RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411

)
VII SEM - B.Arch

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES
Definitions 
Importance 
Four methods of knowing 
Science and research.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

LECTURE 1

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

Meaning of research
¾Search for Knowledge
¾Scientific and Systematic search for pertinent information on a
specific topic
¾Advanced Learner‟s dictionary of Current
English, Oxford 1952, p 1069 lays down the
meaning of research:

“a careful investigation or inquiry
specially through search for new facts
in any branch of knowledge”

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

¾ The Chambers Dictionary, lays down the meaning of research
'a careful search; a systematic investigation towards increasing the
sum of knowledge' in a particular field of interest.
¾L.V. Redman and A. V. H. Mory in their book The Romance of
Research (1923) define research: “Systematized effort to gain new
knowledge.”
¾According to Clifford Woody research comprises “..defining and
redefining problems; formulating hypotheses or suggested solutions;
collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and
reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to
determine whether they fit the formulating hypotheses”

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

IMPORTANCE:
¾All progress is born of inquiry. Increased amounts of research make 
progress possible.
¾Logical habit  of thinking and organization develops
¾Applied research develops.
¾It forms the basis for all government policies in our economic system.
¾ problem solving in operational and planning in business industry.
¾Solving social research problems.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

Knowledge
What is Knowledge?????
Knowledge is a familiarity with
someone or something, which
can include facts, information,
descriptions, or skills acquired
through experience or
education.
FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

Sources of Knowledge

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

LECTURE 1

spiritualism. or legend in convincing others of the truth.Arch LECTURE 1 Means of acquiring knowledge Mysticism:  •The mystical method for acquiring knowledge is the method that relies upon myth and illusion in accepting what is true. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •Usually this method creates false information and fabricated conclusions that are exceedingly biased and deceitful. MANIPAL . •One should exercise extreme caution when obtaining information derived from this method.B. supernaturalism. •Examples are the use of magic.

B.Arch LECTURE 1 Authority: •The authoritarian method for acquiring knowledge is when people with accepted sense of authority or status deliver the knowledge. •Examples include specialized physicians. specialized engineers. then the knowledge gained is greatly hampered. •However. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •This method could be useful or harmful depending on the trustworthiness of the deliverer. Usually those experts have used scientific methods to acquire their knowledge. etc. when a person delivers knowledge without having a trustworthy authority. which they pass along.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL . •The authority of experts or specialists in a certain field will provide knowledge that people outside the field will depend upon.

but rather you can rely on earlier beliefs and known facts to build upon new knowledge. this method could very well be detrimental if you do not challenge cultural beliefs or accepted knowledge.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 Tradition: •Is when knowledge about how the world works is passed along through the ages and beliefs of a particular culture or sub-culture. •This method is useful in the sense that you do not have to start from scratch for the quest for knowledge. •In this case the advancement of the world would be severely jeopardized. •However. • In this case you rely on cultural beliefs and values about what most people would consider acceptable.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

•This method could obviously be problematic if you build conclusions upon intuitions that turn out to be unreliable or untrue.B. MANIPAL . intuition could be a very useful starting point for future research by providing ideas predicting possible outcomes. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •On the other hand.Arch LECTURE 1 Intuition: •Is when knowledge is accumulated merely on your intuition rather than on substantial facts. which could be followed by a rigorous investigation--the scientific method.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

Arch LECTURE 1 Science: • The scientific method.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •Science is distinguished from nonscientific activities in that science organizes facts.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL . and is subject to empirical testing. formulate laws and theories. which is the method generally accepted to bring out the truth of world matters. is a series of systematic and rigorous investigative procedures in an attempt to eliminate bias and develop explanations of events.

. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. and the consequences of any particular set of circumstances. Statistics in Research.” •Research. Further. are closely related. “an inquiry into the nature of. he is interested in the repeatability of the results and in their extension to more complicated and general situations. can be termed as (Bernard Ostle and Richard W. MANIPAL . the reasons for.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Mensing. research and scientific method.B. whether these circumstances are experimentally controlled or recorded just as they occur. research implies the researcher is interested in more than particular results.Arch LECTURE 1 Research and Scientific method •The two terms.

Arch LECTURE 1 The following table compares scientific and nonscientific methods of inquiry.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. MANIPAL . Nonscientific  Scientific  casual activity  conscious activity  unplanned inquiry  deliberate inquiry  generalization errors  replication is possible  illogical reasoning accepted  follows logical reasoning  careless with mistakes  takes precautions  informal or no observations  systematic observations  FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch RESEARCH TECHNIQUES Significance of research in Architecture Social research  Interdisciplinary approach  Environment Behavior research.

MANIPAL . sensitive to the environment.Arch LECTURE 1 IMPORTANCE OF THIS COURSE IN ARCHITECTURE •The course is geared towards assisting students to understand the role of research in the design process and training them to perform research projects that would help them improve their design decisions.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •The ultimate goal would be a better design outcome that is acceptable by the users.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . appropriate to the context. and safe. aesthetically pleasing.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Applied Science. MANIPAL . • In broad terms.Arch LECTURE 1 The design process •Architecture is concerned with maximizing the cost benefits of providing the building fabric (in terms of building system and environmental system) to meet the requirement of the occupants (as defined by the activity/behaviour system and organisational objective). London. the design process is the procedure adopted by the designer to turn a given situation into a presumably better one. Building Performance Research Unit.B. •Architecture has among its main goals the design of new buildings and communities for people. BPRU (1972) Building Performance.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . design involves a cyclical process of three main stages: analysis. •As a designer you are faced with a problem which requires analysis. and evaluation. • In simple terms.B. MANIPAL . •Many have written about their views on the process of design. then you initiate possible solutions for the problem. The results could very well affect the original analysis or problem. synthesis. hence the cyclical nature of the design process. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. then you evaluate the alternatives to decide on the best solution.Arch LECTURE 1 •The design process has been a hot topic for debate among architects particularly regarding the best "way" to design.

Evaluation Criticism .critiquing the tentative solutions Testing .producing one or more tentative solutions Presenting .communicating your ideas to yourself and others 3. and judgment FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . appraisal. critiquing and examining the presented products for evaluation.reviewing. Analysis Problem statement analyzing the problem Imaging .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.Arch LECTURE 1 ANALYSIS EVALUATION SYNTHESIS Or as per *John Zeisel (1984) The design process is 1.creating a vision of the definition of the design problem 2. refutation. Synthesis Solution .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . • The former issue draws attention to the climatically responsive design of building envelope (design goal) can be defined in terms of design objectives such as "thermal comfort.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 •As a consequence of growing concern about the future of global environment." "lighting. MANIPAL ." "economy." etc. building designers are being urged to design climatically responsive buildings and to consider the environmental impact of their designs. These objectives must be satisfied to achieve the design goal." “solar control.

daylight factors.B. must be assigned some values to collectively describe a design (system). performance variables are related to the required functions and design variables to the form or structure of the design.Arch LECTURE 1 •The performance variables. •These ranges may be stated in specific terms as constraints or in general directional terms as targets. MANIPAL . such as lengths and widths of walls and openings. •The design variables. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •More generally.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . must acquire values within certain ranges which will satisfy the objectives. shading efficiency. materials properties of each component. air exchanges and cost. such as air/surface temperatures.

MANIPAL .Arch PASSIVE DESIGN OF BUILDING ENCLOSURE THERMAL COMFORT SOLAR CONTROL DAYLIGHTING NATURAL VENTILATION COST. AESTHETICS WATERPROOFING LECTURE 1 INTERNAL AIR/SURFACE TEMPERATURES SHADING EFFICIENCY DAYLIGHT FACTORS. SHADING FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. GLARE AIRCHANGE SURFACE AREA WALL SYSTEM ROOF SYSTEM FLOOR SYSTEM APERTURES.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

•A performance variable is often influenced by more than one design variable. •The performance and decision variables interact in a very complex way and the relationship between them is not always obvious.B. •The converse is also true: one design variable is likely to influence more than one performance variable.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. for instance the opening in building skin may influence the daylight admitted inside but also the solar heat gain and the light distribution.Arch LECTURE 1 •The crux of design process lies in the correct mapping between the design and performance variables so as to achieve the objectives/goals. MANIPAL .

Arch LECTURE 1 •Conceptually it can be represented as follows (Coyne 1990): •The design or performance variable cannot be considered in isolation during the design process.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . neither human designer nor computers can handle all of these variables and their interactions simultaneously. •Designers are therefore faced with the challenge to devise a design process that divides the overall task into more manageable subtasks by focusing on selected variables at any time. •On the other hand. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. MANIPAL . while allowing for due consideration of interaction and dependencies.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . The overall process is divided into phases (such as conceptual. only those design variables 2.Arch LECTURE 1 In building design. preliminary. A cycle is implied in which the solution is revised and improved by reexamining the analysis until the objectives are satisfied. this decomposition into sub problems occurs in two main forms: 1. design follows the widely accepted ternary steps of analysis. synthesis and evaluation. and detailed design)where each phase concentrates on a limited set of design variables which are indicated by the specific scale at which a building is considered in that phase. MANIPAL .B. Within a phase.

B. MANIPAL . Social research methods can generally vary along a quantitative/qualitative dimension. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. which follows a systematic plan.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 Social research: Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists.

B.Arch LECTURE 1 Environment behavior research: Physical Social FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .

1962).B.Arch LECTURE 1 •Environment behavior studies are about the interrelationships between behavior and properties of the man-made environment •Understanding how people use and value the spatial environment is the key to planning sites that fit human purposes (Lynch.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .

and Educational. • Technological Research studies the physical materials. MANIPAL . opening timely questions about the influence of society on environment. systems.B. Cultural. Technological. elements.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Environmental.Arch LECTURE 1 Research in architecture Specific research areas in architecture include Social. • Environmental Research investigates the physical context of architecture. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. • Social Research examines the people who inhabit and use the spaces of architecture. Design. and science of architecture and the design and construction processes. methods. Organizational.

present.Arch LECTURE 1 Research in architecture • Cultural Research studies place-making and the norms of the inhabitants of natural and built places past.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. and future • Organizational Research examines the ways in which individuals and teams collaborate in the practice of architecture and in the client organizations. • Educational Research examines the pedagogies of architecture and related fields.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .

Arch LECTURE 1 Discussion on Dissertation Broad areas for examining in architecture: • Architectural theories & issues in architecture • Design approaches & construction techniques • Aspects of architectural history • Historical development of Buildings • Ideas.B. movements and applications in architecture FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .

B.Arch LECTURE 1 Discussion on Dissertation Preliminary Submission: Name Email & mobile number Topic/ area of research Objectives (what you intend to do?) Background (what has been done on the same?) Methodology (How do you propose to do?) FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch RESEARCH TECHNIQUES ‰Introduction to Research process flow chart. ‰Research approaches. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.inductive and deductive.B. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .

B.Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .

MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.inductive and deductive. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch ‰ Research approaches.

Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .B.

MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch RESEARCH TECHNIQUES ‰Objectives of research ‰Motivation in research ‰Ethics to be considered in research ‰Principles of good research FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

¾Though each research study has its own specific purpose.Arch LECTURE 1 Objectives of Research ¾To discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . ¾The main aim of the research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. research objectives may be categorized into a number of following broad groupings: FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .B.

