Introduction

In today’s fast paced world meals are no longer a very well planned event, on most occasions it is
an afterthought. The proportion of women in the workforce has increased, As a result women
have less time to cook meals at home. Hence there has been an increase in the trend of eating out.
This results in a flourishing restaurant industry. Like any lucrative industry which attracts a
number of players, the restaurant industry is also highly competitive. It is very important to get a
feel of this industry from the viewpoint of the customer. It is the customer who makes the final
decision of how much to spend and what, when and most importantly where to eat. Thus in order
to offer the right service to the customers, restaurant owners and managers need to have a clear
understanding of the factors that influence customer satisfaction.

Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfaction is the state of the fulfillment of the customer’s expectations from the
establishment. When the difference facets of the service provided to the customers exceed the expected
level, then the customer is positively satisfied. On the contrary if the perceived level is less than the
expected level then the customer may develop negative perceptions towards the establishment.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of different service quality factors as quality of
food, music, ambience, waiter service on customer satisfaction in a restaurant and to study how the
customer satisfaction ultimately relates to customer loyalty for the restaurant.
UKESSAYS.com
Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was given to MBA students of XLRI Jamshedpur in
the age group of 21-30 asking questions to ascertain the different levels of service in the Sonnet
restaurant. The results of these questionnaires were analyzed using factor analysis.
Findings – The factors that are crucial for obtaining customer loyalty are waiter politeness, waiter
promptness, space, music and food quality. The waiter promptness, space, food quality are partially
mediated by customer satisfaction. Of these factors, music negatively affects customer loyalty and
positively affects customer satisfaction. Only waiter promptness, aesthetics, music and food quality
affect the customer satisfaction. With customer satisfaction as the mediating factor to obtain customer
loyalty, we find waiter politeness, waiter promptness, space, music and food quality are significant
factors.
Research limitations – The study was limited only to the patrons of Sonnet, Jamshedpur. The
respondents to the survey consisted of students of XLRI Jamshedpur who have visited Sonnet. Future
research may be done on number of restaurants instead of a particular restaurant.
Future research may also be conducted such that the respondents reflect a more heterogeneous group in
terms of age, income level and location. The solitary effect of servicescape on the overall satisfaction
level for the customer may also be explored in future research.
Practical Implication – Hoteliers and restaurant operators should try to ascertain which aspect of the
service quality is perceived as more important by their patrons. They can then focus more to improve
on these particular aspects as in future these would lead to more satisfaction for the customer. The
customer satisfaction in turn will lead to customer loyalty and thus will increase the overall profit for
the organization.

Ambience and Customer Satisfaction The ambience and layout of the establishment has an important role to play in the experience quality of the customer. temperature. In comparison to other service industries as banks servicescape plays a more important role in service industries as restaurants where the customer spends a greater period of time. how furniture. Thus the quality of food and beverages as well as the variety influences the customer satisfaction level. This comfort has two aspects: Physical comfort and emotional comfort and safety Both these factors together affect the satisfaction level of the customer. Ambience: Ambience ( décor and artifact. odor. Han & Ryu in their research “The Roles of the Physical Environment. spatial layout) forms the impression of the restaurant. Careful.Originality/value – This paper provides insights into how music affects the satisfaction and loyalty for restaurant patrons. service area and equipments are organized within the establishment) Aesthetics of the establishment ( the interior decoration and architectural design) Seating comfort Electronic equipment ( arrangement of displays and lighting and electronic equipment) Cleanliness All these five factors together had a combined effect on customer satisfaction. Waiter Service: Waiters serve as the medium of interaction between the restaurant owners and the customers.e. The different tangible constituents of servicescape such as optimum temperature. and Customer Satisfaction in Determining Customer Loyalty in the Restaurant Industry” had studied the effect of . food is the primary reason why a customer visits a restaurant. As per Grayson and Mc Neill in ‘Using Atmospheric conditions in service retailing’. Music may also have an impact on the spending pattern of customers. The other factors of service quality that affect the satisfaction level and loyalty of a patron of the Sonnet restaurant in Jamshedpur have also been explored to provide a complete picture. Food Quality: Although restaurants have gained importance as a place for socializing. pleasant and attentive behavior on the part of the waiter leads to high customer satisfaction. The effect of music on customer loyalty has not been conclusively proved in any research paper so far. the service environment comprised of five important factors: Proper layout and accessibility of the premises (i. the proper servicescape leads to customer comfort. Price Perception. Thus the service provided by the waiters often forms the image of a restaurant. Customers are generally more satisfied in an environment playing music they preferred than in an environment of no music. noise. Wakefield and Blodgett(1996) proposed a servicescape framework. noise level . Customer Loyalty Constituents of service quality The different factors of service quality which influence the customer satisfaction level include: Music: The music played at restaurant has a significant impact on the satisfaction level of the customer. Customer Satisfaction. furnishings and layout combine together to influence the customer satisfaction and repeat patronage level. Keywords – Service Quality. Bitner (1992) coined a new term servicescape which denoted the physical constituents of a service environment.

