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Physics 151

Lecture 24

Continuous Systems and Fields

(Chapter 13)

**What We Did Last Time
**

**Built Lagrangian formalism for continuous system
**

**Lagrangian Æ L = ∫∫∫ Ldxdydz
**

Lagrange’s equation Æ

Derived simple wave equation

d

dxµ

⎛ ∂L

⎜⎜

⎝ ∂η, µ

⎞ ∂L

=0

⎟⎟ −

⎠ ∂η

**Energy and momentum conservation given by the
**

dTµν

∂L

energy-stress tensor

Tµν ≡

η, µ − L δ µν

=0

∂η,ν

dxν

Conservation laws

take the form of (time derivative) = (flux into volume)

Ran out of time here Æ See Goldstein 13.3 if interested

Today’s lecture doesn’t use it

dx . we define conjugate momenta ∂L pi = ∂qi Then H = pi qi − L dη For a continuous system. xi ) = ∂η Hamiltonian H = ∫∫∫ Hdxdydz where H = πη − L Let’s see how this works… .Hamiltonian Formalism For a discrete system. t .η . L = ∫∫∫ L(η . xi )dxdydz i ∂L Momentum should be π (t .

The Rod Again Consider the 1-dim elastic rod again x 2 2 ⎡ 1 ⎛ dη ⎞ ⎛ dη ⎞ ⎤ Lagrangian density L = ⎢ µ ⎜ ⎟ −K⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 2 ⎢⎣ ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dx ⎠ ⎥⎦ ∂L = µη π= ∂η 1 ⎡ ⎛ dη ⎞ ⎛ dη ⎞ H = πη − L = ⎢ µ ⎜ ⎟ +K⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎢⎣ ⎝ dt ⎠ dx ⎝ ⎠ Wait! What am I going to do with this term? 2 K ⎛ dη ⎞ π = + ⎜ ⎟ 2 µ 2 ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 2 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥⎦ .

µ ⎠ ∂η ρ Quantum field theory is built primarily on Lagrangian c. Non-relativistic QM is almost all Hamiltonian .Hamiltonian Formalism Hamiltonian formalism treats time as special Natural structure of classical field theory is symmetric between time and space d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ ∂L Because of the way momentum is defined π = ∂L ∂η At least in Lagrangian formalism Hamiltonian is not so useful as in the case of discrete systems =0 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − dxµ ⎝ ∂η ρ .f.

using the complex form. ∞ η ( x.t) ∞ π nx ∞ Assuming η ( x. t ) x L At a given moment t. we can Fourier transform η(x.Fourier Transformation Consider an elastic rod with finite length L η ( x. t ) = ∑ qn (t ) sin = ∑ qn (t ) sin kn x η(0) = η(L) = 0 L n=0 n =0 Or. t ) = ∑ qn (t )e n =0 i π nx L ∞ = ∑ qn (t )eikn x n =0 qn(t) is a complex function Re() assumed .

2 qn2 kn2 qn2 ⎤ L ⎡ µ 2 Kkn2 2 ⎤ L⎡ qn ⎥ Ldx = ⎢ µ ∑ − K ∑ ⎥ = ∑ ⎢ qn − 2⎣ n 2 2 ⎦ 2 n ⎣2 2 n ⎦ What does this look like? .Fourier Transformation ∞ What happens to the Lagrangian? η ( x. t ) = ∑ qn (t ) sin kn x n =0 2 2 ⎡ 1 ⎛ dη ⎞ ⎛ dη ⎞ ⎤ L = ⎢µ ⎜ ⎟ −K⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 2 ⎢⎣ ⎝ dt ⎠ dx ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ 1⎡ ⎤ = ⎢ µ ∑ qn sin kn x ∑ qm sin km x − K ∑ qn kn cos kn x∑ qm km cos km x ⎥ 2⎣ n m n m ⎦ Integrate with x and use ∫ L 0 ∫ L 0 L sin kn x sin km xdx = δ nm etc.

Harmonic Oscillators The Lagrangian represents an infinite array of independent harmonic oscillators L ⎡ µ 2 Kkn2 2 ⎤ qn ⎥ ∑ ⎢ qn − 2 n ⎣2 2 ⎦ Angular frequencies are ω n = Kkn2 µ = vkn Wave velocity Wavenumber Vibration of continuous system can be decomposed into a set of discrete oscillators True for any linear system Lagrangian density must be 2nd order homogeneous function of the field’s derivatives Small oscillation around equilibrium always OK .

