TL431, TL431A

ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

D
D
D
D
D
D

Equivalent Full-Range Temperature
Coefficient . . . 30 ppm/°C
0.2-Ω Typical Output Impedance
Sink-Current Capability . . . 1 mA to 100 mA
Low Output Noise
Adjustable Output Voltage . . . Vref to 36 V
Available in a Wide Range of High-Density
Packages

description
The TL431 and TL431A are three-terminal
adjustable shunt regulators with specified thermal
stability over applicable automotive, commercial,
and military temperature ranges. The output
voltage can be set to any value between Vref
(approximately 2.5 V) and 36 V with two external
resistors (see Figure 17). These devices have a
typical output impedance of 0.2 Ω. Active output
circuitry provides a very sharp turn-on
characteristic, making these devices excellent
replacements for Zener diodes in many
applications, such as onboard regulation,
adjustable power supplies, and switching power
supplies.

D PACKAGE
(TOP VIEW)

CATHODE
ANODE
ANODE
NC

1

8

2

7

3

6

4

5

REF
ANODE
ANODE
NC

P OR PW PACKAGE
(TOP VIEW)

CATHODE
NC
NC
NC

1

8

2

7

3

6

4

5

REF
NC
ANODE
NC

NC – No internal connection
PK PACKAGE
(TOP VIEW)

REF ANODE CATHODE

The TL431C and TL431AC are characterized for
operation from 0°C to 70°C, and the TL431I and
TL431AI are characterized for operation from
–40°C to 85°C.

LP PACKAGE
(TOP VIEW)

CATHODE
ANODE
REF
KTP PACKAGE
(TOP VIEW)

CATHODE
ANODE

ANODE
REF

Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of
Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
Copyright  1999, Texas Instruments Incorporated

PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date.
Products conform to specifications per the terms of Texas Instruments
standard warranty. Production processing does not necessarily include
testing of all parameters.

POST OFFICE BOX 655303

• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265

1

TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

AVAILABLE OPTIONS
PACKAGED DEVICES
SMALL
OUTLINE
(D)

PLASTIC
FLANGE
MOUNT
(KTP)

TO-226AA
(LP)

PLASTIC
DIP
(P)

SOT-89
(PK)

SHRINK
SMALL
OUTLINE
(PW)

0°C to 70°C

TL431CD
TL431ACD

TL431CKTPR

TL431CLP
TL431ACLP

TL431CP
TL431ACP

TL431CPK

TL431CPW

–40°C to 85°C

TL431ID
TL431AID

TL431ILP
TL431AILP

TL431IP
TL431AIP

TL431IPK

TA

CHIP
FORM
(Y)

TL431Y

The D and LP packages are available taped and reeled. The KTP and PK packages are only available taped and reeled. Add
the suffix R to device type (e.g., TL431CDR). Chip forms are tested at TA = 25°C.

symbol
REF
ANODE

CATHODE

functional block diagram
CATHODE

+

REF

_
Vref

ANODE

equivalent schematic†
CATHODE
800 Ω

800 Ω
20 pF

REF
150 Ω
3.28 kΩ
2.4 kΩ

7.2 kΩ

4 kΩ
20 pF

1 kΩ
800 Ω
ANODE
† All component values are nominal.

2

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10 kΩ

TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

absolute maximum ratings over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)†
Cathode voltage, VKA (see Note 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 V
Continuous cathode current range, IKA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –100 mA to 150 mA
Reference input current range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –50 µA to 10 mA
Package thermal impedance, θJA (see Notes 2 and 3): D package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97°C/W
LP package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156°C/W
KTP package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28°C/W
P package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127°C/W
PK package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52°C/W
PW package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149°C/W
Lead temperature 1,6 mm (1/16 inch) from case for 10 seconds: D, P, or PW package . . . . . . . . . . . . 260°C
Lead temperature 1,6 mm (1/16 inch) from case for 60 seconds: LP or PK package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300°C
Storage temperature range, Tstg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –65°C to 150°C
† Stresses beyond those listed under “absolute maximum ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and
functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under “recommended operating conditions” is not
implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
NOTES: 1. Voltage values are with respect to the anode terminal unless otherwise noted.
2. Maximum power dissipation is a function of TJ(max), θJA, and TA. The maximum allowable power dissipation at any allowable
ambient temperature is PD = (TJ(max) – TA)/θJA. Operating at the absolute maximum TJ of 150°C can impact reliability.
3. The package thermal impedance is calculated in accordance with JESD 51, except for through-hole packages, which use a trace
length of zero.

