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**MA 237 – Linear Algebra
**

1

Systems of Linear Equations

1.1

Vectors

**Deﬁnition 1 In R2 , if A = (x1 , y1 ) and B = (x2 , y2 ), the the dot product of A and B is A · B =
**

x 1 x2 + y 1 y2 .

Theorem 1 (page 10) Two vectors A and B in R2 are perpendicular if and only if A · B = 0.

1.2

The Vector Space of m × n Matrices

**Deﬁnition 2 (page 20) A non-empty set V that has operations of addition (+) and scalar multiplication
**

(·) deﬁned on it is a vector space provided that

1. V is closed under addition;

2. addition is commutative, i.e., A1 + A2 = A2 + A1 for every A1 , A2 ∈ V ;

3. addition is associative, i.e., (A1 + A2 ) + A3 = A1 + (A2 + A3 ) for every A1 , A2 , A3 ∈ V ;

4. V possesses an additive identity element, denoted 0, with the property that A + 0 = A for every

A ∈ V;

5. every element in V has an additive inverse, i.e., for any A ∈ V , there exists an element denoted

−A with the property that A + (−A) = 0;

6. V is closed under scalar multiplication, i.e., for every k ∈ R and every A ∈ V , k · A ∈ V ;

7. (k · l) · A = k · (l · A) for every k, l ∈ R and every A ∈ V ;

8. k · (A1 + A2 ) = k · A1 + c · A2 for every k ∈ R and every A1 , A2 ∈ V ;

9. (k + l) · A = k · A + l · A for every k, l ∈ R and A ∈ V ;

10. 1 · A = A for every A ∈ V .

The main examples of vector spaces we have are Rn and M(m, n), the space of m × n matrices.

Deﬁnition 3 (pages 17-18) A set of vectors {A1 , A2 , . . . , An } is dependent if at least one of the vectors

can be expressed as a linear combination of the others. Otherwise, the set is independent.

Deﬁnition 4 (page 19) Let V be a vector space and let {A1 , A2 , . . . , An } ⊆ V . Then the span of the set

{A1 , A2 , . . . , An } ⊆ V is the set of all linear combinations of the vectors, i.e.,

span({A1 , A2 , . . . , An }) = {c1 · A1 + c2 · A2 + · · · + cn · An | ci ∈ R for all i}

1.3

Systems of Linear Equations

The process of Gaussian elimination was described; representing solutions of linear systems parametrically using a translation vector and spanning vectors was discussed.

1.4

Gaussian Elimination

Elementary row operations were described, echelon form and reduced echelon form were deﬁned. Row

equivalence of matrices was deﬁned.

Theorem 2 (page 45) Every matrix is row equivalent to a matrix in echelon form.

Theorem 3 (More Unknowns Theorem, page 49) A system of linear equations with more unknowns

than equations will either fail to have any solutions or will have an inﬁnite number of solutions.

Theorem 13 (page 100) In an n-dimensional vector space V . Y ∈ W and k. any set of n linearly independent elements spans V . The pivot columns for A are independent and the nonpivot columns are linear combinations of them.1 Linear Independence and Dimension The Test for Linear Independence Theorem 7 (Test for Independence. Deﬁnition 6 (page 60) If V is a vector space and ∅ = W ⊆ V . each ki = 0). page 97) A vector space V is n-dimensional if and only if it has a basis containing n elements. there can be at most n independent elements. . the it is n-dimensional.2 Dimension Deﬁnition 8 The dimension of a vector space V is the smallest number of elements necessary to span V. An } is independent if and only if the only solution to the equation k1 A1 + k2 A2 + · · · + kn An = 0 is the zero solution (i. Theorem 8 (page 87) The pivot columns for a matrix A are the columns corresponding to the pivot variables in the system A · X = 0..e. Theorem 12 (Dimension Theorem. Deﬁnition 9 A basis for a vector space V is a set of linearly independent elements that spans V .5 page 2 Column Space and Nullspace Deﬁnition 5 (page 59) The column space of a matrix A is the span of the columns of A (thought of as individual column vectors). Theorem 5 (Translation Theorem. i. Deﬁnition 7 (page 64) The nullspace of an m × n matrix A is the set of solutions to the system of homogeneous equations AX = 0 where X is an n × 1 column vector of variables. A2 . . . then any set of n elements that spans the space must be independent. 2 2.e. Theorem 11 (page 97) If a vector space can be spanned by n independent elements. W is a subspace of V if W is closed under all linear combinations.Summary – MA 237 1. .. Theorem 6 (page 66) A subspace of a vector space V is a vector space under the addition and scalar multiplication operations inherited from V . k · X + l · Y ∈ W . Theorem 9 (page 94) In an n-dimensional vector space. given any X. page 63) Let T be any solution to the system AX = B. 2. page 82) A set of vectors {A1 . all bases contain n elements. l ∈ R. Theorem 4 (page 59) A linear system is solvable if and only if the vector of constants belongs to the column space of the coeﬃcient matrix. Then Y satisﬁes this system if and only if Y = T + Z where Z satisﬁes AZ = 0. Theorem 10 (page 96) If a vector space is n-dimensional. Note that the above deﬁnition is equivalent to saying that a non-empty subset W of a vector space V is a subspace if and only if W is a vector space itself. . In this case.

3 Applications to Systems Deﬁnition 10 (page 122) The row space of a matrix A is the span of the rows of A. the row space and the column space have the same diminsion. then those spanning vectors are independent. Deﬁnition 11 (page 125) The rank of a matrix A is the dimension of the row space. . Theorem 19 (page 128) If a matrix A is placed in row-reduced echolon form. Theorem 18 (Rank-Nullity page 127) For any matrix A. This common dimension is the rank of A. Then A and B have the same row space. the rank of A plus the dimension of the nullspace of A is the total number of columns of A. Theorem 17 (page 126) For any matrix A. Theorem 15 (page 123) Let A and B be two row-equivalent matrices. page 124) The non-zero rows of any echelon form of a matrix A form a basis for the row space of A. any set of n elements that spans V must be independend and any set of n independent elements must span V . 2. and the nullspace expressed as a span of the vectors corresponding to the free columns. It is computable as the number of non-zero rows in an exhelon form of the matrix. Theorem 16 (Non-Zero Tows Theorem.Summary – MA 237 page 3 Theorem 14 (page 100) In an n-dimensional space V .

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