To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into a phenomenon. situation or group.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . -(descriptive research) FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. To portray the characteristics of a particular individual. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 1. -(exploratory or formulative research) 2.

Arch LECTURE 1 3.B.To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else – (diagnostic research) 4. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . To test a hypothesis of causal relationship between variables (hypothesis-testing research) FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .

Arch LECTURE 1 MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH What makes people to undertake research? This is a question of fundamental importance. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.e. concern over practical problems initiates research.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits. i.. to perform research operations. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems.B. 2. The possible motives for doing research may be either one or more of the following: 1.

social thinking and awakening. curiosity about new things. 5. Desire to get respectability. Desire to be of service to society. MANIPAL . desire to understand relationships. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. employment conditions.Arch LECTURE 1 3.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . this is not an exhaustive list of factors motivating people to undertake research studies. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work. 4. However. and the like may as well motivate people . Many more factors such as directives of government.B.

).Arch LECTURE 1 Principles of Good Research Many criteria exist for good research.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. etc. 1. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. findings. MANIPAL . Reliability: ¾ The dependability and trustworthiness of the research (measurements. From a methodological point of view. the following are the main criteria. ¾ A reliable measure is a measure that yields consistent assessments among different occasions for one researcher or among different researchers under the same conditions.

Arch LECTURE 1 2. ¾A valid measurement is a measurement that correctly measures what it is it intended to measure.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. of the information provided in the research. accuracy and precision. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Generalizability: ¾The ability of the research to be generalized or widely applied to larger populations or settings or situations. Validity: ¾The soundness and correctness. 3.

MANIPAL . Other criteria's are ¾The research should have a clear statement of research aims. Utility: ¾The potential for research to be used in improving the status quo and as a basis for action or purpose.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 4. which defines the research question. ¾This criterion is about the degree of usability of research in policy-making and decision-making.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

¾The research should be carried out in an unbiased fashion. which complement one another. MANIPAL . it needs to be addressed explicitly and systematically.B. ¾Good research can often use a combination of methodologies. ¾The methodology has to be appropriate to the research question. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. what it will involve and consent is obtained in writing on a consent form prior to research beginning. As far as possible the researcher should not influence the results of the research in any way. If this is likely. which sets out clearly what the research is about.Arch LECTURE 1 ¾There has to be an information sheet for participants.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

the research should have appropriate and sufficient resources in terms of people. allocated to it.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . time.Arch LECTURE 1 ¾From the beginning. money etc. ¾The people conducting the research should be trained in research and research methods and this training should provide: •Knowledge around appropriate information techniques •An understanding of research issues •An understanding of the research area FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. transport. MANIPAL gathering .B.

while conducting research. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . ¾Deception in all its forms must be avoided. and while reporting research. ¾Among the concerns that each researcher should be aware of is to maintain the highest level of ethics in research.B.Arch LECTURE 1 Ethics in research ¾Conducting research in a proper and authentic way is essential. Ethics is involved while preparing for research.

¾ In certain cases we have to have a written permission of our subjects.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. ¾We do not have to tell them the specific objectives of the study as this may influence their responses and your measurements.Arch LECTURE 1 Ethics while preparing research ¾Usually we need to inform the people acting as subjects in our study that they are actually participating in your study. this is called informed consent. ¾They should be aware that they are subjects of your study.

you have to be sure that no harm (physical or emotional) will happen to them as a result of your measurements or data gathering process. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 Ethics while conducting research ¾If your research involves studying people. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.

¾You need to have adequate information in your report that another researcher would be able to repeat the same study using the information provided. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 Ethics while reporting research ¾When writing the results of your study. you need to honestly and carefully report the procedures taken to gather and analyze the data.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

B. ¾Plagiarism (coping) must be avoided. Plagiarism occurs when you quote from another source without acknowledging that source. citations should be carefully and correctly written.Arch LECTURE 1 When referring to previous work. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . ¾Plagiarism is considered cheating and is a serious offence in the research arena. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. •Is there any potential risk or harm to participants or yourself? If so. MANIPAL . what will you do? •How will your research comply with equal opportunities? •How will participants be given the opportunity to complain? FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 Question to be prepared with. what are the potential risks and what do you intend to do to reduce them? •How will you obtain informed consent? •Where informed consent is unable to be provided..

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .B.Arch LECTURE 1 •Will you be insured against professional negligence claims? •How will you deal with complaints made against you by participants? •How will you deal with any sensitive or criminal matters that may be raised in the course of your research? •What follow-up support will be available to participants should they require it? FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 RESEARCH TECHNIQUES CLASSIFICATIONS OF RESEARCH •Research types or methods can be classified in several ways based upon different criteria.B. •The following are some of the classifications of various research types.

Analytical research 4.B. Explanatory research FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 . Exploratory research 2.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch ‰Based upon purpose of research 1. Descriptive research 3.

MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 Exploratory research: • Research that seeks to make an initial investigation of a problem Descriptive research: •Research that seeks to describe a problem and recognize what is happening or has occurred about the problem. Analytical research: •The researcher has to use facts or information already available.B. and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material. Explanatory research: •Research that seeks to explain the causes of a particular problem and answer why a phenomenon or a problem has occurred the way it did.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

MANIPAL . •“Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed pure or basic research.Fundamental (or basic or pure) research: •Research that seeks to resolve basic and fundamental problems regardless of whether or not the researcher seeks direct impact on everyday life.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon the relation with the real world 1.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.” FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

a solution) facing a concrete social or business problem is an example of applied research.B. •Research aimed at certain conclusions (say. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 2. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Applied (or action) research: •Research that seeks to resolve actual everyday life problems or real life issues by influencing change and help take action towards resolving the problem.

MANIPAL . adds to the already existing organized body of scientific knowledge. whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. whereas basic research is directed towards finding information that has a broad base of application and thus.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •The central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem.Arch LECTURE 1 •Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organisation.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . • Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Quantitative research: • Research that relies upon quantitative-type data (usually statistical-type study). It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity.B.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon the type of data collected in the study 1. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

•Qualitative research is specially important in the behavioural sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behaviour. i.e.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 2. is concerned with qualitative phenomenon. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Qualitative research: •Research that relies upon qualitative-type data. on the other hand.B. phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. •Qualitative research.

Conceptual research : • It is related to some abstract idea(s) or theory.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon type of ideas or theory 1.B. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. • It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones.

Arch LECTURE 1 2. and actively to go about doing certain things to stimulate the production of desired information. Empirical research: • It relies on experience or observation alone. coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. MANIPAL .. •It is an experimental type of research. often without due regard for system and theory. In such a research it is necessary to get at facts firsthand. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. at their source. •It is data-based research.

Secondary research: •Research that relies upon existing references and data previously collected second-hand data FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Primary research: • Research that relies on newly collected and innovatively generated first-hand data 2.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon the kind of evidence or source data 1.B.

Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon the role of the hypothesis of the study (purpose) 1. MANIPAL . Formulative research: • Research that seeks to build up theory or knowledge about a particular phenomenon or problem FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

confirm. test. corroborate.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . and disprove such a theory or assumption FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. MANIPAL . or refute.Arch LECTURE 1 2. substantiate. authenticate a theory or assumption about a particular phenomenon or problem. prove. Verification research: •Research that seeks to verify. contradict.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . This type is sometimes called true experimental research.B. Experimental research: • Research that seeks to establish a causal relationship between variables.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon type of relationship between the variables of the study 1. MANIPAL . This type is sought after when experimental research is not possible FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. 2. Quasi-experimental research: • Research that seeks to establish a less-than-causal relationship between variables.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . but good enough for the purpose of the study.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . connection.Arch LECTURE 1 3.B. Correlation research: •Research that seeks to establish the existence of a relationship. or association among variables that is not a causal relationship.

Descriptive research: •A research type used when the evidence data needs to be generated and collected (it is not in existence yet) and when controlling the conditions surrounding the generation of evidence is not possible.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰ Based upon status of evidence (in existence or not) and upon possible degree of controlling the conditions under which the collection of data are to take place 1. 2. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Historical research: • A research type used when the evidence data is in existence but simply needs to be located and evaluated.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Causal research: An experimental research that seeks to explore the causal relationship between variables FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . Relational research: A correlational research that seeks to explore the relationships between variables 3.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon the nature of the research question 1.B. Descriptive research: Research that seeks to investigate and examine a problem 2.

B. Experimental research (includes true experiments of all kinds) 2.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon true control of events surrounding the collection of data 1. MANIPAL . descriptive. and quasi-experimental research types) FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . correlational. Non-experimental research (includes historical.

B. Survey research: Research that focuses upon a group of subjects for gathering data 3.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon research context or strategy 1. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Experimental research: Research that focuses upon conducting an experiment for gathering data FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Case study research: Research that focuses upon one case study for gathering data 2.

B. Individual: Research that focuses upon individuals for the collection of data 2.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Organizational: Research that organizations for the collection of data focuses FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon units of analysis 1. Groups: Research that focuses upon groups of individuals for the collection of data 3. MANIPAL upon .

B. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Artifacts: Research that focuses upon “physical things” for the collection of data 5.Arch LECTURE 1 4. Phenomena: Research that focuses upon “nonphysical things” for the collection of data FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

•Trend studies focus on studying changes of general population over time. Panel studies focus on studying the same set of people over time. Cross-sectional research: Research conducted and data collected at one point in time (usually exploratory and descriptive) 2.Based upon the time dimension 1. •Cohort studies focus on studying changes of relatively specific subpopulations over time. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Longitudinal research: Research conducted and data collected over an extended period of time.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 L .

Observational research: Research that includes naturalistic. or physical traces observational techniques 2. participant. MANIPAL includes .Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon the data collection techniques used 1.B. Survey research: Research questionnaires or interviews that FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

Arch LECTURE 1 3. Archival research: Research that includes using existing documents 4.B. MANIPAL . Experimental research: Research that includes the use of experiments of any type FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

MANIPAL .  attitudes of a population by studying a sample of that population. It includes cross sectional and longitudinal studies using questionnaires of  structures interviews for data collection. Experimental research: seeks to determine if a specific treatment influences an  outcome. with the intent of generalizing from a  sample to a population.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. The impact is assessed by providing a specific treatment to one group  and withholding if from another and then determining how both groups scored  on an outcome.Arch LECTURE 1 Quantitative research Survey research: provides a quantitative or numeric description of trends.B.

B. action or interaction grounded in the views of participants.Arch LECTURE 1 Qualitative research Ethnography: is a strategy of inquiry in which the researcher studies an intact cultural group in a natural setting over a prolonged period of time by collecting. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Grounded theory: is a strategy of inquiry in which the researcher derives a general. observational and interview data.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . primary. abstract theory of a process. The research process is flexible and typically evolves contextually in response to the lived realities encountered in the field setting. This process involves using multiple stages of data collection and the refinement and interrelationship of categories of information.

 process or one or  more individuals. Understanding the lived experiences marks phenomenology as a  philosophy as well as a method.Arch LECTURE 1 Case studies: are a strategy of inquiry in which the researcher  explores in depth a program. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . activity. Phenomenological research: It is a strategy of inquiry in which the researcher identifies the  essence of human experiences about a phenomenon as  described by participants.B. event.