recommended operating conditions
Cathode voltage, VKA
Cathode current, IKA
TL431C, TL431AC

free air temperature range,
range TA
Operating free-air

TL431I, TL431AI

POST OFFICE BOX 655303

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MIN

MAX

Vref
1

36

UNIT
V

100

mA

0

70

–40

85

°C

3

TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

electrical characteristics over recommended operating conditions, TA = 25°C (unless otherwise
noted)
TEST
CIRCUIT

PARAMETER

TEST CONDITIONS
IKA = 10 mA

TL431C

UNIT

MIN

TYP

MAX

2440

2495

2550

mV

4

25

mV

–1.4

–2.7

–1

–2

mV
V

Vref

Reference voltage

2

VKA = Vref,

VI(dev)

Deviation of reference voltage
over full temperature range
(see Figure 1)

2

VKA = Vref, IKA = 10 mA,
TA = full range†

DVref
DVKA

Ratio of change
g in reference voltage
g
to the change in cathode voltage

3

IKA = 10 mA

Iref

Reference current

3

IKA = 10 mA, R1 = 10 kΩ, R2 = ∞

2

4

µA

II(dev)

Deviation of reference current
over full temperature range
(see Figure 1)

3

IKA = 10 mA, R1 = 10 kΩ, R2 = ∞,
TA = full range†

0.4

1.2

µA

Imin

Minimum cathode current
for regulation

2

VKA = Vref

0.4

1

mA

Ioff

Off-state cathode current

4

0.1

1

µA

|zKA|

Dynamic impedance (see Figure 1)

1

VKA = 36 V,
Vref = 0
IKA = 1 mA to 100 mA, VKA = Vref,
f ≤ 1 kHz

0.2

0.5

∆VKA = 10 V – Vref
∆VKA = 36 V – 10 V

† Full range is 0°C to 70°C for the TL431C.

The deviation parameters Vref(dev) and Iref(dev) are defined as the differences between the maximum and minimum
values obtained over the recommended temperature range. The average full-range temperature coefficient of the
reference voltage, αVref, is defined as:

Ťa Ť ǒ
Vref

ppm
°C

ǒ
Ǔ
Ǔ
+

V I(dev)
V at 25°C
ref
DTA

Maximum Vref

10 6

VI(dev)
Minimum Vref
∆TA

where:
∆TA is the recommended operating free-air temperature range of the device.
αVref can be positive or negative, depending on whether minimum Vref or maximum Vref, respectively, occurs at the
lower temperature.
Example: maximum Vref = 2496 mV at 30°C, minimum Vref = 2492 mV at 0°C, Vref = 2495 mV at 25°C,
∆TA = 70°C for TL431C

Ť Ť+ǒ
aVref

Ǔ

4 mV
2495 mV
70°C

10 6

[ 23 ppmń°C

Because minimum Vref occurs at the lower temperature, the coefficient is positive.
Calculating Dynamic Impedance

Ť Ť + DD

V

KA
I
KA
When the device is operating with two external resistors (see Figure 3), the total dynamic impedance of the circuit
is given by:
The dynamic impedance is defined as: z KA

Ť Ťǒ

Ǔ

Ȁ + DDVI [ zKA 1 ) R1
R2

|z |

Figure 1. Calculating Deviation Parameters and Dynamic Impedance

4

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TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

electrical characteristics over recommended operating conditions, TA = 25°C (unless otherwise
noted)
PARAMETER

TEST
CIRCUIT

TEST CONDITIONS
IKA = 10 mA

TL431I

UNIT

MIN

TYP

MAX

2440

2495

2550

mV

5

50

mV

–1.4

–2.7

–1

–2

mV
V

Vref

Reference voltage

2

VKA = Vref,

VI(dev)

Deviation of reference voltage
over full temperature range
(see Figure 1)

