person may favor the assumption that it is directed against an athlete rather than a pair or more of lovers (cf. Xoyto-]/ ds9:Parallel phrases at 8. 7. I hand over to you Juliana. The spelling of KpaTEEin the restorationis based on that of AvO-KparEE(line 11) below.

. but wrestling is not mentioned elsewhere on the fragment.. and (his) breath. must have been not only a matter of spelling.' I 15 ca. the locution at 4. 7c00ro[rE (r.-a e2sl TraviraTra[6]v6'iuara[*vIXErat. Line 12. \zs/ "E[OrW KCI4OS. .-ca. 0. TaXaLELIV Line 8. The canceledmistake may have been rTovi8(E)Z(va)Jif the phrase was carelesslycopied from a formulary. 5-XEtXw]*N 4v[y47Tw 'IovAta-] Vos Kat [1Eaai]s . a. H. o AoytLopSo. with the accusative) or continued . Kolchoi . having no impulse. III p. 'IovXLav[ovi]has been inserted above it in tiny letters.)O07WS KaL IovAtaP[oi3] r ?aA caIvXDTOC) 10 E'rto-T TO 6'vol[a KaLt?) 4vxXi.0025 m.065 m.0025 m. avovs.-KparatE Tv^ KoA[XAot Tovrovov DqO 1aOawX Ea. . . ca.. '`Xcos' vel sim. 0. so too let Julian's name grow cold. 33 H[ -- .015 m. . . .EvL'(8 or X.. As these names grow cold. med. Av.. "Avae] A'ro[.. 1 Line4. or z): The text may have ended here (but cf. Lord Apomx Phriourinx over blacking out and chilling. 0. 22 . aAa-] ca. HaXato-aL or would fit the lacuna. Against Serenus. mindless.c)6EvA [7raXaZ^aL 11. KOXOL here. also styled Archibios The left-hand edge of the tablet in the area of lines 11-12 and the right-hand edge in the area of lines 13-15 are preserved. t. Av. . 5 letters between KoXoL[ and what the parallels suggest. p.uq/ t'o-Xvc4ov . Against Julian Max..H.F'?qL0. or co) does not occur in the well's other tablets. for there is room for ca. dumb. / () I )() / 8 I [ . H.XVWVO. Line 6. The deviation from the formula Line 5..although the surfacesin these areas are mostly lost." I assume to be a variant of the parallels' KoXXot. impulse.059. XELt(\o]I.. [Edo-q]s or [&44j]s. knowledge. reckoning. p. Found wrapped around 7.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 229 10.H. lines 26/27. W. No. uqj.4 (Iptovpty6E7t 'a0aVtLOEL KaLt] 5 KoXot [ ca. not having strength at all against anyone.. y. max.8Ev. or r. L. o[E v] .\wSgM~kq EVAos._9. . 0.092. H. IL 964 ca. 0. 0. o. Mighty Typhon. op-] . y.123 m. Kolchloi Tontonon Seth Sathaoch Ea. of lower margin 0. however. Max. L.W. Inv.Let him be deaf. p. 8l p3j 0pyL(04]vosL-I a.]. let Julian grow cold and do not allow him ever .. [4vnt]: -6Et . Cheilops. 2 ca.

.. 7 [p 'VOVTOv KacL'ApXt]P3'[ov] 15 ca. or...ITE] ca. ^ a0 coTTov ON./loos'. 5 _]/[ 23: e. 12 - ca. a/tav. 15 /JI)TE [? _ _ _ _ HE 15.D. 11[p 7]VOV TOLVKaL'ApXt13toLv o-ov aEpa Katrovs ovv [Kay] 't roToz'br 10 [-__c9---] .. 2nd century)....._ca. 1 ca.. III p. 10- ___ Mop](ovv-j AAX[E]t[v-q HE7rEpOapcwva] 15 [Iata?... lines 3/4... OvTsJSe-] rov aav[tpos rov _. 16 Travra] Tra6v6[vtara 4VXETata. 6. 1]Epazlag: Of the p there is a vertical only.... and possibly 6. 15 r ca._ca.-] [-2-3_] -yE'lT?at KaLa&o-EV' Kat a7rTLKpoS Kat..-.EtAw4.- -- A[.. IL 959 1-3 traces -- [- 5 0} E"T'EKE[2- 1-]Epa7Tlas .-ca 2-4 KoAXAotX. around which it was wrapped. but we may note that elsewhere (2.. AZ^s Trow ..[12 ca..-] ] ... 3.. it is probably Serenus rather than the woman whom Serapias wants for himself.---] rovS OVUovo Ka[l . 16...... 35) when the opponentis named his lineage is not given.. line 7. No.C ca ?] . c._-]HIAAA[?.. 14 ca.ca.-16 . -. aAXaAos.- rov3K[aL 'ApXLI3L0vt [Tar]ai[YZap7jvov nptsorov ca. - .] E[. If it was meant to affect a wrestling match (see the note below on line 15). ca..ca.-]TAPA[ .[ArXO2s . OLKL/ag (lines 40-42).v. a]y1E'vp-To[s9: a]-yE'vv-? Line 4. med.PGM 0 2 (Egypt..ToL'a'vbpa ToL' .r.. the rov a'vbpa r522 of line 8 elsewhere meaning either husband (usually) or lover (occasionally):see LSJ s. If it is with regard to the woman that Serenus' vvaMLStand rpo6vduaare to be chilled. We may comparea spell on an ostrakon. ca.... line 3. 10.... 9._E_ ] wE(rT [KWOS>. 14 aKEpt[O ca. he undertakesto spoil Ecosa7moTr vrs his beloved'saffectionfor the present partner:bog 'AXXovit v3p&tv. ' KaL'Ap-] ...[. 2. The phrase occurs in the well's curses against athletes and against lovers:cf.a6E1pat[o9 ca. m'q yvc4/..._ca.-a..ca..]O.- 5ca... lines 6/7. like 7. aVOo]vs.- ca... 1. in which the writer wants to make a woman leave her husbandand come to him.._ a8_ O.16l.15. lines 33/34..'QgS -.. a'vqp.- [- 7] Lines9.. JORDAN 230 ca.l2_-___ -___ 25 [?p-y1t]/Evo[s.. R.. Inv.] -_ . Lines 5/6. lines 3/4. Another possibility is that the tablet. 15 15 ..g.. 12 . as I think likelier.. 7/8. --- - a'[roZs 10TO^_ ca. 14 .(3 L-CL . 8. 12 5 A~ ca.. line 8. is one of A's defixiones against lovers and is either intendedto interruptthe relations of Serapiasand the Serenus named at lines 5.?ca._Ca.[.v].. written on Serapias'behalf in orderto interruptSerenus' relations with his wife or mistress. squeezed in between E and a as if an afterthought...-_ -[-2=3_] C T?)' vvaptlv.... .. The text is too badly preservedto reveal either why the curse names Serapias or even its general purpose. ls: Els Line 23..] IfVX(E4O]w [1Epivo9 [XtI38LOo avp 20 [ . T?)1' 7rpoOv4Lav 0 . Serapias may have been the opponent of the intended victim.] . lines 3/4.....-]OMA[i 3-4 r aLoa Ka.ca... and 20/21._]y'N? ca.

Line 23. human or otherwise. Line 24. i. at line aKEpat[ot at line 25. 10. Roman Imperial). as its verbs bta*'6?ys (line 3) and KaTaAvys. Line 11. "Imprecations from Kourion. should not be regardedas typical.DEFIXIONESFROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 231 Line 6. line 7 above) is also compatiblewith the traces.1972 [pp.. 7. etc. lines 25/26. lines 25/26. . 15 letters are missing. D.g. 6ivo]vs-(v or E). m'v 7opoOvp4[tav: For the former in this position in the curse cf. line 11. zaAa[-taLa.]. Here it may refer to both Serenus'and his wife's or mistress'feelings. 4." Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 9. Lines 24/25. E. directed against a wrestler. that yielded the Cypriot defixiones (Audollent 22-27. It is apparently another instance of sympathetic magic. Line 15. and thereforethe well.for in the lacuna after the magical names only ca. There is an unexpected element. the tablets were found among many bones.but a reading yEv7pa[L (cf. In any case. 2. however: the tablet invokes a ghost.the ghosts may have been invokedat the shaft becausedeaths occurredthere. 1250a42 a. De virtutibuset vitiis. a"Vo]Es. lines 12/13 and 4. and ]. in itself somewhat questionable. KoXxOLXEtAcLo.I restore 24. 7raXa[Lt-rTV') but equally so with the assumption of a curse directed against a lover or lovers: cf. 88-92). Drew-Bear. 85-107]. (line 4) imply. line 34. 4vxE'o[O]co[vhere. ways strictly obeyed:cf. it is apparently somewhat extended from the literal. 9. LSJ cite only Aristotle. of a well believed to be haunted by a ghost. and their texts begin with verses that invoke ghosts of the "tombless dead" (see T. the latter. but becauseat line 7 it is clearly one person who is to be affected. probably but not certainly a well (footnote 3 above). It is the deep shaft. its presence in the well is therefore explicable. 'v bvHvaplkt. 1. lines 18/19. 7raAa[tEtv. as line 19 shows. in the well's other texts. Lines 17/18.I58 whose context does not serve to elucidate the meaning of the word. 4vxE'o[O]co:Here and below the traces are also compatible with the assumption of plurals. PGM 0 2. rov OvMots':I find no instance of the use of the plural in referenceto the emotions of one person. with or without Serenus' further identification. e.g. "free from bitterness and contentiousness". without parallels in the well's texts.etc. a&aXXAa6ov In neither case is it easy to fit the letters into a phrase parallel to those 'AXXovv ro' 'A/zroAAwvltov. line 4. could have erotic or athletic application. a]yEv-rTo[s(o or a) for a]yEvv. a]yEv-qTo[tat line 23. Tetrabiblos. after MopCovv7). were found in Well V in the Agora. His INVOCATION OF A GHOST This last of A's productions (12) from Well V does not follow his usual formula. The term does not occur elsewhere in the well's texts. Line 18. Line 8. no bones. if it was a well. Line 7 is not paralleled in the well's texts. For a'gKpOs. [- 5- _ / (or urz-E) / OpyLto]/pEvo[g] exempli gratia: cf. I have found only one possible ancient instance. Whatever the meaning here.uEvo[t] singulars here as well..(?) "unproductive":Evidently part of the list of negative adjectives. "Eo-rco[o-av at line 22. pp. lines 38/39.and a variantreadingat Ptolemy. ]JIAAA[ (A or A): The traces are of course compatiblewith the assumption that the curse is directed against a wrestler (e. 2 &4L but this formula is not alFavio-Et KaL/ *'et. b ?JOELKL at ac/A\OELKoV. "unbitter". zapabibcot' (rot IEpivov. it no doubt containedthe letters TAPA.e. If the bones were human (this information is not recorded). [ca.g. If a woman's name followed in the lacuna.as Rackhamtranslates.

where the syllables are articulatedinto words. R. 391-394. and the lack of parallel texts leaves the sense of the curse not immediatelyapparent. Cursive Greek is far from being stoichedon. in the text below I call the length of these lacunae n and express the lengths of the unsupplementedparts of other right-hand lacunae as n plus or minus average letter spaces. Inv. vEKvbatipov. III p. PSI I. Av.and the number of letters themselvesthat filled the length n would have varied from line to line. L. n' IErK'EJ E'ob'a. They are not so articulatedin 12. 28 (a defixio from Hermopolis Magna. 0. The curse is no doubt erotic. med. its purpose was to separatelovers (see pp. The verb arX. AgainstAgathemeros H.078 m.?a-4 Opa[ pwgsfJorc4toaos rTo Kat HIoAv[ [? ].does occur in at least one text. ca. Waszink.KaLa'o-X?Lov?o-wo-tvKa[L 5 3-4?. EFIIKA[ 7rapaw/. Stuttgart 1954.ataz IaKov/ta Iatata-j BoAXoo-rrO [ AaLKEAOt NEvOtlaw Ia-j BoAXoo-rOIwo-[O [J]OTovoplta AZoX-q[ japEr-ToO TaTELGto T[ Mo[p]([ovv-j] Kaptava 1tAoov[x]rq vaAaX[ELV-q T rov o-Epa[2-3_]4o . and the name of a woman. The shortestare those of lines 4. EFJIKA[:No doubt some form of E"LKaXoviuaL. "Biothanati. 5.D. K[at Lines 5/8.[a 3-] HFA[ ]o 10 [ ]ovva[ ]7rop1tEvaOovK.0Lrot qtgf1S Ka KaKcoiqs KaL vLa frVys Ka[L KaLKaTa4Iv2s.No. was in the lost part of that line. Presumablymore than one pair were involved. IL 953 K[aL 'AyaO4BtlEpov Kap7rttjv. Lines 2/3. cols. et al. 4th invokedin magical texts were apparentlyassumedto century). Most VEKV8at'LqhovEs be ghosts of achopoL. JORDAN 232 The tablet is broken at the right. persons believedto have died before their allotted time: on these latter see J. It is not clear how much text was lost at the right. if it is like 7-9 and all other erotic curses from Greece. The LSJ entry VzEKvo8aiLLMov should be correctedto VEKV8-: the instances cited show the spelling without omicron.]EY[n+3 ro8 JY [ff]tJalJaAt^q Aa3aA/3aAvOwavw v [ n+ n+ 6 KaL] 3 Yz-'a o'Et-] n+ 3 n] n n n+ 2 n- ] n+ 2 n+ n+ n] n+ n+ 1 1 e-] 3] 2 (K or v).003 m. appears in line 11. NEKV'baLMOv (nominative-.also styled Poly[. KakKA [_-=3 ]M[ ' o-Topy[1lE[2T [o-]vvav4KALo-Ls9 q]E[ . 0.Agathemerosand Karpime seem to belong to differentpairs. . 'L'va OvEL]/8t'restored exempli gratia: with the exception of this verb and of KaKWoys'the vocabularyin this passage is similar to that of 1-9. W.The form vEKV8.ucov)is almost always so spelled. 0. H.060. On the whole.the sequencebearscomparisonwith that in lines 4-10 of IL 1737. 6. Line 2. but the breakwas not even and we can therefore conclude something about the relative lengths of the right-hand lacunae. however. and 12. A Potamon. 222-223 above)."Reallexiconfiur Antike und Christentum II.Movrio-co-tv(line 4) shows that there were at least two intendedvictims:in additionto Agathemeros(line 1) at least Karpime (line 2). spelled vaLKVO8-. 12. Line 1. H. as the phrase [o-]vvavaKXTL0s!ij oT7opy[77] (line 13) shows. the daughterof Euodia.

KA[-2--3-]M[(M or E): E. Lines 10/11.also styled Poly[. and they countedthe value of them and found it came to fifty thousand pieces of silver" (I9. just adjacent. . Line 6. and Greek. HIS FORMULARY In the Acts of the Apostles (1st century) we read that certain itinerantJewish exorcists at Ephesos undertookto cast out demonsin the name of "theJesus whom Paul preaches. or r. I have not been able to examine all occurrences. The verbs o-vyKXL'vcand 0-VyKXt'voMat do occur with erotic ] (D. 'Jesus I know.-ELav Ia Iaco 5IaKov. Demotic. however. v. 41/pcosrestoredsimply exempli gratia on the assumption of an erotic context... "Letthe love of Potamon. line 8. but I have not had access to its context. Coptic. E[12 ]EY[ (Y or K)./opCovXqMopCovv'r Kapptavq AaXEtvq 12 IL 1737 HErEpOapcopa10IaLaAXEpaLa. narrows the semantic field. Cavallera). Ka[p7d]e[) or Ka[p7d] [r. AaLKEAQL(A or K). and Paul I know.vv.).O Ic[.I3-I9.8paoaa 7lacoat IL 1737 6EKE/3EVVEV EKEVOtNEV[OtIa]co 12 IL 1737 'IaLtOwvTov/3pta [_ 7] qTovoppa ZoXrq Tov[op]ya AoX) AorXE#ap8TEOovAOapEXaut ca.oUov[x]?) Mo[p]C[ovv?] Kapuava AaX[Etv) IL 1737 TarELtutaraEAoEIaprap 9Iap7-ap. io (p. .10 loo[7)O NEVOL lhoo-O AvE/3?)OA. and fear fell on them all .to restore 12's lines.And a number of those who practicedmagic arts broughttheir bookstogetherand burnedthem in the sight of all. And this became known to all residentsof Ephesus. for each includes words that the other omits. But the evil spirit answered them. Line 14. and mediaevalmanuscriptspreservea magical handbookin Hebrew.5 -]opt 12 TaTELuLoT[ ].. too. I have not found these syllables elsewhere." with the case of the relative pronoun assimilatedto that of its missing antecedent. Many of those who were now believers came. o-Epa[.in the ones to which I have had access. the Sepherha-Razim. lower part of vertical). .. both Jews and Greeks. or 7r):I assume magica ratherthan Greek but have no parallels for this or for the magica in line 10. y.in Hieratic.La Iaco IL 1737 BoXXoa-r. and that of IL 1737 cannot be confidentlyused. 35. Line 9. Line 12. The two sequences are not completely parallel. If the restorationis correct. Homilia in Lazarum.DEFIXIONESFROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 12 5_ 3-4 -atav [ IaKOv. Line 13. Revised StandardVersion).2z3_. but here. but who are you? .they do not seem to imply anything erotic. Eustathios. The nouns avKAtLo-Lts and 5yKLAto-tLsare also attested. [o-]vvavcaKXLo-ts"lying together":The only other attestation of the noun that I have found is that cited by Lampe. confessingand divulging their practices.?8a] o 233 XOaXaM[]t ] 6AatKEAOt 12 Iaco Ial BoXXor. .g./LaIaLaLat BOXXO-7)O -ca 7 . and rop7[Do correctlyread. handbookswritten on papyrus for the use of professionaland amateurmagicians..o [ _ca 3 ] (o or e. if connotations (see LSJ s. E..the sense may have run. y. The sands of Egypt have in fact yielded a considerablenumberof such booksof magic. therefore. for soand-so (feminine dative) wane.

no.Cincinnati.18they contain instructions for performingvarious kinds of magic. edited by W. Maltomini in Papiri letterari greci. 8. Lexa. lines 3/4. ed. line 10."ZPE 33. pp. lines 3/4) in the curses directedagainst lovers he allowed himself some latitude before returning to the formulaic phrase "in your dark air". Hebrew: the Sepher ha-Razim. as seems on the whole quite likely. lines 3/4. XXXVI. P. 19 Mr. by a team of scholars under the directionof H. of the papyri in PGM and of all other published magical papyri are to appear soon. we read KOAXAOHONTONON but elsewhere among A's formulaic texts.3rd or 4th century). Defixiones are preservedthat were in fact obviously copied from formulae very much like those found in certain of these papyrus books. 3rd century).D. formulae quite similar to that at PGM IV. edited by P. or reproducingthem from memorybut was copyingthem from a model. 244-245 below): here. V. For example. and P.the differenceis not to be explained as a variant phonetic spelling or such bui. Severalof the formulaeextant on papyri containphrases such as PGM VII. the confusion is obviouslyoptical. and an example in the University of Michigan Collectionsoon to be publishedby D. whichever of the two versions is "correct". for example. pp.. No model survives for the texts from Well V. 1979. M. Paris 1920.especiallyin A's rendition of the magical appellatives. English translations.I am much indebtedto M. Carlini.. but many such papyri are not included in this work. lines 329-433. lines 304-370. A used a model. Again. Pisa 1978. it becomes clear that 1-10 follow the same general pattern. D.We also see that there are certaininconsistencies. and 9. JORDAN 234 whose original seems to go back to the 4th century. along with an updated bibliographyby R. 1717 (near Antinoopolis?. Wortmann 1 and 2 (Oxyrhynchos. 9. R. If they are viewed as they are printed in parallel form below (pp. lines 336-406 served as models for the texts of five defixiones. 18 1st century B. Brashear. 17 Hieratic and Demotic: F. lines 1-14 was the model for Audollent 188 (Rome? 4th or 5th century?). Greek: the texts are most convenientlyconsultedin the two volumes of PGM.17Extant Greek examples range in date from the 1st century B.for example. 261-278. 4th or 5th century: e. too. Martinez. lines 1-34. 38. Gr. "Ein Berliner Zauberpapyrus. follow it slavishly but rather composedcertain parts of his cursesad lib. inv. KOLVa. at 6. Fabrini and E. Optical confusionmay also explain the variationson the name BEHTY(T) and BETHY(T) (see note c. line 9.C. between Al and N and between 0 and 0. 1983. however.-D. 216. Martinez presentedthe text of this tablet at a meetingof the AmericanSocietyof Papyrologists. through the 4th or 5th century of our era. and LVIII.C. for the date. Mon. PGM IV. Kotanskyand new indices. no. e.. where they are articulatedas two words and spelled KOAXAOI TOTOAIO (note 1. A. he did not. KOAXAOIT-. XIa. 21243 (Abusir el Melek). If. which are most simply explained if we assume that he was not composinghis texts ad lib.19and a slightly different version of PGM LVIII. after the word yv4rc0uDv (7. La magie dans l'Egypte antique de l'Ancien-Empire jusqu'a l'epoque copte. among them the inscribing of defixiones. line 660. 231-356.g. which was typeset but never published.as the kind of "error"that a copyist might introduce. Berol. no. inv.. PGM VII-X. Smith for allowing me to purchasea photocopyof the indispensable indices that were intended for the third volume of PGM. . lines 1-14 (all 4th century).g. December 29. 8.for H and IT look so much alike that optical confusion is easy. 236-240). 574 (Hawara. 241 below) in these texts. lines 20/21. Coptic:A. Betz. AusgewahltekoptischeZaubertexteI-III. Kropp. 3rd or 4th century). however. see the translator'sintroduction.: PGM XX. p. SEG VIII. Brussels 1930-31. we may comparethe version of the syllables in A's tablet IL 1737.SEG XXVI.