Beginning with qualitative interview for exploratory  purposed and followed by quantitative.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. Mixed methods Sequential: expand on the findings of one method  with  another method.Arch LECTURE 1 Narrative research: is a strategy of inquiry in which the  researcher studies the lives of individuals and asks one or  more individuals to provide stories about their lives. survey method  with a large samples to generalize results to a population. MANIPAL .

Arch LECTURE 1 Concurrent  mixed methods: Converges quantitative  and qualitative data in order to  provide a comprehensive analysis of the research problem.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . methods for collecting data.B. Transformative mixed methods: provides a framework for  topics of interest. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. and  outcomes or changes anticipated by the study.

B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •The following are some of the classifications of various research types.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 RESEARCH TECHNIQUES CLASSIFICATIONS OF RESEARCH •Research types or methods can be classified in several ways based upon different criteria.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. Explanatory research FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Descriptive research 3. Analytical research 4. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .Arch ‰Based upon purpose of research 1. Exploratory research 2.

Analytical research: •The researcher has to use facts or information already available. and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B.Arch LECTURE 1 Exploratory research: • Research that seeks to make an initial investigation of a problem Descriptive research: •Research that seeks to describe a problem and recognize what is happening or has occurred about the problem. Explanatory research: •Research that seeks to explain the causes of a particular problem and answer why a phenomenon or a problem has occurred the way it did.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Fundamental (or basic or pure) research: •Research that seeks to resolve basic and fundamental problems regardless of whether or not the researcher seeks direct impact on everyday life.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon the relation with the real world 1.” FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •“Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed pure or basic research.B. MANIPAL .

a solution) facing a concrete social or business problem is an example of applied research.Arch LECTURE 1 2.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. MANIPAL .Applied (or action) research: •Research that seeks to resolve actual everyday life problems or real life issues by influencing change and help take action towards resolving the problem. •Research aimed at certain conclusions (say. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. adds to the already existing organized body of scientific knowledge.Arch LECTURE 1 •Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organisation. •The central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem. whereas basic research is directed towards finding information that has a broad base of application and thus.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .

• Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Quantitative research: • Research that relies upon quantitative-type data (usually statistical-type study). It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon the type of data collected in the study 1.B. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

is concerned with qualitative phenomenon. on the other hand.Qualitative research: •Research that relies upon qualitative-type data. phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •Qualitative research is specially important in the behavioural sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behaviour. MANIPAL .e.Arch LECTURE 1 2. i. •Qualitative research.B.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. MANIPAL . • It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. Conceptual research : • It is related to some abstract idea(s) or theory.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon type of ideas or theory 1.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

2. Empirical research:
• It relies on experience or observation alone, often
without due regard for system and theory.
•It is data-based research, coming up with conclusions
which are capable of being verified by observation or
experiment.
•It is an experimental type of research. In such a research
it is necessary to get at facts firsthand, at their source,
and actively to go about doing certain things to stimulate
the production of desired information..
FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

‰Based upon the kind of evidence or source data
1. Primary research:

Research that relies on newly collected and
innovatively generated first-hand data

2. Secondary research:
•Research that relies upon existing references and
data previously collected second-hand data
FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

‰Based upon the role of the hypothesis of the
study (purpose)
1. Formulative research:

Research that seeks to build up theory or
knowledge about a particular phenomenon or
problem

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

2. Verification research:
•Research that seeks to verify, test, confirm,
corroborate, prove, substantiate, authenticate a theory
or assumption about a particular phenomenon or
problem, or refute, contradict, and disprove such a
theory or assumption

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

‰Based upon type of relationship between the variables of
the study
1. Experimental research:

Research that seeks to establish a causal relationship between
variables. This type is sometimes called true experimental
research.

2. Quasi-experimental research:
• Research that seeks to establish a less-than-causal relationship
between variables. This type is sought after when experimental
research is not possible
FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

3. Correlation research:
•Research that seeks to establish the existence of a
relationship, connection, or association among
variables that is not a causal relationship, but good
enough for the purpose of the study.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Descriptive research: •A research type used when the evidence data needs to be generated and collected (it is not in existence yet) and when controlling the conditions surrounding the generation of evidence is not possible. MANIPAL . Historical research: • A research type used when the evidence data is in existence but simply needs to be located and evaluated. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. 2.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰ Based upon status of evidence (in existence or not) and upon possible degree of controlling the conditions under which the collection of data are to take place 1.

Descriptive research: Research that seeks to investigate and examine a problem 2. Relational research: A correlational research that seeks to explore the relationships between variables 3. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. Causal research: An experimental research that seeks to explore the causal relationship between variables FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon the nature of the research question 1.

correlational. Non-experimental research (includes historical. and quasi-experimental research types) FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. descriptive.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Experimental research (includes true experiments of all kinds) 2. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon true control of events surrounding the collection of data 1.

Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon research context or strategy 1.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Experimental research: Research that focuses upon conducting an experiment for gathering data FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Survey research: Research that focuses upon a group of subjects for gathering data 3. MANIPAL . Case study research: Research that focuses upon one case study for gathering data 2.B.

Groups: Research that focuses upon groups of individuals for the collection of data 3.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Individual: Research that focuses upon individuals for the collection of data 2. Organizational: Research that organizations for the collection of data focuses FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. MANIPAL upon .Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon units of analysis 1.

Arch LECTURE 1 4.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Phenomena: Research that focuses upon “nonphysical things” for the collection of data FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Artifacts: Research that focuses upon “physical things” for the collection of data 5. MANIPAL .B.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. •Trend studies focus on studying changes of general population over time.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Based upon the time dimension 1. Longitudinal research: Research conducted and data collected over an extended period of time. Cross-sectional research: Research conducted and data collected at one point in time (usually exploratory and descriptive) 2. Panel studies focus on studying the same set of people over time.Arch LECTURE 1 L . •Cohort studies focus on studying changes of relatively specific subpopulations over time. MANIPAL .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.Arch LECTURE 1 ‰Based upon the data collection techniques used 1. Observational research: Research that includes naturalistic. participant. Survey research: Research questionnaires or interviews that FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL includes . or physical traces observational techniques 2.

Arch LECTURE 1 3. Archival research: Research that includes using existing documents 4. MANIPAL .B. Experimental research: Research that includes the use of experiments of any type FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

Arch LECTURE 1 Quantitative research Survey research: provides a quantitative or numeric description of trends. Experimental research: seeks to determine if a specific treatment influences an  outcome.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . The impact is assessed by providing a specific treatment to one group  and withholding if from another and then determining how both groups scored  on an outcome.  attitudes of a population by studying a sample of that population. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. with the intent of generalizing from a  sample to a population. It includes cross sectional and longitudinal studies using questionnaires of  structures interviews for data collection.

primary.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .B. The research process is flexible and typically evolves contextually in response to the lived realities encountered in the field setting. abstract theory of a process. Grounded theory: is a strategy of inquiry in which the researcher derives a general. action or interaction grounded in the views of participants. This process involves using multiple stages of data collection and the refinement and interrelationship of categories of information. observational and interview data.Arch LECTURE 1 Qualitative research Ethnography: is a strategy of inquiry in which the researcher studies an intact cultural group in a natural setting over a prolonged period of time by collecting. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Understanding the lived experiences marks phenomenology as a  philosophy as well as a method. Phenomenological research: It is a strategy of inquiry in which the researcher identifies the  essence of human experiences about a phenomenon as  described by participants.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . process or one or  more individuals. activity.Arch LECTURE 1 Case studies: are a strategy of inquiry in which the researcher  explores in depth a program.B. MANIPAL . event.

 survey method  with a large samples to generalize results to a population.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL . Mixed methods Sequential: expand on the findings of one method  with  another method. Beginning with qualitative interview for exploratory  purposed and followed by quantitative.Arch LECTURE 1 Narrative research: is a strategy of inquiry in which the  researcher studies the lives of individuals and asks one or  more individuals to provide stories about their lives.

 methods for collecting data. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . and  outcomes or changes anticipated by the study. MANIPAL . Transformative mixed methods: provides a framework for  topics of interest.B.Arch LECTURE 1 Concurrent  mixed methods: Converges quantitative  and qualitative data in order to  provide a comprehensive analysis of the research problem.

Arch LECTURE 1 RESEARCH TECHNIQUES LITERATURE REVIEW FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .B.

Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .

Reviewing the literature •Essential preliminary task in order to acquaint yourself with the available body of knowledge in your area of interest.Arch LECTURE 1 Step 2. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •Literature review is integral part of entire research process and makes valuable contribution to every operational step. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.

B. MANIPAL . Something comes up.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . and we must seek new information in order to know what to do……… •Eg: tour to a place FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 •There are occasions when we cannot depend upon knowledge we already possess.

B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . •When completed the research should be able to stand on its own for the use of others.Arch LECTURE 1 The information coming out of the research should have the following attributes: •The information should add a specific topic of (Abstract) inquiry •The research result on this topic of inquiry ought to find its place in a larger domain of relevant literature.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. d. It Brings clarity and focus to the research problem. daunting and frustrating. b. Its functions are: a. Contextualize the findings. MANIPAL .B. but is also rewarding.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Broadens researchers knowledge. Improves the methodology. c.Arch LECTURE 1 Reviewing literature can be time-consuming.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •It helps you to understand the relationship between your research problem and the body of knowledge in the area. MANIPAL . Bring clarity and focus to the research problem. •The process of reviewing the literature helps you to understand the subject area better and thus helps you to conceptualize your research problem clearly and precisely.Arch LECTURE 1 a.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 b. MANIPAL . and what problems they have faced with them. which procedures and methods have worked well for them. Improves the methodology: •A literature review tells you if others have used procedures and methods similar to the ones that you are proposing.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •Thus the researcher will be better positioned to select a methodology that is capable of providing valid answer to the research questions.B.

MANIPAL . it helps fulfill this expectation. • As you are expected to be an expert in your area of study.Arch LECTURE 1 c.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Broaden your knowledge base in your research area: •It ensures you to read widely around the subject area in which you intend to conduct your research study. • It also helps you to understand how the findings of your study fit into the existing body of knowledge.

It is important to place your findings in the context of what is already known in your field of enquiry. you need to go back to your literature review.Arch LECTURE 1 d.Contextualise your findings: •How do answers to your research questions compare with what others have found? •What contribution have you been able to make in to the existing body of knowledge? •How are your findings different from those of others? •For you to be able to answer these questions.B. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .B. its scope depends on the topic of enquiry. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. that the conceptual relevance for a particular topic of inquiry. existing in a wide variety of stored formats.Arch LECTURE 1 Literature review as an exploratory system: We define “the literature” as a body of information. •The literature therefore has fluid boundaries.

What are the key sources What are the theories? What are the major issues and debated o the topic? What are the main questions and problems that have been addressed to date? FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . 3. 1.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . 2.B.Arch LECTURE 1 A systematic exploration of the literature should address. 4.

Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .B.

MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.Arch Diagrammatic structure of a research study: FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

Arch Literature review for designers  and researchers Ex: Kevin lynch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .B.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.Using literature review to identify the research question (eg: Kevin Lynch theory in other cities) 2.Using literature review to focus on the topic of enquiry FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .Arch Uses of literature review 1.

Arch LECTURE 1 Using literature review to understand an ideas genetic roots: (Historical back ground) Using literature to understand the current conceptual landscape FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .B.

B.Arch General tactics: Facts and ideas FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .

MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.Arch Primary and secondary sources: Methodology by theory and application: FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

Arch Specific tactics: Where to go: resources: What to do: organization and retrieval FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .

B.Arch LECTURE 1 Procedure for reviewing the literature: i) search for existing literature in your area of study. ii) review the literature selected.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. iii) develop a theoretical framework. iv) develop a conceptual framework. MANIPAL .

•Next compile a bibliography for this broad area. books 2.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . in order to set parameters for your search.Arch LECTURE 1 Search for existing literature: •To effectively search for literature in your field of enquiry. it is imperative that you have in mind at least some idea of broad subject area and of the problem you wish to investigate.B. MANIPAL . Sources are: 1.journals FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

if contents are not found to be relevant to your topic. •Examine their content. •Disadvantage-material is not completely up to date. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •Search for books in your area of interest.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL . prepare a final list. as it can take a few years between the completion of a work and publication in the form of a book. locate these books in the libraries or borrow from other sources.Arch LECTURE 1 BOOKS •comprise a central part of any bibliography. •Advantage-material published generally is of good quality and the findings are integrated with other research to form a coherent body of knowledge. delete it from your reading list.

look at the index of research abstracts in the relevant field to identify and read the articles. even though there is a gap of two to three years between the completion of a research project and the publication in a journal.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .use the internet . •This can be done as follows: -locate the hard copies of the journal that are appropriate to your study. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 JOURNALS •Journals provide you with the most up-to-date information. . •As with books. you need to prepare a list of journals for identifying literature relevant to your study.B.

examine its content page to see if there is an article of relevance to your research topic. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. photocopy or prepare a summary and record it for reference for later use.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •If you think you are likely to use it. read its abstract. •Select the latest issue.B. first identify the journals you want to look at in more detail for your review of literature.Arch LECTURE 1 •Whichever method you choose. •If you feel a particular article is of relevance to you.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. slot the findings from the material so far reviewed into that framework. use separate sheets of paper for each article or book. •Once you develop a rough framework.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . using a separate sheet of paper for each theme of that framework. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 Review the literature selected: •After identifying books and articles as useful. the next step is to start reading them critically to pull together themes and issues that are associated. •If you do not have a theoretical framework of themes in mind to start with.B.

Arch LECTURE 1 •As you read further.B. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •You may need to add more themes as you go.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Read critically with particular reference to the following aspects: • Note whether the knowledge relevant to your theoretical framework is confirmed beyond doubt. go on slotting the information where it logically belongs under the theme so far developed.

B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . the methodologies adopted and the criticisms of them. the criticisms of these and their basis. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. • Examine to what extent the findings can be generalized to other situations. MANIPAL . •Ascertain the areas in which little or nothing is knownthe gaps that exist in the body of knowledge.Arch LECTURE 1 Note the theories put forward.

you will realize that it deals with a number of aspects that have a direct `and indirect bearing on your research topic. •Use these aspects as a basis for developing your theoretical framework. MANIPAL .B.Arch LECTURE 1 Develop a theoretical framework: •As you have limited time it is important to set parameters by reviewing the literature in relation to some main themes pertinent to your research topic.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •As you start reading the literature. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 •Until you go through the literature you cannot develop a theoretical framework and until you have developed a theoretical framework. MANIPAL .B. •Literature pertinent to your study may deal with two types of information: . .universal. local trends or specific program) •In writing about such information you should start with the general information.e. you cannot effectively review the literature. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.more specific( i. gradually narrowing down to the specific.

•Convert them into subheadings. record the main findings with respect to the theme in question.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . and follow a logical progression.Arch LECTURE 1 Writing up the literature reviewed: •In order to comply with the first function of literature review i. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. and identify gaps and issues. These subheadings should be precise. •Now. highlighting the reasons for and against an argument if they exist.e. MANIPAL . to provide theoretical background to your study: •List the main themes that have emerged while reading literature.B. under each subheading. descriptive of the theme in question.

e.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .requires you to very systematically compare your findings with those made by others. after analysis of your data. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •It places your findings in the context of what others have found out.e.Arch LECTURE 1 •In order to comply with the second function of literature review i. confirm or add to them. •Quote from these studies to show how your findings contradict. contextualizing the findings of your study.B. MANIPAL . •This function is undertaken when writing about your findings i.

1989. C. publishers.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Kothari.Arch LECTURE 1 THE BIBLIOGRAPHY The bibliography should give a clear. It is an alphabetical list as per the author’s surname. place of publication.. New Delhi 110 006. For a Book Surname of author. 1. MANIPAL . date on title page or copyright date.New Delhi :Wiley Eastern Limited. complete description of the sources that were used while preparing the report.R. Title taken from titlepageunderlined or in italics. volume if more than one. name or two initials.g. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Daryaganj. Edition (if more than one). e. Research Methods-Methods and Techniques.4835/24 Ansari Road.

B.Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

Arch LECTURE 1 RESEARCH TECHNIQUES HYPOTHESES FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

B.Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

partially right 3. •The verification process can have one of the three outcomes. right 2. but you do have a hunch to form the basis of certain assumption or guesses. Your hunch may prove to be: 1. MANIPAL .B. •You test these by collecting information that will enable you to conclude if your hunch was right.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. wrong.Arch LECTURE 1 Constructing hypotheses: •As a researcher you do not know about a phenomenon.

B. assumption. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. you cannot conclude anything about the validity of your assumption. a hypotheses is a hunch.Arch LECTURE 1 •Without this process of verification. relationship or situation. •A researcher calls these assumptions/ hunches hypotheses and they become the basis of an enquiry. •Hence. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . assertion or an idea about a phenomenon. suspicion. the reality or truth of which you do not know.

•You can conduct a valid investigation without constructing formal hypotheses.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 •In most studies the hypotheses will be based upon your own or someone else’s observation. •Hypotheses bring clarity. specificity and focus to a research problem. MANIPAL . but are not essential for a study.B.

MANIPAL . 1966) •“A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables”.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 Definitions of hypothesis •“Hypotheses are single tentative guesses. (Kerlinger. good hunches –assumed for use in devising theory or planning experiments intended to be given a direct experimental test when possible”.B. (Eric Rogers. 1994) •“A research question is essentially a hypothesis asked in the form of a question. 1956) •“Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected relationship between an independent and dependent variable.”(Creswell.” FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 •“It is a tentative prediction about the nature of the relationship between two or more variables. a possible outcome of the research. and they relate. yet. or an educated guess about the research outcome.”(Sarantakos.B. been proved or disproved.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . 1993: 1991) •“Hypotheses are always in declarative sentence form. either generally or specifically . variables to variables.” •“A hypothesis can be defined as a tentative explanation of the research problem.”(MacleodClark J and Hockey L 1981) FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.” •“An hypothesis is a statement or explanation that is suggested by knowledge or observation but has not.

MANIPAL . It tells you what specific aspects of a research problem to investigate.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. • A hypothesis may enable you to add to the formulation of a theory. •It enables you to specifically conclude what is true or what is false.B. • A hypothesis tells you what data to collect and what not to collect.Arch LECTURE 1 The functions of hypotheses: • The formulation of hypothesis provides a study with focus. the construction of a hypothesis enhances objectivity in a study. thereby providing focus to the study. • As it provides a focus.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •They also affect the manner in which tests must be conducted in the analysis of data and indirectly the quality of data which is required for the analysis. MANIPAL . researcher should state in clear terms the working hypothesis or hypotheses. •Working hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 •After extensive literature survey. •As such the manner in which research hypotheses are developed is particularly important since they provide the focal point for research.B.

•The role of the hypothesis is to guide the researcher by delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the right track. •Hypothesis should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested. •It also indicates the type of data required and the type of methods of data analysis to be used. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. the development of working hypothesis plays an important role.Arch LECTURE 1 •In most types of research.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL . •It sharpens his thinking and focuses attention on the more important facets of the problem.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
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LECTURE 1

How does one go about developing working hypotheses?
The answer is by using the following approach:
(a) Discussions with colleagues and experts about the problem,
its origin and the objectives in seeking a solution;
(b) Examination of data and records, if available, concerning the
problem for possible trends, peculiarities and other clues;
(c) Review of similar studies in the area or of the studies on
similar problems; and
(d) Exploratory personal investigation which involves original
field interviews on a limited scale with interested parties and
individuals with a view to secure greater insight into the practical
aspects of the problem.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

•Thus, working hypotheses arise as a result of apriori thinking about the subject, examination of the
available data and material including related studies
and the counsel of experts and interested parties.
•Working hypotheses are more useful when stated in
precise and clearly defined terms.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

•It may as well be remembered that occasionally we
may encounter a problem where we do not need
working hypotheses, specially in the case of
exploratory or formulative researches which do not
aim at testing the hypothesis.
•But as a general rule, specification of working
hypotheses is another basic step of the research
process in most research problems.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

LECTURE 1

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

•Should express a relation between two or more variables.
Is A related to B?
•Should be clearly stated and unambiguously in question form.
Ex:“How do incentives affect the performance?”(Question form)
“The problem is to question the relation between incentives and
performance.“(Statement form)
•Should be such as to imply possibilities of empirical testing.
•Metaphysical questions, unrelated variables, not measurable and
indefinable variables cannot be tested.
FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

Hypothesis needs to be structured before the datagathering and interpretation phase of the research:

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

B. There might not be enough evidence against Ho. MANIPAL . •Not rejecting Ho does not really mean that Ho is true. •The final conclusion of the investigator will either retain a null hypothesis or reject a null hypothesis in favor of a alternative hypothesis. “There is no difference between….” •Ho states the opposite of what the experimenter would expect or predict. •Example: “There is no significant difference in the anxiety level of children of High IQ and those of low IQ.Arch LECTURE 1 A null hypothesis is a statement that there is no actual relationship between variables.” FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY..RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . (Ho or Hn) •A null hypothesis may read.

B. •Often an alternative Hypothesis is the desired conclusion of the investigator. (H1or Ha) •Comes from prior literature or studies. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •It is established only when a null hypothesis is rejected.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 •An alternative hypothesis is a statement that suggests a potential outcome that the researcher may expect. MANIPAL . •The two types of alternative hypothesis are: •Directional Hypothesis •Non-directional Hypothesis.

“…will be lesser.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •Sometimes directional hypothesis are created to examine the relationship among variables rather than to compare groups.B.” Example: “Children with high IQ will exhibit more anxiety than children with low IQ” FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •Directional hypothesis may read.. MANIPAL ..”…is more than.Arch LECTURE 1 Directional Hypothesis •Is a type of alternative hypothesis that specifies the direction of expected findings.”.

