Introduction to

Hans-Christian von der Wense
Munich, Germany

Overview
• Progress in Automotive Electronics and it’s Impacts
on Networking
• LIN Consortium
• LIN Concept



Physical Layer
Data Link Layer
LIN Network
LIN Tools

March 2000

Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN)
Hans-Chr. v. d. Wense, Motorola

Aim of LIN • • • • Open Standard Easy To Use Components available today Cheaper than CAN or J1850 March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. v. Motorola . Wense. d.

Benefits of LIN • More Reliable Cars (Diagnostics) • More Functionality at Lower Price • Standardization of Interfaces and Components • Faster Introduction of new Technologies • Functional Extendibility March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. Motorola . v. d. Wense.

v. March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. Wense. Motorola . d.Todays Situation • Distributed Electronics is finding its way into cars as comfort and number of features increase. – Body Electronics – Powertrain – Chassis & Safety • This calls for different flavors of communication solutions.

13 nodes 8 subnets.Automotive Body Network •Electronics are distributed all over the car •Actuators and Sensors become “smart” Mirror Lock Lock Window Lift Universal Light CAN Light Seat Htng Instruments Htng Power Train ITS x6 Central Body Ctrl Wiper WHtg Interior Light Roof Trunk Htng Climate Seat Light St-Wheel Panel Seat Htng CAN Universal Motor 1 backbone. v. 1-8 local nodes 52 nodes total March 2000 Lock LIN Lock Universal Panel Mirror Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. d. Motorola . Wense.

(Rain Sensor needs to be interrogated every 10-20ms) Seat: many Seat Position Motors. Wense. v. Turning Light. March 2000 Climate: Engine: many Small Motors Control Panel Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. Door Lock. … Optional: Climate Control. Light Control. d. Motorola Sensors Small Motors . Radio. Wiper. Telephone. Seat Control Switch. Control Panel •Door: Mirror.Typical LIN Applications (Low Cost Nodes) Steering Wheel: Roof: (very many controls are going to be positioned on the steering wheel) (high amount of wiring) Rain Sensor. Light Sensor. Sun Roof … Cruise Control.Central ECU. Occupancy Sensor. etc. Window Lift. Mirror Switch. etc.

Distributed Electronics / Mechatronics • Electronic Control Units are shrinking and are directly applied to actuators or sensors March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. d. Wense. v. Motorola .

Wense.5 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr.6M D2B. dependable 2x2 wire 1M CAN-C dual wire 125K CAN-B fault tolerant dual wire 20K J1850 incremental cost per node [$] 1 March 2000 2 4. Motorola 10 . MOST Speed [bit/s] byteflight 2M token ring optical bus TTP (in definition) time triggered fault tol.Automotive Bus Systems 25. v. d.

6M D2B.5 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. d. Motorola 10 . Wense. dependable 2x2 wire 1M CAN-C dual wire 125K CAN-B fault tolerant dual wire 20K LIN master-slave single wire bus no crystal 1 March 2000 J1850 incremental cost per node [$] 2 4.Automotive Bus Systems 25. v. MOST Speed [bit/s] byteflight 2M token ring optical bus TTP (in definition) time triggered fault tol.

v. d.The LIN Consortium Audi BMW DaimlerMotorola Chrysler VCT Volvo Car Corp VW Steering Circle LIN Specifications Protocol Specification Configuration Language Description API Specification OEMs OEMs OEMs March 2000 Suppliers Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. Motorola . Wense.

Wense.Communication System Requirements • • • • • • • Satisfy Need for a Standard for Sub Busses Cost driven: The solution must be significantly cheaper than CAN or J1850 Reliability: High. But does not have to meet same level as CAN or J1850 Long Term Solution Logical Extension to CAN and J1850 Scalable: Capability to extend Systems with additional nodes Lowering Cost of Satellite nodes: – No Crystal or Resonator – Easy implementation – Simple State Machines • • • Low Reaction Time (100 ms max) Predictable Worst Case Timing Tools Availability: – Configuration Tool for complete Network and the single nodes – Network Diagnostics Tool – Complete Tool Chain addressing Car Manufacturer’s Processing Needs March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. d. Motorola . v.

Wense. Motorola . d.LIN Concept • Technical Solution – Low cost single-wire implementation (enhanced ISO 9141) – Speed up to 20Kbit/s (limited for EMI-reasons) – Single Master / Multiple Slave Concept → No arbitration necessary – Low cost silicon implementation based on common UART/SCI interface hardware → Almost any Microcontroller has necessary hardware on chip! – Self synchronization without crystal or ceramics resonator in the slave nodes → Significant cost reduction of hardware platform – Guaranteed latency times for signal transmission (Predictability) March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. v.

LIN Concept (2) Network •Network Configuration •Time Triggered Scheduling Data Link Layer • Master Slave Protocol • Based on UART Transmission • Support of RC-Oscillator based Slaves Physical Layer •Enhanced ISO 9141 March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. Wense. v. Motorola . d.