… ∞) What does this mean for the continuous system? Each mode is a harmonic oscillator ω n = vkn En = (mn + 12 ) ω n ∞ η ( x. t ) = ∑ qn (t ) sin kn x n =0 Vibration energy comes in small-but-finite pieces of ω n As if it’s a bunch of particles Vibration can be seen as particles Called phonons in the case of mechanical vibration . 2.Phonons Harmonic oscillator in QM has discrete energy levels η(x.1.t) is a superposition of sine waves with different k Possible values of E are E = (m + 12 ) ω (m = 0.

the field must satisfy relativity . E = m 2 c 4 + p 2 c 2 Make correspondence with a harmonic oscillator 2 4 Must satisfy m c 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 ω =m c + p c ω = 2 +k c this dispersion relation But first of all.Other Examples? Linear fields Æ Harmonic oscillators Æ Particles We know an excellent example: Electromagnetic field Corresponding particle = photon Photoelectric effect tells us E = ω Is it possible that all particles are quantized field? For a particle of mass m.

Relativistic Field Theory We had difficulty with relativity and multi-particles Each particle’s EoM looked like When combined. time is just another parameter dps = Ks dτ s Action integral and Lagrange’s equations d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ ∂L =0 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − look symmetric for time and space dxµ ⎝ ∂η ρ .t). we didn’t know whose time to use Proper time of particle s With field like η(x. µ ⎠ ∂η ρ Can we just call x0 = ct and call it done? I = ∫∫∫ Ldxdydzdt Almost… .

Lagrangian Density Everything depends on the action integral It must be Lorentz invariant Æ All the equations will follow Write it as I = ∫ L dx 0 dx1dx 2 dx 3 The volume element dx0dx1dx2dx3 is Lorentz invariant Because det(Lµν) = 1 for any Lorentz tensor Lagrangian density L must be a Lorentz scalar You must construct L using covariant quantities Your field may be scalar (η) or 4-vector (ηµ) or tensor… You combine them so that the product is a scalar .

Field Equation We derived Lagrange’s equation from Hamilton’s principle for continuous field in the last lecture Derivation is unchanged Æ Same equations hold d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ ∂L 0 1 2 3 =0 δ I = δ ∫ L dx dx dx dx = 0 ⎟⎟ − µ ⎜ ⎜ dx ⎝ ∂η ρ . µ ⎠ ∂η ρ d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ d ⎛ ∂L Note ⎜ dηρ ⎟ = ⎜ dηρ = ⎟ 0 ⎜ dx ⎝⎜ ∂η ρ .0 ⎠⎟ d (ct ) ⎝⎜ ∂ d ( ct ) ⎟⎠ dt ⎜⎝ ∂ dt Ready to look at an easy example… ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ Didn’t change this term .

φ. µ .ν ) + 2 µ 02φ = 0 ⎟⎟ − ⎠ ∂φ dx d 2φ 2 µ + 0φ = 0 ν dx dxν What kind of field is this? Known as Klein-Gordon equation . L has no explicit dependence on xµ Only a few scalar quantities can be formed Try L = φ. λ − µ 02φ 2 ⎛ ∂L ⎜⎜ ⎝ ∂φ.ν dφ dx µ ⎞ ∂L d = ν ( 2φ.λφ. xµ ) For free field.Scalar Field The simplest field is a scalar field φ d dxν Lagrangian density may be a function of L(φ .

2 qk + k 2 qk + µ 02 qk = 0 c Dispersion relation is ω k2 = c 2 (k 2 + µ 02 ) Harmonic oscillator! Corresponds to a particle with a finite mass m = µ 0 c .Klein-Gordon Equation Let’s do Fourier in space volume V φ = ∑ qk eik ⋅r k 1 − ik ⋅r where qk = ∫ φ e dV V k takes all the values that satisfy the boundary condition Klein-Gordon equation is then 2 d 2φ d φ ⎧1 ⎫ ik ⋅r 2 2 2 2 2 + µ0 φ = 2 2 − ∇ φ + µ0 φ = ∑ ⎨ 2 qk + k qk + µ0 qk ⎬e = 0 ν dx dxν c dt ⎭ k ⎩c 1 For each mode k.

but what is the field φ itself? Vibration of elastic material Æ Phonons Vibration of electromagnetic field Æ Photons The field φ doesn’t have to be “physical” It “exists” only in the sense that quantized excitation of φ are physical (particles) Mystical ether anybody? QM calls it wave function.The Field – What is It? L = φ. whose (amplitude)2 is interpreted as the probability of a particle being there Still an indirect definition of “existence” . λ − µ 02φ 2 gives particles with mass m = µ 0 c OK.λφ.