•Is a type of alternative hypothesis in which no definite direction of the expected findings is specified.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •It may read. MANIPAL .” FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY...” Example: “There is a difference in the anxiety level of the children of high IQ and those of low IQ.there is a difference between.Arch LECTURE 1 Non-directional Hypothesis. “.B. •The researcher may not no what can be predicted from the past literature.

•May be limited in scope.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. thinks about the problem. makes additional observations. •Can lead to unconnected findings. •Hypothesis is then tested. which could explain little about the research. turns to literature for clues. and the hypothesizes an explanation. derives probable relationships. Observations Study Probable relationship Hypothesis Theory FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 DERIVATION OF HYPOTHESIS Inductive: •Researcher notes the observations of behavior. MANIPAL .

B. •These deductions are then presented in the from of statements accompanied by an argument or a rationale for the particular proposition. Theory Hypothesis Study & Deduction Statement FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •Theories are not speculations but are previously known facts. derives a hypothesis leading to deductions derived through symbolic logic or mathematics.Arch LECTURE 1 DERIVATION OF HYPOTHESIS Deductive: •Researcher begins by selecting a theory. •Process is a technique to test the adequacy of the theory.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . •Qualitative method.B.Arch LECTURE 1 FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS Formulation of Hypothesis differs with the method of research conducted. •Quantitative method.

B. not objectives or hypothesis. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 QUALITATIVE METHOD The enquirer uses research questions. “how” •They focus on a single concept. •The questions use non-directional terminology.” •Several sub-questions are raised related to the central question to narrow the focus of study but to leave the questioning at an open end. •Questions begin with “what”. which is being examined in the study in the most general form-“the broadest question that can be asked in a study. •The enquirer poses a central question.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •They are under continual review and restructuring along the course of research. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

3. Either a research questions or a hypothesis.May be used to compare the variables. MANIPAL .B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 QUANTITATIVE The researcher uses questions and hypothesis to compose and focus the purpose of study.May be used to describe the variables. •Not a combination of both.May be used to relate the variables. •Hypothesis or research questions: 1.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •Independent and dependant variables are measured separately. 2. •The research follows from a test of theory and the question and the hypothesis or the research questions are included in the theory.

Arch LECTURE 1 Generality and Specificity of Hypotheses Ex: Too General –creativity is the function of the self-actualization of the individual. MANIPAL . the clearer are its testing implications. Too thin for study! FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. Cannot be tested! The more specific the problem or hypothesis. Ex: Too specific –The speed of reading depends on the size of type.

Tools for testing Hypotheses: •Data Collection •Ideas •Expert opinions •Deductions FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 TESTINGTHE HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis tests are procedures for making rational decisions about the reality of effects.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •Selecting the research methods that will permit the observation. experimentation.B. or other procedures necessary to show whether or not these do occur. There are two possibilities: Nothing Happened the Null Hypothesis(Hο) Something Happened the Alternative Hypothesis(H1) FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . •Applying this method and gathering the data that can be analyzed to indicate whether or not the hypothesis is supported.Arch LECTURE 1 Testing a hypothesis involves •Deducing the consequences that should be observable if the hypothesis is correct.

•The subsequent results might not produce the result observed in the original investigation.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. •Leads to maintenance of a status quo when a change is warranted.Arch LECTURE 1 TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS TYPE I AND TYPE II ERRORS Type I error: •Rejection of a true null hypothesis is called the type I error. •Leads to changes that are unwarranted. Type II error: •Retention of false null hypothesis is called the type II error. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . •The ultimate truth remains unknown although evidence might support an alternative hypothesis.

they have power.(Kerlinger. p.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 Negative Findings •Even if hypotheses are not confirmed. but only supported or not supported. MANIPAL . It acts as a guiding factor for future research in that field. 1956) •Negative findings are as important as positive ones. (Ary.85) FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •Hypothesis cannot be proved or disproved. since they cut down ignorance and sometimes point up fruitful hypotheses and lines of investigation.B.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.Arch RESEARCH TECHNIQUES FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .

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B. a factory for manufacturing machinery. MANIPAL . •Until this is done we cannot sketch a plan. obtain permits. a residential home or an apartment block.Arch LECTURE 1 What is research design? •When constructing a building there is no point ordering materials or setting critical dates for completion of project stages until we know what sort of building is being constructed.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •The rest decision is whether we need a high rise office building. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. a school. work out a work schedule or order materials.

design of questions are all subsidiary to the matter of `What evidence do I need to collect?' FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. 1989: 29).g.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 •Research design `deals with a logical problem and not a logistical problem' (Yin. •The work plan follows from this. in social research the issues of sampling. document analysis). questionnaire.B. Similarly. its uses and the needs of the occupants. method of data collection (e. •Before a builder or architect can develop a work plan or order materials they must first establish the type of building required. observation.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •Without attending to these research design matters at the beginning.B. the conclusions drawn will normally be weak and unconvincing and fail to answer the research question. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 •Too often researchers design questionnaires or begin interviewing far too early ± before thinking through what information they require to answer their research questions.

MANIPAL . In architecture.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. you design an architectural project by creatively suggesting ways of how your project will look like when built. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 Basics of research design •Designing research is similar in many ways to designing buildings in architecture.

B.Arch LECTURE 1 • In research. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . you design a research project by creatively and methodically suggesting ways of how your research project will proceed until it is completed or "built". MANIPAL . •Research design may be different from architectural design in that the former relies more on substantive information and less on artistic talents and skills.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 •Designing research is basically deciding on the conceptual structure of the exact steps or procedures that you need to conduct. in order to successfully carry out the research objectives. MANIPAL . you need to have established a good research question or have formulated a good problem statement. •In the research process. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. and preferably have carried out the literature review. •To be able to design a research.B. designing the research comes in following the problem identification stage.

MANIPAL .B. •However.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . conducting the literature review may assist you in revising your research design by overcoming obstacles occurring in the previous research for example. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 •sometimes you need to draft the design of the research project to check the possibilities of conducting it before actually spending the effort on the literature review.

to test a theory.Arch LECTURE 1 The function of research design •To ensure that the evidence obtained enables us to answer the initial question as unambiguously as possible. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .B. to evaluate a programme or to accurately describe some phenomenon. •Obtaining relevant evidence entails specifying the type of evidence needed to answer the research question.

what type of evidence is needed to answer the question (or test the theory) in a convincing way? •The function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant information with minimal expenditure of effort. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. time and money.Arch LECTURE 1 •In other words. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. when designing research we need to ask: given this research question (or theory).

he will have to state the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted.B..RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .e. the researcher will be required to prepare a research design. i. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 Preparing the research design: •The research problem having been formulated in clear cut terms. MANIPAL .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . (i) Exploration (ii) Description & Diagnostic (iii)Hypotheses testing (experimental). •A flexible research design is which provides opportunity for considering many different aspects of a problem.B.Arch LECTURE 1 Research purposes may be grouped into four categories. it is considered appropriate if the purpose of the research study is that of exploration. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

Arch LECTURE 1 •But when the purpose happens to be an accurate description of a situation or of an association between variables. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. available for the purpose.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. the suitable design will be one that minimizes bias and maximizes the reliability of the data collected and analyzed. MANIPAL .

MANIPAL . Source of information—Sample Design 4. appropriate for a particular research problem. The time factor 8.B.qualitative and quantitative 6. Data Analysis-.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 The preparation of research design. Tool for Data collection 5. Objectives of the research study. 2. The cost factor 7. Method of Data Collection to be adopted 3. The availability and skills of the researcher and his staff . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. involves the consideration of the following : 1.

It is a plan that specifies the sources and types of information relevant to the research problem.B. ii. It also includes the time and cost budgets since most studies are done under these two constraints. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. It is a strategy specifying which approach will be used for gathering and analyzing the data. iii.Arch LECTURE 1 The important features of a research design are as under: i.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .

research design must. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . at least.B. contain (a) A clear statement of the research problem (b)Procedures and techniques to be used for gathering information (c)The population to be studied. and (d)Methods to be used in processing and analyzing data.Arch LECTURE 1 In brief. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . definitions. relationships between variables. and measuring variables) • Sampling (types and procedures).B.Arch LECTURE 1 Basic components of research design are • Hypotheses (definition and formulation) • Variables (types. MANIPAL .

a special kind of concept that contains within it a notion of degree or differentiation" (Hoover.22). 1980. temperature. Examples of variables are heat.. pp. Research Variables •A variable is "a name for something that is thought to influence a particular state of being in something else . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. etc. perception or concept that can be measured – hence capable of taking on different values. MANIPAL .. age..is called a variable.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . pressure.Arch LECTURE 1 The definition of a variable: •An image.

The extraneous variable is the independent variable that is not related to the purpose of study. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. 3.Arch LECTURE 1 Types of variables Variables come in different types depending upon their role in the research.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . 2. MANIPAL . but may affect the dependent variable.B. The dependent variable is the one influenced by another variable (the independent variable). 1. The independent variable is the variable that influences another variable (the dependent variable).

user preference is the dependent variable FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. heat gain in buildings is the dependent variable. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 for eg.B. Studying the effect of building style on user preferences: building style is the independent variable. Studying the effect of sunshine heat on heat gain in buildings: heat sunshine is the independent variable .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

•A study must always be so designed that the effect upon the dependent variable is attributed entirely to the independent variable(s). and not to some extraneous variable or variables. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. •Whatever effect is noticed on dependent variable as a result of extraneous variable (s) is technically described as an experimental error.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 •An independent variable in one study can become the dependent variable in another study.

Arch LECTURE 1 Operationalizing variables •Variables need to be clearly defined and in a way that permits some kind of measurement. MANIPAL . •Any variable can be operationalized in different ways depending upon the hypotheses and focus of the study. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •The operational definition of a variable must retain the meaning of the original variable and allow possible measurement using the available resources.B.

•The following table summarizes the four measurements (adapted from Hoover.Arch LECTURE 1 Measurement of variables •Variables vary.B.96). pp. MANIPAL levels of .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . but they may vary in different ways. 1980. •Some vary in terms of differences of degree such as temperature or height. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •These different ways of variation represent what is known as "levels of measurements" for variables. others vary in terms of differences in rank or order •others vary in terms of differences in variety such as nationality or religion. others vary in simply whether they exist or not.

socioeconomic standing. marital status. formal education Interval classification & order & setting standard units of Biblical time. temperature distance (zero is arbitrary) Ratio classification & order & setting standard units of income.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . religion.Arch Level of LECTURE 1 measurement Allowable properties variable Examples Nominal Classification ethnicity. group affiliation Ordinal classification & order social class. gender. race. distance & locate absolute distance (true) zero FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. weight. MANIPAL age. occupation. .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. two or more subcategories depending upon the extent of variation. •A variable measured on a nominal scale may have one. objects or responses into subgroups based on a common/shared property or characteristic.Arch LECTURE 1 The nominal or classificatory scale: •A nominal scale enables the classification of individuals.B. MANIPAL .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. MANIPAL . ’water’ or ‘tree’ have only one subgroup. The sequence in which subgroups are listed makes no difference as there is no relationship among subgroups. whereas the variable “gender” can be classified into two sub-categories: male and female.sub-categories. •‘Hotels’ can be classified into ---.Arch LECTURE 1 •For example. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 The ordinal or ranking scale: •Besides categorizing individuals.B. it ranks the subgroups in a certain order. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. responses or a property into subgroups on the basis of common characteristic. objects. •They are arranged either in ascending or descending order according to the extent a subcategory reflects the magnitude of variation in the variable.

