# 2/1/2012

STATICS: CE201

Chapter 6
Structural Analysis
Notes are prepared based on: Engineering Mechanics, Statics by R. C. Hibbeler, 12E Pearson

Dr M. Touahmia & Dr M. Boukendakdji
Civil Engineering Department, University of Hail
(Fall 2010)

Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis

6.

1

Structural Analysis

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Main Goal:
To show how to determine the forces in the members of a
truss using the method of joints and the method of section.

Contents:
6.1

Simple Trusses

6.2

The Method of Joints

6.3

Zero Force Members

6.4

The Method of Sections
Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis

Chapter 6 - Structural Analysis

2

1

The members are usually wooden struts or metal bars. then to floor beams.1    3 Simple Trusses The analysis of the forces developed in the truss members will be two-dimensional.Structural Analysis 4 2 . and finally to the joints of the two supporting side trusses. Planar trusses lie in a single plane and are often used to support roofs and bridges.2/1/2012 6. The bridge truss loading is also coplanar. The roof load is transmitted to the truss at the joints by means of a series of purlins. the load on the deck is first transmitted to stringers. In the case of a bridge. Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 .1     Simple Trusses A truss is a structure composed of slender members joined together at their end points. Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 6.

1 5 Simple Trusses Assumption for Design: The joint connections are usually formed by bolting or welding the ends of the members to a common plate.  Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 . Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 6.2/1/2012 6. Each truss member is considered as a two-force member so that the forces at the ends of the member must be directed along the axis of the member. it is necessary first to determine the force developed in each member when the truss is subjected to a given loading. called a gusset plate.Structural Analysis 6 3 . All loadings are applied at the joints.1 Simple Trusses Assumption for Design:   To design both the members and the connections of a truss. or by simply passing a large bolt or pin through each of the members. The members are joined together by smooth pins.

 If it tends to shorten the member. The simplest form which is rigid or stable is a triangle.  Additional elements consisting of two members and a joint are added to the triangular element to form a simple truss.  If this tends to elongate the member. it is a compressive force (C). a simple truss is constructed by starting with a basic triangular element.2/1/2012 6. Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 6.  Consequently. Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 . the form of a truss must be rigid.Structural Analysis 7 8 4 .1 Simple Trusses Assumption for Design:  The force acting at each end of the member is directed along the axis of the member. it is a tensile force (T).1 Simple Trusses  To prevent collapse.

2/1/2012 6. F y 0 need to be satisfied Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 6. which means that member BA is in tension.  As a result.Structural Analysis 10 5 .  FBA is pulling on the pin.  Therefore. Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 . the force equilibrium equations can then be used to obtain the member forces acting on each joint.  FBC is pushing on the pin. and consequently member BC is in compression.2 9 The Method of Joints For example consider the pin at joint B of the truss:  Three forces act on the pin: the 500 N force and the forces exerted by members BA and BC.  Since the members of a plane truss are straight two-force members lying in a single plane. then each of its joints is also in equilibrium. each joint is subjected to a force system that is coplanar and concurrent. if the free-body diagram of each joint is drawn.2 The Method of Joints  The method of joint is based on the fact that if the entire truss is in equilibrium.  Fx  0 and for equilibrium.

Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 . always start at a joint having at least one known force and at most two unknown forces.2   The Method of Joints When using the method of joints. Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 11 Example 1  Determine the force in each member of the truss and indicate whether the members are in tension or compression.Structural Analysis 12 6 . F  0 and  Fy  0 can be solved to determine the two unknowns. x  The correct sense of an unknown member force can be determined using one of two possible methods:  The correct sense of direction of an unknown member force can be determined by inspection.  Assume the unknown member forces acting on the joint’s free-body diagram to be in tension.2/1/2012 6.

we will begin our analysis at joint B. Joint B:  Applying the equations of equilibrium.Structural Analysis 14 7 .1N (C)  Fy  0 FBC cos 45  FBA  0 F  500 N  o BC o BC BA (T) Since the force in member BC has been calculated. we have  Fx  0 500 N  F sin 45  0 F  707. we can proceed to analyze joint C Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 13 Solution 1 Joint C:  Fx  0  F  707.1cos 45 N  0 F  500 N (T)  Fy  0 C  707.1sin 45 N  0 C  500 N o CA o y CA y Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 .2/1/2012 Solution 1  Since we should have no more than two unknown forces at the joint and at least one known force acting there.

2/1/2012 Solution 1 Joint A:  Fx  0 500 N  Ax  0 Ax  500 N  Fy  0 500 N  Ay  0 Ay  500 N Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 15 Solution 1 Note: The results of the analysis are summarized below.Structural Analysis 16 8 . which shows the free-body diagram for each joint and member: Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 .