Colon. be the work of a trained scribe "moonlighting"as a professionalmagician. and the buyers of these books were. then. for A's inconsistencyin the use of altWsaand a&Epa and for B's variationsfromA is that in their formularyor formularies alternative versions of phrases were recordedand that the writers were not always consistent in their choice between these versions (see the note on 13 B.inv. an unpublishedsilver phylacteryfrom Egypt.line 404. 249 below.ra 8atwov&ta. P.20in such cases. explained it quent in magical formulariesto indicatethe places where the wishes or demandsof the writer were to be insertedin 'common'speech [i.. 111. Preisendanz. Another example is a defixio from Beirut. controlledwriting but also (1) a sequenceof letters FDVNZWC/EHNEVAAA. which occurs in Well V's texts against athletes and against lovers (see note i. 177-179). ed. S in the unpublishedindices to his PGM. the clarity of the hand probablyshows training in writing. Preisendanz.which retains in its text such symbols as A andIP: they are in fact abbreviations. 1919. 269 for Ak(yos)and yp(44E) respectively. K. presumablyin his ordinaryGreek]. KOL(VOV). pp. lines 13/14 and 'fsl Tavira at line 16 in the curses against athletes. 213 (2nd or 3rd century?). "Miszellen zu den Zauberpapyri..shows exceptionally skillful. p. II. In the phrase 's TOV rDSgA?'rqsOa0cu to-LoV at&ova. 243 below). p. line 4). pp. Stewart. There in fact exist several instances of alternative readings recorded in magical formularies. The "fiftythousandpieces of silver"that we read of in Acts is a convenientlyround sum. For our understandingof society at the time and its beliefs. and the misunderstandingof the model shows a lack of training in magic. and (2) at the bottom of the text and unrelatedto it syntactically. and PGM.It is difficult. lines 3/4. vol. line 682.g.then no doubtB used either the same modelor a copy of it. it would be of obvious importanceto know who the producers. p. OpKL'CW o-.the words o-4pay^tbosg a phrasethat the writer found presumably oAolioso Ev <i>4E'o. even though it is in a context of Greek prose. 7rvd4ta. such as between [/v]/yrfr[w] at 1. that books of magic were items that could be bought and that there was a market for them in the 1st century."If A was copying from a model it no doubt contained similar phrases after yvcot4qvand elsewhere. KOLvoS').of a type frequently found in instructions in papyrus formularies (see K.Occasionally one sees a magical text written in a good hand but by someonewho manifestly was copying from a model that he did not understand. Essays in Religion and the Ancient WorldI.7:Zur Kurzung koyos. then. line 4. III. Its inclusion in the story of the book burning suggests. 'w av 8ovtX\y. SEG VIII. no. T. If A used a written model. to judge the quality of the script of the Beirut text. Cambridge. A twice (5.presumablythe practicewas common:see A. but the evidence is too scanty for anything more than conjecture.it would probably. however. a phrase evidentlymisunderstoodas magical names. Z. D.the sellers. in any case. . Somethingof the sort may also explain why the nouns after ro otvola KaL VvXr in both types of curses are inconsistentlyordered.which almost pictorially reproducewhat must have stood in the formularythat the writer used. 8. If his optical ("scribal")variants cited above are enough to convict him of a lack of training as a 20 E. for his one curse follows A's formula. 1972. 9-14.v.Mass. for I know it only from the published drawing.but the writer evidentlytook them to be magical XapaKr ^pEs.beside a drawing of the Seal of Solomonwith magical letters in its interior..A's uncommonly clear script may well be that of a man with professionalscribal training. the adjectiveis "quitefre(s.if a text with such featureswere professionallyproduced.e.As K. and its accuracyis thereforesuspect. Nock.3 (4th century). A possible explanation. line 8) substitutes ?apa for the last word. in instructionsin his formulary and ignorantly incorporatedinto his text. 235 OeXAts'.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA wg '3ovAEL." WS 41. and B also uses aE'pawhen he writes the phrase (13 B.

4 /[]pa. AAa'K[at(?)K]aTarL7rTwv n 7 y J 6 'tta Ka6TacIv* avf r' KaL T rj w] 1t Kat tS -ov 'aE KaC CS~1 T[0 p] Coo 140 OVaEq p-av 2 -7raAX7v.C 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 K TapaoKat yoLd BEc7VT.for the sake of convenience. was a professional scribe who producedour texts merely as.14?s~h KaLaTo~oijrs~h KaL]a KaL ash vl'FLXXEt A/?q CS Toz T jS AX1Or1 5anC6O- Ka'LTOVS o4w arc. JORDAN magician.vaz 3 accW]vai 5 aEfJa2i T' v7r Ajjh AjjSh KaL TOVS +]zTv aVTw. the curse is almost completelyformulaic./op. ov 5ETEKEV ( YE A)e [''] va KaTa 'r?7)sJ7 f c/ ~ ~~~ / KaTa qySJ tzva aor a Ka Kat T?p yL'ctL?qV. Kat a o4 [avrow] Wsg Kara]*v'6sJ 5 `![va K[ara]v[J ca. 3 ]s' [Kat 7rot)o-s] arovov. I print it here among A's curses against athletes. Az-jh %+' KatTOV aViT%.) After the formulaictexts I offer comments on the featuresthat these curses have in commonwith one another.]C 'a[pao2o]wlu KpaTEEb BET7rvC TrapaotoXd BET. EvTcx]cavtos) 5 6 1 acWwai 2 aW. no doubt paid. too. 20 2/3a/3atrqa [ca. 7 ]p8a8ap4a/ciw[p]/8[cl]p/8op/8a/8atLa Bwp4oopj3a[ ca. Kat Karaov5[g$ Av. first his curses directedagainst athletes and then those against lovers.oppop3a/aaL. 12 . 2 2ca. 18]4-9traces 10ca.15 7' -ov v 'a.kv. h 61(a'L Kac T7}) 7raX?./a.aKEpaLov./aatqa 2 Bwp4op/3a38ap4op/3ap4oopa3a3apapopp3a/3aLaa 2BETaTV./op.g. \

T EviTvXtavto \ \ n] Ka[Lr]5p / T 'a./op.a Kpa3Tat'b K[paTa2]b BEwrTv. R.Ka' a&oA0(r[s] Ka'c KaL K[ara]61/. Curses directed against athletes 1 KpaTaLb Bwp4op. 7raXAivca. 7raXatc3w LEuXXo?vTa VEKOVVOCV. 35 3ca. EvaTvXtavTr'Ov <T>O<v> EvTtXtavov TrOvAt6Aovs jiaO21miv. 7rapEpya. It is evidentthat the two formulaefor the two types of curse are closely parallel to one another. 12 EAOH 12traces "AmaAX[ovca. Below I present A's formulaic texts printed together in parallel form.FLEXXEa Lt TrUv TrcaAip EivTVXLaL'oi T?)2'7r[cLX7z'. 20 QNIXX[ 111-2] 't T7q'v ca. A [e.p]a. A-jjh 7raXata-at 6Tr TS X11Or1 a COTLU [CS9] CS rw T7S [A1]O[27]S~ &4drL[TO-r ?t4T]o-ov C aOwriSt X21Or1 CS TO j &11-7T-ov X0OrO KaL KaTa1/If14.p[o]p[./a[poo]p. 5 FI4rpT1]v TrO MaKEd0zv[a 'AXKLbaov. 10] ca.236 D./a.?)2 FLEXXEL p 7riArzTp]ca. [B]of4oppapap4oppapap24oppa. then we must not rule out the possibility that he. (Althoughthe purpose of the fragmentary 10 is unclear.s~h KaL aTo KaL Kara1/I[v]$qs~h 7.C rTOLd 1 30otd ( Td rap<a>ot'c4y4 god EvTvxtavov) Ol ETEKEv EvTvXta. Ka[t] 4yc Tr7Ty.pa KaL cs TOU 6 1 2 3 Kat T[o]VS o+VvaV'T. 10]AN[jN.ap./atrqa KpaTaaEb BETrVrapa. KaL TO[V] 5oJVw ai4r4. avhovv.j. 3 [ca.7TV.V'. 3 [ca. 2CdapabLwIt b 'Od t [ca.a. 5]ca. 8]AFONH ca. 3 4[ ca.5Kat csgTov' CoOV acEpag 3 Kat] ts Toa [Cood]4j 0o-ov '4p]a gK[aL 5 [ca.

3]NAPIA[ o'povs 'AOrnvat4WoV.uov10n.4 4 5 ["Av]ae [A7r]og 6 10 22"Avae [A7r]o[i]6 'tpOvpVLye "Av'ae 4A7ro[. tva 7TEX 13[2-3] o'Xws.DEFIXIONES 237 ZH7[1-2]EI FLEXXov1-f rapaO-KEV. 1 2 3 5 6 1 2 FROM A WELL 'E'av 8E 'EazvJ pos ] KA[2-3]NH[ca.17rapabilXi4 1 10 I 7[Kat a(r]X1.m 0vyXfMoTw 'AXKt25Ta os . ['E][4v]J 5 2 3 4 5 7raXao-tat. i]aO1Trzv TrOvNikEXovra7raXaLEV 6 "Avae A7ro. a44[avL']o-GE KaL*00[6L. TovTovov 3KOM[XXOL cFpLOvpLye E7TL a via`OrTE KaL /[v46L] 1bI?pLOpL]yf E7TL a Laz'rEL KaL\VII. KOXXXOL T[o]vzrovov X?. q]8Tat Ka['] 87raaXatf. O'Ot EvTvXtavov oot [Ev]r[LXLavzov.M Ev12rTLXLav] "Arra20Xos' KoXXOLXELd###BOT_TEXT###amp;Y#Ir. 0'YrsWui1 1 2 3 5 6 Z'v]wvosg [ca. ov KaLcWL19)(rxv.Arra vaL'Or-ELKaL '6.4 ETEKEv EvTvXLa. 9[KparaL]' Tv4z-v KparaLe 20Tv[ -v] 2?H[ca. 7raXaLEtvE'vTnj ErvT~ra8Xatrroi3. &AXA 6 bv 4] 6[KaTa]-L'7&TrWVKataL[orXq1oV]w- KaLa44[alo-E] L 7T ELV . 10.m 4'vy~frV o e5pIos ca. 8E Kat ra[X]cL'-. 22. 5]Z[ca.]k MopCov17zv A1 E7vo X Iata. KOXXXOL ToVTO17[vovXqO Xa0acw]X Ea.1s[apa]118[i8)]id Iata. KOXXXOL Tov[Tovov] X1O XaOacwX Ea.4 cFpLovpLye 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 "A'vae A7ro.l 7rapabtw[dt IaLa. Z[to]vvo-tov 15Ta. 3]NA[ ]AT[ca. KparaLE Tv4pv] 3 0 16 arX-q[. Tr]v XqOY1a0[awX]12Ea.1 rapabbcotk[L 1 4 5 EviTvXLa.HE[Tprq] 3 'KE 'pl6' [vaMovovzK [K a]ra7rh-y a I(k f1E[p]7rEpOapwzva flErwEpaptwa He rEp0appwva 5 fE1rrEpOapp[wva IaLa/l 'apa]8tcd 6 HE7rE[pOapwv]8a IaLa.m a yr' EVTVXLavo7r[aXaL]3 rns4 v[y2frco Ko]XxoLxEL[X]co'I.4 ["AAvae A7ro.u AAXXEL7 I 'v'za ar[o]Kc4*4'o Ka ~ aa02TpS. XEKOV28O2 KaL ' EK7TrEo?j afrX1y~ovzo-1jKk ( KaL arXrqto[z i'zva EK7rEor) 3 Ka] i>~~~~~ta EKTEo61) aLJ aa-]?oi(n. MoCo[v]9zvr k M[opt ]ovvj ?6?97 v9zn MOPCO Movovvz4[] AXXEtvLq AXt1 AXXEtv']tq AXXELtv' TOV ALOVV8[ LO-V HfET[p?pq] OL] 9'AAK[Lba. X.] [ yv] y'T[w] E[i]jrvxLav0 KoXXoLX[EGX]W.] [ca.l r[ap]ab&bwtk 14[HE7rEpOa]pw[v]a IaLa. 23. KaTa4 )VqSg Kat k[ ajff]S 9[EV]TvXtav[z]v 7aaLataat. 13ErvXLavoiv. 'E4vJ 'EazvJ 8E Ka' 7raXaa. 2 3 4 1 v.ov. Evrtxtavos] 77raXa(o-[a]t-rpos 'HyovFEvo'v HIXTOHN[ca.O XaOac0X Ea. 4 Ko]Xx\oLxEOtAco. TOv 'ATTaXov 16[v]OV.m KoXl2x]Xo[L]xEO MEV.OXaOaco> Ea KoAXXo HOVTO21vovX. (0OL '"Ar15raXov TOr (4tjj3oV 0otL Kpa11[TaLE]Tv4Cov KparaLE Tv4wC-v Kpa10TaLE Tv]4-w KparEE Tv4C-v rciw.O XaOacoaXEa. '?povpLye AXXEtLv- O2VETEKEV 10-ot] EivTvXtavol. 4]HX KOXXXOL TovTovov 18(I?pLvpOyV P T'V b[La]LaT[v (?).m 4vy?rco1T H[Er]pDq[S Kox24XOLXELx&t4K. E7TL clcjav`O-GE Ka'L frv'L.

vacat] [ca.o-Oc ta7s TO o2'OjLa 237Q o) l KGaL7) 6 'ortLa op]9v47I TO ~h'o1oa KaL 7) 4'V30X?i.}j2 (TornT[p17j. "E[o-rco [E1t1TE16p]7T ]. g E7-EKELMapKLa.D.l? KOLS.Lazv. 15 -/a/at7)a BpCop+Cp3ap3ap4o0ppa[p]p{ap4OPp3a/3[ap4O]ppBap(aL)a Kpa7. 5 t7 KaT 14t1 [TO'01tOMa 4 V 29IIIVXEUT Ka* 'AXKE.e (r0td Ka]p'rob3cipaz. E7TL(T0T7~Kl7 [o`]v[opa KaLt TO <10 7)67rw444mql[] g t1 e7n'7ro]v7r4f? 6 v[Oi]S).] LL2LrE ca 2]OI[ca. ov O[VTCt)S v]14y7To EiVTvXLavov T7ra<t>. LKE'pEOS~. TO EiVrvJaj . r1zE7-E[KEL'MapKL'a]e 3KaLEIOAVZ-'ELKOZ-'.aKE'p]aOs'. aAa]1Xos'. oroyaTa ovolaTa [E]18TEKEV qj. 7 ]pop/{3ap[ ca. 15Tj. a33K[o]icr 2TEpt TOV 'A7ro[XX&w]34av[oi3. r1 2 3 otvo[y[a q 1 (O-T?tJ1) oPRY2 7) r1 7 n vo 7q l Too T 71Oi.C 7ra]2pabt'xdu Kpa7-EEIb 2BErT7V. R. 31. ]ON.] 16aXo[s'. aAAayELE[ofOL] 1QeyXvrosx ?i' e?sVl Kat 1 toxvErxCO 7rpc21rws [7raXaf]Ev.e uotd AEO0eO-1O'v) 8 9 (rotd 'IovXtazrn1v. "Eo-rT KCO4+OS'.T? 1 o [1rwi-4).]n 7roWE KaL 1 [eaion]S 5 6 10 1 ravTiraTa 2 Tav-TTaTa .e . t1([7rLo-r7j. azvovs~. 79 ca. 3 4 2 op26 yL{. 2] 1raAfs. 3]] IovXLav[oi] '/vXEy. . K]aT 4'vx. 11 [X g) ?OPY?J.8zt ETE[KEL'TpO)44U1j. 6 Xoyw-os. (?) IIIVX7). Kat t1 opy2 1 V Xoyw7.aLEbB[E27-TV. "Eo-rw KCWOS~. .e 01 arAEL EV ]r O OVCt) KaATTa'Xov v/ *vX'-co@ OVTCtS9KaLA ~~~22+vee 4ViXETE. FL7)TEraXa ai]vovs.aR ovr&S] 2 3 4 2 3 ]vX6o-O( [a]vo[i OVT(r0 [v'xEraL. 8KaL[[T ca.tlj18v aKGovr.I 4 6 TaVITa T'a oolaTa 10 rav-Ta Ta [L6]vo4ara 1 Ka[ oV[TCt]S I]vixETaL. avovs1.aAa32[Xos'. Kat r1 EPEO-O co26[TOV]S opovs {'opovsj 'AO71vWalco.] .aAaAos'. 35 o0w4 Ka 1 AotCO ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~31g 6 10 7O]l[5174Op 1 ?P]Y1.w Katy [ca. KatH4Ieozv]TOVS 'pooEpxopfzovs' 'IovAt]3az4j. 2i27o(yLv5 o'Xcs Fr7)EV. uc1pa [[v aJOVS~.] sE .] az-'ovs~.rXc)s1M)a&12 [ca. nv'XET28raL.] yr8 "E[lrCe Kl4OS'.cat Tpo]34q. TrpO 35'A'noX[AovLal-'d. O 9 oyo7w's" .el vOoa. 27 15ev] EVTOl'ELT[Lo 7rapao-KLVfl.LovJ?pTf. ] f yL 2 Curses directed against lovers 7 8 9 7 2BETV7-C '4apabLiwyd Kpa7-aLE]b Bop4op/{3a[ ca. 15. vxETaL ovlLaTa 1.w ca. JORDAN 238 1 Kat tIq 2 3 4 [KaLca.[ ca. 3 ra[-Ta Ta o 31o3kaTa Tav3TTaTa TavTa Ta 4 O EAAovX Tn vxE] oolara oV'TCO /vXE-Oco EVTVXLavos. 8. 10 F7)EVL. L . aAAa 7rEfT?1Kat ao-x7y.EvOS'.C 'rapabtcotd Bwop4op/{3a/3ap4op/{3a. t] 6 Xoy7251fo-1 L?tffy. ?}{X1wIo]yeloI. 5]T[]NAPIQ[2-3] Zrqvwosq. 9. ca.Evo[S F7TE OpyL6OFEVGS~ 4 5 6 6 10 "ETL-T KI 0Sq. 6 ]p/3a/3opap/3a/3[at7)a [r1v E7-EKE2} Et(rLas~.os'. K]aL op yOt4o4[E]vos [max.

8 Mo~ovznr AAX~Ezrq HIE2rEpOapcota Iata.40]~ Mov106ovv?. 'ia EK2TEO K}Xo<L'> (?) KaLAEoor-Oz'r1p' Kat HIELoL'. ~2TEpU7Ta]T270aL. TO ov2alaTEEW. "Avaf Ea. z<Sj~h jS U 6arKa aTOi a.DEFIXIONES FROM A WELL 7 't'va] KaTa*IvjsJ 8 'va 9 avrovS K[a]Ta/v t'va KaTa Ka[L e-sJavrovs v ] Kat tOO at c t's Y aVT[] bvv'qO6.4 cIpOVPpw 67rE&4j[azdo-e KaL] 154tV[fL."AvaF 7 8 9 A7ro. oTEKEv TpOatv. 7 8 KaTaI v()JS r1sETEKEL' ELo~cie os 7 ovvOEtaz.oaL HIpOK{pOr avTo vyEEOtvTaL. AXXEtLWiHIE7rEpOapwva Iata.e Ka.un9f^ KaKt 9 7 8 KaT T[aV77T17]AT[ (?) g Ka 14?) KaL oyLELX?. /<jjShjS T] 6rS XjOr. "Avaf KparaLe Tv4cow KoAXXo HlowTrovov XT1 12[YZ]aOawX 11/?vo-ipciT-E Tv4)zv KoAXXo HlovTrov[vXrO XT0 aOawX] 12Ea.e KaLKap'7r[ob3cpazv.e [aVTOV 0] 1Uyov a . 239 ] Kat T71v o-Topy-)v Kat .n tS O 60 co OVafpag Ka't 9 TOVSo-vzrV U[O]vraS~aVrOVS.T]L' [vTEK'] AEoo-O4[zLr1] 9 HloA1v'ELKos~ 8 l6Tp[o]avT4.s~a uotoTov atwva Kat 7 KaTav/v$ 8 9 KaTal/I 7 7avTo 86t]EgA'av TyovtE'[Oav. h AEao-reO1v?p HOI~lovELKo[LKaL 'IovXL]9avr1v. aV~~~~~~ ~~]5TOVS 9 7 8 T' IovAtavis In Is TO(pyaoT-nptv T'v ovv OEtav [avTc{.] 9 Tv4cov KoAX)QoLTO[wrOvOv]14X[t1jO X]aOaco)X Ea.wacKa.4 ['F]pLov4ntyf err &aid)ao-& KaL vr6 KoxxoLl3xEtALx#. 8TjS A0Os 6 TOV o4wP[aivrois'. KoXXOLXEtALXLO4. KaL 'Iv~vjAEoo-OESvrq 'lovAtavAo9 bvvjOo tzV KaO[L tv] tS Tor -ov 8 aoEpagvKat coovCL'a -ov aEpag Kat co]0 Kt~TL Kat to TOv [CIO Ka. TO avrosv a]7 I yELEOua. a4rrov &ipaz Kat TOV 'pOoz7-'oEvsx /?aiSIh TO.-o-tv ] avi%ov4s[ Kat r f a p yv]41jV. ) Kat a[r1to]li(n 'Eaul'Jb KaLayJS'.uj. Ka' 'IovXta[vU'I 9ae . yEL'EO-OaL.m4rv^yfr1co A7ro. Tpota.] 8 9 7 9 86 lzT/I 7rp0 -'Thvat vpofrW Kat " HELSJ q Htos. r1v]134[T]EK KaL EWZ).1 'rapa8Z3wyd (ToL 9 Mozvoovzrj 7 8 9 Tpo4utyz.?)L ETEKEL' MapKTa.m rV^y?)Tc Arro14 cFpLovpLyg E7L *4)aLLO-E[LKaL vrgt KoAxoL]l3XELxAfr.1 'rapa&bcopl TSTO ai4ro roo E(Ta.KapvTroEKvTpa. aqys Kat Kat K[aprobPpa]s.m vr7}T 7 8 T[po]4.e 9 Y7~rwS~ 4'4fls~ KaLaL7rOX((rD KaLE1t (aD 7 Kparae [AXXErLL'~E2TEp]8Oapcw)aIata. aoat Kat 7 T'v o-vv[OEtav. Ih KaTa[1/Iv$e'hsAI av ov t. [o]v (TEK]E'tEK[apo KaLHIELos.1 7ra[pabt'cop] 124.4ast. OltETEKEL' Tpo44.

