Chapter 2

Perception,
Personality, and
Emotion

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition.
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Perception and Personality,
and
Emotions
Questions for Consideration
Questions for Consideration

•  What is perception?
•  What causes people to have different
perceptions of the same situation?
•  Can people be mistaken in their perceptions?
•  Does perception really affect outcome?
•  What is personality and how does it affect
behaviour?
•  Can emotions help or get in the way when
dealing with others?
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition.
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Perception
•  What is Perception?
–  The process by which individuals organize and
interpret their sensory impressions in order to give
meaning to their environment.

•  Why Is it Important?
–  Because people’s behaviour is based on their
perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.
–  The world as it is perceived is the world that is
behaviourally important.
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition.
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Why We Study Perceptions
•  We study this topic to better understand
how people make attributions about
events.
•  We don’t see reality. We interpret
what we see and call it reality.
•  The attribution process guides our
behaviour, regardless of the truth of the
attribution
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition.
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Second Canadian Edition.Factors Influencing Perception •  The Perceiver •  The Target •  The Situation Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Stephen P.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.Exhibit 2-1 Factors that Influence Perception The Situation • Time The Perceiver • Work setting • Social setting • Attitudes • Motives Perception • Interests • Experience • Expectations The Target • Novelty • Motion • Sounds • Size • Background • Proximity Chapter 2. . Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Second Canadian Edition.

. Second Canadian Edition.Perceptual Errors •  •  •  •  •  •  Attribution Theory Selective Perception Halo Effect Contrast Effects Projection Stereotyping Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Second Canadian Edition. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. .Attribution Theory •  When individuals observe behaviour. –  Distinctiveness •  Does individual act the same way in other situations? –  Consensus •  Does individual act the same as others in same situation? –  Consistency •  Does the individual act the same way over time? Chapter 2.

. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Chapter 2. •  Self-Serving Bias –  The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.Attribution Theory •  Fundamental Attribution Error –  The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others. Second Canadian Edition. Stephen P.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Second Canadian Edition. . Stephen P.Exhibit 2-2 Attribution Theory Observation Interpretation Distinctiveness (How often does the person do this in other settings?) Individual behaviour Consensus (How often do other people do this in similar situations?) Consistency (How often did the person do this in the past?) High (Seldom) Attribution of cause Low (Frequently) High (Frequently) Low (Seldom) High (Frequently) Low (Seldom) External Internal External Internal Internal External Chapter 2. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Second Canadian Edition. and attitudes •  Halo Effect –  Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic •  Contrast Effects –  A person’s evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered Chapter 2. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. background. . experience.Additional Perceptual Errors •  Selective Perception –  People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

Robbins and Nancy Langton.Additional Perceptual Errors •  Projection –  Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people •  Stereotyping –  Judging someone on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Stephen P. Second Canadian Edition. . Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Second Canadian Edition. . •  Personality Determinants –  Heredity –  Environment –  Situation •  Personality Traits –  Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behaviour •  The Big Five Model Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

Outgoing More intelligent Emotionally stable Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Sensitive Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Experimenting Self-sufficient Controlled Tense Chapter 2. 11. 14. vs. vs. 6. vs. vs. vs. Reserved Less intelligent Affected by feelings Submissive Serious Expedient Timid Tough-minded Trusting Practical Forthright Self-assured Conservative Group-dependent Uncontrolled Relaxed vs. vs.Exhibit 2-3 Sixteen Primary Personality Traits 1. vs. 2. 16. vs. 15. 5. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 13. Robbins and Nancy Langton. 12. 7. 8. Stephen P. Second Canadian Edition. vs. 9. vs. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. 10. vs. vs. . 3. 4. vs. vs. vs.

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. . Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Second Canadian Edition.The Big Five Model •  Classifications –  Extroversion –  Agreeableness –  Conscientiousness –  Emotional Stability –  Openness to Experience Chapter 2. Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton.

