College of Engineering, Institute of Civil Engineering

ES 11 Statics of Rigid Bodies

1 Semester, AY 2014-2015
Course Description: Fundamental principles of mechanics and their applications to the simpler engineering problems
involving static equilibrium; Forces and Moments, their components and resultants, and their vector representation;
System of discrete as well as continuously distributed forces; Frames, trusses, cables, friction; First and second
moments of length, area, volume, and mass.
Course goals: After completing this course, a student must be able to
1. Appreciate the fundamental concepts related to engineering mechanics
2. Gain knowledge on geometric properties of areas and volumes
3. Understand the effects of external forces on rigid bodies in static equilibrium
4. Understand internal forces in plane trusses, beams and frames
5. Develop the ability to analyze particles and rigid bodies in static equilibrium
: Math 54, Physics 71
: Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics 10th ed. (SI Units) by Beer, Johnston, & Mazurek
Additional References
: Engineering Mechanics: Statics 3rd ed. by Bedford and Fowler;
Engineering Mechanics: Statics SI ed. by Hibbeler;
Statics of Rigid Bodies SI ed. by E.S. Pacheco, 1993
Course Schedule

Lec No. Lecture Topic

Aug 7 – 8


Aug 11 – 15
Aug 18 – 22
Aug 25 – 29


Sep 1 – 5


Sep 8 – 12
Sep 15 – 19
Sep 22 – 26
Sep 29 – Oct 3


Oct 6 – 10


Oct 13 – 17
Oct 20 – 24
Oct 27 – 31
Nov 3 – 7
Nov 10 – 14
Nov 17 – 21
Nov 24 – 28



Fundamental Concepts
Force Vectors
Free Body Diagram and Particle Equilibrium
(No ES 11 classes this week)
Vector Operations
Moment of a Force,
Couples and their Moment
Equivalent Force Systems
Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies
Dry Static Friction, Belt Friction
Centroid and Center of Gravity – 2D Bodies
Centroid and Center of Gravity – 3D Bodies
Distributed Loads: Loads on Beams and Hydrostatic Forces
Area Moment of Inertia
Mass Moment of Inertia
Internal Forces, Beams, Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams
Beams, Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams (continued)
(No lecture classes this week)

Textbook References

Lab No.

Preface, Sec. 1.1-1.5
Sec. 2.1-2.8, 2.12-2.14
Sec. 2.9-2.11, 2.15

Lab 0

Sec. 2.3-2.4,3.4-3.5,3.9-3.10
Sec. 3.1-3.3,3.6-3.7,3.11
Sec. 3.12-3.15
Sec. 3.16-3.18, 3.20
Sec. 4.1-4.9
Sec. 8.1-8.5, 8.10
Sec. 5.1-5.6, 5.10-5.12

Lab 2a, 2b

Sec. 5.8, 5.9

Lab 8a, 8b

Sec. 9.1-9.7
Sec. 9.11-9.15
Sec. 7.3-7.6
Sec. 7.3-7.6
Sec. 6.1-6.5, 6.7-6.8
Sec. 6.9-6.11

Lab 9a, 9b
Lab 10a, 10b
Lab 11a, 11b
Lab 12a, 12b
Lab 13a, 13b
Lab 14a, 14b
Lab 15a, 15b

Lab 1a, 1b

Lab 3a, 3b
Lab 4a, 4b
Lab 5a, 5b
Lab 6a, 6b
Lab 7a, 7b

Schedule of Exams:


September 15, 2014, Monday 4-6pm [Lectures 1-4]
October 6, 2014, Monday 4-6pm [Lectures 5-7]
November 3, 2014, Monday 4-6pm [Lectures 8-11]
December 1, 2014, Monday 4-6pm [Lectures 12-15]
December 9, 2014, Tuesday, 1-4pm
December 9, 2014, Tuesday, 5-7pm

Second Semester important dates:
Start of Classes – Aug 7 (Thurs); Last Day for Dropping – Nov 6 (Thurs); End of Classes – Dec 5 (Fri);
Holidays that would affect classes: Quezon City Day – Aug 19 (Tue); Ninoy Aquino Day – Aug 21 (Thurs)

Useful Information:

Consultation Time/Place:

Lab Instructor:

Consultation Time/Place:

