# EMP Mathematics - Fall 2014

Problem Set 11
Due: 5PM Monday January 12
(in box outside Fine 607)
1. (25pts) Surface Integrals. Thomas Chapter 16.6, problems 6, 8, 30, 38, 42.
2. (20pts) Stokes’ Theorem. Thomas Chapter 16.7, problems 2, 8, 10, 16.
3. (15pts) The Divergence Theorem and a Unified Theory. Thomas Chapter 16.8, problems 8, 14, 24.
4. (16pts) Surfaces and Area. Thomas Chapter 16.5, problems 18, 26, 40, 48.
5. (14pts) Eureka! - A Planimeter
Archimedes famously found the clever trick to find the volume of an irregular solid; over two
thousand years elapsed before a method to find the area of an irregular region was discovered.
A planimeter is a mechanical device based on Green’s Theorem for measuring the area of a
region in the plane.

A planimeter has the shape of a ruler with two arms. One arm of length c is anchored at the
origin (0, 0) and ends at a point (a, b); a second arm of length c connects (a, b) to (x, y), a
point on the boundary C of the region R whose area we want to measure. The point (a, b)
is the elbow of the planimeter, and its position depends on (x, y). We require that the angle
between the two arms to be less than π, and hence (a, b) is the unique intersection of the
two circles of radius c centered at (0, 0) and (x, y) respectively. The measurement consists of
tracing the end point of the second arm (x, y) along the boundary C of region R. A wheel is
attached to the second arm that measures the motion of (x, y) in the direction perpendicular
to the arm from (a, b) to (x, y): the axis of the wheel is parallel to (x − a, y − b), and the
turning of the wheel measure motion perpendicular to (x−a, y−b). After completing the path
along C, the total wheel rotation indicates the area of the region R. As the planimeter traces
out the curve C, the wheel integrates along C the vector field perpendicular to (x − a, y − b).
Define the planimeter vector field
1
F~ (x, y) = (−y + b(x, y), x − a(x, y)) ,
c
1

which is a unit length vector field. Note that the rate at which the wheel turns doesn’t depend
on the distance from (x, y) to the origin. The wheel rotation of evaluates the line integral
I
F~ · d~r.
C

Show that this line integral can be used to find the area of the region R.
6. (30pts) A Donut
The torus
S=    

2
p
2
2
2
2

x +y −a +z =b ,
(x, y, z)

a>b>0

can be parametrized by
~r(u, v) = ((a + b cos v) cos u, (a + b cos v) sin u, b sin v),

u, v ∈ [0, 2π].

(a) What is the curve with fixed v-value while u ∈ [0, 2π]? What is the curve with fixed
u-value while v ∈ [0, 2π]?
(b) Find the surface area of the torus using the parametrization above.
(c) Torus can also be viewed as a surface of revolution generated by rotating the circle
(y − a)2 + z 2 = b2 around the z-axis. Parametrize the torus as a surface of revolution
and find its area accordingly.
(d) Compute the volume of the solid enclosed by the torus using Divergence Theorem.
(e) Without any computation, give two reasons why the flux of curl(F~ ) through the surface
of the torus if 0 for any vector field F~ .
7. (10pts) Gauss’ Law
Let W be a region in R3 , show that 

Z Z
~r
~ = 4π (0, 0, 0) ∈ W
· dS
3
0
(0, 0, 0) ∈
/W
r
∂W
where
~r(x, y, z) = (x, y, z),

r(x, y, z) =

p
x2 + y 2 + z 2 .

Extra problem (Optional) Submit one problem with solution (preferably Latexed) for extra
credit equivalent up to one homework assignment. This extra problem will be due January 12, but
it should be submitted separately. We may even use a problem you submit in the final exam.

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