Motorola t . d. v. Wense.LIN Physical Layer VBAT • Single Wire • ISO 9141 Compliant – max 20% / min 80% VBAT Low/High Transmit Level – min 40% / max 60 % VBAT Low/High Receive Threshold – controlled slew rate (1-2 V/µs) K SCI GND Line driver Receiver VBat VBat Recessive 80% Recessive 60% 40% 20% Dominant Dominant 0V Slope time March 2000 Slope time t 0V Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr.

v. d. Wense. 4.. or 8 bytes Slave Task March 2000 check field 1 byte t Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. Motorola .Data Transmission master control unit slave control unit slave control unit master task slave task slave task slave task bus synch break 13 bit (min) inter-frame space/break identifier field 1 byte synch field 1 byte next synch break .. Master Task t response space data fields 2.

• serves as a reference with it’s clock base (stable clock necessary) March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. Wense. To accomplish this the master • • • • sends Sync Break sends Sync Byte sends ID-Field monitors Data Bytes and Check Byte. Motorola . and evaluates them on consistance • receives WakeUp Break from slave nodes when the bus is inactive and they request some action. v.Master / Slave Protocol Master Task • Master Task – has control over the whole Bus and Protocol The master controls which message at what time is to be transferred over the bus. It can also do the error handling. d.

d. The length coding is in the 2 MSB of the ID-Field. March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. and the Data field length. v. – 2 linked Parity Bits protect this highly sensitive ID-Field. 3 classes of 2/4/8 Data Bytes. Motorola .Message Frame Header • Synch Break: – Marks the Beginning of a Message Frame • Synch Byte: – Specific Pattern for Determination of Time Base (Determination of the time between two rising edges) • ID-Field: – Message Identifier: Incorporates Information about the sender. A total of 64 Message Identifiers is possible. the purpose. Wense. the receiver(s). Length 6 Bit.

According to ID. Wense. or 8 Data Bytes – sends Check-Byte • The node serving as a master can be slave. • When transmitting the slave – sends 2. slave determines what to do. Motorola . 4. too! March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr.Master/Slave Protocol Slave Task • Slave Task – Is one of 2-16 members on the bus and receives or transmits data when an appropriate ID is sent by the master. – either receive data – or transmit data – or do nothing. v. d. • • • • Slave waits for Sync Break Slave synchronizes on Sync Byte Slave snoops for ID.

d. Motorola .Predictability (1) • Time Triggered Approach – Message Length is known • Number of transmitted data bytes is known → minimum length can be calculated • Each Message has length budget of 140% of it’s minimum length → maximum allowed length is known → distance between beginning of two messages March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. v. Wense.

Predictability (2) – Message sequence is known • Master uses scheduling table Msg A Msg B Msg C Msg A Msg D Msg B Msg A Msg E Msg F – Use of different scheduling tables is possible • Provides Flexibility Decision March 2000 Msg A Msg B Msg C Msg A Msg G Msg A Msg E Msg F Msg D Msg B Msg A Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. v. Wense. d. Motorola Msg E Msg F .

diagnose the traffic. v. Motorola Diagnostic Tool .Network Configuration • LIN Concept includes configuration interface: – LIN description file describes complete LIN network and also contains all information necessary to monitor the network. Configuration Description Network Emulator March 2000 LIN node Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. Wense. – LIN Configuration Language Description is part of the LIN Specification and gives tools the possibility to configure the network and the nodes. d. and/or simulate missing nodes.

Wense. v. d.The Work-flow – Data Input • Definition of objects • Definition of relations between the objects – Data Processing • Logical Signal Mapping • Signal Packing (Frame Editor/Frame Compiler) • Timing Analysis – Data Output • Configuration file generation • Various optional customer-defined post-operations March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. Motorola .

v. Network Configuration Description User Information (Node Information) Node Configuration Tool LIN API LIN node Application Code Application Code Compiler Linker March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr.Application Programmers Interface Standard API • simplifies design of Application Code • opens up the market for competition. d. Motorola . Wense.

Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. • LIN Configuration Tool (lcfg) and LIN Application Programmer’s Interface (API) The LIN API provides the embedded SW developer an abstraction from details of information transfer.LIN Tools by VCT LIN Database Manager Database LIN Configuration Description File OLQ User provided Information LIN Configuration Tool spector LIN API LIN Application & Configuration Code LIN-Bus ECU March 2000 ECU Application Code Compiler / Linker Target Image • LIN Database Manager (LDM) The LDM is a standalone offline tool. d. Together with the LIN Configuration Tool and an optimized embedded SW package the user gets correctness and quality together with efficiency and reconfiguration flexibility. • LINspector a highly flexible tool for testing and verifying communication for compliance with the LIN standard. v. Wense. Motorola . providing a user-friendly Windows interface for logically describing and configuring LIN systems at a high abstraction level.

d. v.Summary LIN is a complete Solution: • Hardware • Signaling Layer (Software) • Tools – Configuration – Development – Analysis March 2000 Introduction to Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Hans-Chr. Wense. Motorola .