2

VKA = Vref, IKA = 10 mA,
TA = full range†

DVref
DVKA

Ratio of change
g in reference voltage
g
to the change in cathode voltage

3

IKA = 10 mA

Iref

Reference current

3

IKA = 10 mA, R1 = 10 kΩ, R2 = ∞

2

4

µA

II(dev)

Deviation of reference current
over full temperature range
(see Figure 1)

3

IKA = 10 mA, R1 = 10 kΩ, R2 = ∞,
TA = full range†

0.8

2.5

µA

Imin

Minimum cathode current for
regulation

2

VKA = Vref

0.4

1

mA

Ioff

Off-state cathode current

4

0.1

1

µA

|zKA|

Dynamic impedance (see Figure 1)

2

VKA = 36 V,
Vref = 0
IKA = 1 mA to 100 mA, VKA = Vref,
f ≤ 1 kHz

0.2

0.5

∆VKA = 10 V – Vref
∆VKA = 36 V – 10 V

† Full range is –40°C to 85°C for the TL431I.

electrical characteristics over recommended operating conditions, TA = 25°C (unless otherwise
noted)
PARAMETER

TEST
CIRCUIT

TEST CONDITIONS
IKA = 10 mA

TL431AC

UNIT

MIN

TYP

MAX

2470

2495

2520

mV

4

25

mV

–1.4

–2.7

–1

–2

mV
V

Vref

Reference voltage

2

VKA = Vref,

VI(dev)

Deviation of reference voltage
over full temperature range
(see Figure 1)

2

VKA = Vref, IKA = 10 mA,
TA = full range†

DVref
DVKA

Ratio of change
g in reference voltage
g
to the change in cathode voltage

3

IKA = 10 mA

Iref

Reference current

3

IKA = 10 mA, R1 = 10 kΩ, R2 = ∞

2

4

µA

II(dev)

Deviation of reference current
over full temperature range
(see Figure 1)

3

IKA = 10 mA, R1 = 10 kΩ, R2 = ∞,
TA = full range‡

0.8

1.2

µA

Imin

Minimum cathode current
for regulation

2

VKA = Vref

0.4

0.6

mA

Ioff

Off-state cathode current

4

0.1

0.5

µA

|zKA|

Dynamic impedance (see Figure 1)

1

VKA = 36 V,
Vref = 0
IKA = 1 mA to 100 mA, VKA = Vref,
f ≤ 1 kHz

0.2

0.5

∆VKA = 10 V – Vref
∆VKA = 36 V – 10 V

‡ Full range is 0°C to 70°C for the TL431AC.

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5

TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

electrical characteristics over recommended operating conditions, TA = 25°C (unless otherwise
noted)
TEST
CIRCUIT

PARAMETER

TEST CONDITIONS
IKA = 10 mA

TL431AI

UNIT

MIN

TYP

MAX

2470

2495

2520

mV

5

50

mV

–1.4

–2.7

–1

–2

mV
V

Vref

Reference voltage

2

VKA = Vref,

VI(dev)

Deviation of reference voltage
over full temperature range
(see Figure 1)

2

VKA = Vref, IKA = 10 mA,
TA = full range†

DVref
DVKA

Ratio of change
g in reference voltage
g
to the change in cathode voltage

3

IKA = 10 mA

Iref

Reference current

3

IKA = 10 mA, R1 = 10 kΩ, R2 = ∞

2

4

µA

II(dev)

Deviation of reference current
over full temperature range
(see Figure 1)

3

IKA = 10 mA, R1 = 10 kΩ, R2 = ∞,
TA = full range†

0.8

2.5

µA

Imin

Minimum cathode current
for regulation

2

VKA = Vref

0.4

0.7

mA

Ioff

Off-state cathode current

4

0.1

0.5

µA

|zKA|

Dynamic impedance (see Figure 1)

2

VKA = 36 V,
Vref = 0
IKA = 1 mA to 100 mA, VKA = Vref,
f ≤ 1 kHz

0.2

0.5

∆VKA = 10 V – Vref
∆VKA = 36 V – 10 V

† Full range is –40°C to 85°C for the TL431AI.

electrical characteristics over recommended operating conditions, TA = 25°C (unless otherwise
noted)
TEST
CIRCUIT