Ver. 07/30/2014, AY2014-2015, 1st Semester

1 of 7

in which case he/she will be given a “forced DRP”.5 hour-sessions per week.g. and Parts II to IV are problem solving. LW will become a “take home” work. whether excused or unexcused. Do not use correction fluid or correction tape in your solutions.0. Complaints/queries will be entertained only within a week after the results are returned.CLASS POLICIES Attendance. Electronic devices. The first one hour and fifteen minutes of the lab session will be allotted for solving the problems. the student’s papers will be collected. and audio players. It is divided into two-1. cellular phones. Use long yellow pad for answer sheets. Students will be evaluated based on their performance in 15 sets of lab work (LW). death of an immediate family member. Answer the exam alone and to the best of your knowledge. The final exam (FE) is a 40. Use black or blue ink pen. In case of suspension of classes or holidays. tablets. 8. The two problems will be given at the same time. and students must submit their work the day after the problems are distributed. and Lab-B (the first and second sessions. Students must attend the lab and lecture sections in which they are officially enlisted.to 50-item multiple-choice exam covering all topics. and competitions or trainings endorsed by the department or the University. exam number.  Lab-A: Students will INDIVIDUALLY solve one average and one difficult problem per lab session. Same procedure and grading is applied as in Lab-A.g. Submit answer sheets to your lab instructors a day before the exam. e. or earlier. Lab work (LW) is designed to challenge the students in using the concepts of Statics in solving simple engineering problems. unless his/her standing is passing AND most of the incurred absences are due to valid reasons. Below are policies pertaining to long exams: 1. namely Lab-A. the lecturer may give a seatwork or quiz that may serve as an attendance check. and zero if incorrect. he/she will be given a grade of 5. 7. and the last fifteen minutes of the lab session will be devoted to discussion of the lab problems. laptops. Attendance is required. the student gets a grade of 100 if the solution and answer are correct. medical certificate) should be presented to the lecturer and/or lab instructor within one week of the student’s return to class. Each problem will be graded “all-or-nothing” i. A student who is absent in more than 3 lecture meetings OR in more than 6 lab meetings. or during the deadline set by the lab instructors. Course Requirements. supporting documents (e. Late submission of answer sheets will result in a 5% deduction in LE grade. 5. Write your name. No make-up final exam will be administered. Each long exam (LE) has 4 parts: Part I is a 10-item multiple choice-type subtest. If the student gets a grade of 100 for BOTH problems. Any student who misses the attendance check will be marked ABSENT. 6. he/she is exempted from attending Lab-B for that week. 07/30/2014. 4. date. 4 long exams (LE). Students will be given a new set of problems to solve (on the same topic). and exams. During the lecture class.. In case there is an equal number of excused and unexcused absences. respectively). If the student is absent due to a valid excuse. lab classes. The student’s lab score for the week will be taken from the lab session (Lab-A or Lab-B) where the student got a higher score. the first three absences will be considered in the decision. ATTENDANCE POLICY WILL BE STRICTLY IMPLEMENTED. AY2014-2015.e. Ver. 2. Any student who is not exempted and did not take the FE for VALID reasons (see the paragraph on Attendance) will be given a grade of INC if his/her pre-final grade is passing. unless he/she approaches the lecturer immediately at the end of that lecture class. Only the following are considered valid excuses: medical illness. must be turned off and kept inside the bag during lecture classes. & a final exam (FE). Write only on one side of the answer sheet and start each part of the exam on a new sheet. At the end of the allotted period. 3. Otherwise. should drop the course on or before February 20. Solutions written in pencil will not be considered for rechecking. student number. Students are allowed to make-up for only one LE that has a valid excuse.  Lab-B: Students are given a second chance to solve problems and get the score of 100 during this second lab session. section. 1st Semester 2 of 7 . and page number on each sheet. 2014.