bop/ wp. 252). On the left wing write the following in the same style.pp. V0O. ovo1lLa.like the formulaictablets from Well V. a]XaXot. OVTc Kat 71 E'OOvo[-a TO /vyj-0 Kat D [4rvX]SoOwT'a o'voFLaTa E7rt Iovl6Atal. ca. at PGM IV.? r. Hk86p] 19aKov'wv ['Iov]Xtavorj7rEpt AEoo-OSEvovr HE'19Ov. on another. Notes a There is such little regularity to be detected in the spelling of these syllables that I venture only a few restorationsamong them and these only exempli gratia. 241 below). there are preservedinstructionsfor using a bat to keep a person sleepless:"Take the bloodof a black cow. a'voEs. o-vvt4ay[. Les intailles magiquesgrecokgyptiennes. 12]19XAI. R. S OVTrCt vX]16xETat. o TpEJELcTaprapa. whatever]you want. FL)TEoppy#oFEvOLtFL[?)T]EXEyovTES rEp[t] )iE.us. where in the form bop8a/3opbop3a /&3op opop they are said to be her aAtL0bv (for -ArjO-) o9pavos. however. aKEpE[OL. and the like are often associated with Hekate/Selene. e.Et]v.The "Typhonicanimal"is no doubt the ass (see note 1. Similar magical polysyllables composed of . (Wortmann 1. lines 1402 and 1416. wrapabibwcdLo-oL.a18KEpaLoL.ap."and there follows anotherlist of "Borphor"syllables. OVTCOS' vXETatL. lines 74-76 [3rd or 4th century]). ]tq 17 7f [0 V1OVSI 7 [0] Xo[yt(o-js'. eagle.8wp.0 8 9 aKovovoa Eo-[rco]o-aV Kw4)W%. Delatte and P. on a gem showing a triple Hekate (A.' Put these (clusters of syllables?) one under the other in a column and write [in Greek. yrl' E-rT 'o-av' KCW4[Ot. in a defixio from Carthage (Audollent242.iv *VXEfrvj-O T[o4o6vola ET HloXv]l7vEKov KaK r} ertropssr?.vrvXr1.aLvoES. similar invocationsof whom are not easy to find or obvious. Some instructionsin the Hippiatrica.In Well V's texts. 7] 5XE1 Q?2n raviTa eQn 7 r o-vy]18Koq1jOijvaL. or 'Typhonic' (sc. yj. ovolaTa Kat aKaTaoTaota *vIXErat. animal:Tvbwviov)-preferably of an eagle-and write on (the bat's) right wing 'borphorphorba phorphorbaphorphorphorba phorba phorba phorba: baphaie: phorbaphor: barba. vacat?] 8 6 XoyLTo11s9. no. At PGM VII. at the end of anotherhymn to her.g. F) v. at lines 2348-2353. Opyal. 'aXaXot. .Ev0'q AYTAAAAAAA[ca. but we should note that this animal is not preferred. p.D. . these syllables are used to invoke Seth-Typhon (see note c. 244-245 below). ? 7ov vois. Ewt[OrT. 9 Xoyr]18. from Oxyrhynchos.] rpOS ' IovAtaru.[FL?(TVltE7tvEL 9 aV&TW-V.[r' o-v yyETOaL.Paris 1964. /vXy1) 71?PY7717 7Ertr0y 8 9 'Io[v]Xtav /VX[I K]a' 7 a ovol4la[ra Ta]iv3TTa' ovo'lNaTa T2 ra[ViTTar' 8 y I 7)rtE7TL(TIrn.and on an unpublished example from Antioch (3rd or 4th century?) that begins with "Borphor"syllables and Hekate's name and continues. 8op1.LI. Derchain. in a hymn to Hekate. "Excellentfor distemperof asses. The possible connection with Seth-Typhon here is the stipulationthat the blood of the "Typhonicanimal"may be used. for example. 9 Kal D o-Topy7j] 7 8 ca. JORDAN 240 7 1NrsWIj] 178virjoo-av 8 6 TWS co ? l'wl'1%4Tat AaA-a-at 'IovAtavi . lines 44/45 [3rd century?]). 22. ITvlal-arEO a4aViTWV Kat X o-vV OEta Kat TO rvvav[aarEo-Ev Kap'nob&apasEr' Tpo2OauX]a Kal HELov 15KaLAEooOrELVoV 9 Kat 7 i/. lines 652-660.

This practice. the god of the Jews) Sabaoth at PGM IV.35. both A's work. From the Hebrew composition known as the Sepher ha-Razim.e.. which appear to assume a connection between the "Borphor" syllables and asses. c BE7rTv(T)or BET-rv(T):I have not found the name outside the well. animal's) neck" (II. 13209 and 13210) and from Lappa on Crete (ICret II [16].: The verb KaracLvXctoccurs also in invocations of Seth-Typhon from Wells III. 27.2. Yahweh..ov (IG 112. 7Tapa8L18w/."] b/ KpaTaLE: See note m. . . e. lines 11/12. line 335. followed by the intended victims' names. we may also compare some striking parallels to our texts' . lines 1227-1264..IO-I2 Oder/Hoppe). Side B. 49. for traces of association of Seth-Typhon and Yahweh in magical texts in the early centuries of the present era see note m. etc.g. Perhaps they were (meant) to imitate the barking of the dogs thought to accompany the goddess: cf. and VII. 245-247 below. inscribed by A) and also on IL 372 and IL 1737. a KaTcLr/fl4ys.C. [M. Morgan) e In Greek and Latin magical texts it is usual. IV.. .?]). Seth-Typhon and Osiris?) / wapaUL'3ov/e (lines 47/48 -0t'[Oo/u]e. . It may refer to the chilling effects of the waters in the wells. line 8 -bdw). save the wearer' on a piece of paper and hang it around the (sc. so that you may tie him in chains . and I have been told by a Copt that magical spells also in presentday Egypt use maternal rather than paternal lineage.g. ELV[a] . LVa (or 'rcws-) constructions. in a formula for the invocation of a ghost in the names of lao Sabaoth. for it occurs on / a lead tablet found in a sarcophagus at Rome (Audollent 155 B. angels of disquiet. wrapabEt'bo/ [d oot (?)]. who is invoked below in the formula and whose name appears in this position after "Borphor" syllables and the epithet KpaTaLE on tablets from Well IV (e.241 DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA Write 'barbaros barbarizousa zabachora barbaron pyri pyritoumole. . angels of anger and wrath. on the Roman tablet it is no doubt the chill of the lead itself that is . d The expression "'rapabibwy/do-ot + name. may then provide further evidence for the association of these syllables with Seth-Typhon.. 28). the only other such examples that I have found being at PGM V." for a list of defixiones that show the practice and also an account of some of the explanations for it that have been advanced. 245-247 below.g. 296-299. KaTacV/6f4T7E r[L'v] lo-I[Xvv]. after about the beginning of the 2nd century. that you will strangle and (cause to) waste away . lines 29/30: [`]o-rEpa ViJ^TV(i.L1Co-L I delizer to you..p.. pp. N son of N. Evr TO?)rTwrT a57TETcX TCp*vXpC .. is seen in magical texts that I cite from Egypt's Middle Kingdom. may compare a phrase that recurs in early 5th-century defixiones from Rome. Audollent 155 A. Of course it may well be that these "Borphor" syllables are merely representations of outlandish sounds (cf. 240 above). 156. which may be Egyptian in origin. but it need not. and also the phrase hrapawLdyL ToLS' 4bvAX6ootEvin 2nd-centuryfunerary imprecationsfrom Attica KaTaXOovLOLS' 0EOLS' TOVTO TO -p. pp. e. and possibly on one from Lilybaion 'L'Va[2nd century B. pp. Morgan) I hand over to you.e. on a curse tablet from Antioch (see note a. IL 72.3I. It is presumably another name of Seth-Typhon. lines 20-25): OpKL'O L **/ ayLovs' X[apa]KT- pES Ov"o7TEp yEypapLMEvovs. seldom occurs in Greek magical texts elsewhere. the life and the soul and the spirit of N son of N. a collection of magical spells taken from various sources and set into a Jewish cosmological framework. 8op/3opv'w "rumble") and in their emphasis on the strange and the possibly frightening may have been thought equally suitable for any destructive deity likely to be invoked in magic. to give maternal rather than paternal lineage of the persons to be affected: see "QPVVLVA. (p. Smith: "(But) their association with Hekate-Selene-Artemis is too well-attested and consistent to be accidental. p. We (Gabrici." while frequent on curse tablets from wells in the Agora. The "Borphor" syllables occur also in an invocation of lao (i. (p. /3ap/3apiCw"speak gibberish". Theocritus.

485 (M. Epp. Talcott. 22ff. "airas sphere of daemonic powers. De graecitate . -L7)KE TLavatL a . . Thompson. ii. Sparkes and L. 29 (M. Pass. a?upA 6.. The verb also occurson a defixio of unknown provenance(Moraux.233D) "Many (of the saved). Hence deposit in a well had a strong connotationof cooling. Adelph.p.853A). idem. p. for in such late Greek the prepositionneed not imply motion:see Mayser 11... 5. e. M.. pp. Origen.. 8.klq 'LxV'n avvabwso ov aPEXA 29 [LkE]xpL caL E(KTOVi(O'4c8OVS' aW'pos'. Citations by Lampe s. Pol. it "probably does not appear in [the] N[ew] T[estament] although there are examples in inscriptions of B.D. Gerth. Kuhner and B. h is. but his texts' vocabularyand metaphors. 373.It may be significantthat all these instancesof the verb are in invocationsof Seth-Typhon. 339): "Yea. A. 2nd or 3rd century). A.A great many ancient well heads.2. in Eph. Athenian Agora Picture Book no.C.. As for the "darkair" itself. suggest some (perhaps subconscious)transcendentalistassumptions on the part of the writer of his formulary.. For other instances see H. Ausfiihrliche Grammatikder griechischenSprache II.]) and post- Christian Greek. with a free step traversethe air and abide in heaven."Among the late examples that Turner cites are Ignatios. x. . Thompson has contributedthe following note: "It might be worth pointing out that in the ancient Athenian householdthe well was the normal equivalentof our refrigerator. 220). . he broke asunder once for all the many-fettered chains of our wickedness ."offer promising parallel images aroundthe time of A's activity. Moulton. Mr. 25 KaTa*/vyoL- 26 ro KaL T'a o7rXavxyvaTVXr S. 385.v. Turner. Princeton 1970. where possible Aristotelian parallels are adduced]).26.. Accordingto N. pp. The imageryof A's tablets does not imply any ad- herenceto the religion of these writers. 27 orioa& * aAXAa. shows that the "darkair"must there be somehow the equivalentof the phenomenalworld: Tyche is to remain enfeebled until her death and until the curser himself is taken up out of the dark air.ios' yE'VOLrO yEXP&Oava7Tov..4. Athanasios. Lang. ([F. B.. [H. Reinhold." g I understand<E>Lsgin this phrase as dependingon the verb KaTa4l?ys'. R." (Hist. 208. aAXXAa arov[o]v%a 30 Ka[cL a]vva.28. [Der Gebrauch des Konjunktiv in den griechischen Dialekten I (= ForschungV-iii . Comm.e. .. refers to the mortal world as the Aa/3vpLv0osofpos from which we must escape.I3. Cf. en zur griechischen und lateinischen Grammatik III). H. line 5 (Fayum. A Grammarof New TestamentGreekIII). Edinburgh 1963. 572): "For the air flowing about us seems to be full of opposing forces". Eccl. the ending of IL 1737..E- 28 ln.oys mands is not a feature of classical Attic (see R. 84. Hanover/Leipzig 1904. lines 13/14 [see the editor's notes ad loc.g. 8. after Oulton).] Hesperia 20. 6. 11.roA.for example in Eusebios (ob. until he transcendsthe present world. p." In early Christian writers the term "dark"apparently also can have resonancesof transcendentalism. the somewhat later Isidore of Pelousion. subduedand brought under power of Christ through Crucifixion'in the air'..3 and BGU II. both of terracottaand of marble. no longer fearing the archon of the air. 3rd ed. Gottingen 1915. p. i. Ep. : The use of the second-personsubjunctivein positive comKara v . 7 (M.2o. have cuttings to hold transverse bars from which objects could be suspended in the cool depths. JORDAN 242 alluded to..g . Syntax (= J.at that time when [Christ] beheld the whole human race lying sunk in dark night (VVKrT Co4bEpaL)and obscurity profound through the deceit of baneful demonsand the operationsof God-hating spirits.when viewed in the light of these passages. p.. leaving behind the things on earth. 50-51. 1951.I2 (p. tr.] Slotty. The Athenian Agora XII.I8oIB): "(Christ)stretchingout his hands to heaven seized the archon of the power of the air and made the path in the heavens clear for us".

however. iii). (p. at PGM IV. PGM IV. lines 2094-2097): B. 1971. 7. the "if" clauses apparently have two functions: a) In 1 and 3-6. That A twice writes "air" for "aion" and that B also in this phrase writes "air" (at 13 B. let (the wind) carry it to sea and shake it in the midst of the sea and let neither man nor cargo be saved from it. for it does not appear in his other curses directed against lovers. 'rapab8xL'3w o(ot. that A may have introduced it in error. lines 1-3: such text presumably by the same writer (R. pp. line 4) suggests not only that they had a formulary in common but also that to A the difference between the two terms seemed not very important. alt.g..ue. no. 79. 1925/26. In the magical papyri. and occasionallythe verb seems to have the technical meaning "bring(him/her/them) in . p. e. and why the future tense is not used." A\PAFMA Martino P. TOVTr s XrjOis a'4drtL-rov aLiiva (apa 5. V. accordingto Shkorpil'but assigned to the 3rd century B. with a similar phrase (2nd century B. 61) which has the phrase av E'<K>8GEK7)OryS0 . 'oto-w afyvpfE[O]V G-W'bTKa A?aLkoVt XOOVLeO . III. 374-378) has collectedother examples of such threats in magical texts..ro-WKa[t] O[oL]a'pw-roV bw3Jppov 7rapaKEI[va-coL] (1st centuryB.. there are numerous examples of the verb a"yEtV in such charms. no. i. J In A's curses directed against athletes. p. if (ear6 alone) you prevent him. e. for this idea of a second chance in Greek magical curses.this refers to the totally lightless (acp'nTLoTroV)sphere of the underworld. in other words. 104.g. the general sense obviously runs. I hand him over to you. Morgan) b) In 2 as it stands the sense is different: "I hand over to you so-and-so. I have not found parallels. 8): [M. 68-74. G. (lst century?). BSA 27.ser. which has the phrase OrE rEqL. line 10. "I hand over to you so-and-so.C. 79]." Evidently the conceit in 2 is that of rewarding a deity for a service rendered. dedicatum [= Acta Instituti romani regni Sueciae. 1939. 12).C. I have suggested ad loc. etc. as well as on a defixio from Lilybaion (Gabrici.'ov . I have found no reference to an "aion of oblivion" anywhere else in Greek. however. that you will prevent him from doing such-and-such. the "if" clause is deliberate here. 229. avPhpo-V line 238). pp. 2943. But if wind (sufficient)for sailing come to it. p.C. lines 2441. and still others may be traced through the referencesgiven in Mayser II. I should welcome a better explanation. XXXVI.that you will rise up against the ship of N son of N and that you will not permit it to sail from any place. but if he does (eaV be Kai) do such-and-such. on the basis of its letter forms and its spelling). pp. ahvbf KaL ayysy. We may compare a defixio from Olbia published by V. Vinogradov [ VDI 1 18. by Y. Shkorpil'. angels of wrath and destruction. Religionsgeschichtliche Streifziige. 28. Smith:"Bycontrastto A's previousphrase 'sL (o4Ail83r SEpa.i^ov oiEb'v. If. IstvArkhKom 27. In the case of 2 it is unclear why the deity should consider the consequence. 1]. the term 'aywy has the technical meaning "love charm". A reward may be envisaged also at * * / Mr4orw b8pov (early Roman?) and in another Wunsch 99. / a'yt 8e 'a'vbpas YyvVE64 (cf.*. I may note. Usually such a promise of reward is joined with or replaced by a threat of punishment if the deity disobeys (e. p. P.?).g. Nilsson . Austin. An "if" clause occurs here also in one of A's curses directed against lovers. in order that you will prevent him from doing such-and-such. KaL yvvf^Kasg lines 69/70 'Aywyi o. Leipzig 1901. I hand him over to you in order that he will fail". XIII. 1908. can one see in it either of the two presumed functions of A's clauses against athletes? The verb may hold the clue. and also one from Kentoripa (SEG IV."]I leave the ambiguous term aWw untranslated.DEFIXIONESFROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 243 apostolicorum librorumque apocryphorum Novi Testamenti quaestiones grammaticae (= Dissertationes philologicae Halenses XIV. Olsson ("Drohungen an die Gotter. as a reward. Seth-Typhon is given two chances to enact the curse. 296-299). but a curse in the Sepher ha-Razim seems to have a comparable provision: TOv I adjureyou..

IV. (b) 12.they are articulated. and in fact in Lucian's Dialogues of Courtesans we read that his Kerameikoswitch used ./awO (note m.correctlyor not. p. 9) IaLa lost lost [I]a&aq nothing IaLa nothing AXEpaLpa however it is to be spelled.. is also apparently limited to the Agora. into words in IL 1737. etc.: These bizarre syllables occur not only in 1-10 (this part of 11 is lost) but on those of A's tablets so far read from Well IV (e. "Barbar. that you will prevent them from doing such-and-such (here: 4to3v yEvEo-OaL). 225 above. I assume. The similaritybetween A aXEtLv7in (a) and (b) and AXXELV7 in (c) and (d) immediatelystrikesthe eye as a case of optical confusion between the similar combinations A\A and AA.g. I hand them over to you in order that he (sic) will fail. Speyer. If the VELt/ KaL OVEtpo'7ToT7rE.h: barbarischeWorte im Zauber [Theurgie]. R.however spelled. Mop(ovvrq. IIEwrEpOapcova. 246 Mop(ovvij. in a somewhatlonger form. a circumstancethat sug- gests that there may have been Coptic influence in this sequence as well and that the initial letters H. 9. E. is not attestedin other magical texts that I know of. -ppwva 3. line 11 ends with no blank space but word division must be assumed.3.q MLo]([ovwl'] Mop(ovvq Kaptkav. Movo. somewhat arbitrarily. p. I have found neither spelling to occur elsewhere.becauseits line 12 begins with the recognizablecombinationBao-awO. and from Well V's texts it would not be apparent even how they are to be divided. 5. lines 2076/2077: a"yEt be Kat KaTaKALKatLa"yEt4vXrv. even though there is no blank space at the end of line 9: in a sequenceof magical names in IL 1737 that correspondsto Well V's KparaLETv+&v KoXXXot. -coLa 7. Kat yo. I give the relevant portion of IL 1737's text and then list the versionsas they occur in (a) IL 1737. 265-266).6. IL 1737 9 Iaprapwop(ovXr vMop(ovvq ' Kapkavqj v AaXGVq v HJI7rEpOapWpa 10 IaLa v AXEpaLpa (a) IL 1737 (c) IL 72 (b) 12 Iap7apbopCovX7) [--- /]. They are examples of the /3ap/3apa 3vo4ara frequentlymet with in magical texts of the Roman period (see W.E-here may representthe Coptic masculine article. in a love charm). lines 10-13. lines 1718/1719: KXL/VEL verb at 7.4) nothing 2AaXELV7) Aax[GELVq AXXELVq AXXELVq HJE7rEpOapwpa lost HEPp7TE[p]OapwvLa HE7rEpOapwvLa(HUp7r. and (d) A's formulaictexts from Well V. but a search of W. pp.fortunately. 8. As far as I know. For want of any better criterion.I. 211 above). JORDAN 244 his/her/their love"even when no objectis expressed./ap." I offer this suggestiononly hesitantly. (c) IL 72. A CopticDictionary (Oxford 1939) has not revealedany word that may be representedby the letters that follow the . Before discussing the words in 1-10. was meant to be kept secret.presumablya jumbled spelling of la.8 ov[. below). Their meaning.B.I chiefly follow IL 1737's divisionsin articulating this passage in Well V's texts. the sequence does not occur outside the Athenian Agora.D. line 10 has this technical meaning.q Kapiiav nothing MopCovvq (Mov(o.8. IL 72) and. ]71 nothing (d) 1-10 nothing Mop(ovv. that line 10 of IL 1737 begins a new word.etc./aptKa'KaL pLtKCal3 oVou ara in her charms (4. in his invocation of a ghost (12) and his IL 1737. As for the next part of the appellation. if you bring [them together]in their love).etc. if there was any. One of the words in IL 1737's version of the appellative discussedin note m is clearly Coptic. Crum. then 7's "if"clause may have function (a) of the curses directed against athletes: "I hand over to you so-and-so and so-and-so. (cf." JahrbAntChrist 10.g.but if they do (eaV be KaL)do such-and-such (here: but if you accomplishthe opposite. 1967. p.e.rrio: On this phrase see the note on 7.