PARAMETER
Vref

Reference voltage

2

TEST CONDITIONS
VKA = Vref,

TL431Y
MIN

TYP

MAX

IKA = 10 mA
∆VKA = 10 V – Vref

2495

mV

–1.4
–1

mV
V

2

µA

DVref
DVKA

Ratio of change
g in reference voltage
g
to the change in cathode voltage

3

Iref

Reference input current

3

∆VKA = 36 V – 10 V
IKA = 10 mA, R1 = 10 kΩ, R2 = ∞

Imin

Minimum cathode current
for regulation

2

VKA = Vref

0.4

mA

Ioff

Off-state cathode current

4

0.1

µA

|zKA|

Dynamic impedance‡

2

VKA = 36 V,
Vref = 0
IKA = 1 mA to 100 mA, VKA = Vref,
f ≤ 1 kHz

0.2

‡ Calculating dynamic impedance:

IKA = 10 mA

Ť Ť + DD

V KA
I KA
When the device is operating with two external resistors (see Figure 3), the total dynamic impedance of the circuit is given by:

The dynamic impedance is defined as: z
KA

[ |z
Ȁ + ∆V
∆I

|z |

6

UNIT

KA

ǒ) Ǔ

| 1

R1
R2

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TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

PARAMETER MEASUREMENT INFORMATION
VKA

Input
IKA

Vref

Figure 2. Test Circuit for VKA = Vref

Input

VKA
IKA

R1

Iref

R2

Vref

V KA

+V

ǒ ) Ǔ)

ref

1

R1
R2

I ref

R1

Figure 3. Test Circuit for VKA > Vref

Input

VKA
Ioff

Figure 4. Test Circuit for Ioff

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7

TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Table 1. Graphs
FIGURE
Reference input voltage vs Free-air temperature

5

Reference input current vs Free-air temperature

6

Cathode current vs Cathode voltage

7, 8

Off-state cathode current vs Free-air temperature

9

Ratio of delta reference voltage to change in cathode voltage vs Free-air temperature

10

Equivalent input noise voltage vs Frequency

11

Equivalent input noise voltage over a 10-second period

12

Small-signal voltage amplification vs Frequency

13

Reference impedance vs Frequency

14

Pulse response

15

Stability boundary conditions

16

Table 2. Application Circuits
FIGURE

8

Shunt regulator

17

Single-supply comparator with temperature-compensated threshold

18

Precision high-current series regulator

19

Output control of a three-terminal fixed regulator

20

High-current shunt regulator

21

Crowbar circuit

22

Precision 5-V 1.5-A regulator

23

Efficient 5-V precision regulator

24

PWM converter with reference

25

Voltage monitor

26

Delay timer

27

Precision current limiter

28

Precision constant-current sink

29

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TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS†
REFERENCE VOLTAGE
vs
FREE-AIR TEMPERATURE

REFERENCE CURRENT
vs
FREE-AIR TEMPERATURE

2600
VKA = Vref
IKA = 10 mA

5
R1 = 10 kΩ
R2 = ∞
IKA = 10 mA

Vref = 2550 mV‡

2560
2540

I ref – Reference Current – µ A

V ref – Reference Voltage – mV

2580

2520
Vref = 2495 mV‡

2500
2480
2460

Vref = 2440 mV‡

2440
2420
2400
–75

–50

–25

0

25

50

100

75

4

3

2

1

125
0
–75

TA – Free-Air Temperature – °C

–50

‡ Data is for devices having the indicated value of Vref at IKA = 10 mA,
TA = 25°C.

–25

Figure 5

50

75

100

125

CATHODE CURRENT
vs
CATHODE VOLTAGE

150

800
VKA = Vref
TA = 25°C

VKA = Vref
TA = 25°C

100

I KA – Cathode Current – µ A

I KA – Cathode Current – mA

25

Figure 6

CATHODE CURRENT
vs
CATHODE VOLTAGE
125

0

TA – Free-Air Temperature – °C

75
50
25
0
–25
–50

600
Imin
400

200

0

–75
–100
–2

–200
–1

0

2

1

3

–1

VKA – Cathode Voltage – V

0

1

2

3

VKA – Cathode Voltage – V

Figure 7

Figure 8

† Data at high and low temperatures are applicable only within the recommended operating free-air temperature ranges of the various devices.