‘average’ and ‘below average’ •The ‘distance’ between these subcategories are not equal as there is no quantitative unit of measurement. ‘income’ can be measured either quantitatively (in rupees and paise) or qualitatively using subcategories ‘above average’. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 •For example. •‘Socioeconomic status’ and ‘attitude’ are other variables that can be measured on ordinal scale.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL . Celsius scale: 0*C to 100*C Fahrenheit scale: 32*F to 212*F Attitudinal scales: 10-20 21-30 31-40 etc FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. it uses a unit of measurement with an arbitrary starting and terminating points. •In addition. For example.Arch LECTURE 1 The interval scale: •An interval scale has all the characteristics of an ordinal scale.

height and weight are examples of this scale. age. •The measurement of variables like income. •Since the difference between intervals is always measured from a zero point.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 The ratio scale: •A ratio scale has all the properties of nominal. which means it has a fixed starting point. ordinal and interval scales plus its own property •The zero point of a ratio scale is fixed.B. this scale can be used for mathematical operations. •A person who is 40 year old is twice as old as one who is 20 year old FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

MANIPAL . and knowledge about variables. •Their knowledge. play an important role in reducing this variability. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. therefore is important in ‘fine tuning’ the research problem.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.Arch LECTURE 1 Identifying Variables: •In a research study it is important that the concepts used should be operationalised in measurable terms so that the extent of variations in respondent’s understanding is reduced if not eliminated. •Techniques about how to operationalise concepts.

MANIPAL . •A concept cannot be measured whereas a variable can be subjected to measurement by crude/refined or subjective/ objective units of measurement.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •It is therefore important for the concept to be converted into variables .Arch LECTURE 1 The difference between a concept and a variable: •Concepts are mental images or perceptions and therefore their meaning varies markedly from individual to individual.

MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 Concept Variable Subjective impression No uniformity as to its  Understanding among Different  people As such cannot be measured. Excellent gender (male/female) High achiever age (x years y months) Rich weight ( ‐‐kg) Satisfaction height ( ‐‐ cms) Domestic violence Income ( Rs ‐‐‐per year) FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Measurable though the degree of  precision varies from scale to scale  and variable to variable.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

Arch LECTURE 1 Concepts.B.a set of criteria reflective of the concept which can then be converted into variables. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •For this. you need to identify indicators. •The choice of indicators for a concept might vary with researchers. indicators and variables: •If you are using a concept in your study. you need to consider its operationalisation. but those selected must have a logical link with the concept.that is. MANIPAL . how it will be measured.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

B. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

Arch RESEARCH TECHNIQUES FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.

.

Arch LECTURE 1 Sampling Procedures •All the items under consideration in any field of inquiry constitute a “universe” or “population” • A complete enumeration of all the items in the “population” is known as a census inquiry. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. It demands highest accuracy.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL . •A few items selected from the universe of our study purposes constitute a “sample”.B.

B. STUDY POPULATION SAMPLE TARGET POPULATION 2 1 FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 SAMPLING…….

MANIPAL . Population Sample Population FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 Sample vs.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

•A sample design is a definite plan determined before any data are actually collected for obtaining a sample from a given population or universe. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . • The ultimate goal of any sampling procedure is to ensure that the sample is the best representation of the population therefore avoiding any bias or negative influence on the findings of the research.Arch LECTURE 1 •Sampling is the process of selecting a sample from the population to conduct the study upon.

• When random sampling is not possible.Arch LECTURE 1 •Samples can be probability samples or nonprobability samples.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •Random selection is the best way to ensure an unbiased representative sample.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL . •Random selection is the basis for probability sampling procedures. non probability sampling procedures may suffice.

B. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 3 factors that influence sample representative-ness •Sampling procedure •Sample size •Participation (response) When might you sample the entire population? When your population is very small When you have extensive resources When you don’t expect a very high response FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

B.Arch 2 2 LECTURE 1 SAMPLING BREAKDOWN FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .

Probabilistic  sampling  Simple random Complex random •Systematic sampling •Stratified sampling •Cluster sampling •Multi-stage sampling • Sequential sampling Non Probabilistic  sampling  •Deliberate/ convenience/judgment sampling •Quota sampling .

has the same probability of being selected.B. MANIPAL . in case of finite universe.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 Probability sampling 1.Simple random sampling •This type of sampling is also known as chance sampling or probability sampling where each and every item in the population has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample and each one of the possible samples.

•Using the random number tables is another method of random sampling.Arch LECTURE 1 •For example.000 items on slips of paper and conduct a lottery.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .000 items. if we have to select a sample of 300 items from a universe of 15.B. MANIPAL . then we can put the names or numbers of all the 15. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •In case of infinite population. the selection of each item in a random sample is controlled by the same probability and that successive selections are independent of one another. political pollsters can predict within an accuracy of 3% how 70 million people will vote. •For example. from a randomly selected sample of 1500 people. MANIPAL .B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 •This procedure gives each item an equal probability of being selected.

or unsystematic. •Specifically. helter-skelter. •Its meaning is actually closer to “unpredictable” or “by chance”. as it does in everyday usage. the word “random” as used in statistics is a technical term describing the process by which a sample is chosen FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 •“Random” in this context does not mean haphazard. MANIPAL .B.

MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .Arch FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.

B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 •The principle of random sampling is simple: selection of the sample group must be left to chance. so that every member of the population and every combination of members have the same opportunity of being selected Define  population Develop  sampling  frame Assign each  unit a  number Randomly select  the required  amount of  random  numbers FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL Systematically  select random  numbers until it  meets the  sample size  requirements .

MANIPAL . •Such designs may as well be called “mixed sampling designs” for many of such designs may represent a combination of probability and nonprobability sampling procedures in selecting a sample.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Complex random sampling •Probability sampling under restricted sampling technique may result in complex random sampling designs.B.Arch LECTURE 1 2.

•Sampling of this type is known as systematic sampling. Systematic sampling •In some instances the most practical way of sampling is to select every 15th name on a list.B. every 10th house on one side of a street and so on.Arch LECTURE 1 a.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . •This procedure is useful when sampling frame is available in the form of a list. •An element of randomness is usually introduced into this kind of sampling by using random numbers to pick up the unit with which to start.

 every  10th) .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL First unit  select by  random  numbers  then every  nth unit  selected  (e.Arch Define  population Develop  sampling  frame LECTURE 1 Decide the  sample size Work out  what fraction  of the frame  the sample  size  represents Select  according to  fraction (100  sample from  1.g.000 frame  then 10% so  every 10th unit) FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B.

B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch Systematic sampling FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .

47. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 •In such a design the selection process starts by picking some random point in the list and then every nth element is selected until the desired number is secured.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . the first item would be selected randomly from the first 25% and thereafter every 25th item would be automatically included in the sample. •A 4% sample is desired. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. 72.B. 97. 22.

systematic sampling will prove to be an inefficient method of sampling. but if there is a hidden periodicity in the population. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 •The systematic sampling is spread more evenly over the entire population.. the population list is in random order. •If all elements of universe are ordered in a manner representative of the total population. systematic sampling is considered equivalent to random sampling.B. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . i.e.

Stratified sampling •If the population from which a sample is to be drawn does not constitute a homogeneous group. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.overlapping subpopulations or strata that are individually more homogeneous than the total population.Arch LECTURE 1 b.B. •In this technique. then stratified sampling technique is applied so as to obtain a representative sample.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . the population is stratified into a number of non. MANIPAL .

B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch Define population LECTURE 1 Develop sampling  frame according  to characteristics  required Determine the  proportion of  each population  variable of  interest FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL Systematic sampling  methods can then be  followed to select  sample unit .

Arch Draw a sample from each stratum FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. MANIPAL LECTURE 1 .

B. MANIPAL . first stratification and then simple random sampling. • If the items selected from each stratum is based on simple random sampling the entire procedure. is known as stratified random sampling FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 •Then sample items are selected from each stratum.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

Arch LECTURE 1 •For example. •You are likely to get different answers when interviewing women. MANIPAL . suppose you are interested in what the residents of a neighbourhood feel about having a playground located near where they live.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. than when interviewing men.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •Stratifying the proportion of men and women you include in the sample to reflect the proportion of men and women actually living in the neighbourhood will reduce error when you project from your sample to the whole neighbourhood. especially women with children.

Arch LECTURE 1 The following three questions arise in stratified sampling a) How to form strata? b) How should items be selected from each stratum? c) How many items be selected from each stratum or how to allocate the sample size to each stratum? FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. It has issued its cards to 15.000 customers. •Suppose some departmental store wishes to sample its credit card holders.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 Cluster sampling and area sampling •Cluster sampling involves grouping the population and then selecting the groups or the clusters rather than individual elements for inclusion in the sample.

Arch LECTURE 1 ƒThe sample size is to be kept say 450.000 card holders could be formed into 100 clusters of 150 card holders each. For cluster sampling this list of 15.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. ƒThe sample size must often be larger than the simple random sample to ensure the same level of accuracy because in cluster sampling procedural potential for order bias and other sources of error is usually accentuated. ƒThree clusters might then be selected for the sample randomly. MANIPAL .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .Arch Section 1 LECTURE 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 5 Section 4 FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B.

Arch LECTURE 1 •The clustering approach can. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. however. specially in the case of personal interviews. •Area sampling is quite close to cluster sampling and is often talked about when the total geographical area of interest happens to be big one. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . make the sampling procedure relatively easier and increase the efficiency of field work.

then a number of these smaller areas are randomly selected.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. It also makes the field interviewing more efficient since interviewer can do many interviews at each location. and all units in these small areas are included in the sample. generally called geographical clusters. •Area sampling is specially helpful where we do not have the list of the population concerned.Arch LECTURE 1 •Under area sampling we first divide the total area into a number of smaller non-overlapping areas. MANIPAL .B.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . This technique is meant for big inquiries extending to a considerably large geographical area like an entire country •Under multi-stage sampling the first stage may be to select large primary sampling units such as states. then districts. the sampling procedure is described as multistage random sampling. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . then towns and finally certain families within towns.B.Arch LECTURE 1 Multi-stage sampling •This is a further development of the idea of cluster sampling. If the technique of random-sampling is applied at all stages.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •One can go on taking samples one after another as long as one desires to do so.B. •This design is usually adopted under acceptance sampling plan in the context of statistical quality control.Arch LECTURE 1 Sequential sampling •This is somewhat a complex sample design where the ultimate size of the sample is not fixed in advance but is determined according to mathematical decisions on the basis of information yielded as survey progresses. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

Non-probability sampling
Deliberate/ convenience/judgment sampling
•Deliberate sampling is also known as purposive or
non-probability sampling.
•This sampling method involves purposive or deliberate
selection of particular units of the universe for
constituting a sample which represents the universe.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

•When population elements are selected for inclusion
in the sample based on the ease of access, it can be
called convenience sampling.
•If a researcher wishes to secure data from, say,
gasoline buyers, he may select a fixed number of
petrol stations and may conduct interviews at these
stations.
•This would be an example of convenience sample of
gasoline buyers.
FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

•At times such a procedure may give very biased results
particularly when the population is not homogeneous.
•In judgment sampling the researcher’s judgment is
used for selecting items which he considers as
representative of the population.
•Judgment sampling is used quite frequently in
qualitative research where the desire happens to be to
develop hypotheses rather than to generalise to larger
populations.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

Quota sampling
•In stratified sampling the cost of taking random
samples from individual strata is often so expensive
that interviewers are simply given quota to be filled
from different strata, the actual selection of items for
sample being left to the interviewer’s judgment. This
is called quota sampling.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

•The size of the quota for each stratum is generally
proportionate to the size of that stratum in the
population.
•Quota sampling is thus an important form of nonprobability sampling.
•Quota samples generally happen to be judgment
samples rather than random samples.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

DATA 
COLLECTION

.