Music helps in creating the proper ambience in the restaurant and has important role to play in customer satisfaction. They gave half of a Hardee’s fast food restaurant a makeover with new paint. In such cases music actually detracts from the service experience. wall decorations. 1996). The results from the fine dining section were surprising. ‘The effect of music on perceived atmosphere and purchase intention in a restaurant’ the music could be used by restaurants to create the proper atmosphere. paintings etc). Ronald Milliman. Wilson also found out that the type of music played may also have an important bearing on the customers overall experience as well as his spending habits. Results suggested that customers’ ‘liking’ of the cafeteria increased with their ‘liking’ for the music played within it. Koert Van Ittersum. and enjoyed the food much more. floor coverings. In 1996. In their research conducted in 1996 North and Hargreaves also found that liking the music in a restaurant had a positive relationship with the customer returning to the establishment in future. conducted by Brian Wansink and Dr. spatial layout (arrangement of objects as furniture and equipment) and ambient conditions (background characteristics as scent. The research states that the absence of music had the most negative impact on the atmosphere and thus on customer satisfaction. pictures.e.physical environment on customer satisfaction. Studies in social psychology often indicate that there is a strong correlation between music and the social context in which the customer hears it. lighting etc) . The fast food section ate their meals very quickly and ate more calories of food. According to Stephanie Wilson in her article. Customers ordered the same amount of food. In the research they categorized the physical environment into décor and artifacts (which contributed to the attractiveness of the physical environment i. temperature.com Restaurant Ambiance Study: Restaurant Atmosphere Make Us Eat More A new study has shown that the ambiance of fast food restaurants urges us to eat more. jazz music. looked at the effect of surroundings on food consumption. UKESSAYS. This relationship can also be extended to the setting of a restaurant. This can also be used to distinguish itself from the competitors. loud music creates an avoidance condition and thus can affect the customer perception about a restaurant negatively. . While the bought amount of food was the same for both sections. the speed the ate at. and if they went back for more food. This view is supplemented by Smith and Curnow (1966). ate it much slower. The research showed that of all the three décor and artifacts had the most significant and direct effect on customer satisfaction. These can be used as marketing and operational tools to improve the customer experience and resultantly improve the customer behavior. has proved that background music can significantly influence the behavior of patrons in a restaurant. who have proved that inappropriate. North and Hargreaves studied the effect of music on atmosphere in a university cafeteria (North and Hargreaves. This research. the fine dining group didn’t eat all of the food. The researchers have expressed their opinion that restaurateurs should give paramount importance to physical elements in the restaurant. Music and Customer Satisfaction It has been often agreed upon by researchers that different aspects of service like ambience and layout affect the experience quality of a customer and thus influence his satisfaction. They then studied three main areas of eating: what customers ordered. Wilson in her research actually found out that in an environment of no music the respondents were willing to pay the least maximum price. in his article ‘The Influence of Background Music on the Behavior of Restaurant Patrons’. and soft lighting.

researchers have realized that the components of service quality are interrelated and the issue must be approached from a broader perspective [2].indiatimes.These results were opposite of the hypothesis. educators'. commercial and home designs in few last decades. this research area introduced new concept in industrial. . while the fast food side ate all their meal before having that body signal. The researchers believed that the customers in the fine dining area would consume a great amount of food.Recently. This raises the question of how designers'. and students' approaches to designing with light might be redefined to regard light as a significant contributor to spatial compositions. Customers would purchase the same amount of food and enjoy it much more. the scientists.com Lighting Nowadays. scholars posit that light is most often applied to an interior design solution as a functional additive rather than considered first as an essential design element along with form. A comprehensive understanding requires examination of all the factors that influence the perception of service quality and clarification of the role that the interior environment plays in this perception. More recently. texture. A possible explanation of this result is that eating slower made the customers realize they were full. colour. and others. The study suggests that fast food restaurants that wish for consumers to have a more enjoyable experience should create a more relaxing ambiance. Charlotte R Bell [3] firmly established the business basis for embracing interior design in the place of service and to add to the interior design body of knowledge. Source: timesofindia. Referred to as "the prime animator of space. They thought the relaxed ambiance would encourage people to stay longer and order more food as a result. The interior environment is comprised of the physical and ambient elements within a service establishment’s control. designers and psychologists are believed that the lights can play the important roles on human mood and people social behaviours." light is a subject of broad application within the environmental design disciplines . In this way. Although the design of such elements falls squarely within the expertise of the profession of interior design. service quality research has been conducted within the business community without reference to design knowledge.