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TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS†
RATIO OF DELTA REFERENCE VOLTAGE TO
DELTA CATHODE VOLTAGE
vs
FREE-AIR TEMPERATURE

OFF-STATE CATHODE CURRENT
vs
FREE-AIR TEMPERATURE

– 0.85
VKA = 36 V
Vref = 0

VKA = 3 V to 36 V
– 0.95

2
∆V ref / ∆V KA – mV/V

I off – Off-State Cathode Current – µ A

2.5

1.5

1

0.5

0
–75

–1.05

–1.15

–1.25

–1.35

–50

–25

0

25

50

75

100

–1.45
–75

125

–50

–25

0

25

50

75

100

125

TA – Free-Air Temperature – °C

TA – Free-Air Temperature – °C

Figure 9

Figure 10
EQUIVALENT INPUT NOISE VOLTAGE
vs
FREQUENCY

Vn – Equivalent Input Noise Voltage – nV/ Hz

260
IO = 10 mA
TA = 25°C

240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
10

100

1k

10 k

100 k

f – Frequency – Hz

Figure 11
† Data at high and low temperatures are applicable only within the recommended operating free-air temperature ranges of the various devices.

10

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TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
EQUIVALENT INPUT NOISE VOLTAGE
OVER A 10-SECOND PERIOD
V n – Equivalent Input Noise voltage – µV

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
–1
–2
–3
f = 0.1 to 10 Hz
IKA = 10 mA
TA = 25°C

–4
–5
–6
0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

t – Time – s

19.1 V
1 kΩ

500 µF

910 Ω

2000 µF
VCC

TL431
(DUT)
820 Ω

+

VCC

1 µF

TLE2027
AV = 10 V/mV
+

16 kΩ

16 Ω
160 kΩ

16 kΩ
1 µF

TLE2027

To Oscilloscope

22 µF


33 kΩ
AV = 2 V/V

0.1 µF

33 kΩ

VEE

VEE

Figure 12. Test Circuit for Equivalent Input Noise Voltage

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11

TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SMALL-SIGNAL VOLTAGE AMPLIFICATION
vs
FREQUENCY
A V – Small-Signal Voltage Amplification – dB

60
IKA = 10 mA
TA = 25°C
50

Output
15 kΩ

IKA

232 Ω

40
9 µF
+
30

8.25 kΩ
20

GND

10

0
1k

TEST CIRCUIT FOR VOLTAGE AMPLIFICATION

10 k

100 k

1M

10 M

f – Frequency – Hz

Figure 13

REFERENCE IMPEDANCE
vs
FREQUENCY

|z KA | – Reference Impedance – Ω

100
IKA = 10 mA
TA = 25°C
1 kΩ
Output
10

IKA
50 Ω

+
GND

1

TEST CIRCUIT FOR REFERENCE IMPEDANCE

0.1
1k

10 k

100 k

1M

10 M

f – Frequency – Hz

Figure 14

12

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TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
PULSE RESPONSE
6
TA = 25°C
Input
Input and Output Voltage – V

5

220 Ω
Output

4
Pulse
Generator
f = 100 kHz

3

50 Ω

Output
GND

2

TEST CIRCUIT FOR PULSE RESPONSE

1

0
–1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

t – Time – µs

Figure 15

STABILITY BOUNDARY CONDITIONS†
100

I KA – Cathode Current – mA

90
80

A VKA = Vref
B VKA = 5 V
C VKA = 10 V
D VKA = 15 Vf

150 Ω

TA = 25°C

IKA
+
VBATT

CL

B

70
Stable
60

C

Stable
50
A

TEST CIRCUIT FOR CURVE A

40
30
D

IKA

20
10
0
0.001

150 Ω

R1 = 10 kΩ
CL
+
0.01

0.1

1

10

R2

CL – Load Capacitance – µF

† The areas under the curves represent conditions that may cause the
device to oscillate. For curves B, C, and D, R2 and V+ were adjusted
to establish the initial VKA and IKA conditions with CL = 0. VBATT and
CL were then adjusted to determine the ranges of stability.