Second Canadian Edition. Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton. .Exhibit 2-5 Big Five Personality Factors and Performance Big Five Personality Factor Relationship to Job Performance Relationship to Team Performance Extroversion * Positively related to job performance in occupations requiring social interaction * Positively related to training proficiency for all occupations * Positively related to team performance * Positively related to degree of participation within team Agreeableness * Positively related to job performance in service jobs * Most studies found no link between agreeableness and performance or productivity in teams * Some found a negative link between person’s likeability and team performance Conscientiousness * Positively related to job performance for all occupational groups * May be better than ability in predicting job performance Chapter 2. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

.Exhibit 2-5 Big Five Personality Factors and Performance Big Five Personality Factor Relationship to Job Performance Emotional Stability * A minimal threshold amount may be necessary for adequate performance. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. greater degrees not related to job performance * Positively related to performance in service jobs * May be better than ability in predicting job performance across all occupational groups Openness to Experience *Positively related to training proficiency Relationship to Team Performance *Data unavailable Chapter 2. Stephen P. Second Canadian Edition. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

. Second Canadian Edition.Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB •  •  •  •  •  •  Locus of Control Machiavellianism Self-Esteem Self-Monitoring Risk Taking Type A and Type B Personalities Chapter 2. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

Locus of Control •  The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate –  Internals • Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them –  Externals • Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance Chapter 2. Stephen P. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. . Robbins and Nancy Langton.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Second Canadian Edition. Stephen P. maintains emotional distance. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Machiavellianism •  Degree to which an individual is pragmatic. . and believes that ends can justify means Chapter 2.

Self-Esteem •  Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking of themselves Chapter 2. Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Second Canadian Edition. . Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. . Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P.Self-Monitoring •  A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust behaviour to external situational factors Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Second Canadian Edition.

Robbins and Nancy Langton. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Stephen P. Second Canadian Edition.Risk-Taking •  Refers to a person’s willingness to take chances or risks Chapter 2. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. .

and eating rapidly. Second Canadian Edition. –  Strive to think or do two or more things at once. Chapter 2. . –  Are obsessed with numbers. –  Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Robbins and Nancy Langton. measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. –  Cannot cope with leisure time.Type A Personality –  Always moving. Stephen P. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. walking.

–  Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation. Second Canadian Edition. Stephen P.Type B Personality –  Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience. –  Play for fun and relaxation. rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost. Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. –  Can relax without guilt. .

What are Emotions? •  Three related terms: –  Affect •  A broad range of feelings that people experience. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. –  Emotions •  Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Stephen P. –  Moods •  Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. . Robbins and Nancy Langton. Chapter 2.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Second Canadian Edition. Stephen P. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Exhibit 2-6 Emotion Continuum Happiness Surprise Fear Sadness Anger Chapter 2. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Disgust .

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. •  Employees can experience a conflict between what they feel. Stephen P.Choosing Emotions: Emotional Labour •  When an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal interactions. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Second Canadian Edition. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Chapter 2. . and what’s expected of them.

Second Canadian Edition.Emotional Intelligence •  Noncognitive skills. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins and Nancy Langton. . Stephen P. capabilities. and competencies that influence a person's ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures •  Five dimensions –  Self-awareness –  Self-management –  Self-motivation –  Empathy –  Social skills Chapter 2.

blaming co-workers) –  Personal aggression (sexual harassment.Negative Workplace Emotions •  Negative emotions can lead to a number of deviant workplace behaviours. Second Canadian Edition. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins and Nancy Langton. sabotage) –  Political (gossiping. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. intentionally working slowly) –  Property (stealing. They fall in categories such as: –  Production (leaving early. Stephen P. . verbal abuse) Chapter 2.

turnover. Stephen P.Summary and Implications •  Perception –  Individuals behave based not on the way their external environment actually is but. on what they see or believe it to be –  Evidence suggests that what individuals perceive from their work situation will influence their productivity more than will the situation itself –  Absenteeism. rather. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual’s perceptions Chapter 2. . Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Second Canadian Edition.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. . especially negative emotions –  Can also enhance performance Chapter 2. Stephen P.Summary and Implications •  Personality –  Personality helps us predict behaviour –  Personality can help match people to jobs. Second Canadian Edition. to some extent at least •  Emotions –  Can hinder performance. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Robbins and Nancy Langton. Stephen P. . Second Canadian Edition.OB at Work Chapter 2. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

For Review 1. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Second Canadian Edition. What is attribution theory? What are its implications for explaining organizational behaviour? 3. Define perception. Stephen P. 5. How are our perceptions of our own actions different from our perceptions of the actions of others? 4. What is stereotyping? Give an example of how stereotyping can create perceptual distortion. 2. Chapter 2. Give some positive results of using shortcuts when judging others. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Robbins and Nancy Langton. .