•The student should select one of the methods of collecting the data taking into consideration the nature of investigation. . available time and the desired degree of accuracy. objective and scope of the inquiry.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Sommer (2001). Visual and Content Analysis Practical Guide to Behavioral Research by B. Case Study E.Arch LECTURE 1 Data Collection •Primary data can be collected either through experiment or through survey. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Sommer and R. Observation B. Experiment or Quasi-Experiment D. Survey C. MANIPAL . •The five methods of human behavior research being reviewed are: A.B.

•The technique is particularly useful in the field of architecture and urban design.B. or phenomena in their natural setting. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 •Observation involves the systematic and careful observation of subjects. MANIPAL . objects.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

MANIPAL . and in fact might use multiple methods for one project. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 •The question arises whether ….RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.quantitative methods and analysis or using qualitative methods and analysis?” •Keep in mind that design researchers might use both.

MANIPAL . are you asking about the quality or even variations of the experience. •Are you asking a numbers/quantity question (how many.B. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. etc.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .)? Or.Arch LECTURE 1 •The key issue is the research question. how much. who does most least.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .B. or other techniques to build conceptual understandings that may be used for the design situation and practice.Arch LECTURE 1 •Design researchers might use statistical analysis.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . descriptive analysis.

B. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . or prohibit communication? • How do people manipulate or change their surroundings to meet their needs? • What takes place in particular settings? FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. view entertainment together.Arch LECTURE 1 Observation can answer these kinds of questions: • How do environments create opportunities or obstacles for people such as a place to informally talk.

MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 •There are three approaches used when observing: a) Behavioral Observation b) Behavioral Mapping c) Trace Observation FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.Arch LECTURE 1 Behavioral Observation ™Casual Observation • it occurs without predetermined categories or a systematic scoring system. it is a quick visual inspection of activities or the space. MANIPAL .

B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . • The observer in this type is considered an OUTSIDER.Arch LECTURE 1 ™ Naturalistic Observation • Sometimes called direct or non participant observation. One can differentiate two types of naturalistic observation: ‰the secret outsider ‰the recognized outsider FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .

MANIPAL .B.Arch LECTURE 1 What to look for? Zeisel (1984) summarizes the important items to look for during the observation of environmental behavior. With whom: significant others FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Doing what: act 3. They are: 1.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . Who is: actor 2.

In what context: describes the socio cultural context including the situation and culture 6. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 4. Where (Setting): describes the physical setting FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. olfactory. tactile.B. visual. or symbolic type relationship 5.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . In what relationship: describes the relationship between the actor and the others such as aural.

B. maps. • Notations are basically observed behavior. which is an annotated diagram or map of observed behavior. written description FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. notations. 1984).RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . precoded checklists. or videotapes and movies (Zeisel. •Mapping observed behavior is a well known technique called behavioral mapping.Arch LECTURE 1 Recording devices •Observations can be recorded using photographs. MANIPAL of the .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . •Pre-coded checklists are ready-made charts that include expected types of observations and a designed coding system to be used on the field. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 •The notation could be in the form of one sentence to which the researcher can add comments later.B.

B. •Several observers can be used but they must be trained to understand the behaviors in the same way. usually by casual observation. MANIPAL . •This increases the reliability (agreement) of the observers.Arch LECTURE 1 ™Systematic Observation •answers a specific research question by systematically planning the observation and recording of data. It can be repeated by other researchers. •A scoring system must be developed. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

Arch LECTURE 1 ™Participant Observation •Participant observation is when the observer is an INSIDER.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B. •It occurs when the observer becomes part of the environment and people being studied. MANIPAL . •One can differentiate two types of participant observation: ‰the marginal participant ‰the full participant FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . •This can change people’s behaviors. so it is done infrequently.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 Concerns with participant observation •A serious ethical concern arises when dealing with participant observation.B. •Would the participant observer be considered cheating on the community that he became involved with? •There are risks to this type of observation such as the observer can become biased by accidental involvement in people’s activities.

Arch LECTURE 1 Behavioral Mapping •The second type of observation is Behavioral Mapping. •To use behavioral mapping. think about taking a set of plans with you to a site. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . their activities. and the location or where these activities occur.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . sitting down.B. an actual chart of an area on which people’s locations and activities are indicated. and noting on the plans people. •The plan becomes your map. •Notations are made during observations or later from notes made while observing.

which could be different from the original intent.B. occurring over several days and many times of the day. •Behavioral maps can be place-centered or person-centered. what is actually seen and is evident. MANIPAL .RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch LECTURE 1 •This map shows how people actually use the space.

B. •This type of mapping can be unobtrusive and is good for public spaces.Arch LECTURE 1 Place-centered maps •refer to how people use a specific space. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . •Observers watch the actions in a particular behavior setting and record them on diagrams or plans.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

MANIPAL . and movement throughout the space. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •It is done on only a few individuals at a time. •The goal is to learn about a group of individuals whose activities are charted throughout the day. activities.Arch LECTURE 1 person-centered maps •It is drawn to study people’s tasks. It can be obtrusive.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

Tracking museum users

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

LECTURE 1

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

Trace Observation
•The third type of observation involves observing physical
traces.
•This means you systematically look at environments for
evidence of earlier activity or other indicators that people
were there and interacted with one another or with the
environment.
•This method is used to see how people actually use a
space.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

•This type of research is critical to the designer
because it gives you an opportunity to know what
often goes unsaid by clients and users.
•There are two types of traces that are measured,
erosion and accretion.
•Observation of physical traces is a particularly
useful techniques in architecture and urban design.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

Erosion traces
•It is shown by deterioration or wear that provides a look
at the usage pattern.
•The physical environment has been worn down such as
an indentation on a step where everyone has put their
foot over time, or the upholstery on only one chair in a
seating arrangement is badly worn and you realize that
that chair is the only one with a view to the outdoors.
•Both situations beg the question, what does this mean?

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

LECTURE 1

Accretion traces
•It is build-up of a residue or an interaction.
•These traces are added to the environment and show how
the user has changed an environment (Sommer & Sommer,
2001).
•For example, people may move chairs closer together in a
study area so they can interact as a group, or may leave
trash on the floor .

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411)
VII SEM - B.Arch

Colors / water balloons left in park on
a day after Holi indicate the use of
the park for cultural activities despite
The restrictions laid by the park
authority.

LECTURE 1

Stone slabs from the park seats
ripped off and vandalized indicate the
lack of spatial as well as social control
on the the restrictions laid down by
the park managers.

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, MANIPAL

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . 2001). FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. • It is an inexpensive and easy method to yield interesting information.B. • It is a good way to explore a research problem (Sommer & Sommer.Arch LECTURE 1 Use of trace measures has several advantages: • There is no observer when the people use the space so it’s unobtrusive. • The trace can be documented through photographs or video. • The observer can return to the space to see the trace again or to show others. • The observer can look at the space anytime and over many days. MANIPAL .

MANIPAL . the visit must be repeated to confirm the use initiating the trace. which can delay you in your quest for answers FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . therefore. • It yields a tremendous amount of data.Arch LECTURE 1 Use of trace measures also has several disadvantages: • The researcher can read too much into a trace. One visit may see a one-timeonly occurrence.B.

•Equally you know how the workers in the space view circulation and the best way to find something/someplace from their viewpoint.B. MANIPAL . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. you know there is a problem with signage. •When you see handmade. taped-up signs directing people to a spot.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .Arch LECTURE 1 •An example of this type of research is often seen when an architect/designer is working with way finding issues in a facility.

leftovers. separations. They are: 1.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . By-products of use: including signs of erosions. MANIPAL . and missing traces 2.Arch LECTURE 1 What to look for? Zeisel (1984) summarizes the important items to look for during the observation of physical traces.B. and connections FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Adaptations for use: including props.

Public messages: including official. and illegitimate signs 5. MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 3. Displays of self: including personalization. and group membership 4. Context: understand how traces clarify the context and how the context clarifies the traces FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. identification. unofficial.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .B.

•Comparing Observation Techniques The following is a chart summarizing the qualities of each technique (adapted from Zeisel. MANIPAL . drawings.Arch LECTURE 1 Recording devices •Observations can be recorded using photographs.B. or counting (Zeisel. 1984). 1984). annotated diagrams.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

MANIPAL .B.Arch Naturalistic  LECTURE 1 Participant  Trace  emphatic (feel for the  character)  emphatic (feel for the  character)  imageable (suggests ideas)  Direct  Direct  easy variably intrusive  unobtrusive  unobtrusive (no influence  on behavior)  Dynamic  Dynamic  durable (do not quickly  disappear)  FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM .

1962). •Understanding how people use and value the spatial environment is the key to planning sites that fit human purposes (Lynch.•Environment behavior studies are about the interrelationships between behavior and properties of the man-made environment . .

•Purely verbal methods(such as a questionnaire )might fail to tap the feelings and behavior of very young children and are not suitable for studying illegal and illegitimate activities. . Similarly there might be a difference between ‘what people say’ and ‘what people do’.

•People may not be able to articulate or describe the architectural setting characteristics desired by them. But with help of tools such as photos /simulations they can be assisted to express their choice. .

interactions. •Interaction Observation: It provides a more complete picture of how certain activities occur in a social context. • Ecology Observation and mapping: It combines activity as well as interaction observation by considering activities. .Hester (1975) listed various observational techniques to study interaction between the users and the space • Activity Observation: Straightforward recording of what people do in a space. actual settings and influence of each on the other.

•In time sampling. systematic observations. . at different points in time are carried out.Sampling Observations •Deciding the timing and duration of observations is important. •Behavioral observations can be sampled into two ways .The event sampling and time sampling. •In event sampling the researcher observes the field only at those times when a particular event of interest is scheduled.

to register. 1994). •Actual mapping and map-making is seen as a qualitative bridge between research and design. analyze and present data about the behaviour of people in direct relation with their physical environment (van Andel. • Behavior mapping is a systematic observation technique for documenting the use of a specific space or location (Driskell.Behavioral / Activity Mapping •Behavior mapping is a specific technique developed with in environment-behavior studies. 2002). .