quae duplicata ineffabile illud et gloriosum Dei nomen efficiunt" (vii." Der kleine Pauly II. 8.Et Tvix[qs] 14 Nat. For a general introduction to the magical use of the name Yahweh and of its permutations. he.] The letters Iata. his Greek name Tvlc7v "Puffer") and of desert places. "Seth. om. 9) ToVToVOV (om. Smith: "AXXEGV7H'IrEpOapwva a corruptionfrom dAXXos H-Epo-E4rv7?" I ratherdoubt this. if they represent an independent word. cols. Stuttgart 1912. one of his standard Egyptian epithets (Kees. 15-19.om. "Tetragrammaton. 1896-1922. 102) reports (from Erubin 18b) that "Rabbi Yirmiya ben Eleazar said: Now that the Sanctuary has been destroyed. Blau (Das altjiudische Zauberwesen. IL 72) and in longer form on IL 1737 (the text of 12 is not preserved in this area) but not as a whole outside the Agora. "Great of power". -ve 7) Dptovpt&ye E7t a0avd`0. since the well's texts apparently do not invoke elsewhere the figures of classical Greek mythology. L. The animal most frequently associated with him. "lao. see note m below. 698-721.e.KparatETv#lv nothing xWxoEXACO Ko[X]xotXEtXco (d) 1-10 KparatETv#owv KoXXXot(KoXXAo5. quod proprie apud Hebraeos in Deo ponitur.Et Ka]LtE7rt a'0avt[o-]j4 Kat *vt Tvix[qs] Nat'. p. is the deity par excellence in syncretic magical texts: see Moraux.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 245 article.Paw[O] Ea "Avae [A]7ro14(4 impossible) OOrEOrEpw nothing A7TotKatLX. 1908). 2) Mighty Typhon. 2) A7ro. col. flov7r. m KparaLf TvW^v KOXXXOL. 9) 71. 2) FaOawX (om. let it suffice for the world to avail itself [i. the Egyptian Seth. Stuttgart 1967.Et plus Kat avtorxvf) nothing KoXXotXEtLXcOi (KoXXot.3ap1da?ptovpty6 (Dptovptye E7T a4 avLo7Lw KaLt\v1. Blau also refers to the explanation given by the 7th-century Isidore of Seville. hoc est quattuor litterarum.g. according to Blau] of the two bare letters 14 since the last verse of the book of Psalms runs 'Let every soul praise Ia'.. [M. id est. and again we must avail ourselves of the word division in IL 1737.Et Ka&t *rv't (1 adds the victim's name.: Here again the sequence occurs also on those of A's tablets from Well IV read so far (e. . he." RE IIA. iod. Kpa-atE Tv48h vv 15 XwXEtLXw (a) IL 1737 Kpa-ratE& Tv#owv KoXXXWLt ToroXtO Dq0 Bao-awL AEa AvoX A7rot4 (c) IL 72 KparatETv#8Th [KoXXXo]t To vrovo (&T or Hl) Dq0 la. 1899). Fauth.etc. iod.i6). pp." Ia is obviously a shortened form of the Tetragrammaton. cols.5. 2) nothing nothing (om. 2) Ea (om. 2. for a summary of the vast literature on the subject. 2. was the ass (Kees.8apja0pLoVpLy6 v E7r' a0avLo-Ltq^) KaLv/6. Berlin 1914. In Egypt he was the god of bad weather (cf. "lao. however. 8.i. cols. Stuttgart 1923.0(om. 2. may lie behind the Greek KpaTatE. For association of Yahweh and Seth-Typhon in magical texts. esp. 4: 4v6. see R. in magical practices. 1314-1319. at least in magical texts contemporary with ours. col. are the only four in the sequence that make any sense to me. 2) "Avae(om." RE IX. and W. Ganschinietz.Eovp[LC--] nothing Op pvppyEptap. duabus ia. I give the relevant extract and then the comparisons: IL 1737 " 11 Kpa7-aLE Tv4o v KOXXVL v ToroAL DqO 3] 12 BaoacoOv AEav ALvoxv A7roi4v Oo-Eo-Epwv A7ToLKaLXEMoVP[LCa 13 Op17pTEPLap. 2nd ed.Et E7MT a4Javlo-.4 (om.

JORDAN I have not found outside the Agora. I have not.diagnosethe corruptionas inadvertent:it is obviouslynot. Procop&e-Walter."But why accusative?] SIjO:See the note on Typhon above. [M. p.however. pp. 34-40. pp.] For an example more contemporary with our texts. a word that means "I am" in Coptic. in which they seem to be combinedwith the next syllable in our sequenceand are written KoKAorou and KoXXWra/rEro7. 269-285. cols. 73-76. III. A. Smith suggests the classical cry >'a"come"and refers to E. for a general treatment of whom see Beer. that KoXXXoTroVoVoV (or its variants) SIO here is "a corruption of KoxaacoroJvTov IqO Seth who makes the sea boil (cf. with possibly a different meaning. den Zauberpapyri]. what follows is clearlythe name of Seth. KoXXoLXELXW*.246 D. If (b) "I am" stood in the original. Fraenkel. without the secondlambKOXXXOt The most promising approximations da. it would be paralleled in several examples of Jewish prayers collected by E. with Seth-Typhon in magical texts from outside the Agora does not occur as such.2. however. and (c) that in the original sequence of appellatives there stood ANOX ANA' or ANA' ANOX. p. 580. 1533-1535. here reducedby haplographyto ANOX in IL 1737 and to ANA' on the other tablets. "Abraxas-Studien. probablythought of Ea as an unknownmagicalword. on the other hand. p. for example. 1930."] ToVToVoV: Although this cluster of syllables is not separated from the next three letters in IL 1737.g. Brussels 1957. Norden in his Agnostos Theos. LXXIV. 509. 19). pp.since in a presumablyGreekspeaking milieu it would be easier for a Coptic word to be miscopied as a Greek word than the reverse."RE IA. lines 27/28." in Ho mmages a Waldemar Deonna [. 163-164."ArchRW 28. (b) that Well V's and IL 72's ANAS is a corruption of ANOX.34: "Ea.Agamemnon. 23-37). There are possible analogues of (c) ANOX ANAS "I am lord" on two magical gems discussed by A. Ea is spelled AEa in IL 1737. a standardepithet of Seth: Bonner.[M. rtL' LUV Kat o-oL. lines 183ff. 'Ich bin'. 1a0awX: IL 72's la.q respectively. etc. Barb. as far as I have seen.Collection Latomus 28]. that I have found occur in appellations of Seth-Typhon at PGM IV.Oxford 1950. 4.Aeschylus. for a useful discussion of ANOX and related words in these texts. How is the variation between ANAS and ANOX to be explained? Three possibilities suggest themselves:(a) that IL 1737's ANOX is a corruption of ANA'. Corruptionof (a) ANAS to ANOX is unlikely. They have similar texts. line 2255. Stuttgart 1956. e. the result of phoneticor visual similarity. If the original of A's .Although the name Yahweh is often associat"lao und Set [zu den figurae magicaein ed with that of Seth in magicaltexts (see A. I cannot. and in occurrences in Coptic and Greek in sequences of magical appellatives in the papyri. see A. and possibly the writer of the formulariesthat he used for IL 1737 and for the formulaictexts of Well V. line 2. where it may be meant to express the unclean spirits' cry of pain. however. and Moraux. the first running XNOYBI ANOX [F]IFANTOP[HKTA M]APOY?AC CEMICIAAMP and the second. 198. The different spelling in IL 1737 shows that A. Smith:"It is almost certainlya corruptionof BOAXO. Smith makesthe attractivealternativesuggestion.for this reason I leave it capitalized and unaccented. and Audollent. 186-187.it is probablyto be seen.found the phrase associatedelsewherewith Seth-Typhon in magicaltexts. "Ein Berliner Chnubisamulett. line 406. Stuttgart 1920.XNOYMIC TY[PANNOC] ANOX CEMECIAAMT H4ON.8ac[O] (the supplementbeing guaranteedby the other texts from Well IV) and IL 1737's anagram Bao-awOshow that Well V's word is no doubt a corruptionof the name of the Jewish God of Hosts.the animal usually associatedwith Seth in magical texts. that certain ancients saw some connectionbetween lac and (e)iw.'Iio-ov Na(apijvf. PGM VII. "Avae "lord"appears in IL 1737 as ANOX. (ANOX/ANOK) and IV. pp. pp. [M. line 74 (dLuLp). R. Coptic for "ass". pp."ArchRW30. and it may be. line 3261 and LVIII. 1933. as numerous scholars have suggested (see Moraux.). Jacoby. PGM IV. see Luke. in the last appellative of our sequence. XII. association of the name Sabaoth. "Sabaoth.

17. KvtKA\co4..u4. however. his name."Me'USJ 37 (pp. 270. Apparentlythe curser wanted to be sure that his target would not seek magical retaliation for the curse.:The first two syllables may be congenersof KoAXAotabove. 241-242 above./bEv aKO&ov 7rEptEpyov "hearingnothing magical"and possibly 9.lap/l3a4ptoovtptye in an invocationof Yahweh Sabaoth at PGM IV.8/3 sequence.. I have not found the last two syllables outside the Athenian Agora. q In 8 plural names are to be chilled with regardto one person.it is only one person'sname that is to be chilled.g.The syllables form the end of IL 1737's vocable. Festugiere." o 'E. This may explain the repetitionsof certain nouns in this sequence. The vocable appears with further variations on several magical gems that have representations of Chnoubis:A. 1913 (pp. It is not clear which case the prepositiongoverns in 7. 1 do not know its meaning or that of IDptovpty5... 1960/61. p. Bonner.: n 'fl Audollent. "Pierresmagiques de la Collection Kofler. would appear on the tablet as TPODIMA whether genitive or dative. where it is called the "daimonof the great god". The word occurswith such a meaning at PGM IV. lines 17/18: AYTAAAAAAA[. and I restore accordingly. etc. Delatte.y4186v] / aKO?ov 7rEp[t] /.LEp+Epyap. a'K g aKOvSv rTEpt -ro'tAAvvi/avov. line 23 and 253. 491-492. "Etudessur la magie grecque. chap.. "Similiasimilibus. p. (or &%-ra-Ep) ov`rcogsshow sympathetic magic. Index VIE. pp. nos.8I3?. 3. J.f."BCH 37. 3rd century?) after the IoEp. occursin the well-known sequencebeginning ICOEp. Frazer. 3.The preservedletters TOONO[ at 7. I. line 11: >'Tr IL 72.. several magical texts. rt a4awvwEL Kal 4rv*Et: aqxvao-tsg "makingto disappear"vel sim. unattested but possible descriptiveof the "puffer"Typhon? . oiiro.of chilling one partner's name with regard to the other. which occurs. KoAXoLtXEtAY. "Sympathetic magic. ov.. I print the former(with -j]a) simply exempligratia.. '* *.usually spelled A7roy.ua.g."pp. with variations. 80'o4t. the meaning here would be "I am lord Apomx Phriourinx &7rtca4avt'oEtKat vef which A7ro. lines 33/34 . note 3.if his name is to be chilled with regard to the woman's. Such an intention would explain the phrases that are meant to keep the intendedvictim from hearing about the curser'sactivity.t o 'n1 I understandas "charm"in the magical sense. if the spelling with / rather than j is correct.). 3rd ed. rather than simply copying from his model. line 20 suggest that here. I assume that the same arrangement. For a general discussion of the notion see J. [. as Zopoop. should we look for Greek and read an epithet xEd\co4"lipface"(cf.w /3ovAEL(see pp. p. 234235 above). for if the woman's name is to be chilled with regardto the man's in 9. is often found in magical invocationsof Seth-Typhon: see Moraux. has collectedexamples of defixiones whose sentences with the construction s .q8bEz4sv P A's texts show some inconsistencyin the listing of the intendedvictims' faculties that are to be affected. lines 1567/1568. as 1opo/E[p]MEp[kEpyap]8a6. V.for words of chilling associated with Seth-Typhon see notef. 6. 99 and 100.DEFIXIONESFROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 247 sequence of magical appellativeshad ANOX ANA'. e. The Golden Bough. is an obviously appropriate activity for the deity of the Co4cZs a71p. lines 174/175.u/4pLovpty at XII. KcoOSq . obtains in 9. Trophimas. in at Audollent 252. 247-278). 287-293). then 7's prepositiongovernsthe dative. e.but I note that in 8 &Er1 governsthe dative while in 9 it must governthe genitive if the restorationis correct. line 169. The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings I. . 289.. line 1702. lines 19/20. etc. If the inconsistencymeans that A was composingad lib. and A. as lopoopiLEp4Epyap8ap04pptovptvX line 34 (Carthage. probably again here the model had some such phrase as Kotva. For this reason one may considereither Kap7robcopas! E't Tpo/4tJt]az(or -tl]a) or Tpo4tMaE'Ar Kap'ro/8cz]a as a supplementat 7. lines 17/18: j.

. . ca. IL 951 Side A --____ca.B must have used either the same one or a closely similar copy. max.8 B. R. H. Bind in the air of oblivion and chill and do not allow .D.(0g. I hand over to you Ploutas. 13 (Fig. Accordingly.W. and of the body.8 2-3 r AOA[--- Ca.it is impossibleto restorethese lines with any certainty. 10 -- []cop/3a3at0j > _4zr | ]a3aa3Kparat- [I B]ETrTVT.Afs Lsqro rij[sg]X7j7)saEpa 5 Kat Kara/v.f-23-]/Ut j77S [3=4]KATA[ -_6 -]ATON --------------- FIG. p. AgainstPloutas Max. Side A "('Borphor'syllables) -babaie.A used a formulary.orv '5 [7--]E MHPTHPINE aov- H [vaa]ov ita [rp[a]KrovT7s'r [_2=3] HTH f. 0. whom his mother(?) bore.wrapabi3bco[JL 0oot FlXovraV. JORDAN 248 II. lines 5-8 and B. 2). as I have attemptedto show above. 13. SideA Side B _2-4_TOY[ 1-2 ] N KaLrovio-4[Ma-] rosq. L. p. the text (13) of B's tablet.003 m. mighty Betpyt. 0.060. The curse is too fragmentaryto reveal its purpose.< Inv. the only opisthographicexample from the well. p. IIIp. . 7ca..H. If.ovXEL (seepp.. follows the formula of A's 1-10.2.[s'] Kat [7a -2] NAI --. 0. med. Av. line 3. ts: Ets.ca. A CURSE INSCRIBED BY B In general. . that he may be powerless and unavailing. Side B ". 234-235 above)and that here B was composing ad lib. We may conjecturethat in the parts of the formulary that correspondedto 13 A.. lines 1-3 there stood some such phrase as Kotva.059 m. No.

uDfj'afo-7s. Lines 3/4. THCAHOHC AEPA ICTONADQTICTONAIQNA. the slovenlinessof his writing and his spelling rpTrrp) may have simply copied what was above the line. I would welcome a simpler hypothesis. however."Une formuleconclusivedans la priere antique. orvETEKEVD 8(E)t(Pa) or D 'rTfp (for examples of variations in the expressions of maternal lineage in magical texts see "QPVVLVA"). F[ or fl[): e. or . seems.: For instancesof rt' followed by an appellationin magical texts see A. however. e.A possiblearticulationis 1rp. For 'rapa8t'8'wt + infinitive + accusativesee the funeraryimprecationscited in note d. K[VptE. the possibilities are that they represent Elvat (see Gignac. . Line 6. however. p. Line 7. etc.If the writer was copyingfrom a formulary. Pat. line 14). In omitting the word a&x'nTt0LTOVand choosing aE'parather than athva. K[paTatE (cf. neat and controlled.g. his model would probablyhave read. although accusatives are unexpected. In writing 7. 189-193). We have examples of formulariesthat recordal/ T][ ternative readings (see p. 89-94. 1950. followed by tVEor [so M. line 5) he omits TmSj A60D. 241 above. even that it is definitely not another example of A's work. instead of the name of the intendedvictim and that of his mother. A CURSE INSCRIBED BY C For our last text (14) I posit the existence of a third writer because its script. I cannot interpretthe letters as a spelling of any nameknownto me.Tqp (forjrfrTqp: see Gignac. 108. to be somewhat more florid. line 4 and 8. NAI [ (K[ or Y[).T. IL 1737.g. Smith proposes. THCAHOHC having been inadvertentlyomitted but addedlater as a correctionand AEPA recorded as a variant. while similar to A's in 1-12. 235 above). Top b(E)Z(va). The babbling here. or as M. N or H. III. 'stS TrO A O8 aEpa: A's formulaic texts have 'st T'Ow TrSASjO i 4q a OTnWTOv aLfva but show inconsistencies: twice (5. Festugiere. for the intrusionof p). that it is difficult to make any confident statement about the character of its writing. however. ] HTHE [ (]A or ]M4. Lines 5/6. ] HE TiS y[Evo]. line 8) he substitutes aEpa for a1iPva and once (7. or Il. e. Side B Line 2. if it continued from the beginning of the text of the . Unless a drastic corruptionof a name like Mvpptvr is to be assumed. As for the next three letters. The phrase a'v[vaT]ov (or -/]ov) Kat 'arp[a]Krov is not in the well's other texts.B. pp. he may have inadvertently retained the model's 1rrT)p instead of substituting the mother's name. Smith]''v' f". lines 6-7 have "Borphor" syllables like the beginnings of A's and B's formulaic texts and also give them the same conclusion: -/3a/3atrq KpaTatE. J. B also departs from the formulaic phrase."SymbOslo28.DEFIXIONESFROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 249 Side A Line 5. We should note that whatever is missing in its first five lines. 14 is so badly encrusted.uNa&o?ps- Line 7.p.EP9. are an informal spelling of''va j". Similarly. MHPTHPINE (T or fl): One expects the name of Ploutas' motherhere.g. ST.If B was as unskilled as his handwriting suggests. One hypothesis that would account for these deviationsin A and B is that they had a formularyin commonthat showed a variant and a correctionwritten above the line. A may have overlookedthe THCAHOHC abovethe line and in 5 and 8 may have inadvertentlychosen the variant AEPA. whose technique shows less skill (cf.I follow his suggestion in the translation above. pp.

Max.W.. max. L. 25 .-OI 8 9 .7 .min.. 20 .H.. BE7rTV(r) or BET7rV(r) may have continuedin the lost beginningof line 8.mitn..141 m.WF oI-ot14 or 15 letters after the deity's name shows that at least here the formulawas differentfrom that of 1-10... p.8aa'atrqKparET b ot'. Av. 0.. R. IL 954 1-5 traces min.. 20 . No.-.... p.098. ca. III p.... but the occurrenceof 01.D._-. H.003 m. 20 _ _ _ _op0op8a[-1-3-]a[1=2 6 .? . 0.tkt. Inv.. 0. JORDAN 250 tablet. 14. KparET: -ratE ](op . b8z.-AAPIA 10 ff. med..min. would have been unusually long for A's formula. Traces of ca.. 13 lines Line 7.

but its text has the phrase KaTa'3)o-ov MarpW'vav. and the two papyri with hair inside and the defixio Wortmann 1 are love charms. Macleod).its inclusion was part of the magical operation.003 m. Evidently A preparedthe tablet before he had a customer for it. No hair remained in the defixio Wortman 1 (Oxyrhynchos. which had been sunk into the courtyardof one of the Roman houses behind the Stoa of Attalos along the road from the Greek to the Roman Agora. It was found among 3rd-century pottery in Well VII. too. threads of wool. ??667-677). Severalof the groovesleft by the hair and a few dark brown strands of the hair itself remain (P1. I append. is a love charm. Lucian has the witch in his Dialogues of Courtesans(p. Helen Whitehouse of the Ashmolean Museum kindly writes me that an unpublished defixio in her care (inv. Against Tyche H. IL 1737 Because of its parallels to A's formulaic curses. Lines 1-3 show large lacunae caused by damage that resulted when a wad of hair was impressedinto the surfaceon being rolled up inside the tablet. 401-408. This is the hair mentioned in lines 11 and 14 as being that of Tyche. and he found afterwardsthat in these passages he had not left enough space for the identificationto be filled in. so far all erotic defixiones from Greece have been separative rather than love charms. the intendedvictim. L. pp. 4th or 5th century).63). and.3rd or 4th century) by the time it reached the eyes of scholars. Av. Auburn hair was found inside PGM XIXa (Hermopolis Magna. 0. bound togetherwith mud"(letter of November 28. rTV oviotag-E E9(L'Xtg rPiXES (for ovrotaav-Tra rptXaS) TS'^ / [KE4q]aANX) ai9rTls (lines 19-21). 1983). from the excavationsof the Egypt Exploration Society.251 DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA APPENDIX: Inv. Tyche's name and maternal lineage in lines 1. This seems to be the only one of his texts so produced. 68). 10. IL 1737 . PGM XVI (2nd/3rd century [lst century edd. when one of the women asks her to bring back a lost lover. as we have noted (p.This suggestsa pattern. 222 above). vidi]) was found folded up into a small packet with hair inside.157.0015. A few other examples of hair foldedor rolled up in extant magicaltexts may be cited. 13/14. another of his texts. 211 above) say. no. No. such as clothing or boots or a few of his hairs or anything of that sort"(tr.g).but there is nothing in the text of IL 1737 to suggest love in the usual sense./ [rIvET]EKEv TayEv. interesting in its own right. "containeda dark-brownmass of organic matter which has been analysed by the Home Office Forensic Science Laboratoryas human hair. and small pieces of gypsum. W. "You'llneed something belonging to the man himself. and 16 are written in smaller letters than the rest of the text and have a squeezed look. Dr.167 m. 1982. A papyrus of unspecified Egyptian provenance. (elsewhere) 0. No. H. The text of the tablet in the Ashmolean Museum has not been fully transcribed. Inv. Such materialonce intimately associatedwith the intended victim is known in ancient magical terminology as his ov'oa (see Hopfner. with brief notes. It was for a love charm that Lucian's witch was to use the man's oviota. (lines 1-3) 0.but a preliminary reading that I made in 1983 shows that it.. 0.

