Mechanics

Physics 151
Lecture 24
Continuous Systems and Fields
(Chapter 13)

What We Did Last Time
„

Built Lagrangian formalism for continuous system
„
„

„

Lagrangian Æ L = ∫∫∫ Ldxdydz
Lagrange’s equation Æ
„ Derived simple wave equation

d
dxµ

⎛ ∂L
⎜⎜
⎝ ∂η, µ

⎞ ∂L
=0
⎟⎟ −
⎠ ∂η

Energy and momentum conservation given by the
dTµν
∂L
energy-stress tensor
Tµν ≡

„

„

η, µ − L δ µν

=0

∂η,ν
dxν
Conservation laws
take the form of (time derivative) = (flux into volume)
Ran out of time here Æ See Goldstein 13.3 if interested
„ Today’s lecture doesn’t use it

dx . we define conjugate momenta ∂L pi = ∂qi Then H = pi qi − L „ dη For a continuous system. xi ) = ∂η „ Hamiltonian H = ∫∫∫ Hdxdydz where H = πη − L „ Let’s see how this works… .Hamiltonian Formalism „ For a discrete system. t .η . L = ∫∫∫ L(η . xi )dxdydz i „ ∂L Momentum should be π (t .

The Rod Again „ Consider the 1-dim elastic rod again x „ 2 2 ⎡ 1 ⎛ dη ⎞ ⎛ dη ⎞ ⎤ Lagrangian density L = ⎢ µ ⎜ ⎟ −K⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 2 ⎢⎣ ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dx ⎠ ⎥⎦ ∂L = µη π= ∂η 1 ⎡ ⎛ dη ⎞ ⎛ dη ⎞ H = πη − L = ⎢ µ ⎜ ⎟ +K⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎢⎣ ⎝ dt ⎠ dx ⎝ ⎠ Wait! What am I going to do with this term? 2 K ⎛ dη ⎞ π = + ⎜ ⎟ 2 µ 2 ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 2 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥⎦ .

µ ⎠ ∂η ρ Quantum field theory is built primarily on Lagrangian „ c. Non-relativistic QM is almost all Hamiltonian .Hamiltonian Formalism „ Hamiltonian formalism treats time as special „ „ Natural structure of classical field theory is symmetric between time and space d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ ∂L „ „ „ Because of the way momentum is defined π = ∂L ∂η At least in Lagrangian formalism Hamiltonian is not so useful as in the case of discrete systems =0 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − dxµ ⎝ ∂η ρ .f.

using the complex form. ∞ η ( x.t) ∞ π nx ∞ Assuming η ( x. t ) x L „ At a given moment t. we can Fourier transform η(x.Fourier Transformation „ Consider an elastic rod with finite length L η ( x. t ) = ∑ qn (t ) sin = ∑ qn (t ) sin kn x η(0) = η(L) = 0 L n=0 n =0 „ Or. t ) = ∑ qn (t )e n =0 i π nx L ∞ = ∑ qn (t )eikn x n =0 qn(t) is a complex function Re() assumed .

2 qn2 kn2 qn2 ⎤ L ⎡ µ 2 Kkn2 2 ⎤ L⎡ qn ⎥ Ldx = ⎢ µ ∑ − K ∑ ⎥ = ∑ ⎢ qn − 2⎣ n 2 2 ⎦ 2 n ⎣2 2 n ⎦ What does this look like? .Fourier Transformation ∞ „ What happens to the Lagrangian? η ( x. t ) = ∑ qn (t ) sin kn x n =0 2 2 ⎡ 1 ⎛ dη ⎞ ⎛ dη ⎞ ⎤ L = ⎢µ ⎜ ⎟ −K⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 2 ⎢⎣ ⎝ dt ⎠ dx ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ 1⎡ ⎤ = ⎢ µ ∑ qn sin kn x ∑ qm sin km x − K ∑ qn kn cos kn x∑ qm km cos km x ⎥ 2⎣ n m n m ⎦ Integrate with x and use „ ∫ L 0 ∫ L 0 L sin kn x sin km xdx = δ nm etc.

Harmonic Oscillators „ The Lagrangian represents an infinite array of independent harmonic oscillators „ „ L ⎡ µ 2 Kkn2 2 ⎤ qn ⎥ ∑ ⎢ qn − 2 n ⎣2 2 ⎦ Angular frequencies are ω n = Kkn2 µ = vkn Wave velocity Wavenumber Vibration of continuous system can be decomposed into a set of discrete oscillators „ True for any linear system „ Lagrangian density must be 2nd order homogeneous function of the field’s derivatives „ Small oscillation around equilibrium always OK .