laboratory experiments. 07/30/2014. According to the UP Faculty Manual: 1. Ver. 5. Copying or providing the means to copy a classmate’s exam answers. homework. laboratory experiments. Manipulating a corrected exam paper. Allowing a classmate to copy from one’s own exam answers. homework. Any student found guilty of committing intellectual dishonesty will be penalized in accordance with prevailing University rules and regulations. and Any other form of cheating or any act of dishonesty in relation to academic activity. 2. If exempted. including but not limited to: 1. Possession and/or use of cheat devices during an examination. 3. and/or impersonating another student or allowing someone to impersonate oneself in an academic activity.. writings. Intellectual dishonesty is any fraudulent act performed by a student to achieve academic advantage or gain for oneself or others. 6.25 1.. 4. inventions and similar intellectual products as one’s own without knowledge. AY2014-2015.75 2. Any student found guilty of any form of cheating or intellectual dishonesty shall be penalized with suspension for not less than one (1) year.75 3.50 1. Plagiarism. the pre-final grade becomes the final grade. etc. final grade will be as follows: Final Grade = 0. which shall be defined as providing false information concerning an academic activity. Students found guilty of cheating/dishonesty shall be barred from graduating with honors. 8.25 2.30 x (Final Exam Score) Grading Scale (Note: This is a pass or fail course. etc. which shall be defined as the taking and use of another person’s ideas.00 Intellectual dishonesty.70 x (Pre-final Grade) + 0. Allowing another person to take an examination in one’s name.00 1.50 2.00 5. 1st Semester 3 of 7 .Grading System Grading of lab work per session (LW) = (grade for average problem + grade for difficult problem) ÷ 2 Grade for each long exam (LE) = 20% Multiple Choice + 20% Easy Problem + 20% Average Problem + 20% Difficult Problem + 20% Average of LW with topics covered in the LE Pre-final Grade = (LE1 + LE2 + LE3 + LE4) ÷ 4 Exemption from taking the Final Exam: If pre-final grade is 72% or better.00 Final Grade 72-below 76 68-below 72 64-below 68 60-below 64 Below 60 Equivalent Grade 2. Deception. 7. 2. consent and/or accreditation. and no LE score is lower than 60%. even if their weighted average is within the requirement for graduation with honors.) Final Grade 92-100 88-below 92 84-below 88 80-below 84 76-below 80 Equivalent Grade 1. For students taking the final exam.

3. 3.45.60. 10. 2.3. Recall Newton’s first law of motion Define particle equilibrium Define free-body diagram (FBD) Draw FBD of a particle acted upon by forces Draw multiple FBDs Express equilibrium condition graphically and mathematically Learn to set-up equilibrium equations Solve problems involving the equilibrium of a particle Learn (or review) different operations involving multiplication of vectors Calculate vector-product Calculate dot product Explain the projection of a vector on an axis Calculate mixed-triple product Define rigid bodies Differentiate between external and internal forces on rigid bodies Understand the principle of transmissibility Define moment of a force about a point (MOFP) and its illustrate its 2D and 3D vector representation Explain the external effect of moments on the rigid body using right-hand rule Calculate MOFP as product of force and perpendicular distance and as vector product of position vector and force vector.1-2. 2. 6. 3. 2. 3. 3. 3. 07/30/2014. 11.ES 11 Detailed Course Outline: Lesson Objectives and Topics Class Sessions Lecture 1 Lab 1A/1B Lecture 2 Lab 2A/2B Lesson Objectives After the lecture and laboratory. 2.73. 2.5. Add force vectors (calculate the resultant) using parallelogram law and triangle rule 6. 2. 3.12-2. 16.47. the students must be able to: 1. 6.78. 17.107. 3.3-2.39. 4.4. 5. 2. Lab 4A/4B 3. Lecture 4 1. 7. 2. 2. 3. 2.61. Lecture 3 1. AY2014-2015. 13. 3. 2.8.15 Prob.85 Chap.43.9-3.75.99. 5.1. 2. 2. define coplanar and concurrent forces 5. 3.76. 2. Define forces and completely illustrate force vectors (two-dimensional [2D] and three-dimensional [3D]) 4. 1st Semester Topic Fundamental Concepts  Definition of mechanics  Fundamental concepts and principles Statics of Particles  Forces on a particle  Resolution into components  Resultant of forces acting on a particle Free Body Diagram and Particle Equilibrium References and Suggested Problems Chap.63. 9.28. 2. 2.25. 2.1-1.43. and force vector Determine the resultant moment about a line of several forces acting on a rigid body Determine the perpendicular distance between a force and a line using the MOFL Define a couple Calculate the moment due to a couple and illustrate its vector representation Explain equivalent couples Determine the resultant moment due to couples acting on a rigid body FIRST LONG EXAM Ver.12-3. Lab 3A/3B 2. 1.14 Prob. 3.7.45. 3. 3. 2.2. scalar and mixed-triple products Chap 2. 4. Define unit vectors that point to the direction of an axis 7. 3. 3. 3. 2. Explain the Varignon’s Theorem and its application in obtaining the resultant of several concurrent forces Determine the resultant moment about a point of several forces acting on a rigid body Define and illustrate “lambda” or the unit vector defining the direction of an axis or line Define the moment of a force about a line or axis (MOFL) and illustrate its vector representation Calculate MOFL as mixed triple product of lambda.46 Moment of a Force  Moment of a force about a point  Moment of a force about a line  Couples and their moment Chap.8. Identify and explain each of the fundamental concepts and principles used in mechanics 3. 8. 3. 3.61 Prob. 8.11.71. 2. 2.80 4 of 7 .69.5.10 Prob. Define particles and illustrate forces acting on particles.121 Vector Operations  Vector. 15.1-3. position vector. 3.48. 3. 3. 14. 3. Add force vectors by summing up rectangular components (2D an 3D) 1. 2. 2. 3. 2.9-2.3.46. 4.75.57. 2.15 Prob.71. 2. 12. 3.11. Resolve vectors into rectangular components (2D and 3D) or along any set of given axes 8.68. 7. 3. Define mechanics and statics 2.