s' (?)> r[OV] o-xiv. 0o0 TiX-tv. _ v )0 AvE/3TJ0 A/3paoaat EKe.3] Op1 EEUp7TapL8appaPpLoVpLy6 E"rLa4laVLO-pp Ka'L*V?EL Tv. TapaXEXv/llPE'VPT.ca. TOyS TOVOVE.-ca. 6 KpaTaLe Tv4Xv. aL(O)E EVEL?E711E'vaL.2yt2 S TE KaLovpavo]v[ca-2] . <zs -. T77V?IvXl V. 3 [TrEpL]TraT7 Bay7)X [V]V(v ca2 j7 [__ a.Ta v T7)S' X?)O?)S' aI~~(OTLO-TOV auoVa. IIIp. S ETEKEV Zo4da. a'(w'rL-rov alCva.] FLEXPL eKev -V1EK-EV] -rL2J.2 tS avjs.-IPIAN[- . Zo(ia. KpaTRaLE TvO4D v ZOvTOpV7)0 qOT7)-] ] ca-2 AzA ca. [/E']XpL Ov 'av eAwi4aL EK TO?)CO4)O(L)OVS'aE'pos. T5V ?TpOyEypCpoyLyaFLE AXEpaLpa.- [- Na.8- .ATA[-_-ca [ -[-4 a _ ca. VEKpC.x[1s.dAia 7rc v[Ta L'sTOCogO3jW]- ? -tr-v . /1' XaXTr0aL. Tr$Xq'-s- ~at ZTH KaNt YTH Io &oia.-c -7 ./EVVEV < EKEVOL NEv[OL Ia]c v h z' A0XE4aP 2 a5 -] opLO Tov[op]pa IawaL 'FaL0cOV v ToV/3pLa v . [ _.tr. qS Et(TLvaL rpLXEs.. OVTCA)S' KaL '(is' 7avTa TO-ala aLE7 KaTa4v'yoL[Ka]L [aL O-]apKES'KaL T2aveVpa Ka'LTa o0T Ka'LT7 TO KaLTa o7TXa'vXva TVX-qS'. KpaTaLE [Tv]O[Cv.-] .j''a eTEKEY: vedpa.LX-0q M7)KETL avaaA\a 1iE'OT7PvaL.LXpa.. Ia law[. 9 1 c . 9 -----r [Ta 25 ovoMuaTaj a. e'wsabvvarosyE'v7yTa. Kpa-atE Tvnv C Zo[jL']a. med. T-q'V bv'vaJLtV. AoX7 v v TEovv AOa4EAaML TarELMuLaraEXoe Iaprap 5 IaKov/3ta v o4da.. aXXa aTov[o]v0a 30 v KaL aJvPa/Los' yE'VOLTO OavacTov. wuV. 7s E`TE-] Nat._ c_5 O AIIJ T Ka]NL KaTayEypacoa 0-aLTO. /17) KELVT/OT)vaL. 'L'vaj.ca.--__ca. 15 20 TONXAAEINIONEXbrO-ov._ca.. z Iaco LaKOV/31a vIEp 0 BoXXoo-O Bao-ovXa V 7? Zo pLa. KEv l 15 XOXELXO' r Oa T7'Ls TXaKa K[aL] ptlj K()S'ev Tx fpe'a4 - a ca5_ KaraTa--pE*r ca.\XXoL qS ELO'Lv 3 Bao-acd v AEa v AVoX v Aro/iV Ov-. c-3 '1"" c.[]-Elav s t Iaw v HerlEp0apbpa Mopgovvq v Kappav-) v\aXEtv-q IapTappopCovX-q v laLa 10 v7v.ca. aJvpa/LOS. KparaLE Tv4hiov ToToAL ZT)0 Ko. 2 . Nai. T2rJV[bvva-] ...-r'v] L'aXV'V. T j pOpa.a. - -] I -. KaL KaTa4VXETaL. ?v ETEKEV v aL rpLXEs aL EVELXT/LE'vaL. KaTrEIvy/iE'vT) P.vbL'&oj. 28 -------- -]ONAAMOY- -] _ KaKc[(4-7)_ -T]a v .d001 TvlX-qv. 4>aOa Ovaxa TvX-q. IL 1737 ca.e-pbz A7TLKaLXE/eoVp[[a.18 _ a__IA\a? BoAXooi0 I. [)S'] EtTEKEv Zo4La. TT/V[ ca./1) WEpL/?Ta7TT-aL.- Tapab&ojl. __.. ca. -v vEyE'ypa4ivyEro ETEKEV ---poITEppwS-.f KOEAXLaS' aVT7Ss-TV1XTSs. c-]pL . Inv. No. a'oa'VL(O-V--.c 3 ai[4r1-S m'v -f o-ov aepa. Nat.

that you may do her harm and . 2-7. IwlaXOaXaa[ ]4 (4 or v). p.. line 3. paralyzed..." Line 1. The brokenword ]Etav and what follows are roughlyparallel to the sequenceat 12.appropriateto Typhon (cf. all members in your dark air. Yes. weak..-ca. in the so-called "planetary" . <Bind into> the unilluminated aion of oblivion and .either the formularyor A's copying from it is defectivehere. JaKov/3La. mighty Typhon Chocheilops lao Jakoubia Joerbeth Bolchoseth Basoucha Phatha Thnacha -.-orith Tonorma Aoche AschepharTethou Athaphelami Tateimiata Eloe (?) Jartar IartarmorzoucheMorzoune Karmane Dacheine Pepertharora Jaia Acheraira. move about. KEt(v0771vat:Ktlv- "Mighty Typhon. Ttxqv: T1vXr'v Lines 16/17. whom Sophia bore. the aforenamed. whom Sophia bore.."whirlwind".. ATA[-ca 4-]ONAAMOY- .-npho---.-. I have supplied what seems to be the minimum. pp.Tyche. make -- her lungs disappear --of the abdomen. Ia. As I have written down these names and they grow cold.whose hairs these are. its last element may conceal XaZXa# "hurricane". nographicum mythologiae classicae. TeOov. 17. it occurs. rolled up.-ri Sontorneth --of .or O. mighty Typhon. Yes. "Abrasax.. muscles. ad fin. 6 -]: Evidently one of Tyche's parts or faculties. mighty Typhon earth and heaven . . Bind. let the body and the flesh and the muscles and the bones and the membersand the bowels of Tyche. chilled until I am taken out of the dark air.-eian Ia lao lakoubia Iae Bolchoseth o. 12.-.83qO. walk around. KaKc'4[o-fs': Cf. v[ or K[. grow cold and not walk about.the strength. . that she may no longer rise up.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 253 (For the text of IL 1737. . for example. Iawat (line 7) is an obvious palindromeon Iaw. IapTap. sinews.---omalthalal[?]ps EkebenneuEkeuthi Neuthi lao Iae JosethAnebethAbrasax Iasai Phaithon Toubria -. see p. Unless the writer of A's formularyconsidered"theunilluminatedaion of oblivion"to be in apposition to "yourdark air". Yes. capacity. o-7aXLvXva:o-7AxayXva Line 27. I[ or K[) Line 4. Yes. (i. twist . and A/3pao-a (line 6) is commonin magical texts: see M. Ls. the XEL'I possiblyto be recognizedin KoAsee note m. XOLXELXWAI: AvE. note 4. as well as several possibilities beginning lw-."Lexicon icoAXEpaLpa. ITH (E. where the same verb is used. whom Sophia bore.) of Tyche. ] OpltO(A or A. lines 4-6: see the note ad loc. 7 -[] (A or K)./3EvVEO. whom I have inscribed on the tablet.e. whom Sophia bore.her . [ ca.AOa4ekXaML. Lines 4-10. the joints.. rather let her grow exhausted and weak until she dies. whom Sophia bore..). let Tyche. too. ca. grow cold.. I give you Tyche. mighty Typhon Kolchloi Totolith Seth Basaoth Aea Anoch Apomps Osesero Apoikailemour--- Ormerpheriarbarmaphriourinx over the blacking out and chilling of Tyche.-roserros. Jaw. 252) Lines 2.-- in the well ---e Bagel . but let her remain a corpse. talk. looks as if it belongs to the same set.. 'vyEypa/4a: EyyLine 26. her strength.-. with earlier bibliography. Line 2. whose hairs these are. the capacity. so. whom Sophia bore. p. ]a or ]A). pale. I hand over to you Tyche. breath. all occur in appellations of lao/Seth collectedby Moraux. Tovf3pta.and BoXXoa-. Also apparently new are EKE. whom Sophia bore. here rolled up. 17. Zurich/Munich 1981. until she becomesweak. Aa-xE4bap.. Le Glay. 247 above.:Es' Line3.

2 ] (line 12). "Engel V (Katalog der Engelnamen).J0LTO. Beschwiorungsformeln aus dem "Buch der Geheimnisse" (Sefar ha-Razam). 47] pour Tov aVTovUgpov 7raOOTo dans une malediction de Lydie. E or O. a Daldis. (note on 13 B.-H. in a context of Jewish angelic names at PGM X. Line 17. Davidson. and 30 below and IL 72. line 44. or 0.AoX-q(line 7) is an optical congenerof AoXq (12. Stuttgart 1962. Line 20.and the long lists collectedby J.For discussionof the phrase see note g. if correctlytranscribed. Lines 11-13." CRAI 1978 [pp. line 5.the use of val is an exceptionto Festugiere'sgeneralization that it serves chiefly as a "formuleconclusive". pp. o Eor-T?]/ws] with the rest of this line and the next. p. 246 above). Line 18. In Bayp\ one recognizesthe Hebrew -el. 242 above. with variations. The phrase here may refer to the findspotof the present defixio. These names seem new. Licht vom Osten. cit. E. (p.P or 4. as well as the instancesof val in prayerscollectedby Festugiere. EXoe (line 7." Reallexikonfiur Antike und Christentam V.pp. PGM XLV. Nal. 11.as faras I knowelsewhereuninstanced. line 7) but also appears. line 1). A Dictionary of Angels. . Norden. op. Along Lines 18/19. KV TEv () 4pEaT[L: The first supplementis simply exempli gratia. Robertwrites of the "gout commeexaspere dans les maledictions funeraires de l'optatif moyen: 7rcWoLTo. 242-243 above. la passion. With the exception of the apparently new max. it may be a predicationon Seth-Typhon. 17.suggests the Hebrew Elohim (cf. but this is probablybecause both words are squeezed to fit into the line. p. R. New York/London 1967. 4FaOaand ?3vax.L. 201-207. unless the formerrepresentsthe Egyptian Phtah (cf. the spelling 4FaOat PGM XII. Mop(ovvq and the magica following it appear. Zur Topologie der magischen Rede (= Judaistische Texte und Studien III). Tuibingen1924. f'XOLTO. [gUf]XPtov a`ve'XuaLis another possible articulation. p. cit. MLXaqA. Leipzig 1898. Niggemeyer. line 12. Line 15.D. 393-399. la maladie du moyen dont parlait K. 244-245 above. anotherof A's texts. 245-247 above. p.o. Lines 27/28. AWoOLT0oAa. Buresch [AusLydien. line 1061 in a spell ascribed to Moses. 225-238. line 292). loc.a(xor 4') are apparentlynew. 7rEPL7rEoO TV. 255).. Line 29. although I have no parallel for him sitting in a well. 6. 4th ed. Xwp7YorLTo. and with TeOov(line 8) we may compareTEOovp ovp at PGM XIII. pp. A7roLKaLXqAvp[ in 1-10 and 12: see note 1. avec 'l'horrible et 7reptL7TETOLTO' le 'plus monstreux encore f'XOLTO' dans une epitaphe de Dokimeion: aLdoL yEvE?j TE KaL OLKOS97rqTLaT E'XOLTO" ("Maledictionsfuneraires grecques.law and most of the magical names that follow in lines 15/16 occur in the sequencesof appellativescollectedby Moraux. see E. Une epitaphe metrique au Piree. line 7. In IL 1737. Line 11.op. For discussion of this sequence of appellatives see note m. I may be only the lower extension of the 4 of pEaT[Limmediatelyabove. however. spelled AwXq. ToTOXLO and IO are not separatedby a blank space. cit. For the Semitic backgroundof the use of the participle in such invocations. 200239. 'IaLOwv(line 7) looks like a variant on 'FaE'Owv. cols.on en verrad'autres.TvXOLTO./pt'qA.is what we may call the "maledictorymiddle". pp. line 1.C'est la manie. Deissmann.for here it occursnot only at the end of the invocation. g/vq: On the late positivejussive subjunctivesee note h. e or 0). Along with their congenersin lines 4/5 above. 249 above). JORDAN 254 inscription at Miletos: see A. often found at the ends of names of angels: cf. pp. Michl. KpaTaLE Tv40v: Cf. and J. Fa. the phrase in lines 14. Including the Fallen Angels. I. Hildesheim/New York 1975. K[a'L] J [7rEpL]7raT2joG-LTo:The middleof 7TEp7raTeaT. pp. 241-269].A or kt. G.

Ser. cause him to waste away continually until he ap(p. aAAa. TABLE 3: Concordanceof Inventoryand Present Serial Numbers of Defixiones from Well V Inv.VA 22903 R. JORDAN . / curses from the Sepher ha-Razim quoted on p. No. No. 27.255 DEFIXIONESFROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA OavaTov: We may compare a phrase that ends the first of the two Lines 29/30. 241 above. 8 1 13 9 12 14 5 IL IL IL IL IL IL IL 4 3 6 11 2 10 7 956 957 958 959 960 964 1000 D. Inv. No. IL IL IL IL IL IL IL 948 + 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 Ser. UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA Department of Classics Charlottesville. Morgan) proachesdeath. No.

enlarged 7. actual size .PLATE 65 7.

actual size .PLATE 66 8. enlarged 8.

enlarged 9.PLATE 67 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 9. enlarged .

^ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Ir trr *w~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~* .'.PLATE 68 4-PF sh __ 0_v.~~~M .

Related Interests

T EviTvXtavto \ \ n] Ka[Lr]5p / T 'a./op.a Kpa3Tat'b K[paTa2]b BEwrTv. R.Ka' a&oA0(r[s] Ka'c KaL K[ara]61/. Curses directed against athletes 1 KpaTaLb Bwp4op. 7raXAivca. 7raXatc3w LEuXXo?vTa VEKOVVOCV. 35 3ca. EvaTvXtavTr'Ov <T>O<v> EvTtXtavov TrOvAt6Aovs jiaO21miv. 7rapEpya. It is evidentthat the two formulaefor the two types of curse are closely parallel to one another. 12 EAOH 12traces "AmaAX[ovca. Below I present A's formulaic texts printed together in parallel form.FLEXXEa Lt TrUv TrcaAip EivTVXLaL'oi T?)2'7r[cLX7z'. 20 QNIXX[ 111-2] 't T7q'v ca. A [e.p]a. A-jjh 7raXata-at 6Tr TS X11Or1 a COTLU [CS9] CS rw T7S [A1]O[27]S~ &4drL[TO-r ?t4T]o-ov C aOwriSt X21Or1 CS TO j &11-7T-ov X0OrO KaL KaTa1/If14.p[o]p[./a[poo]p. 5 FI4rpT1]v TrO MaKEd0zv[a 'AXKLbaov. 10] ca.236 D./a.?)2 FLEXXEL p 7riArzTp]ca. [B]of4oppapap4oppapap24oppa. then we must not rule out the possibility that he. (Althoughthe purpose of the fragmentary 10 is unclear.s~h KaL aTo KaL Kara1/I[v]$qs~h 7.C rTOLd 1 30otd ( Td rap<a>ot'c4y4 god EvTvxtavov) Ol ETEKEv EvTvXta. Ka[t] 4yc Tr7Ty.pa KaL cs TOU 6 1 2 3 Kat T[o]VS o+VvaV'T. 10]AN[jN.ap./atrqa KpaTaaEb BETrVrapa. KaL TO[V] 5oJVw ai4r4. avhovv.j. 3 [ca.7TV.V'. 3 [ca. 2CdapabLwIt b 'Od t [ca.a. 5]ca. 8]AFONH ca. 3 4[ ca.5Kat csgTov' CoOV acEpag 3 Kat] ts Toa [Cood]4j 0o-ov '4p]a gK[aL 5 [ca.

3]NAPIA[ o'povs 'AOrnvat4WoV.uov10n.4 4 5 ["Av]ae [A7r]og 6 10 22"Avae [A7r]o[i]6 'tpOvpVLye "Av'ae 4A7ro[. tva 7TEX 13[2-3] o'Xws.DEFIXIONES 237 ZH7[1-2]EI FLEXXov1-f rapaO-KEV. 1 2 3 5 6 1 2 FROM A WELL 'E'av 8E 'EazvJ pos ] KA[2-3]NH[ca.17rapabilXi4 1 10 I 7[Kat a(r]X1.m 0vyXfMoTw 'AXKt25Ta os . ['E][4v]J 5 2 3 4 5 7raXao-tat. i]aO1Trzv TrOvNikEXovra7raXaLEV 6 "Avae A7ro. a44[avL']o-GE KaL*00[6L. TovTovov 3KOM[XXOL cFpLOvpLye E7TL a via`OrTE KaL /[v46L] 1bI?pLOpL]yf E7TL a Laz'rEL KaL\VII. KOXXXOL T[o]vzrovov X?. q]8Tat Ka['] 87raaXatf. O'Ot EvTvXtavov oot [Ev]r[LXLavzov.M Ev12rTLXLav] "Arra20Xos' KoXXOLXELd###BOT_TEXT###amp;Y#Ir. 0'YrsWui1 1 2 3 5 6 Z'v]wvosg [ca. ov KaLcWL19)(rxv.Arra vaL'Or-ELKaL '6.4 ETEKEv EvTvXLa. 9[KparaL]' Tv4z-v KparaLe 20Tv[ -v] 2?H[ca. 7raXaLEtvE'vTnj ErvT~ra8Xatrroi3. &AXA 6 bv 4] 6[KaTa]-L'7&TrWVKataL[orXq1oV]w- KaLa44[alo-E] L 7T ELV . 10.m 4'vy~frV o e5pIos ca. 8E Kat ra[X]cL'-. 22. 5]Z[ca.]k MopCov17zv A1 E7vo X Iata. KOXXXOL ToVTO17[vovXqO Xa0acw]X Ea.1s[apa]118[i8)]id Iata. KOXXXOL Tov[Tovov] X1O XaOacwX Ea.4 cFpLovpLye 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 "A'vae A7ro.l 7rapabtw[dt IaLa. Z[to]vvo-tov 15Ta. 3]NA[ ]AT[ca. KparaLE Tv4pv] 3 0 16 arX-q[. Tr]v XqOY1a0[awX]12Ea.1 rapabbcotk[L 1 4 5 EviTvXLa.HE[Tprq] 3 'KE 'pl6' [vaMovovzK [K a]ra7rh-y a I(k f1E[p]7rEpOapwzva flErwEpaptwa He rEp0appwva 5 fE1rrEpOapp[wva IaLa/l 'apa]8tcd 6 HE7rE[pOapwv]8a IaLa.m a yr' EVTVXLavo7r[aXaL]3 rns4 v[y2frco Ko]XxoLxEL[X]co'I.4 ["AAvae A7ro.u AAXXEL7 I 'v'za ar[o]Kc4*4'o Ka ~ aa02TpS. XEKOV28O2 KaL ' EK7TrEo?j afrX1y~ovzo-1jKk ( KaL arXrqto[z i'zva EK7rEor) 3 Ka] i>~~~~~ta EKTEo61) aLJ aa-]?oi(n. MoCo[v]9zvr k M[opt ]ovvj ?6?97 v9zn MOPCO Movovvz4[] AXXEtvLq AXt1 AXXEtv']tq AXXELtv' TOV ALOVV8[ LO-V HfET[p?pq] OL] 9'AAK[Lba. X.] [ yv] y'T[w] E[i]jrvxLav0 KoXXoLX[EGX]W.] [ca.l r[ap]ab&bwtk 14[HE7rEpOa]pw[v]a IaLa. 23. KaTa4 )VqSg Kat k[ ajff]S 9[EV]TvXtav[z]v 7aaLataat. 13ErvXLavoiv. 'E4vJ 'EazvJ 8E Ka' 7raXaa. 2 3 4 1 v.ov. Evrtxtavos] 77raXa(o-[a]t-rpos 'HyovFEvo'v HIXTOHN[ca.O XaOac0X Ea. 4 Ko]Xx\oLxEOtAco. TOv 'ATTaXov 16[v]OV.m KoXl2x]Xo[L]xEO MEV.OXaOaco> Ea KoAXXo HOVTO21vovX. (0OL '"Ar15raXov TOr (4tjj3oV 0otL Kpa11[TaLE]Tv4Cov KparaLE Tv4wC-v Kpa10TaLE Tv]4-w KparEE Tv4C-v rciw.O XaOacoaXEa. '?povpLye AXXEtLv- O2VETEKEV 10-ot] EivTvXtavol. 4]HX KOXXXOL TovTovov 18(I?pLvpOyV P T'V b[La]LaT[v (?).m 4vy?rco1T H[Er]pDq[S Kox24XOLXELx&t4K. E7TL clcjav`O-GE Ka'L frv'L.