VBATT

TEST CIRCUIT FOR CURVES B, C, AND D

Figure 16

POST OFFICE BOX 655303

• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265

13

TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

APPLICATION INFORMATION
R
(see Note A)
VI(BATT)

VO
R1
0.1%
Vref

TL431

VO

R2
0.1%

ǒ Ǔ

+ 1 ) R1
V
R2

ref

RETURN
NOTE A: R should provide cathode current ≥1 mA to the TL431 at minimum VI(BATT).

Figure 17. Shunt Regulator

VI(BATT)

VO

TL431

Von ≈ 2 V
Voff ≈ VI(BATT)

Input
VIT ≈ 2.5 V

GND

Figure 18. Single-Supply Comparator With Temperature-Compensated Threshold

VI(BATT)
R
(see Note A)

2N222
2N222

30 Ω
0.01 µF

VO

4.7 kΩ

TL431

ǒ Ǔ

+ 1 ) R1
V
R2

VO
R2
0.1%

R1
0.1%

NOTE A: R should provide cathode current ≥1 mA to the TL431 at minimum VI(BATT).

Figure 19. Precision High-Current Series Regulator

14

POST OFFICE BOX 655303

• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265

ref

TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

APPLICATION INFORMATION
VI(BATT)

IN
uA7805

OUT

Common

VO
R1

TL431

ǒ Ǔ

+ 1 ) R1
V
R2
Minimum V + V ) 5 V

VO

ref

ref

O

R2

Figure 20. Output Control of a Three-Terminal Fixed Regulator

VI(BATT)

VO
R1

VO

ǒ Ǔ

+ 1 ) R1
V
R2

ref

TL431

R2

Figure 21. High-Current Shunt Regulator

VI(BATT)

VO
R1
TL431

R2

C
(see Note A)

NOTE A: Refer to the stability boundary conditions in Figure 16 to determine allowable values for C.

Figure 22. Crowbar Circuit

POST OFFICE BOX 655303

• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265

15

TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

APPLICATION INFORMATION
IN

VI(BATT)

LM317

8.2 kΩ

OUT

Adjust

VO ≈ 5 V, 1.5 A
243 Ω
0.1%

TL431
243 Ω
0.1%

Figure 23. Precision 5-V 1.5-A Regulator

VO ≈ 5 V

VI(BATT)
Rb
(see Note A)

27.4 kΩ
0.1%
TL431
27.4 kΩ
0.1%

NOTE A: Rb should provide cathode current ≥1-mA to the TL431.

Figure 24. Efficient 5-V Precision Regulator

12 V

VCC

6.8 kΩ
5V

10 kΩ

10 kΩ
0.1%

TL431
10 kΩ
0.1%

+
X
Not
Used

TL598

Feedback

Figure 25. PWM Converter With Reference

16

POST OFFICE BOX 655303

• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265

TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

APPLICATION INFORMATION
R3
(see Note A)
VI(BATT)
R4
(see Note A)

R1B

R1A
TL431

R2A

ǒ Ǔ
ǒ Ǔ

V
+ 1 ) R1B
R2B
High Limit + 1 ) R1A V
R2A

Low Limit

ref

ref

LED on When Low Limit < VI(BATT) < High Limit

R2B

NOTE A: R3 and R4 are selected to provide the desired LED intensity and cathode current ≥1 mA to the TL431 at the available VI(BATT).

Figure 26. Voltage Monitor

650 Ω

12 V

2 kΩ

R

TL431

Off

Delay

+R

C

In

ǒ

Ǔ

*

12 V
12 V V ref

C

On

Figure 27. Delay Timer

RCL
0.1%

VI(BATT)
R1

TL431

IO
I out

+ RV ) I

R1

+

ref

CL

KA

V I(BATT)
I

O
h FE

)I

KA

Figure 28. Precision Current Limiter

POST OFFICE BOX 655303

• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265

17

TL431, TL431A
ADJUSTABLE PRECISION SHUNT REGULATORS
SLVS005J – JULY 1978 – REVISED JULY 1999

APPLICATION INFORMATION
VI(BATT)
IO

IO
TL431

+ VR

ref
S

RS
0.1%

Figure 29. Precision Constant-Current Sink

18

POST OFFICE BOX 655303

• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265

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