… ∞) What does this mean for the continuous system? Each mode is a harmonic oscillator ω n = vkn En = (mn + 12 ) ω n ∞ η ( x. t ) = ∑ qn (t ) sin kn x n =0 Vibration energy comes in small-but-finite pieces of ω n As if it’s a bunch of particles Vibration can be seen as particles „ Called phonons in the case of mechanical vibration . 2.Phonons „ Harmonic oscillator in QM has discrete energy levels „ „ „ η(x.1.t) is a superposition of sine waves with different k „ „ „ „ Possible values of E are E = (m + 12 ) ω (m = 0.

the field must satisfy relativity . E = m 2 c 4 + p 2 c 2 Make correspondence with a harmonic oscillator 2 4 Must satisfy m c 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 ω =m c + p c ω = 2 +k c this dispersion relation „ But first of all.Other Examples? „ Linear fields Æ Harmonic oscillators Æ Particles „ „ „ We know an excellent example: Electromagnetic field Corresponding particle = photon „ Photoelectric effect tells us E = ω Is it possible that all particles are quantized field? „ „ For a particle of mass m.

Relativistic Field Theory „ „ We had difficulty with relativity and multi-particles „ Each particle’s EoM looked like „ When combined. time is just another parameter „ „ dps = Ks dτ s Action integral and Lagrange’s equations d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ ∂L =0 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − look symmetric for time and space dxµ ⎝ ∂η ρ .t). we didn’t know whose time to use Proper time of particle s With field like η(x. µ ⎠ ∂η ρ Can we just call x0 = ct and call it done? I = ∫∫∫ Ldxdydzdt „ Almost… .

Lagrangian Density „ Everything depends on the action integral „ „ „ It must be Lorentz invariant Æ All the equations will follow Write it as I = ∫ L dx 0 dx1dx 2 dx 3 The volume element dx0dx1dx2dx3 is Lorentz invariant „ Because det(Lµν) = 1 for any Lorentz tensor Lagrangian density L must be a Lorentz scalar „ You must construct L using covariant quantities „ „ Your field may be scalar (η) or 4-vector (ηµ) or tensor… You combine them so that the product is a scalar .

Field Equation „ We derived Lagrange’s equation from Hamilton’s principle for continuous field in the last lecture Derivation is unchanged Æ Same equations hold d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ ∂L 0 1 2 3 =0 δ I = δ ∫ L dx dx dx dx = 0 ⎟⎟ − µ ⎜ ⎜ dx ⎝ ∂η ρ . µ ⎠ ∂η ρ „ „ d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ d ⎛ ∂L Note ⎜ dηρ ⎟ = ⎜ dηρ = ⎟ 0 ⎜ dx ⎝⎜ ∂η ρ .0 ⎠⎟ d (ct ) ⎝⎜ ∂ d ( ct ) ⎟⎠ dt ⎜⎝ ∂ dt „ Ready to look at an easy example… ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ Didn’t change this term .

φ. µ .ν ) + 2 µ 02φ = 0 ⎟⎟ − ⎠ ∂φ dx d 2φ 2 µ + 0φ = 0 ν dx dxν What kind of field is this? Known as Klein-Gordon equation . L has no explicit dependence on xµ Only a few scalar quantities can be formed Try L = φ. λ − µ 02φ 2 ⎛ ∂L ⎜⎜ ⎝ ∂φ.ν „ dφ dx µ ⎞ ∂L d = ν ( 2φ.λφ. xµ ) For free field.Scalar Field „ The simplest field is a scalar field φ „ „ „ „ d dxν Lagrangian density may be a function of L(φ .

2 qk + k 2 qk + µ 02 qk = 0 c „ Dispersion relation is ω k2 = c 2 (k 2 + µ 02 ) Harmonic oscillator! Corresponds to a particle with a finite mass m = µ 0 c .Klein-Gordon Equation „ Let’s do Fourier in space volume V φ = ∑ qk eik ⋅r k 1 − ik ⋅r where qk = ∫ φ e dV V k takes all the values that satisfy the boundary condition Klein-Gordon equation is then 2 d 2φ d φ ⎧1 ⎫ ik ⋅r 2 2 2 2 2 + µ0 φ = 2 2 − ∇ φ + µ0 φ = ∑ ⎨ 2 qk + k qk + µ0 qk ⎬e = 0 ν dx dxν c dt ⎭ k ⎩c „ „ „ 1 For each mode k.

but what is the field φ itself? „ Vibration of elastic material Æ Phonons „ Vibration of electromagnetic field Æ Photons The field φ doesn’t have to be “physical” „ „ It “exists” only in the sense that quantized excitation of φ are physical (particles) Mystical ether anybody? QM calls it wave function.The Field – What is It? „ „ L = φ. whose (amplitude)2 is interpreted as the probability of a particle being there „ Still an indirect definition of “existence” . λ − µ 02φ 2 gives particles with mass m = µ 0 c „ OK.λφ.