Vector Field Field can be more complicated than scalar How about a 4-vector. A) is a 4-vector Connection − Ex c ⎡ 0 ⎢E c with E and B ν µ 0 F µν ∂A ∂A x = − =⎢ ∂xµ ∂xν ⎢ E y c ⎢ ⎢⎣ E z c −Ey c − Bz Bz 0 − By Bx − Ez c ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − Bx ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ By . with spin 1 Recall Aµ = (φ c . for example? Such field represents particles with spins 4-vector field Æ Particles with spin = 1 Electromagnetic field is an obvious example Corresponding particle is photon.

j) . dF µν µ = − µ j 0 dxν Let’s pick a unit in which µ0 = 1 dF µν µ + j =0 ν dx What’s the Lagrangian? . ∂F 0ν ∇⋅E ρ =− =− ν c cε 0 ∂x 1 ∂E ∇×B − 2 = µ0 j c ∂t ∂F iν 1 ∂E i i i B µ = − ∇ × + = − j ( ) 0 ∂xν c 2 ∂t Defining 4-current as j µ = ( ρ c.Electromagnetic Field EM field interacts with charge Maxwell’s equations ρ ∇⋅E = ε0 In terms of Fµυ.

Electromagnetic Field To build L.ν µ ⎠ d − F µν + F νµ = ν − jµ dx 2 dF µν What we µ =− ν − j =0 wanted dx λρ . we can use Aµ.ν F λρ Fλρ 4 + j λ Aλ = Aρ . ρ ⎞ ∂L d F ∂Fλρ µ j − = − ⎟⎟ ν A dx ∂ 2 ∂Aµ .λ − Aλ . Fµν and jµ Easy to find L that works: L = Field equation is d dxν ⎛ ∂L ⎜⎜ ⎝ ∂Aµ .

the field equation reduces to =0 ν dx ν µ 2 ν 2 µ ∂ A d ⎛ ∂A ∂A ⎞ ∂ A − = − =0 ⎟ ν ⎜ ν ν dx ⎜⎝ ∂xµ ∂xν ⎟⎠ ∂xµ ∂x ∂xν ∂x This doesn’t give you the usual plane waves etc. Problem: Given E and B. Aµ is not uniquely defined Extra condition to fix this ambiguity Impose Lorentz gauge condition ∂Aµ =0 µ ∂x ∂ 2 Aµ 1 d 2 Aµ 2 µ = − ∇ A =0 ν 2 2 ∂xν ∂x c dt EM waves with v = c .Free EM Field L= F λρ Fλρ 4 + j λ Aλ Does it satisfy the usual wave equation? µν dF For free field (jµ = 0).

Gauge Conditions We may add a gradient of any function Λ to Aµ ∂Λ µ µ ′ A =A + ∂xµ F ′µν 2 2 ∂A′ν ∂A′µ ∂ Λ ∂ Λ µν = − =F + − = F µν ∂xµ ∂xν ∂xµ ∂xν ∂xν ∂xµ Aµ is not fully specified without a gauge condition You’ve probably seen Coulomb gauge in Physics 15b ∇⋅A = 0 This is not Lorentz invariant Natural relativistic extension is the Lorentz gauge ∂ µ Aµ = 0 All gauge conditions give you same physics Some are easier than the others to solve .

Relativistic Field Theory Classical field theory can be made relativistic Not very difficult – although I omitted many subtleties… Lagrangian density L must be a Lorentz scalar Built using covariant fields and currents This limits the possible forms of L Guided physicists toward correct picture of Nature Quantization of the field produces particles Fourier transformation Æ Harmonic oscillators Quantum field theory has enjoyed great success in describing elementary particles and their interactions .

oscillation Also talked about a lot of frivolous but intriguing topics I don’t expect you to keep everything in your brain Hopefully. canonical transformations Central force. it will come back and help you when you see it in the more advanced courses of physics At least you’ll know which book to look up . rigid body. Hamiltonian. conservation laws. special relativity.Summary We’ve come a long way Covered all the essentials in Goldstein Lagrangian.

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