Academic Skills Advice

Integration Summary
Notation
You might be given and asked to find , so you will need to integrate.
Or the question might use the integration notation as follows:


Means:

(

)

Integrate the following

with respect to

Basic integration of Polynomials
Add 1 to the power then divide the expression by the new power (for every term).
(Remember to include “

If:

” in case there was a number in the original expression.

then

e.g. find , if

e.g.

Area under a curve (using limits)
To find the area under a curve between 2 points, integrate the curve, substitute both points
in separately then subtract the lower limit from the upper.
Upper limit
5

e.g.

=

*

+

5

=

[

2

5

]2

2

Lower limit

“Under the curve”
means between the
curve and the 𝑥-axis.

Now do 2 boxes substituting in the limits:
[
] [
]

= [ ( )

( ) ]

[ ( )

( ) ] = 225 – 12 = 213

We have found that the area under the curve between
(We didn’t need “

= 2 and

= 5 is 213.

” in each box because it would have cancelled out.)

© H Jackson 2010/2013 / Academic Skills

1

The question is 3x bigger than the ideal so the answer = ( ) + 2 . = ( ) Differentiates to ln of the denominator. Remember: Chain rule says: So reverse chain rule says: e. ∫ ( )( ( )) ∫ ( ) = Just ignore the 1st bit and integrate the „outside‟ of the 2nd bit (i. add one to the ( ( )) power then divide by the new power). See the following examples: Question ∫ ( ) Ideal Function to integrate Compare with ideal ∫ © H Jackson 2010/2013 / Academic Skills * ( ) ( ) =* ( ) + Ideal because differentiating (𝑥 ) gives 𝑥. ( ( )) Reverse chain rule (with adjustments) The function you need to integrate may be similar to either of the ones above but the part may be a factor.g.g. Functions in either of these forms are easy to integrate because they follow the chain rule in reverse. This is because the original function was differentiated using the chain rule and so in order to integrate we need to “undo” the chain rule. or multiple.g.Reverse chain rule For some integration problems (e. of ( ).g. e. ∫ ∫ ∫ differentiate the inside function and multiply differentiate the inside function and divide = ( ( ) = ) = ( ) ( Outside (add one to power then divide by new power) ) ( ) Inside (we also have to divide by 4 because ) we get 4) when we differentiate ( 𝑥 Reverse chain rule (some patterns) ( )( ( )) Sometimes you need to integrate functions of the form: or ( ) ( ) .e. when you have a function of a function) you will need to use the reverse chain rule. e.

Question Ideal Function to integrate Compare with ideal ∫ ∫ = ( ) Ideal because differentiating ( 𝑥 ) gives 1 𝑥. Once you have spotted this pattern you can just write the answer. You will then need to integrate the part in the integral sign again.𝑥 𝑛 3rd .g.𝑒 𝑥 Similar to the product and quotient rule (see differentiation) – write down the 4 bits of information you need then put them into the formula. Reverse product You need to remember the product rule for differentiation – refer to the differentiation summary if necessary. Differentiates to ∫ = Differentiates to Differentiates to e. ∫ 𝑒𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑒𝑥 𝑦 = 𝑒𝑥 𝑦 Differentiates to © H Jackson 2010/2013 / Academic Skills 3 . ∫ When choosing which term to call 𝑢 look for: ∫ = 1st – (𝑥) 2nd . Remember: you are calling one bit and the other bit . The question is 4x smaller than the ideal so the answer= ( ) By parts This is used to integrate a function multiplied by a function.

For this method you need to replace any or with a or and then integrate as normal.Substitution A substitution can be used to simplify a complex integration. e.g. of the on the right hand side. bits on the other. and ). The question now becomes: ∫ ∫ ( ) = ( = ) ( ) Separation of Variables This is used to integrate a function which consists of form ( .g.e. So © H Jackson 2010/2013 / Academic Skills ∫ 4 . ∫ ( ) We can find all of these (and any others we need) by differentiating and/or rearranging the 𝑢 𝑥 Let 1 so and Substitute the above information into the original to produce an integration in terms of . We cannot integrate directly because of the To integrate: collect all the bits on one side and all the ∫ becomes ( e. ∫ The integration symbols are introduced after rearranging. Integrating factor Used for functions of the form: ( ) ( ) ( ) Integrating factor = ∫ Multiply the whole function by the integrating factor and you will end up with the reverse product rule on the left hand side. ) ‟s mixed up (i.

is the same (e. e.) 2. Substitute (where is a function of ). 2. 𝑐 𝑙𝑛𝐴) ( 1) ( 1) ( 1) ( ) Remember that ( 1) 1 ( © H Jackson 2010/2013 / Academic Skills √ ) √ 5 . 1. Homogenous means that the total degree in and . Let (This will be the same every time so you can just memorise it if you prefer. 3. for each term involved. The method is as follows: 1. (with logs.Substitution (2 variables & homogenous) Used when the ‟s and ‟s can‟t be separated and when the differential equation is homogenous. is degree 2 and is degree 2). Replace any ‟s and in the original: Original question: The 𝑥’s will cancel Becomes: Combine the fractions: Simplify & rearrange: 𝑣 𝑣 Now we can separate the variables and solve as normal: ∫ ∫ Don’t forget the constant. 3. Substitute everything back into the original function. Differentiate with respect to using the product rule.g.g. and cancel where possible so that you have a function with and which can then be integrated by separating the variables. Using the product rule (and implicit differentiation).