vacat] [ca.o-Oc ta7s TO o2'OjLa 237Q o) l KGaL7) 6 'ortLa op]9v47I TO ~h'o1oa KaL 7) 4'V30X?i.}j2 (TornT[p17j. "E[o-rco [E1t1TE16p]7T ]. g E7-EKELMapKLa.D.l? KOLS.Lazv. 15 -/a/at7)a BpCop+Cp3ap3ap4o0ppa[p]p{ap4OPp3a/3[ap4O]ppBap(aL)a Kpa7. 5 t7 KaT 14t1 [TO'01tOMa 4 V 29IIIVXEUT Ka* 'AXKE.e (r0td Ka]p'rob3cipaz. E7TL(T0T7~Kl7 [o`]v[opa KaLt TO <10 7)67rw444mql[] g t1 e7n'7ro]v7r4f? 6 v[Oi]S).] LL2LrE ca 2]OI[ca. ov O[VTCt)S v]14y7To EiVTvXLavov T7ra<t>. LKE'pEOS~. TO EiVrvJaj . r1zE7-E[KEL'MapKL'a]e 3KaLEIOAVZ-'ELKOZ-'.aKE'p]aOs'. aAa]1Xos'. oroyaTa ovolaTa [E]18TEKEV qj. 7 ]pop/{3ap[ ca. 15Tj. a33K[o]icr 2TEpt TOV 'A7ro[XX&w]34av[oi3. r1 2 3 otvo[y[a q 1 (O-T?tJ1) oPRY2 7) r1 7 n vo 7q l Too T 71Oi.C 7ra]2pabt'xdu Kpa7-EEIb 2BErT7V. R. 31. ]ON.] 16aXo[s'. aAAayELE[ofOL] 1QeyXvrosx ?i' e?sVl Kat 1 toxvErxCO 7rpc21rws [7raXaf]Ev.e uotd AEO0eO-1O'v) 8 9 (rotd 'IovXtazrn1v. "Eo-rT KCO4+OS'.T? 1 o [1rwi-4).]n 7roWE KaL 1 [eaion]S 5 6 10 1 ravTiraTa 2 Tav-TTaTa .e . t1([7rLo-r7j. azvovs~. 79 ca. 3 4 2 op26 yL{. 2] 1raAfs. 3]] IovXLav[oi] '/vXEy. . K]aT 4'vx. 11 [X g) ?OPY?J.8zt ETE[KEL'TpO)44U1j. 6 Xoyw-os. (?) IIIVX7). Kat t1 opy2 1 V Xoyw7.aLEbB[E27-TV. "Eo-rw KCWOS~. .e 01 arAEL EV ]r O OVCt) KaATTa'Xov v/ *vX'-co@ OVTCtS9KaLA ~~~22+vee 4ViXETE. FL7)TEraXa ai]vovs.aR ovr&S] 2 3 4 2 3 ]vX6o-O( [a]vo[i OVT(r0 [v'xEraL. 8KaL[[T ca.tlj18v aKGovr.I 4 6 TaVITa T'a oolaTa 10 rav-Ta Ta [L6]vo4ara 1 Ka[ oV[TCt]S I]vixETaL. avovs1.aAa32[Xos'. Kat r1 EPEO-O co26[TOV]S opovs {'opovsj 'AO71vWalco.] .aAaAos'. 35 o0w4 Ka 1 AotCO ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~31g 6 10 7O]l[5174Op 1 ?P]Y1.w Katy [ca. KatH4Ieozv]TOVS 'pooEpxopfzovs' 'IovAt]3az4j. 2i27o(yLv5 o'Xcs Fr7)EV. uc1pa [[v aJOVS~.] sE .] az-'ovs~.rXc)s1M)a&12 [ca. nv'XET28raL.] yr8 "E[lrCe Kl4OS'.cat Tpo]34q. TrpO 35'A'noX[AovLal-'d. O 9 oyo7w's" .el vOoa. 27 15ev] EVTOl'ELT[Lo 7rapao-KLVfl.LovJ?pTf. ] f yL 2 Curses directed against lovers 7 8 9 7 2BETV7-C '4apabLiwyd Kpa7-aLE]b Bop4op/{3a[ ca. 15. vxETaL ovlLaTa 1.w ca. JORDAN 238 1 Kat tIq 2 3 4 [KaLca.[ ca. 3 ra[-Ta Ta o 31o3kaTa Tav3TTaTa TavTa Ta 4 O EAAovX Tn vxE] oolara oV'TCO /vXE-Oco EVTVXLavos. 8. 10 F7)EVL. L . aAAa 7rEfT?1Kat ao-x7y.EvOS'.C 'rapabtcotd Bwop4op/{3a/3ap4op/{3a. t] 6 Xoy7251fo-1 L?tffy. ?}{X1wIo]yeloI. 5]T[]NAPIQ[2-3] Zrqvwosq. 9. ca.Evo[S F7TE OpyL6OFEVGS~ 4 5 6 6 10 "ETL-T KI 0Sq. 6 ]p/3a/3opap/3a/3[at7)a [r1v E7-EKE2} Et(rLas~.os'. K]aL op yOt4o4[E]vos [max.

8 Mo~ovznr AAX~Ezrq HIE2rEpOapcota Iata.40]~ Mov106ovv?. 'ia EK2TEO K}Xo<L'> (?) KaLAEoor-Oz'r1p' Kat HIELoL'. ~2TEpU7Ta]T270aL. TO ov2alaTEEW. "Avaf Ea. z<Sj~h jS U 6arKa aTOi a.DEFIXIONES FROM A WELL 7 't'va] KaTa*IvjsJ 8 'va 9 avrovS K[a]Ta/v t'va KaTa Ka[L e-sJavrovs v ] Kat tOO at c t's Y aVT[] bvv'qO6.4 cIpOVPpw 67rE&4j[azdo-e KaL] 154tV[fL."AvaF 7 8 9 A7ro. oTEKEv TpOatv. 7 8 KaTaI v()JS r1sETEKEL' ELo~cie os 7 ovvOEtaz.oaL HIpOK{pOr avTo vyEEOtvTaL. AXXEtLWiHIE7rEpOapwva Iata.e Ka.un9f^ KaKt 9 7 8 KaT T[aV77T17]AT[ (?) g Ka 14?) KaL oyLELX?. /<jjShjS T] 6rS XjOr. "Avaf KparaLe Tv4cow KoAXXo HlowTrovov XT1 12[YZ]aOawX 11/?vo-ipciT-E Tv4)zv KoAXXo HlovTrov[vXrO XT0 aOawX] 12Ea.e KaLKap'7r[ob3cpazv.e [aVTOV 0] 1Uyov a . 239 ] Kat T71v o-Topy-)v Kat .n tS O 60 co OVafpag Ka't 9 TOVSo-vzrV U[O]vraS~aVrOVS.T]L' [vTEK'] AEoo-O4[zLr1] 9 HloA1v'ELKos~ 8 l6Tp[o]avT4.s~a uotoTov atwva Kat 7 KaTav/v$ 8 9 KaTal/I 7 7avTo 86t]EgA'av TyovtE'[Oav. h AEao-reO1v?p HOI~lovELKo[LKaL 'IovXL]9avr1v. aV~~~~~~ ~~]5TOVS 9 7 8 T' IovAtavis In Is TO(pyaoT-nptv T'v ovv OEtav [avTc{.] 9 Tv4cov KoAX)QoLTO[wrOvOv]14X[t1jO X]aOaco)X Ea.wacKa.4 ['F]pLov4ntyf err &aid)ao-& KaL vr6 KoxxoLl3xEtALx#. 8TjS A0Os 6 TOV o4wP[aivrois'. KoXXOLXEtALXLO4. KaL 'Iv~vjAEoo-OESvrq 'lovAtavAo9 bvvjOo tzV KaO[L tv] tS Tor -ov 8 aoEpagvKat coovCL'a -ov aEpag Kat co]0 Kt~TL Kat to TOv [CIO Ka. TO avrosv a]7 I yELEOua. a4rrov &ipaz Kat TOV 'pOoz7-'oEvsx /?aiSIh TO.-o-tv ] avi%ov4s[ Kat r f a p yv]41jV. ) Kat a[r1to]li(n 'Eaul'Jb KaLayJS'.uj. Ka' 'IovXta[vU'I 9ae . yEL'EO-OaL.m4rv^yfr1co A7ro. Tpota.] 8 9 7 9 86 lzT/I 7rp0 -'Thvat vpofrW Kat " HELSJ q Htos. r1v]134[T]EK KaL EWZ).1 'rapa8Z3wyd (ToL 9 Mozvoovzrj 7 8 9 Tpo4utyz.?)L ETEKEL' MapKTa.m rV^y?)Tc Arro14 cFpLovpLyg E7L *4)aLLO-E[LKaL vrgt KoAxoL]l3XELxAfr.1 'rapa&bcopl TSTO ai4ro roo E(Ta.KapvTroEKvTpa. aqys Kat Kat K[aprobPpa]s.m vr7}T 7 8 T[po]4.e 9 Y7~rwS~ 4'4fls~ KaLaL7rOX((rD KaLE1t (aD 7 Kparae [AXXErLL'~E2TEp]8Oapcw)aIata. aoat Kat 7 T'v o-vv[OEtav. Ih KaTa[1/Iv$e'hsAI av ov t. [o]v (TEK]E'tEK[apo KaLHIELos.1 7ra[pabt'cop] 124.4ast. OltETEKEL' Tpo44.

bop/ wp. 252). On the left wing write the following in the same style.pp. V0O. ovo1lLa.like the formulaictablets from Well V. a]XaXot. OVTc Kat 71 E'OOvo[-a TO /vyj-0 Kat D [4rvX]SoOwT'a o'voFLaTa E7rt Iovl6Atal. ca. at PGM IV.? r. Hk86p] 19aKov'wv ['Iov]Xtavorj7rEpt AEoo-OSEvovr HE'19Ov. on another. Notes a There is such little regularity to be detected in the spelling of these syllables that I venture only a few restorationsamong them and these only exempli gratia. 241 below). there are preservedinstructionsfor using a bat to keep a person sleepless:"Take the bloodof a black cow. a'voEs. o-vvt4ay[. Les intailles magiquesgrecokgyptiennes. 12]19XAI. R. S OVTrCt vX]16xETat. o TpEJELcTaprapa. whatever]you want. FL)TEoppy#oFEvOLtFL[?)T]EXEyovTES rEp[t] )iE.us. where in the form bop8a/3opbop3a /&3op opop they are said to be her aAtL0bv (for -ArjO-) o9pavos. however. aKEpE[OL. and the like are often associated with Hekate/Selene. e.Et]v.The "Typhonicanimal"is no doubt the ass (see note 1. Similar magical polysyllables composed of . (Wortmann 1. lines 1402 and 1416. wrapabibwcdLo-oL.a18KEpaLoL.ap."and there follows anotherlist of "Borphor"syllables. OVTCOS' vXETatL. lines 74-76 [3rd or 4th century]). ]tq 17 7f [0 V1OVSI 7 [0] Xo[yt(o-js'. eagle.8wp.0 8 9 aKovovoa Eo-[rco]o-aV Kw4)W%. Delatte and P. on a gem showing a triple Hekate (A.' Put these (clusters of syllables?) one under the other in a column and write [in Greek. yrl' E-rT 'o-av' KCW4[Ot. in a defixio from Carthage (Audollent242.iv *VXEfrvj-O T[o4o6vola ET HloXv]l7vEKov KaK r} ertropssr?.vrvXr1.aLvoES. similar invocationsof whom are not easy to find or obvious. Some instructionsin the Hippiatrica.In Well V's texts. 7] 5XE1 Q?2n raviTa eQn 7 r o-vy]18Koq1jOijvaL. or 'Typhonic' (sc. yj. ovolaTa Kat aKaTaoTaota *vIXErat. animal:Tvbwviov)-preferably of an eagle-and write on (the bat's) right wing 'borphorphorba phorphorbaphorphorphorba phorba phorba phorba: baphaie: phorbaphor: barba. vacat?] 8 6 XoyLTo11s9. no. At PGM VII. at the end of anotherhymn to her.g. F) v. at lines 2348-2353. Opyal. 'aXaXot. .Ev0'q AYTAAAAAAA[ca. but we should note that this animal is not preferred. p.D. . these syllables are used to invoke Seth-Typhon (see note c. 244-245 below). ? 7ov vois. Ewt[OrT. 9 Xoyr]18. from Oxyrhynchos.] rpOS ' IovAtaru.[FL?(TVltE7tvEL 9 aV&TW-V.[r' o-v yyETOaL.Paris 1964. /vXy1) 71?PY7717 7Ertr0y 8 9 'Io[v]Xtav /VX[I K]a' 7 a ovol4la[ra Ta]iv3TTa' ovo'lNaTa T2 ra[ViTTar' 8 y I 7)rtE7TL(TIrn.and on an unpublished example from Antioch (3rd or 4th century?) that begins with "Borphor"syllables and Hekate's name and continues. 8op1.LI. Derchain. in a hymn to Hekate. "Excellentfor distemperof asses. The possible connection with Seth-Typhon here is the stipulationthat the blood of the "Typhonicanimal"may be used. for example. 9 Kal D o-Topy7j] 7 8 ca. JORDAN 240 7 1NrsWIj] 178virjoo-av 8 6 TWS co ? l'wl'1%4Tat AaA-a-at 'IovAtavi . lines 44/45 [3rd century?]). 22. ITvlal-arEO a4aViTWV Kat X o-vV OEta Kat TO rvvav[aarEo-Ev Kap'nob&apasEr' Tpo2OauX]a Kal HELov 15KaLAEooOrELVoV 9 Kat 7 i/. lines 652-660.

This practice. the god of the Jews) Sabaoth at PGM IV.35. both A's work. From the Hebrew composition known as the Sepher ha-Razim.e.. which appear to assume a connection between the "Borphor" syllables and asses. c BE7rTv(T)or BET-rv(T):I have not found the name outside the well. animal's) neck" (II. 13209 and 13210) and from Lappa on Crete (ICret II [16].: The verb KaracLvXctoccurs also in invocations of Seth-Typhon from Wells III. 27.2. Yahweh..ov (IG 112. 7Tapa8L18w/."] b/ KpaTaLE: See note m. . . e. lines 11/12. line 335. followed by the intended victims' names. we may also compare some striking parallels to our texts' . lines 1227-1264..IO-I2 Oder/Hoppe). Side B. 49. for traces of association of Seth-Typhon and Yahweh in magical texts in the early centuries of the present era see note m. etc.g. Perhaps they were (meant) to imitate the barking of the dogs thought to accompany the goddess: cf. and VII. 245-247 below. inscribed by A) and also on IL 372 and IL 1737. a KaTcLr/fl4ys.C. [M. Morgan) e In Greek and Latin magical texts it is usual. IV.. .?]). Seth-Typhon and Osiris?) / wapaUL'3ov/e (lines 47/48 -0t'[Oo/u]e. . It may refer to the chilling effects of the waters in the wells. line 8 -bdw). save the wearer' on a piece of paper and hang it around the (sc. so that you may tie him in chains . and I have been told by a Copt that magical spells also in presentday Egypt use maternal rather than paternal lineage.g. ELV[a] . LVa (or 'rcws-) constructions. in a formula for the invocation of a ghost in the names of lao Sabaoth. for it occurs on / a lead tablet found in a sarcophagus at Rome (Audollent 155 B. angels of disquiet. wrapabEt'bo/ [d oot (?)]. who is invoked below in the formula and whose name appears in this position after "Borphor" syllables and the epithet KpaTaLE on tablets from Well IV (e.241 DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA Write 'barbaros barbarizousa zabachora barbaron pyri pyritoumole. . angels of anger and wrath. on the Roman tablet it is no doubt the chill of the lead itself that is . d The expression "'rapabibwy/do-ot + name. may then provide further evidence for the association of these syllables with Seth-Typhon.. 28). the only other such examples that I have found being at PGM V." for a list of defixiones that show the practice and also an account of some of the explanations for it that have been advanced. 245-247 below.g. 296-299. KaTacV/6f4T7E r[L'v] lo-I[Xvv]. after about the beginning of the 2nd century. that you will strangle and (cause to) waste away . lines 29/30: [`]o-rEpa ViJ^TV(i.L1Co-L I delizer to you..p.. pp. N son of N. Evr TO?)rTwrT a57TETcX TCp*vXpC .. is seen in magical texts that I cite from Egypt's Middle Kingdom. may compare a phrase that recurs in early 5th-century defixiones from Rome. Audollent 155 A. Of course it may well be that these "Borphor" syllables are merely representations of outlandish sounds (cf. 240 above). 156. which may be Egyptian in origin. but it need not. and also the phrase hrapawLdyL ToLS' 4bvAX6ootEvin 2nd-centuryfunerary imprecationsfrom Attica KaTaXOovLOLS' 0EOLS' TOVTO TO -p. pp. e. and possibly on one from Lilybaion 'L'Va[2nd century B. pp. Morgan) I hand over to you.e. on a curse tablet from Antioch (see note a. IL 72.3I. It is presumably another name of Seth-Typhon. lines 20-25): OpKL'O L **/ ayLovs' X[apa]KT- pES Ov"o7TEp yEypapLMEvovs. seldom occurs in Greek magical texts elsewhere. the life and the soul and the spirit of N son of N. a collection of magical spells taken from various sources and set into a Jewish cosmological framework. 8op/3opv'w "rumble") and in their emphasis on the strange and the possibly frightening may have been thought equally suitable for any destructive deity likely to be invoked in magic. to give maternal rather than paternal lineage of the persons to be affected: see "QPVVLVA. (p. Smith: "(But) their association with Hekate-Selene-Artemis is too well-attested and consistent to be accidental. p. We (Gabrici." while frequent on curse tablets from wells in the Agora. The "Borphor" syllables occur also in an invocation of lao (i. (p. /3ap/3apiCw"speak gibberish". Theocritus.

485 (M. Epp. Talcott. 22ff. "airas sphere of daemonic powers. De graecitate . -L7)KE TLavatL a . . Thompson. ii. Sparkes and L. 29 (M. Pass. a?upA 6.. The verb also occurson a defixio of unknown provenance(Moraux.233D) "Many (of the saved). Hence deposit in a well had a strong connotationof cooling. Adelph.p.853A). idem. p. for in such late Greek the prepositionneed not imply motion:see Mayser 11... 5. e. M.. pp. Origen.. 8.klq 'LxV'n avvabwso ov aPEXA 29 [LkE]xpL caL E(KTOVi(O'4c8OVS' aW'pos'. Citations by Lampe s. Pol. it "probably does not appear in [the] N[ew] T[estament] although there are examples in inscriptions of B.D. Gerth. Kuhner and B. h is. but his texts' vocabularyand metaphors. 373.It may be significantthat all these instancesof the verb are in invocationsof Seth-Typhon. 339): "Yea. A. 2nd or 3rd century). A.A great many ancient well heads.2. in Eph. Athenian Agora Picture Book no.C.. As for the "darkair" itself. suggest some (perhaps subconscious)transcendentalistassumptions on the part of the writer of his formulary.. For other instances see H. Ausfiihrliche Grammatikder griechischenSprache II.]) and post- Christian Greek. with a free step traversethe air and abide in heaven."Among the late examples that Turner cites are Ignatios. x. . Thompson has contributedthe following note: "It might be worth pointing out that in the ancient Athenian householdthe well was the normal equivalentof our refrigerator. 220). . he broke asunder once for all the many-fettered chains of our wickedness ."offer promising parallel images aroundthe time of A's activity. Moulton. Mr. 25 KaTa*/vyoL- 26 ro KaL T'a o7rXavxyvaTVXr S. 385.v. Turner. Princeton 1970. where possible Aristotelian parallels are adduced]).26.. Accordingto N. pp. The imageryof A's tablets does not imply any ad- herenceto the religion of these writers. 27 orioa& * aAXAa. shows that the "darkair"must there be somehow the equivalentof the phenomenalworld: Tyche is to remain enfeebled until her death and until the curser himself is taken up out of the dark air.ios' yE'VOLrO yEXP&Oava7Tov..4. Athanasios. Lang. ([F. B.. [H. Reinhold." g I understand<E>Lsgin this phrase as dependingon the verb KaTa4l?ys'. R." (Hist. 208. aAXXAa arov[o]v%a 30 Ka[cL a]vva.28. [Der Gebrauch des Konjunktiv in den griechischen Dialekten I (= ForschungV-iii . Comm.e. .. refers to the mortal world as the Aa/3vpLv0osofpos from which we must escape.I3. Cf. en zur griechischen und lateinischen Grammatik III). H. line 5 (Fayum. A Grammarof New TestamentGreekIII). Edinburgh 1963. 572): "For the air flowing about us seems to be full of opposing forces". Eccl. the ending of IL 1737..E- 28 ln.oys mands is not a feature of classical Attic (see R. 84. Hanover/Leipzig 1904. lines 13/14 [see the editor's notes ad loc.g. 8. after Oulton).] Hesperia 20. 6. 11.roA.for example in Eusebios (ob. until he transcendsthe present world. p." In early Christian writers the term "dark"apparently also can have resonancesof transcendentalism. the somewhat later Isidore of Pelousion. subduedand brought under power of Christ through Crucifixion'in the air'..3 and BGU II. both of terracottaand of marble. no longer fearing the archon of the air. 3rd ed. Gottingen 1915. p. i. Ep. : The use of the second-personsubjunctivein positive comKara v . 7 (M.2o. have cuttings to hold transverse bars from which objects could be suspended in the cool depths. JORDAN 242 alluded to..g . Syntax (= J.at that time when [Christ] beheld the whole human race lying sunk in dark night (VVKrT Co4bEpaL)and obscurity profound through the deceit of baneful demonsand the operationsof God-hating spirits.when viewed in the light of these passages. p.. leaving behind the things on earth. 50-51. 1951.I2 (p. tr.] Slotty. The Athenian Agora XII.I8oIB): "(Christ)stretchingout his hands to heaven seized the archon of the power of the air and made the path in the heavens clear for us".