3. 4.142 Chap 4. 9.18.10 Prob. 3. statically indeterminate.65. 4. 4.82.54. 2. Lecture 6 1. 3. 8. 8.88. 8. 5. 8. 8. 8.9 Prob. 4. and angle of friction in general Draw the friction force with correct direction on the FBD Solve for unknown quantities in equilibrium problems involving friction. 5. 3. 3. 8. AY2014-2015. Define two-force body and three force-body in equilibrium Identify two-force and three-force bodies in a multi-FBD problem Solve for unknown quantities in an equilibrium problem (2D and 3D) Define static friction Explain the laws of dry friction Explain the meaning of maximum static friction and impending motion Compute the angle of static or kinetic friction. 10.56. 6.85.139 Dry Static Friction  Laws of dry friction  Wedges  Belt Friction Chap 8. 3. 07/30/2014.5. 6. Solve friction problems involving wedges Determine whether or not a body will move when a force system acting on the body is given Derive the belt friction formula Determine which side of the frictionless belt has larger tension Determine the angle of contact in radians from the sketch of belt/drum or pulley SECOND LONG EXAM Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies Ver. 8.121. 4. 3.16-3. 3. 7.119. 4. Lecture 7 Lab 7A/7B 1.10. 8.Class Sessions Lecture 5 Lesson Objectives 1.3. 7. 3.1-4.53. 8.1. 5. 9. 3. 3. Reduce a system of forces to a single force.122 5 of 7 . 1st Semester References and Suggested Problems Chap 3. Lab 6A/6B 2. 2. 8. 8. 4. 6. 8. Prob. 4. 8. or partially constrained. 8. Equivalent Force Systems (Resultant of force systems acting on rigid bodies) Recognize different types of supports/connections used to hold structures in place (2D and 3D) Identify and draw all reaction force and moment components for different types of support (2D and 3D) Draw the free body diagram of a rigid body acted upon by forces and moments Define equilibrium of rigid bodies Give the number of equilibrium equations and set up the equations for a rigid body acted upon by a force system (2D and 3D) Recognize situations defined as statically determinate. 3. 8.69.6. Lab 5A/5B 3. 4.14.120. 8. 4. Topic Explain equivalence of force systems by external effect Resolve a force vector with an equivalent force-couple system at any other point Reduce a system of forces to a resultant force-couple Define and illustrate equivalent force systems Calculate the angle between resultant force vector and resultant couple vector Identify types of force systems that allow further reduction of systems of forces into a single force. 7.75.89. 4.91.115.