•Nature of Data collected by Observation Methods •Observation can result into data which is oIn form of maps oIn form of counts oIn form of descriptions •All the three types of data need to be analyzed using different methods. .

. •Techniques such as map overlays can help in identifying the patterns existing in the field. Counts •Counting (of persons/ number of occurrences) helps in quantifying the observations and employing statistical procedures which in turn strengthens the observations and helps in identifying patterns in the data. Descriptions •Qualitative field notes help in describing the phenomenon.Maps •These have to be content analyzed.

distribution and interrelations of sociological and psychological variables.B.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . MANIPAL .Arch LECTURE 1 Survey method •Survey research is a method of descriptive research used for collecting primary data based on verbal or written communication with a representative sample of individuals or respondents from the target population. FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •Survey research studies large and small populations (or universe) by selecting and studying samples chosen from the population to discover the relative incidence .

Arch LECTURE 1 •Types of surveys •Surveys are classified by the methods of obtaining information 1.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-411) VII SEM . 3. Through personal interviews Through telephone interviews By mailing questionnaires Panel techniques FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. 2. MANIPAL . 4.

selected •The panel technique enables the researcher to study changes in behavior and attitude.B. FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch SURVEY ™Panel techniques •A sample of respondents is .interviewed and studied at later. MANIPAL .AUD VII SEM .

AUD VII SEM .Arch SURVEY ™Telephone interviews •Little to recommend beyond speed and low cost. •Especially when the interviewer is unknown to the respondent. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B. •This type can sometime be useful in obtaining information essential to a study. they are limited by possible nonresponsive on cooperativeness and by reluctance to answer more than simple superficial questions. •Principal defects is the inability to obtain detailed information FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. MANIPAL .

Arch SURVEY ™mailing questionnaires •This method is popular •But it has serious drawbacks unless it is used in conjunction with other techniques •Two of these defects are possible lack of response and the inability to check the response given •Responses returns of less than 40% or 50% are common.B.AUD VII SEM . •As a result of low returns in mail questionnaire valid generalizations cannot be made. FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .

•Includes In-home/In-office Interview Appointment first.B. other public places FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. in supermarkets.AUD VII SEM . departmental stores. face-to-face Interview: •Interviewer and interviewee see and talk to each other face-to-face. Face to face Interview needs Skill •Mall Intercept Interview Interview outside home. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL .Arch SURVEY ™ Personal interviews Direct.

AUD VII SEM . the respondent. questions. the sequence and their wording are fixed. the interviewer asks a person being interviewed.Arch SURVEY ™The interview •The interview is a face to face interpersonal role situation in which one person . their •Standardized interviews use interview schedules that have been carefully prepared to obtain information pertinent to the research problem FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE.B. questions designed to obtain answers pertinent to the research problem. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •In the standardized interviews. MANIPAL .

the interview can be valuable.Arch SURVEY •Although the research purposes govern the questions asked.AUD VII SEM . interviewing may be useful to obtain detailed hypothesis. Interview as a research tool •When information is difficult to get with other methods and when it is necessary to probe or go deep. MANIPAL . MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •When a new area is being explored. variables.B. their sequence and their working are entirely in the hands of the interviewer. FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE.

AUD VII SEM . MANIPAL .B.Arch SURVEY The interview schedule •The planning and writing of an interview schedule is an art •Three kinds of information are included in most schedules 9Face sheet (identification) 9Information. census(sociological) 9Problem information •Two types of schedule items are in common use 9Fixed alternative (or closed) 9Open end(or open) FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

MANIPAL . • A formalized schedule of an assembly of a carefully formulated questions.B.AUD VII SEM . MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. • Six important functions – Converts research objectives into specific questions – Standardizes the questions – Keeps respondents motivated to complete the research – Serve as a permanent record – Speed-up the process of data analysis – Reliability and validity purposes FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE.Arch SURVEY A questionnaire [also called research instrument] • Data collection instrument used for gathering data.

B. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.Arch SURVEY Questionnaire Development Process S te p s in a Q u e s t io n n a ir e D e v e lo p m e n t P r o c e s s D e te r m in e S u rvey O b je c tiv e s D e c id e D a ta C o lle c tio n M e th o d s P re -d e s ig n a c tiv itie s P o s t-d e s ig n a c tiv itie s T a b u la te a n d A n a ly z e D a ta a n d F in a liz e R ep o rt G a th e r D a ta U s in g th e Q u e s tio n n a ir e Q u e s t io n D e v e lo p m e n t Q u e s tio n E v a lu a tio n b y R esea rch er a n d b y C lie n t P retest th e Q u e s t io n n a ir e R e v is e . and D u p lic a t e FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. MANIPAL D e s ig n a c tiv itie s . F in a liz e .AUD VII SEM .

MANIPAL .Arch SURVEY Basic Question Formats V arious Q uestion Form ats Basic Q uestion Form ats O pen-ended Q uestions C losed-ended Q uestions Scaled Q uestions Basic O pen-ended Q uestions D ichotom ous Q uestions Labeled Q uestions Probing Q uestions M ultiple-C hoice R esponses U nlabeled Q uestions C larifying Q uestions Single-coded M ultiple-coded FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.B.AUD VII SEM .

B.Arch SURVEY Open ended questions are those that supply a frame of reference for respondents answers. MANIPAL . MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.AUD VII SEM . •They enable the interviewer to clear up misunderstandings through probing. but put a minimum of restrain on the answers and their expressions. to detect ambiguity to encourage cooperation and achieve rapport. and to make better estimates of respondents true intentions beliefs and attitudes. •They are flexible. FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. they have possibilities of depth. •They enable the interviewer to ascertain respondents lack of knowledge.

FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE.AUD VII SEM . •The funnel starts with a broad questions and narrow down progressively to the important specific points. •In a funnel type a set of questions directed towards getting information on a single set of related topics.B.Arch SURVEY •A special type of open ended question is the funnel type. MANIPAL . MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

B. Q. What do you particularly like about Johnson & Johnson baby oil? __________________________________________________________________________ PROBE: Anything else? 314 MANIPAL SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING. Why are you unwilling to buy a cellular phone when it is available in the market? ________________________________________________________________________ Probing Questions Q.RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-414) VIII SEM . MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. MANIPAL . Basic Open Ended Questions.Arch LECTURE 25 OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS: Questions to which respondents give their responses freely. What do you particularly like about Lipton Tea? ______________________________________________________________________________ Q. according to their own will.

without probe they do not ordinarily get beneath the response surface. •Usually the third alternative being don’t know or undecided is added.AUD VII SEM . MANIPAL .B.Arch SURVEY •Fixed alternative item offer the respondent a choice among two or more alternatives eg. Yes or no. FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. •Disadvantage of being superficial. disagree or agree. •Advantages of achieving greater uniformity of measurement and thus greater reliability.

......Arch SURVEY CLOSED-ENDED QUESTIONS: Questions to which respondents are required to answer from set of alternative responses provided by the researcher........ 2 response Not Sure ...................................................... 3 316 FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE....... MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. Dichotomous Questions With No Neutral Response _________________________________________________ Q............... 1 with neutral No ...... 2 response Dichotomous Questions With Neutral Response Q..........................................Is it likely that you will purchase a cellular phone in the next six months? Yes .........Do you have a cellular phone? Yes .........B.AUD VII SEM ....................... 1 without neutral No . MANIPAL . Could be dichotomous or multiple choice........

.............8 Specify ____________ Multi-coded question __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE.......B..... On an average.. Between $16 & $30 ..…..... MANIPAL UNIVERSITY..........7 Others ………........ books and magazines in a month? (Please check one from the following responses....) Less than $15 ....... 1 2 3 4 5 Single-coded question Q....AUD VII SEM ..…… 6 Cellular phone ………..........…........ MANIPAL .. Which of the following household appliances does your household have? (Please check as many responses that are applicable to you... $60 or more . how much do you spend on newspapers.and multi-coded multiple choice questions _____________________________________________________________________ Q..............…...............2 …………3 …………4 VCR …… … 5 Microwave ….......Arch SURVEY Single.) TV LCD PC Fax …………1 …………........... Between $31 & $45 ...… Between $46 & $60 ..........

Arch SURVEY •A third type of schedule item is the scale item •A scale is a set of verbal items to each of which is an individual responds by expressing degrees of agreement or disagreement or some other mode of response.B. FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. MANIPAL .AUD VII SEM . MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

AUD VII SEM . the following categories of questions. among others. ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Behavioral/Attitudinal questions Buying-intent questions Agree-Disagree questions Preference questions Ranking questions Semantic differential questions Constant-sum questions • The questions can be labeled or unlabeled 319 FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. MANIPAL .Arch SURVEY Scaling questions • Scaling questions are special types of closed-ended questions. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. • They include.B.

Allows a respondent to strongly. ‘IBM laptops are a 2. 320 FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. . feelings. Respondents can relate to the scale. disagree.Arch Type of Scaled Questions Unlabeled scaledresponse question Labeled scaledresponse question Labeled and Unlabeled Scaling Questions Examples Advantages Disadvantages “On a scale of 1 to 7. “Do you disagree 1. or agree strongly his/her intensity of with the statement. Compaq laptops’?” 3. Easy to administer and better value than code. Easy to administer and code. express the degree of agree. how would you rate the IBM Thinkpad on ease of operation? 1. Scale may be “forced” or overly detailed. Allows a respondent to express the degree of his/her intensity of feelings. MANIPAL SURVEY Respondents may not relate to the scale well.B. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY. 2.AUD VII SEM .

MANIPAL .B.AUD VII SEM .Arch SURVEY Considerations in choosing a question format • Nature of the property being measured – Subjective Vs objective • Previous research studies – Need for comparison with past studies • Data Collection Mode – Telephone/face-to-face-interview/mail • Scale level desired – Statistical analysis • Ability of the respondents FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

Arch SURVEY Phrasing and Sequencing of Questions PHRASING • Focus on a single issue or topic • Ask precise questions using respondent’s core vocabulary • Avoid – use of vague words – asking leading or loaded questions – estimation questions – double barreled questions – presumptuous questions SEQUENCING • Start with simple opening questions • Place – broad-based questions first. • Transition from one topic to another should be smooth FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. sensitive.B.AUD VII SEM . MANIPAL . – more specific and narrow questions and difficult. embarrassing questions should come later(Funnel approach) – Classification questions last. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (ARC-414) VIII SEM .Arch LECTURE 25 Criteria of question writing: •Is the question related to the research problem and the research objective? •Is the type of questions right or appropriate? •Is the questions a leading question? •does the question demand personal knowledge and information that the respondents resist •Is the question loaded with social desirability MANIPAL SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING. MANIPAL .B. MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.

Arch SURVEY Questionnaire Layout • • • • • • Provide sufficient spaces Use prominent print for instructions Use filtered questions Do not slit the same question over two pages Number the questions Layout should facilitate editing and coding FACULTY OFARCHITECTURE. MANIPAL .B.AUD VII SEM . MANIPAL UNIVERSITY.