however. iii). (p. at PGM IV. PGM IV. lines 2094-2097): B. 1971. 7. the "if" clauses apparently have two functions: a) In 1 and 3-6. That A twice writes "air" for "aion" and that B also in this phrase writes "air" (at 13 B. let (the wind) carry it to sea and shake it in the midst of the sea and let neither man nor cargo be saved from it. for it does not appear in his other curses directed against lovers. 'rapab8xL'3w o(ot. that A may have introduced it in error. lines 1-3: such text presumably by the same writer (R. pp. line 4) suggests not only that they had a formulary in common but also that to A the difference between the two terms seemed not very important. alt.g..ue. no. 79. 1925/26. In the magical papyri. and occasionallythe verb seems to have the technical meaning "bring(him/her/them) in . p. e. and why the future tense is not used." A\PAFMA Martino P. TOVTr s XrjOis a'4drtL-rov aLiiva (apa 5. V. accordingto Shkorpil'but assigned to the 3rd century B. with a similar phrase (2nd century B. 61) which has the phrase av E'<K>8GEK7)OryS0 . 'oto-w afyvpfE[O]V G-W'bTKa A?aLkoVt XOOVLeO . III. 374-378) has collectedother examples of such threats in magical texts..ro-WKa[t] O[oL]a'pw-roV bw3Jppov 7rapaKEI[va-coL] (1st centuryB.. there are numerous examples of the verb a"yEtV in such charms. no. i. J In A's curses directed against athletes. p. if (ear6 alone) you prevent him. e. for this idea of a second chance in Greek magical curses.this refers to the totally lightless (acp'nTLoTroV)sphere of the underworld. in other words. 104.g. the general sense obviously runs. I hand him over to you. Morgan) b) In 2 as it stands the sense is different: "I hand over to you so-and-so. I have not found parallels. 8): [M. 68-74. G. (lst century?). BSA 27.ser. which has the phrase OrE rEqL. line 10. "I hand over to you so-and-so.C. 79]." Evidently the conceit in 2 is that of rewarding a deity for a service rendered. dedicatum [= Acta Instituti romani regni Sueciae. 1939. 12).C. I have suggested ad loc. etc. as well as on a defixio from Lilybaion (Gabrici.'ov . I have found no reference to an "aion of oblivion" anywhere else in Greek. however. that you will prevent him from doing such-and-such. the "if" clause is deliberate here. 229. avPhpo-V line 238). pp. 2943. But if wind (sufficient)for sailing come to it. p.C. lines 2441. and still others may be traced through the referencesgiven in Mayser II. I should welcome a better explanation. XXXVI.that you will rise up against the ship of N son of N and that you will not permit it to sail from any place. but if he does (eaV be Kai) do such-and-such. on the basis of its letter forms and its spelling). pp. ahvbf KaL ayysy. We may compare a defixio from Olbia published by V. Vinogradov [ VDI 1 18. by Y. Shkorpil'. angels of wrath and destruction. Religionsgeschichtliche Streifziige. 28. Smith:"Bycontrastto A's previousphrase 'sL (o4Ail83r SEpa.i^ov oiEb'v. If. IstvArkhKom 27. In the case of 2 it is unclear why the deity should consider the consequence. 1]. the term 'aywy has the technical meaning "love charm". A reward may be envisaged also at * * / Mr4orw b8pov (early Roman?) and in another Wunsch 99. / a'yt 8e 'a'vbpas YyvVE64 (cf.*. I may note. Usually such a promise of reward is joined with or replaced by a threat of punishment if the deity disobeys (e. p. P.?).g. Nilsson . Austin. An "if" clause occurs here also in one of A's curses directed against lovers. in order that you will prevent him from doing such-and-such. KaL yvvf^Kasg lines 69/70 'Aywyi o. Leipzig 1901. I hand him over to you in order that he will fail". XIII. 1908. can one see in it either of the two presumed functions of A's clauses against athletes? The verb may hold the clue. and also one from Kentoripa (SEG IV."]I leave the ambiguous term aWw untranslated.DEFIXIONESFROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 243 apostolicorum librorumque apocryphorum Novi Testamenti quaestiones grammaticae (= Dissertationes philologicae Halenses XIV. Olsson ("Drohungen an die Gotter. as a reward. Seth-Typhon is given two chances to enact the curse. 296-299). but a curse in the Sepher ha-Razim seems to have a comparable provision: TOv I adjureyou..

IV. (b) 12.they are articulated. and in fact in Lucian's Dialogues of Courtesans we read that his Kerameikoswitch used ./awO (note m.correctlyor not. p. 9) IaLa lost lost [I]a&aq nothing IaLa nothing AXEpaLpa however it is to be spelled.. is also apparently limited to the Agora. into words in IL 1737. etc.: These bizarre syllables occur not only in 1-10 (this part of 11 is lost) but on those of A's tablets so far read from Well IV (e. "Barbar. that you will prevent them from doing such-and-such (here: 4to3v yEvEo-OaL). 225 above. I assume. The similaritybetween A aXEtLv7in (a) and (b) and AXXELV7 in (c) and (d) immediatelystrikesthe eye as a case of optical confusion between the similar combinations A\A and AA.g. I hand them over to you in order that he (sic) will fail. Speyer. If the VELt/ KaL OVEtpo'7ToT7rE.h: barbarischeWorte im Zauber [Theurgie]. R.however spelled. Mop(ovvrq. IIEwrEpOapcova. 246 Mop(ovvij. in a somewhatlonger form. a circumstancethat sug- gests that there may have been Coptic influence in this sequence as well and that the initial letters H. 9. E. is not attestedin other magical texts that I know of. -ppwva 3. line 11 ends with no blank space but word division must be assumed.3.q MLo]([ovwl'] Mop(ovvq Kaptkav. Movo. somewhat arbitrarily. p. I have found neither spelling to occur elsewhere.becauseits line 12 begins with the recognizablecombinationBao-awO. and from Well V's texts it would not be apparent even how they are to be divided. 5. lines 2076/2077: a"yEt be Kat KaTaKALKatLa"yEt4vXrv. even though there is no blank space at the end of line 9: in a sequenceof magical names in IL 1737 that correspondsto Well V's KparaLETv+&v KoXXXot. -coLa 7. Kat yo. I give the relevant portion of IL 1737's text and then list the versionsas they occur in (a) IL 1737. 265-266).6. IL 1737 9 Iaprapwop(ovXr vMop(ovvq ' Kapkavqj v AaXGVq v HJI7rEpOapWpa 10 IaLa v AXEpaLpa (a) IL 1737 (c) IL 72 (b) 12 Iap7apbopCovX7) [--- /]. They are examples of the /3ap/3apa 3vo4ara frequentlymet with in magical texts of the Roman period (see W.E-here may representthe Coptic masculine article. in a love charm). lines 10-13. lines 1718/1719: KXL/VEL verb at 7.4) nothing 2AaXELV7) Aax[GELVq AXXELVq AXXELVq HJE7rEpOapwpa lost HEPp7TE[p]OapwvLa HE7rEpOapwvLa(HUp7r. and (d) A's formulaictexts from Well V. but a search of W. pp.fortunately. 8. As far as I know. For want of any better criterion.I. 211 above). JORDAN 244 his/her/their love"even when no objectis expressed./ap." I offer this suggestiononly hesitantly. (c) IL 72. A CopticDictionary (Oxford 1939) has not revealedany word that may be representedby the letters that follow the . Before discussing the words in 1-10. was meant to be kept secret.presumablya jumbled spelling of la.8 ov[. below). Their meaning.B.I chiefly follow IL 1737's divisionsin articulating this passage in Well V's texts. the sequence does not occur outside the Athenian Agora.D. line 10 has this technical meaning.q Kapiiav nothing MopCovvq (Mov(o.8. IL 72) and. ]71 nothing (d) 1-10 nothing Mop(ovv. that line 10 of IL 1737 begins a new word.etc./aptKa'KaL pLtKCal3 oVou ara in her charms (4. in his invocation of a ghost (12) and his IL 1737. As for the next part of the appellation. if you bring [them together]in their love).etc. if there was any. One of the words in IL 1737's version of the appellative discussedin note m is clearly Coptic. Crum. then 7's "if"clause may have function (a) of the curses directed against athletes: "I hand over to you so-and-so and so-and-so. (cf." JahrbAntChrist 10.g.but if they do (eaV be KaL)do such-and-such (here: but if you accomplishthe opposite. 1967. p.e.rrio: On this phrase see the note on 7.

quae duplicata ineffabile illud et gloriosum Dei nomen efficiunt" (vii." Der kleine Pauly II. 8.Et Tvix[qs] 14 Nat. For a general introduction to the magical use of the name Yahweh and of its permutations. he.] The letters Iata. his Greek name Tvlc7v "Puffer") and of desert places. "Seth. om. 9) ToVToVOV (om. Smith: "AXXEGV7H'IrEpOapwva a corruptionfrom dAXXos H-Epo-E4rv7?" I ratherdoubt this. if they represent an independent word. cols. Stuttgart 1912. one of his standard Egyptian epithets (Kees. 15-19.om. "Tetragrammaton. 1896-1922. 102) reports (from Erubin 18b) that "Rabbi Yirmiya ben Eleazar said: Now that the Sanctuary has been destroyed. Blau (Das altjiudische Zauberwesen. IL 72) and in longer form on IL 1737 (the text of 12 is not preserved in this area) but not as a whole outside the Agora. "Great of power". -ve 7) Dptovpt&ye E7t a0avd`0. since the well's texts apparently do not invoke elsewhere the figures of classical Greek mythology. L. The animal most frequently associated with him. "lao. see note m below. 698-721.e.KparatETv#lv nothing xWxoEXACO Ko[X]xotXEtXco (d) 1-10 KparatETv#owv KoXXXot(KoXXAo5. quod proprie apud Hebraeos in Deo ponitur.Et Ka]LtE7rt a'0avt[o-]j4 Kat *vt Tvix[qs] Nat'. p. is the deity par excellence in syncretic magical texts: see Moraux.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 245 article.Paw[O] Ea "Avae [A]7ro14(4 impossible) OOrEOrEpw nothing A7TotKatLX. 1908). 2) Mighty Typhon. 2) A7ro. col. flov7r. m KparaLf TvW^v KOXXXOL. 9) 71. 2) FaOawX (om. let it suffice for the world to avail itself [i. the Egyptian Seth. Stuttgart 1967.Et plus Kat avtorxvf) nothing KoXXotXEtLXcOi (KoXXot.3ap1da?ptovpty6 (Dptovptye E7T a4 avLo7Lw KaLt\v1. Blau also refers to the explanation given by the 7th-century Isidore of Seville. hoc est quattuor litterarum.g. according to Blau] of the two bare letters 14 since the last verse of the book of Psalms runs 'Let every soul praise Ia'.. [M. id est. and again we must avail ourselves of the word division in IL 1737.Et Ka&t *rv't (1 adds the victim's name.: Here again the sequence occurs also on those of A's tablets from Well IV read so far (e. . he." RE IIA. iod. Kpa-atE Tv48h vv 15 XwXEtLXw (a) IL 1737 Kpa-ratE& Tv#owv KoXXXWLt ToroXtO Dq0 Bao-awL AEa AvoX A7rot4 (c) IL 72 KparatETv#8Th [KoXXXo]t To vrovo (&T or Hl) Dq0 la. 1899). Fauth.etc. iod.i6). pp." Ia is obviously a shortened form of the Tetragrammaton. cols.5. 2) nothing nothing (om. 2) Ea (om. 2. for a summary of the vast literature on the subject. 2. was the ass (Kees.8apja0pLoVpLy6 v E7r' a0avLo-Ltq^) KaLv/6. Berlin 1914. In Egypt he was the god of bad weather (cf. "lao. however. 8.i. cols. Stuttgart 1923.0(om. 2. may lie behind the Greek KpaTatE. For association of Yahweh and Seth-Typhon in magical texts. esp. 4: 4v6. see R. in magical practices. 1314-1319. at least in magical texts contemporary with ours. col. are the only four in the sequence that make any sense to me. 2) "Avae(om." RE IX. and W. Ganschinietz.Eovp[LC--] nothing Op pvppyEptap. duabus ia. I give the relevant extract and then the comparisons: IL 1737 " 11 Kpa7-aLE Tv4o v KOXXVL v ToroAL DqO 3] 12 BaoacoOv AEav ALvoxv A7roi4v Oo-Eo-Epwv A7ToLKaLXEMoVP[LCa 13 Op17pTEPLap. 2nd ed.Et E7MT a4Javlo-.4 (om.

JORDAN I have not found outside the Agora. I have not.diagnosethe corruptionas inadvertent:it is obviouslynot. Procop&e-Walter."But why accusative?] SIjO:See the note on Typhon above. [M. p.however. pp. 34-40. pp.] For an example more contemporary with our texts. a word that means "I am" in Coptic. in which they seem to be combinedwith the next syllable in our sequenceand are written KoKAorou and KoXXWra/rEro7. 269-285. cols. 73-76. III. A. Smith suggests the classical cry >'a"come"and refers to E. for a general treatment of whom see Beer. that KoXXXoTroVoVoV (or its variants) SIO here is "a corruption of KoxaacoroJvTov IqO Seth who makes the sea boil (cf. with possibly a different meaning. den Zauberpapyri]. what follows is clearlythe name of Seth. KoXXoLXELXW*.246 D. If (b) "I am" stood in the original. Fraenkel. without the secondlambKOXXXOt The most promising approximations da. it would be paralleled in several examples of Jewish prayers collected by E. with Seth-Typhon in magical texts from outside the Agora does not occur as such.2. however. and (c) that in the original sequence of appellatives there stood ANOX ANA' or ANA' ANOX. p. 580. 1533-1535. here reducedby haplographyto ANOX in IL 1737 and to ANA' on the other tablets. "Abraxas-Studien. probablythought of Ea as an unknownmagicalword. on the other hand. p. for example. 1930."] ToVToVoV: Although this cluster of syllables is not separated from the next three letters in IL 1737.g. Brussels 1957. Norden in his Agnostos Theos. LXXIV. 509. 19). pp.since in a presumablyGreekspeaking milieu it would be easier for a Coptic word to be miscopied as a Greek word than the reverse."RE IA. lines 27/28." in Ho mmages a Waldemar Deonna [. 163-164."ArchRW 28. (b) that Well V's and IL 72's ANAS is a corruption of ANOX.34: "Ea.Agamemnon. 23-37). There are possible analogues of (c) ANOX ANAS "I am lord" on two magical gems discussed by A. Ea is spelled AEa in IL 1737. a standardepithet of Seth: Bonner.[M. rtL' LUV Kat o-oL. lines 183ff. 'Ich bin'. 1a0awX: IL 72's la.q respectively. etc. Barb. as far as I have seen.Collection Latomus 28]. that I have found occur in appellations of Seth-Typhon at PGM IV.Oxford 1950. 4.Aeschylus. for a useful discussion of ANOX and related words in these texts. How is the variation between ANAS and ANOX to be explained? Three possibilities suggest themselves:(a) that IL 1737's ANOX is a corruption of ANA'. Corruptionof (a) ANAS to ANOX is unlikely. They have similar texts. line 2255. Stuttgart 1956. e. the result of phoneticor visual similarity. If the original of A's .Although the name Yahweh is often associat"lao und Set [zu den figurae magicaein ed with that of Seth in magicaltexts (see A. I cannot. and in occurrences in Coptic and Greek in sequences of magical appellatives in the papyri. see A. and possibly the writer of the formulariesthat he used for IL 1737 and for the formulaictexts of Well V. line 2. where it may be meant to express the unclean spirits' cry of pain. however. and Moraux. the first running XNOYBI ANOX [F]IFANTOP[HKTA M]APOY?AC CEMICIAAMP and the second. 198. The different spelling in IL 1737 shows that A. Smith:"It is almost certainlya corruptionof BOAXO. Smith makesthe attractivealternativesuggestion.for this reason I leave it capitalized and unaccented. and Audollent. 186-187.it is probablyto be seen.found the phrase associatedelsewherewith Seth-Typhon in magicaltexts. "Ein Berliner Chnubisamulett. line 406. Stuttgart 1920.XNOYMIC TY[PANNOC] ANOX CEMECIAAMT H4ON.8ac[O] (the supplementbeing guaranteedby the other texts from Well IV) and IL 1737's anagram Bao-awOshow that Well V's word is no doubt a corruptionof the name of the Jewish God of Hosts.the animal usually associatedwith Seth in magical texts. that certain ancients saw some connectionbetween lac and (e)iw.'Iio-ov Na(apijvf. PGM VII. "Avae "lord"appears in IL 1737 as ANOX. (ANOX/ANOK) and IV. pp. pp. [M. line 74 (dLuLp). R. Coptic for "ass". pp."ArchRW30. and it may be. line 3261 and LVIII. 1933. as numerous scholars have suggested (see Moraux.). Jacoby. PGM IV. see Luke. in the last appellative of our sequence. XII. association of the name Sabaoth. "Sabaoth.

17. KvtKA\co4..u4. however. his name."Me'USJ 37 (pp. 270. Apparentlythe curser wanted to be sure that his target would not seek magical retaliation for the curse.:The first two syllables may be congenersof KoAXAotabove. 241-242 above./bEv aKO&ov 7rEptEpyov "hearingnothing magical"and possibly 9.lap/l3a4ptoovtptye in an invocationof Yahweh Sabaoth at PGM IV.8/3 sequence.. I have not found the last two syllables outside the Athenian Agora. q In 8 plural names are to be chilled with regardto one person.it is only one person'sname that is to be chilled.g.The syllables form the end of IL 1737's vocable. Festugiere." o 'E. This may explain the repetitionsof certain nouns in this sequence. The vocable appears with further variations on several magical gems that have representations of Chnoubis:A. 1913 (pp. It is not clear which case the prepositiongoverns in 7. 1 do not know its meaning or that of IDptovpty5... 1960/61. p. Bonner.: n 'fl Audollent. "Pierresmagiques de la Collection Kofler. would appear on the tablet as TPODIMA whether genitive or dative. where it is called the "daimonof the great god". The word occurswith such a meaning at PGM IV. lines 17/18: AYTAAAAAAA[. and I restore accordingly. etc. Delatte.y4186v] / aKO?ov 7rEp[t] /.LEp+Epyap. a'K g aKOvSv rTEpt -ro'tAAvvi/avov. line 23 and 253. 491-492. "Etudessur la magie grecque. chap.. "Similiasimilibus. p. (or &%-ra-Ep) ov`rcogsshow sympathetic magic. Index VIE. pp. nos.8I3?. 3. J.f."BCH 37. 3rd century?) after the IoEp. occursin the well-known sequencebeginning ICOEp. Frazer. 3.The preservedletters TOONO[ at 7. I. line 11: >'Tr IL 72.. several magical texts. rt a4awvwEL Kal 4rv*Et: aqxvao-tsg "makingto disappear"vel sim. unattested but possible descriptiveof the "puffer"Typhon? . oiiro.of chilling one partner's name with regard to the other. which occurs. KoAXoLtXEtAY. "Sympathetic magic. ov.. I print the former(with -j]a) simply exempligratia.. '* *.usually spelled A7roy.ua.g."pp. with variations. 80'o4t. the meaning here would be "I am lord Apomx Phriourinx &7rtca4avt'oEtKat vef which A7ro. lines 33/34 . note 3.if his name is to be chilled with regard to the woman's. Such an intention would explain the phrases that are meant to keep the intendedvictim from hearing about the curser'sactivity.t o 'n1 I understandas "charm"in the magical sense. if the spelling with / rather than j is correct.). 3rd ed. rather than simply copying from his model. line 20 suggest that here. I assume that the same arrangement. For a general discussion of the notion see J. [. as Zopoop. should we look for Greek and read an epithet xEd\co4"lipface"(cf.w /3ovAEL(see pp. p. 234235 above). for if the woman's name is to be chilled with regardto the man's in 9. is often found in magical invocationsof Seth-Typhon: see Moraux. has collectedexamples of defixiones whose sentences with the construction s .q8bEz4sv P A's texts show some inconsistencyin the listing of the intendedvictims' faculties that are to be affected. lines 1567/1568. as 1opo/E[p]MEp[kEpyap]8a6. V.for words of chilling associated with Seth-Typhon see notef. 6. 99 and 100.DEFIXIONESFROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 247 sequence of magical appellativeshad ANOX ANA'. e. The Golden Bough. is an obviously appropriate activity for the deity of the Co4cZs a71p. lines 174/175.u/4pLovpty at XII. KcoOSq . obtains in 9. Trophimas. in at Audollent 252. 247-278). 287-293). then 7's prepositiongovernsthe dative. e.but I note that in 8 &Er1 governsthe dative while in 9 it must governthe genitive if the restorationis correct. line 169. The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings I. . 289.. line 1702. lines 19/20. etc. If the inconsistencymeans that A was composingad lib. and A. as lopoopiLEp4Epyap8ap04pptovptvX line 34 (Carthage. probably again here the model had some such phrase as Kotva. For this reason one may considereither Kap7robcopas! E't Tpo/4tJt]az(or -tl]a) or Tpo4tMaE'Ar Kap'ro/8cz]a as a supplementat 7. lines 17/18: j.