9 Prob.2. semi-circular arc. and general arc. parabolic area. 9.93 Chap 9. Give the formula for the moment of inertia of a rectangle. 9. 10.3. 9. Differentiate centroid from center of gravity. Determine the center of gravity of 3D bodies 11.11-9. 9. Determine unknown quantities for a beam in equilibrium. triangle. (Remember: Take note of the reference axes from which the centroids given in the book were derived.75. 5.10-5. 5.131. 9. 5. Give the location of the centroid of a triangle.Class Sessions Lesson Objectives Lecture 8 1.124 THIRD LONG EXAM Ver.116 .11. subjected to distributed loading and concentrated loads 5. Give the location of centroid of an area by integration.46. and (b) an axis perpendicular to the plate 3.74. 5. 5. 9. 9. Determine the resultant hydrostatic pressure on a submerged rectangular surface Distributed Loads  Loads on Beams  Hydrostatic Force 1.1-9.15. 5.12 Prob.48.7 Prob. Define distributed loads 2. Obtain the moment of inertia of a composite area about a prescribed axis. State and use the parallel axis theorem 8. 5.66. 6. Determine the centroid of a volume (volumes of revolution).84.3. State and use the parallel axis theorem for mass moment of inertia 6.122.72. 9. 07/30/2014. and a circular disk about an axis perpendicular to the disk and passing through its center 4. 9. AY2014-2015. Obtain the moment of inertia of an area about an axis lying on its plane by integration 4. 9.44.103 Chap 5.76.145. Give the formula for the mass moment of inertia of a sphere about an axis through the center. 9.15.36. circle. semi-circle. 8. spandrel.37. and quarter circle about the centroidal axis.78. 3. quarter circular arc.6. Obtain the moment of inertia of an area about an axis perpendicular to the plane or obtain the polar moment of inertia 5. 9. semi-circle. Area Moment of Inertia 1. 5. Differentiate the second moment from the first moment 3. Determine the mass moment of inertia by integration 7. 1st Semester 6 of 7 . 9.8-5. Explain the geometric interpretation of a centroid in relation to the first moment of area.14. or any axis parallel to it. 9.96. Define the second moment or moment of inertia of an area 2. Define the mass moment of inertia 2. Mass Moment of Inertia Lab 8A/8B Lecture 9 Lab 9A/9B Lecture 10 Lab 10A/10B Lecture 11 Topic References and Suggested Problems Chap 5. Determine the center of gravity of plates and thin wires.6. 5. Replace distributed loads on beams with equivalent concentrated loads.142. 5.138. about an axis 2. 9.89. 5. and (b) line. 5. 9. Give the location of centroid of composite areas and lines. Determine the location of the equivalent concentrated load on beams 4.4. 5. Define center of gravity 7. Compute the radius of gyration given the mass and mass moment of inertia 5. 9. 5.15 Prob. 5. Determine the center of gravity of composite bodies Centroid and Center of Gravity  Areas and lines  Volumes and masses 1. Obtain the mass moment of inertia of a composite area about a prescribed axis.115. Determine by integration the first moment of an (a) area.47 Chap 9.1-5.9. Define radius of gyration and solve for it given the area and AMOI 7.121. 5. 5. 5. 5. Obtain the mass moment of inertia of a thin plate about (a) an axis lying on the middle surface of the plate. 9. quarter circle. 9.98. 6. 5. 3. 9.) 4. a slender rod about an axis perpendicular to the rod and passing through its center of mass.

4. Lecture 14 Lab 14A/14B Lecture 15 Lab 15A/15B Topic Differentiate and explain external forces and internal forces with respect to members forming a structure State the three types of internal forces that can appear in a member acted upon by a general coplanar force system Determine the internal forces at any section of a given member Define a beam and identify types of loading for a beam Classify beams either as statically determinate or indeterminate. Determine the magnitude and type of axial force (tensile or compressive) in any member of a truss using the method of joints.4. 6. Trusses 1.Class Sessions Lesson Objectives Lecture 12 & 13 1. Determine the forces acting on any member of a frame.75. 6.100. State the assumptions made in the analysis of trusses 3. 1st Semester 7 of 7 . 6. 9. 7. and bending moment Internal forces in members References and Suggested Problems Chap 7. 7.37. 6. 7.7-6.11 Prob. 6.39. 7. 5. 6. 6.87 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams for Beams 1.13. 7.6 Prob.76.1-7. 7. 6. Lab 12A/12B Lab 13A/13B 2.9-6. Define a simple truss 2. 6. draw the FBD of each of the members 3.29. 6. 6. 6.8 Prob. 07/30/2014. 7.101 FOURTH LONG EXAM FINAL EXAM Ver. AY2014-2015. 6. State the principal difference between a truss and a frame 2.53. 6.63 Chap 6. 7.61. shear.57.1-6. and bending moment Draw shear and bending moment diagrams with the aid of mathematical relations among load.9.79. 6. 8.35. shear. 6.45. depending on type of support State the convention for positive shear and positive bending moment for beam analysis Draw shear and bending moment diagrams by cutting through critical sections of a beam State the mathematical relations among load.75. Frames Chap 6. 6. Given a structure where a pin connects three or more members. 6. 6. 7. Determine the magnitude and type of axial force (tensile or compressive) in any member of a truss using the method of sections.94.89. 3. 6.78.