Stephen P.For Review 6. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Second Canadian Edition. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. What are the personality dimensions of the Big Five Model? 8. What is emotional intelligence and why is it important? Chapter 2. What behavioural predictions might you make if you knew that an employee had (a) an external locus of control? (b) a low-Mach score? (c) low self-esteem? (d) a Type A personality? 7. Robbins and Nancy Langton. . What is emotional labour and why is it important to understanding OB? 9.

. An employee does an unsatisfactory job on an assigned project. Give some examples of situations where expressing emotions openly might improve job performance. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. and argumentative. 3. Does this behaviour suggest that personality traits are not consistent from day to day? 4. can managers do to manage emotions? 5. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Explain the attribution process that this person’s manager will use to form judgments about this employee’s job performance. if anything. How might the differences in experience of students and instructors affect their perceptions of students’ written work and class comments? 2. Stephen P. Second Canadian Edition. One day your boss comes in and he’s nervous. What. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. The next day he is calm and relaxed. edgy. Chapter 2.For Critical Thinking 1.

Stephen P. What perceptual errors did you make that might have caused this to happen? 3. Second Canadian Edition. 1. What conclusions could you draw about your group based on these scores? Chapter 2. Describe a situation where your perception turned out to be wrong. . Robbins and Nancy Langton.Breakout Group Exercises Form small groups to discuss the following topics. Compare your scores on the Learning About Yourself Exercises at the end of the chapter. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. What factors may have affected your perceptions of what the rest of the term would be like? 2. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Think back to your perception of this course and your instructor on the first day of class.

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton.Supplemental Material Slides for activities I do in my own classroom Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Second Canadian Edition. .

. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Stephen P. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.Personality Inventory •  In groups: –  Quickly determine the means for each of the personality items –  Develop a summary statement of your group based on the means for each of the items –  What are the implications for the workplace of scoring either high or low on these dimensions? (Your group will be asked to examine one of the dimensions) Chapter 2. Robbins and Nancy Langton. Second Canadian Edition.

Kim. Chapter 2. Robbins and Nancy Langton. The team is ineffective so far. They have different perceptions about team goals. and they are avoiding getting involved. Kevin ‘sees’ the project one way. Kevin bad-mouths Kim to anyone who will listen. values and the roles team members should play. “There are more ways of getting this team started than just yours! Too bad you have a closed mind!” For the most part. who is more reserved. on the other hand. He says that Kim is a “control freak” and “the only one on the team holding up progress”.Perception Exercise In the new OB project team. and there’s pressure to get the team on track because of the impending class assignment deadline. methods. offers thoughtful ideas in rebuttal. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. . He says that he has been on successful teams many times and ‘knows’ the best ways to operate the team. and usually consults with the other group members for their views and support. two members obviously have different perceptions on just about everything the team does. only conveys her feelings about Kevin when team members are present. the other team members perceive Kim and Kevin to have a “personality conflict”. Stephen P. Kim. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Privately. Kim ‘sees’ it differently. Kevin gives the impression he wants “to be in charge” and he argues aggressively to get his way. but she has repeatedly said out loud. Second Canadian Edition.

Faculty of Commerce. Second Canadian Edition. how can perceptions be changed to that people in conflict like Kevin and Kim can reach consensus? List some ideas. –  If behaviour such as this happens often. –  What main factors may account for the different perceptions held by Kevin and Kim? •  In each perceiver? •  In the targets? •  In the current situation? •  –  What are some ‘short cuts’ each may be taking in judging the other? Are these judgements correct? –  To what extent might the current situation be affecting the different perceptions? –  To what extent might each person’s apparent personality be the cause for the current conflict? Define their respective personalities. UBC Chapter 2. Stephen P. .In Groups •  Agree on answers to the following questions. Source: Larry Anderson. Time: 30 minutes. Robbins and Nancy Langton. then report back on your group’s conclusions. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.