. . ca. IL 951 Side A --____ca.B must have used either the same one or a closely similar copy. max.8 B. R. H. Bind in the air of oblivion and chill and do not allow .D.(0g. I hand over to you Ploutas. 13 (Fig. Accordingly.W. and of the body.8 2-3 r AOA[--- Ca.it is impossibleto restorethese lines with any certainty. 10 -- []cop/3a3at0j > _4zr | ]a3aa3Kparat- [I B]ETrTVT.Afs Lsqro rij[sg]X7j7)saEpa 5 Kat Kara/v.f-23-]/Ut j77S [3=4]KATA[ -_6 -]ATON --------------- FIG. p. AgainstPloutas Max. Side A "('Borphor'syllables) -babaie.A used a formulary.orv '5 [7--]E MHPTHPINE aov- H [vaa]ov ita [rp[a]KrovT7s'r [_2=3] HTH f. 0. whom his mother(?) bore.wrapabi3bco[JL 0oot FlXovraV. JORDAN 248 II. lines 5-8 and B. 2). as I have attemptedto show above. 13. SideA Side B _2-4_TOY[ 1-2 ] N KaLrovio-4[Ma-] rosq. L. p. the text (13) of B's tablet.003 m. mighty Betpyt. 0.060. The curse is too fragmentaryto reveal its purpose.< Inv. the only opisthographicexample from the well. p. IIIp. . 7ca..H. If.ovXEL (seepp.. follows the formula of A's 1-10.2.[s'] Kat [7a -2] NAI --. 0. med. Av. line 3. ts: Ets.ca. A CURSE INSCRIBED BY B In general. . that he may be powerless and unavailing. Side B ". 234-235 above)and that here B was composing ad lib. We may conjecturethat in the parts of the formulary that correspondedto 13 A.. lines 1-3 there stood some such phrase as Kotva.059 m. No.

uDfj'afo-7s. Lines 3/4. THCAHOHC AEPA ICTONADQTICTONAIQNA. the slovenlinessof his writing and his spelling rpTrrp) may have simply copied what was above the line. I would welcome a simpler hypothesis. however."Une formuleconclusivedans la priere antique. orvETEKEVD 8(E)t(Pa) or D 'rTfp (for examples of variations in the expressions of maternal lineage in magical texts see "QPVVLVA"). F[ or fl[): e. or . seems.: For instancesof rt' followed by an appellationin magical texts see A. however. e.A possiblearticulationis 1rp. For 'rapa8t'8'wt + infinitive + accusativesee the funeraryimprecationscited in note d. K[VptE. the possibilities are that they represent Elvat (see Gignac. . Line 6. however. p. Line 7. etc.If the writer was copyingfrom a formulary. Pat. line 14). In omitting the word a&x'nTt0LTOVand choosing aE'parather than athva. K[paTatE (cf. neat and controlled.g. his model would probablyhave read. although accusatives are unexpected. In writing 7. 189-193). We have examples of formulariesthat recordal/ T][ ternative readings (see p. 89-94. 1950. followed by tVEor [so M. line 5) he omits TmSj A60D. 241 above. even that it is definitely not another example of A's work. instead of the name of the intendedvictim and that of his mother. A CURSE INSCRIBED BY C For our last text (14) I posit the existence of a third writer because its script. I cannot interpretthe letters as a spelling of any nameknownto me.Tqp (forjrfrTqp: see Gignac. 108. to be somewhat more florid. line 4 and 8. NAI [ (K[ or Y[).T. IL 1737.g. Smith proposes. THCAHOHC having been inadvertentlyomitted but addedlater as a correctionand AEPA recorded as a variant. while similar to A's in 1-12. 235 above). Top b(E)Z(va). The babbling here. or as M. N or H. III. 'stS TrO A O8 aEpa: A's formulaic texts have 'st T'Ow TrSASjO i 4q a OTnWTOv aLfva but show inconsistencies: twice (5. Festugiere. for the intrusionof p). that it is difficult to make any confident statement about the character of its writing. however. ] HTHE [ (]A or ]M4. Lines 5/6. ] HE TiS y[Evo]. line 8) he substitutes aEpa for a1iPva and once (7. or Il. e. Side B Line 2. if it continued from the beginning of the text of the . Unless a drastic corruptionof a name like Mvpptvr is to be assumed. As for the next three letters. The phrase a'v[vaT]ov (or -/]ov) Kat 'arp[a]Krov is not in the well's other texts.B. pp. he may have inadvertently retained the model's 1rrT)p instead of substituting the mother's name. Smith]''v' f". lines 6-7 have "Borphor" syllables like the beginnings of A's and B's formulaic texts and also give them the same conclusion: -/3a/3atrq KpaTatE. J. B also departs from the formulaic phrase."SymbOslo28.DEFIXIONESFROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 249 Side A Line 5. We should note that whatever is missing in its first five lines. 14 is so badly encrusted.uNa&o?ps- Line 7.p.EP9. are an informal spelling of''va j". Similarly. MHPTHPINE (T or fl): One expects the name of Ploutas' motherhere.g. ST.If B was as unskilled as his handwriting suggests. One hypothesis that would account for these deviationsin A and B is that they had a formularyin commonthat showed a variant and a correctionwritten above the line. A may have overlookedthe THCAHOHC abovethe line and in 5 and 8 may have inadvertentlychosen the variant AEPA. whose technique shows less skill (cf.I follow his suggestion in the translation above. pp.

Max.W.. max. L. 25 .-OI 8 9 .7 .min.. 20 .H.. BE7rTV(r) or BET7rV(r) may have continuedin the lost beginningof line 8.mitn..141 m.WF oI-ot14 or 15 letters after the deity's name shows that at least here the formulawas differentfrom that of 1-10... p.8aa'atrqKparET b ot'. Av. 0.. R. IL 954 1-5 traces min.. 20 . No.-.... p.098. ca. III p.... but the occurrenceof 01.D._-. H.003 m. 20 _ _ _ _op0op8a[-1-3-]a[1=2 6 .? . 0.tkt. Inv.. 0. JORDAN 250 tablet. 14. KparET: -ratE ](op . b8z.-AAPIA 10 ff. med..min. would have been unusually long for A's formula. Traces of ca.. 13 lines Line 7.

but its text has the phrase KaTa'3)o-ov MarpW'vav. and the two papyri with hair inside and the defixio Wortmann 1 are love charms. Macleod).its inclusion was part of the magical operation.003 m. Evidently A preparedthe tablet before he had a customer for it. No hair remained in the defixio Wortman 1 (Oxyrhynchos. which had been sunk into the courtyardof one of the Roman houses behind the Stoa of Attalos along the road from the Greek to the Roman Agora. It was found among 3rd-century pottery in Well VII. too. threads of wool. ??667-677). Severalof the groovesleft by the hair and a few dark brown strands of the hair itself remain (P1. I append. is a love charm. Lucian has the witch in his Dialogues of Courtesans(p. Helen Whitehouse of the Ashmolean Museum kindly writes me that an unpublished defixio in her care (inv. Against Tyche H. IL 1737 Because of its parallels to A's formulaic curses. Lines 1-3 show large lacunae caused by damage that resulted when a wad of hair was impressedinto the surfaceon being rolled up inside the tablet. 401-408. This is the hair mentioned in lines 11 and 14 as being that of Tyche. and he found afterwardsthat in these passages he had not left enough space for the identificationto be filled in. so far all erotic defixiones from Greece have been separative rather than love charms. the intendedvictim. L. pp. 4th or 5th century).63). and.3rd or 4th century) by the time it reached the eyes of scholars. Av. Auburn hair was found inside PGM XIXa (Hermopolis Magna. 0. bound togetherwith mud"(letter of November 28. rTV oviotag-E E9(L'Xtg rPiXES (for ovrotaav-Tra rptXaS) TS'^ / [KE4q]aANX) ai9rTls (lines 19-21). 1983). from the excavationsof the Egypt Exploration Society.251 DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA APPENDIX: Inv. Tyche's name and maternal lineage in lines 1. This seems to be the only one of his texts so produced. 68). 10. IL 1737 . PGM XVI (2nd/3rd century [lst century edd. when one of the women asks her to bring back a lost lover. as we have noted (p.This suggestsa pattern. 222 above). vidi]) was found folded up into a small packet with hair inside.157.0015. A few other examples of hair foldedor rolled up in extant magicaltexts may be cited. 13/14. another of his texts. 211 above) say. no. No. such as clothing or boots or a few of his hairs or anything of that sort"(tr.g).but there is nothing in the text of IL 1737 to suggest love in the usual sense./ [rIvET]EKEv TayEv. interesting in its own right. "containeda dark-brownmass of organic matter which has been analysed by the Home Office Forensic Science Laboratoryas human hair. and small pieces of gypsum. W. "You'llneed something belonging to the man himself. and 16 are written in smaller letters than the rest of the text and have a squeezed look. Dr.167 m. 1982. A papyrus of unspecified Egyptian provenance. (elsewhere) 0. No. H. The text of the tablet in the Ashmolean Museum has not been fully transcribed. Inv. Such materialonce intimately associatedwith the intended victim is known in ancient magical terminology as his ov'oa (see Hopfner. with brief notes. It was for a love charm that Lucian's witch was to use the man's oviota. (lines 1-3) 0.but a preliminary reading that I made in 1983 shows that it.. 0.

s' (?)> r[OV] o-xiv. 0o0 TiX-tv. _ v )0 AvE/3TJ0 A/3paoaat EKe.3] Op1 EEUp7TapL8appaPpLoVpLy6 E"rLa4laVLO-pp Ka'L*V?EL Tv. TapaXEXv/llPE'VPT.ca. TOyS TOVOVE.-ca. 6 KpaTaLe Tv4Xv. aL(O)E EVEL?E711E'vaL.2yt2 S TE KaLovpavo]v[ca-2] . <zs -. T77V?IvXl V. 3 [TrEpL]TraT7 Bay7)X [V]V(v ca2 j7 [__ a.Ta v T7)S' X?)O?)S' aI~~(OTLO-TOV auoVa. IIIp. S ETEKEV Zo4da. a'(w'rL-rov alCva.] FLEXPL eKev -V1EK-EV] -rL2J.2 tS avjs.-IPIAN[- . Zo(ia. KpaTRaLE TvO4D v ZOvTOpV7)0 qOT7)-] ] ca-2 AzA ca. [/E']XpL Ov 'av eAwi4aL EK TO?)CO4)O(L)OVS'aE'pos. T5V ?TpOyEypCpoyLyaFLE AXEpaLpa.- [- Na.8- .ATA[-_-ca [ -[-4 a _ ca. VEKpC.x[1s.dAia 7rc v[Ta L'sTOCogO3jW]- ? -tr-v . /1' XaXTr0aL. Tr$Xq'-s- ~at ZTH KaNt YTH Io &oia.-c -7 ./EVVEV < EKEVOL NEv[OL Ia]c v h z' A0XE4aP 2 a5 -] opLO Tov[op]pa IawaL 'FaL0cOV v ToV/3pLa v . [ _.tr. qS Et(TLvaL rpLXEs.. OVTCA)S' KaL '(is' 7avTa TO-ala aLE7 KaTa4v'yoL[Ka]L [aL O-]apKES'KaL T2aveVpa Ka'LTa o0T Ka'LT7 TO KaLTa o7TXa'vXva TVX-qS'. KpaTaLE [Tv]O[Cv.-] .j''a eTEKEY: vedpa.LX-0q M7)KETL avaaA\a 1iE'OT7PvaL.LXpa.. Ia law[. 9 1 c . 9 -----r [Ta 25 ovoMuaTaj a. e'wsabvvarosyE'v7yTa. Kpa-atE Tvnv C Zo[jL']a. med. T-q'V bv'vaJLtV. AoX7 v v TEovv AOa4EAaML TarELMuLaraEXoe Iaprap 5 IaKov/3ta v o4da.. aXXa aTov[o]v0a 30 v KaL aJvPa/Los' yE'VOLTO OavacTov. wuV. 7s E`TE-] Nat._ c_5 O AIIJ T Ka]NL KaTayEypacoa 0-aLTO. /17) KELVT/OT)vaL. 'L'vaj.ca.--__ca. 15 20 TONXAAEINIONEXbrO-ov._ca.. z Iaco LaKOV/31a vIEp 0 BoXXoo-O Bao-ovXa V 7? Zo pLa. KEv l 15 XOXELXO' r Oa T7'Ls TXaKa K[aL] ptlj K()S'ev Tx fpe'a4 - a ca5_ KaraTa--pE*r ca.\XXoL qS ELO'Lv 3 Bao-acd v AEa v AVoX v Aro/iV Ov-. c-3 '1"" c.[]-Elav s t Iaw v HerlEp0apbpa Mopgovvq v Kappav-) v\aXEtv-q IapTappopCovX-q v laLa 10 v7v.ca. aJvpa/LOS. KparaLE Tv4hiov ToToAL ZT)0 Ko. 2 . Nai. T2rJV[bvva-] ...-r'v] L'aXV'V. T j pOpa.a. - -] I -. KaL KaTa4VXETaL. ?v ETEKEV v aL rpLXEs aL EVELXT/LE'vaL. KaTrEIvy/iE'vT) P.vbL'&oj. 28 -------- -]ONAAMOY- -] _ KaKc[(4-7)_ -T]a v .d001 TvlX-qv. 4>aOa Ovaxa TvX-q. IL 1737 ca.e-pbz A7TLKaLXE/eoVp[[a.18 _ a__IA\a? BoAXooi0 I. [)S'] EtTEKEv Zo4La. TT/V[ ca./1) WEpL/?Ta7TT-aL.- Tapab&ojl. __.. ca. -v vEyE'ypa4ivyEro ETEKEV ---poITEppwS-.f KOEAXLaS' aVT7Ss-TV1XTSs. c-]pL . Inv. No. a'oa'VL(O-V--.c 3 ai[4r1-S m'v -f o-ov aepa. Nat.

that you may do her harm and . 2-7. IwlaXOaXaa[ ]4 (4 or v). p.. line 3. paralyzed..." Line 1. The brokenword ]Etav and what follows are roughlyparallel to the sequenceat 12.appropriateto Typhon (cf. all members in your dark air. Yes. weak..-ca. in the so-called "planetary" . <Bind into> the unilluminated aion of oblivion and .either the formularyor A's copying from it is defectivehere. JaKov/3La. mighty Typhon Chocheilops lao Jakoubia Joerbeth Bolchoseth Basoucha Phatha Thnacha -.-orith Tonorma Aoche AschepharTethou Athaphelami Tateimiata Eloe (?) Jartar IartarmorzoucheMorzoune Karmane Dacheine Pepertharora Jaia Acheraira. move about. KEt(v0771vat:Ktlv- "Mighty Typhon. Ttxqv: T1vXr'v Lines 16/17. whom Sophia bore. the aforenamed. whom Sophia bore.."whirlwind".. ATA[-ca 4-]ONAAMOY- .-npho---.-. I have supplied what seems to be the minimum. pp.Tyche. make -- her lungs disappear --of the abdomen. Ia. As I have written down these names and they grow cold.whose hairs these are. its last element may conceal XaZXa# "hurricane". nographicum mythologiae classicae. TeOov. 17. it occurs. rolled up.-ri Sontorneth --of .or O. mighty Typhon. Yes. "Abrasax.. muscles. ad fin. 6 -]: Evidently one of Tyche's parts or faculties. mighty Typhon earth and heaven . . Bind. let the body and the flesh and the muscles and the bones and the membersand the bowels of Tyche. chilled until I am taken out of the dark air.-eian Ia lao lakoubia Iae Bolchoseth o. 12.-.83qO. walk around. KaKc'4[o-fs': Cf. v[ or K[. grow cold and not walk about.the strength. . that she may no longer rise up.DEFIXIONES FROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA 253 (For the text of IL 1737. . for example. Iawat (line 7) is an obvious palindromeon Iaw. IapTap. sinews.---omalthalal[?]ps EkebenneuEkeuthi Neuthi lao Iae JosethAnebethAbrasax Iasai Phaithon Toubria -. see p. Unless the writer of A's formularyconsidered"theunilluminatedaion of oblivion"to be in apposition to "yourdark air". Yes. capacity. o-7aXLvXva:o-7AxayXva Line 27. I[ or K[) Line 4. Yes. (i. twist . and A/3pao-a (line 6) is commonin magical texts: see M. Ls. the XEL'I possiblyto be recognizedin KoAsee note m. XOLXELXWAI: AvE. note 4. as well as several possibilities beginning lw-."Lexicon icoAXEpaLpa. ITH (E. where the same verb is used. whom Sophia bore.) of Tyche. ] OpltO(A or A. lines 4-6: see the note ad loc. 7 -[] (A or K)./3EvVEO. whom I have inscribed on the tablet.e. whom Sophia bore.her . [ ca.AOa4ekXaML. Lines 4-10. the joints.. rather let her grow exhausted and weak until she dies. whom Sophia bore..). let Tyche. too. ca. grow cold.. I give you Tyche. mighty Typhon Kolchloi Totolith Seth Basaoth Aea Anoch Apomps Osesero Apoikailemour--- Ormerpheriarbarmaphriourinx over the blacking out and chilling of Tyche.-roserros. Jaw. 252) Lines 2.-- in the well ---e Bagel . but let her remain a corpse. talk. looks as if it belongs to the same set.. 'vyEypa/4a: EyyLine 26. her strength.-. with earlier bibliography. Line 2. whose hairs these are. the capacity. so. whom Sophia bore. p. ]a or ]A). pale. I hand over to you Tyche. breath. all occur in appellations of lao/Seth collectedby Moraux. Tovf3pta.and BoXXoa-. Also apparently new are EKE. whom Sophia bore. here rolled up. 17. Zurich/Munich 1981. until she becomesweak. Aa-xE4bap.. Le Glay. 247 above.:Es' Line3.

2 ] (line 12). "Engel V (Katalog der Engelnamen).J0LTO. Beschwiorungsformeln aus dem "Buch der Geheimnisse" (Sefar ha-Razam). 47] pour Tov aVTovUgpov 7raOOTo dans une malediction de Lydie. E or O. a Daldis. (note on 13 B.-H. in a context of Jewish angelic names at PGM X. Line 17. Davidson. and 30 below and IL 72. line 44. or 0.AoX-q(line 7) is an optical congenerof AoXq (12. Stuttgart 1962. Line 20.and the long lists collectedby J.For discussionof the phrase see note g. if correctlytranscribed. Lines 11-13." CRAI 1978 [pp. line 5.the use of val is an exceptionto Festugiere'sgeneralization that it serves chiefly as a "formuleconclusive". pp. o Eor-T?]/ws] with the rest of this line and the next. p. 246 above). Line 18. In Bayp\ one recognizesthe Hebrew -el. 242 above. with variations. The phrase here may refer to the findspotof the present defixio. These names seem new. Licht vom Osten. cit. E. (p.P or 4. as well as the instancesof val in prayerscollectedby Festugiere. EXoe (line 7." Reallexikonfiur Antike und Christentam V.pp. PGM XLV. Nal. 11.as faras I knowelsewhereuninstanced. line 7) but also appears. line 1). A Dictionary of Angels. . Norden. op. Along Lines 18/19. KV TEv () 4pEaT[L: The first supplementis simply exempli gratia. Robertwrites of the "gout commeexaspere dans les maledictions funeraires de l'optatif moyen: 7rcWoLTo. 242-243 above. la passion. With the exception of the apparently new max. it may be a predicationon Seth-Typhon. 17.suggests the Hebrew Elohim (cf. but this is probablybecause both words are squeezed to fit into the line. p. R. New York/London 1967. 4FaOaand ?3vax.L. 201-207. unless the formerrepresentsthe Egyptian Phtah (cf. the spelling 4FaOat PGM XII. Mop(ovvq and the magica following it appear. Zur Topologie der magischen Rede (= Judaistische Texte und Studien III). Tuibingen1924. f'XOLTO. [gUf]XPtov a`ve'XuaLis another possible articulation. p. cit. MLXaqA. Leipzig 1898. Niggemeyer. line 12. Line 15.D. 393-399. la maladie du moyen dont parlait K. 244-245 above. anotherof A's texts. 245-247 above. p.o. Lines 27/28. AWoOLT0oAa. Buresch [AusLydien. line 1061 in a spell ascribed to Moses. 225-238. line 292). loc.a(xor 4') are apparentlynew. 7rEPL7rEoO TV. 255).. Line 29. although I have no parallel for him sitting in a well. 6. 4th ed. Xwp7YorLTo. and with TeOov(line 8) we may compareTEOovp ovp at PGM XIII. pp. A7roLKaLXqAvp[ in 1-10 and 12: see note 1. avec 'l'horrible et 7reptL7TETOLTO' le 'plus monstreux encore f'XOLTO' dans une epitaphe de Dokimeion: aLdoL yEvE?j TE KaL OLKOS97rqTLaT E'XOLTO" ("Maledictionsfuneraires grecques.law and most of the magical names that follow in lines 15/16 occur in the sequencesof appellativescollectedby Moraux. see E. Une epitaphe metrique au Piree. line 7. In IL 1737. Line 11.op. For discussion of this sequence of appellatives see note m. I may be only the lower extension of the 4 of pEaT[Limmediatelyabove. however. spelled AwXq. ToTOXLO and IO are not separatedby a blank space. cit. For the Semitic backgroundof the use of the participle in such invocations. 200239. 'IaLOwv(line 7) looks like a variant on 'FaE'Owv. cols.on en verrad'autres.TvXOLTO./pt'qA.is what we may call the "maledictorymiddle". pp. line 1.C'est la manie. Deissmann.for here it occursnot only at the end of the invocation. g/vq: On the late positivejussive subjunctivesee note h. e or 0). Along with their congenersin lines 4/5 above. 249 above). JORDAN 254 inscription at Miletos: see A. often found at the ends of names of angels: cf. pp. Michl. KpaTaLE Tv40v: Cf. and J. Fa. the phrase in lines 14. Including the Fallen Angels. I. Hildesheim/New York 1975. K[a'L] J [7rEpL]7raT2joG-LTo:The middleof 7TEp7raTeaT. pp. 241-269].A or kt. G.

Ser. cause him to waste away continually until he ap(p. aAAa. TABLE 3: Concordanceof Inventoryand Present Serial Numbers of Defixiones from Well V Inv.VA 22903 R. JORDAN . / curses from the Sepher ha-Razim quoted on p. No. No. 27.255 DEFIXIONESFROM THE ATHENIAN AGORA OavaTov: We may compare a phrase that ends the first of the two Lines 29/30. 241 above. 8 1 13 9 12 14 5 IL IL IL IL IL IL IL 4 3 6 11 2 10 7 956 957 958 959 960 964 1000 D. Inv. No. IL IL IL IL IL IL IL 948 + 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 Ser. UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA Department of Classics Charlottesville. Morgan) proachesdeath. No.

enlarged 7. actual size .PLATE 65 7.

actual size .PLATE 66 8. enlarged 8.

enlarged 9.PLATE 67 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 9. enlarged .

^ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Ir trr *w~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~* .'.PLATE 68 4-PF sh __ 0_v.~~~M .

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