# Physics 7B Problem Types and Approaches

Energies:
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Use eqn sheet for respective types (magnetic fields/inductors, electric fields/capacitors)
Try to have as many constant variables as possible so that solving for the unknown variable is
easier (using ½ CV2 vs ½ Q2/C etc.)
If given energy density or have to find energy density, find volume by geometry or integration

Inductance:
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Calculate magnetic field, then flux, then plug into L formula
If mutual inductance, find flux of the other inductor

Transformer:
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Use eqn sheet
Find Req with I and V

Magnetic Fields:
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If symmetry, use Ampere’s law, else use Biot-Savart (remember that dl x r = dl sin(θ))
Use slice and dice method (if cylinder, cut into disk, if disk cut into ring, if ring cut into tiny
pieces)
Iencl is important: find it using current density or as a fraction of r/R
Dipoles: find dμ, either by dI or dA

Particles in Electric Fields:
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If solving for something having to do with trajectory, set Lorentz Force equal to centripetal force

AC circuit:
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V = IRcos(ω)

LC circuit:
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Use Kirchoff’s Rules to put voltage in 2nd ODE w/ resp to charge Q to solve
Watch out for signs (is I = -dQ/dt or + dQ/dt?)

LR circuit:
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Use Kirchoff’s Rules to put voltage in 1st ODE w/ resp to current I to solve
Watch out for signs

RC circuit:
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Kirchoff’s Rules to put 1st ODE w/ resp to charge Q, solve for Q(t), I(t), V(t)

DC circuits in general:
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Loop rule: all changes in potential add up to 0 [add up voltage sources (batteries and inductors
(remember – sign) to equal voltage stealers (resistors and capacitors)

if they are layered. cannot use Carnot Efficiency Thermo: - Draw out on PV diagram At each point of the beginning and end of processes. use charge densities and check signs Heat Engine: - Draw out cycle If non-deal. they are in series Find E between the plates (consider K from dielectric).- Read carefully when the switches are closed and if capacitors are charged Look at direction of current from battery Capacitors: - Dielectrics: if one side of // plate capacitor has one and the other doesn’t. cylinder – use cylinder. consider them as capacitors in //. find the unknowns using the givens Entropy: use path-independency – so use isochoric + isobaric or isothermic . area changes resistance Potential: - Use dQ for continuous distros of charge. sphere – use sphere) Qencl is important. then find V Find the areas spanned for each part Current Density: - Integrate over dA to find current Resistors: - Resistivity. else use E •dl Electric Fields: - Slice and dice method (disks to rings to rdθ segments) Gauss’s law *type of field distro – Gaussian surface] (plates – use cylinder. length.