2/1/2012 Example 2  Determine the force in each member of the truss and indicate whether the members are in tension or compression. Free-body diagram of the truss:  Fx  0 600 N  Cx  0 Cx  600 N  MC  0  Ay 6 m  400N3 m  600N4 m  0  Fy  0 600N  400N  C y  0 Ay  600 N C y  200N Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 .Structural Analysis 18 9 . Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 17 Solution 2 Support Reactions: No joint can be analyzed until the support reactions are determined. because each joint has more than three unknown forces acting on it.

Structural Analysis 20 10 . we have: 4 600 N  FAB  0 5 3 FAD  750  0 5  Fy  0  Fx  0 FAB  750 N(C ) FAD  450 N(T) Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 19 Solution 2 Joint D: Use the result for FAD  Fx  0 3  450 N  FDB  600 N  0 5 FDB  250N  The negative sign indicates that FDB acts in the opposite sense to that shown in the figure. we can correct the sense of FDB on the free body diagram.2/1/2012 Solution 2  The analysis can now start at either joint A or C: Joint A: FAB is assumed to be compressive and FAD is tensile  Applying the equations of equilibrium.  Fy  0  FDC  4  250N   0 5 FDC  250N (C) Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 . FDB  250N (T)  To determine FDC.

2/1/2012 Solution 2 Joint C:  Fx  0 FCB  600N  0  Fy  0 200N  200N  0 FCB  600N (C) (Check) Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 21 Solution 2 Note: The analysis is summarized below. which shows the free-body diagram for each joint and member: Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 .Structural Analysis 22 11 .

2/1/2012 6.  At Joint A.3 Zero-Force Members  The zero-force members of a truss can generally be found by inspection of each of the joints. we can conclude that if only two members form a truss joint and no external load or support reaction is applied to the joint.3   23 Zero-Force Members At Joint D. Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 . the two members must be zero-force members. it is seen that members AB and AF are zeroforce members:  Fx  0 FAB  0  Fy  0 FAF  0 Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 6. consider the truss below.  For example.Structural Analysis 24 12 .  Fy  0 FDC sin   0  Fx  0 FDE  0 FDC  0 From these observations. it is seen that members DC and DE are zero-force members.

 Fx  0  Fy  0  25 FCA sin   0 FCA  0 FCB  FCD In general then. the third member is a zero-force member provided no external force or support reaction is applied to the joint. it is seen that DA is zero-force member. Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 . if three members form a truss joint for which two of the members are collinear.3  Zero-Force Members At Joint D. it is seen that DA is zero-force member:  Fx  0 FDA  0  Fy  0 FDC  FDE Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 6.3 Zero-Force Members  Now consider this truss:  At Joint D.2/1/2012 6.Structural Analysis 26 13 .

Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 . then an imaginary section can be used to cut each member into two parts. Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 6.  If the forces within the members are to be determined.Structural Analysis 28 14 .  This method is based on the principle that if the truss is in equilibrium then any segment of the truss is also in equilibrium.2/1/2012 6.4  27 The Method of Sections The method of sections can also be used to cut or section the members of an entire truss.4 The Method of Sections  When we need to find the force in only a few members of a truss we can analyze the truss using the method of sections.

consider the truss below:  If the forces in members BC.2/1/2012 6. Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 . whereas GF in compression since it is subjected to a push.Structural Analysis 29 30 15 . Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 6. and GF are to be determined. then section a-a would be appropriate.4 The Method of Sections  For example.4 The Method of Sections  The free-body diagrams of the two segments are then:  Members BC and GC are assumed to be in tension since they are subjected to a pull. GC.

Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 31 Example 2  Determine the force in members GE. Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 .  The three support reactions Dx. Indicate whether the members are in tension or compression. FGC.4 The Method of Sections  The Three unknown member forces FBC. GC. Dy and Ex can be obtained by considering a free-body diagram of the entire truss.Structural Analysis 32 16 .2/1/2012 6. and BC of the truss. and FGF can be obtained by applying the three equilibrium equations of the segments.

Structural Analysis 34 17 .  Fx  0 400 N  Ax  0 Ax  400N MA  0  1200N8m  400N3m  Dy 12m  0 Dy  900N  Fy  0 Ay  1200N  900N  0 Ay  300N Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis 33 Solution 2 Free-Body Diagram: For the analysis the free-body diagram of the left portion of the sectioned truss will be used. Equations of Equilibrium:  MG  0  300N4m  400N3m  FBC 3m  0 FBC  800N  MC  0  Fy  0 (T)  300N8m  FGE 3m  0 3 300 N  FGC  0 5 FGE  800N (C) FGC  500N (T) Chapter 6 -Structural Analysis Chapter 6 .  It is first necessary to determine the external reactions at A and D.2/1/2012 Solution 2  Section a-a has been chosen since it cuts through the three members whose forces are to be determined.