Vector Field „ Field can be more complicated than scalar „ „ „ How about a 4-vector. A) is a 4-vector Connection − Ex c ⎡ 0 ⎢E c with E and B ν µ 0 F µν ∂A ∂A x = − =⎢ ∂xµ ∂xν ⎢ E y c ⎢ ⎢⎣ E z c −Ey c − Bz Bz 0 − By Bx − Ez c ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − Bx ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ By . with spin 1 Recall Aµ = (φ c . for example? Such field represents particles with spins „ 4-vector field Æ Particles with spin = 1 Electromagnetic field is an obvious example „ „ „ Corresponding particle is photon.

j) . dF µν µ = − µ j 0 dxν Let’s pick a unit in which µ0 = 1 dF µν µ + j =0 ν dx What’s the Lagrangian? . ∂F 0ν ∇⋅E ρ =− =− ν c cε 0 ∂x 1 ∂E ∇×B − 2 = µ0 j c ∂t „ „ ∂F iν 1 ∂E i i i B µ = − ∇ × + = − j ( ) 0 ∂xν c 2 ∂t Defining 4-current as j µ = ( ρ c.Electromagnetic Field „ EM field interacts with charge Maxwell’s equations ρ ∇⋅E = ε0 In terms of Fµυ.

Electromagnetic Field „ To build L.ν µ ⎠ d − F µν + F νµ = ν − jµ dx 2 dF µν What we µ =− ν − j =0 wanted dx λρ . we can use Aµ.ν F λρ Fλρ 4 + j λ Aλ = Aρ . ρ ⎞ ∂L d F ∂Fλρ µ j − = − ⎟⎟ ν A dx ∂ 2 ∂Aµ .λ − Aλ . Fµν and jµ „ „ Easy to find L that works: L = Field equation is d dxν ⎛ ∂L ⎜⎜ ⎝ ∂Aµ .

the field equation reduces to =0 ν dx ν µ 2 ν 2 µ ∂ A d ⎛ ∂A ∂A ⎞ ∂ A − = − =0 ⎟ ν ⎜ ν ν dx ⎜⎝ ∂xµ ∂xν ⎟⎠ ∂xµ ∂x ∂xν ∂x This doesn’t give you the usual plane waves etc. Problem: Given E and B. Aµ is not uniquely defined „ Extra condition to fix this ambiguity Impose Lorentz gauge condition ∂Aµ =0 µ ∂x ∂ 2 Aµ 1 d 2 Aµ 2 µ = − ∇ A =0 ν 2 2 ∂xν ∂x c dt EM waves with v = c .Free EM Field „ L= F λρ Fλρ 4 + j λ Aλ Does it satisfy the usual wave equation? „ „ „ „ µν dF For free field (jµ = 0).

Gauge Conditions „ We may add a gradient of any function Λ to Aµ ∂Λ µ µ ′ A =A + ∂xµ „ „ F ′µν 2 2 ∂A′ν ∂A′µ ∂ Λ ∂ Λ µν = − =F + − = F µν ∂xµ ∂xν ∂xµ ∂xν ∂xν ∂xµ Aµ is not fully specified without a gauge condition You’ve probably seen Coulomb gauge in Physics 15b ∇⋅A = 0 This is not Lorentz invariant Natural relativistic extension is the Lorentz gauge ∂ µ Aµ = 0 „ „ „ All gauge conditions give you same physics „ Some are easier than the others to solve .

Relativistic Field Theory „ Classical field theory can be made relativistic „ „ Not very difficult – although I omitted many subtleties… Lagrangian density L must be a Lorentz scalar „ „ Built using covariant fields and currents This limits the possible forms of L „ „ Guided physicists toward correct picture of Nature Quantization of the field produces particles „ „ Fourier transformation Æ Harmonic oscillators Quantum field theory has enjoyed great success in describing elementary particles and their interactions .

oscillation Also talked about a lot of frivolous but intriguing topics I don’t expect you to keep everything in your brain „ Hopefully. canonical transformations „ Central force. it will come back and help you when you see it in the more advanced courses of physics „ At least you’ll know which book to look up . rigid body. Hamiltonian. conservation laws. special relativity.Summary „ We’ve come a long way „ „ „ Covered all the essentials in Goldstein „ Lagrangian.