Cover Sheet.


Matthew Shu

Ms Annetts

Marking Scheme


Description of Insect Orders with examples


Examples of used in insect orders descriptions of Australian


Labelled diagram of characteristics of insects


Description of mouth part types


Reasons insect beneficial to agriculture using examples


Reasons insects detrimental to agriculture using examples


Types of life cycle diagrams with specific examples




Insect Collection





Insect Project

crickets. There general form varies little.leafhoppers. the "elytra". and for the rear part of the beetle's body. comprising around 50. Diptera Diptera (from the Greek di = two. and ptera = wings). The word "coleoptera" is from the Greek koleos. Examples of Australian Hermiptera are Belostomatidae. shield bugs. weta. because most beetles have two pairs of wings. planthoppers. and mothbutterflies. being hardened and thickened into a sheath-like. Gelastocoridae. the front pair. acrida. katydids. Examples of Australian Diptera are march/horse flies. Achaea argilla. on the metathorax. Gastrimargus musicus. aphids. Some examples of Australian insects from this order are Chortoicetes terminifera. including grasshoppers. (Some species of flies are exceptional in that they are secondarily flightless). and pteron. thus "sheathed wing".By Matthew Shu Orders of Insects Lepidoptera Lepidoptera is a vast order of insects that features moths and butterflies. Acontia detrita Orthoptera Orthoptera is an order of insects with paurometabolous or incomplete metamorphosis. and others. Dytiscidae. Some examples of Australian insects from this order are Abantiades barcas. derived from the hind wings. meaning "wing". It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies. lubber. or shell-like. however their size can range from only a couple of millimetres in length up to 70 millimetres for the Giant Rhinoceros cockroach from Northern Queensland. Coleoptera Coleoptera is an order of insects commonly called beetles. Siliquofera grandis. robber flies. Their most obvious distinction from other orders of insects is that a typical fly possesses a pair of flight wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres. Acontia clerana. Some examples of Australian Coleoptera are Curculionidae. soldier flies. protection for the rear pair. meaning "sheath". Gerridae.skipper butterflies.000–80. Hermiptera Hemiptera is an order of insects most often known as the true bugs. Aderidae. Acontia crocata. and locusts. Blattodea Blattodea is an order of insects more commonly known as cockroaches.000 species of cicadas. There are just over 400 species of cockroaches in Australia out of 4000 2|Page .

especially those with cats or dogs will be familiar with these small biting insects and will have either seen them or the effects of their nuisance bites. Pulex irritans. Methana marginalis.that allow extensive specialisation Bilateral symmetry .worldwide. wingless insects ranging in size from approximately 110 millimetres in length depending on the species.a hard protective covering around the outside of the body (divided by sutures into plates called sclerites) Segmented body .whereby a central line can divide the body into two identical halves. They are usually less than 20 millimetres in length and silvery-grey in colour. Myrmecia nigrocincta. left and right Ventral nerve chord . Some examples of Blattodea in Australia are Geoscapheus dilatatus.that allows movement Jointed limbs and jointed mouthparts . Some examples of Australian Siphonaptera are Ctenocephalides felis. Some examples of Australian Thysanura are Acrotelsella opposed to a vertebrate nerve chord which is dorsal Dorsal blood vessel Insect Mouthparts Grasshopper Mouthparts 3|Page . Hymenoptera There are approximately 14 800 Hymenoptera species in Australia and it is estimated that 4000 of these are ant species. Siphonaptera Siphonaptera (Fleas) are small. Insect Body Charateristics Exoskeleton . Some examples of Australian Hymenoptera are Apis mellifera. Almost everybody. This order is large and diverse and includes groups of insects. which may appear to be unrelated due to their differing appearances. Thysanura Thysanura (Silverfish) is an order of fast running insects which have become common inhabitants of manmade dwellings and are often found in dark sheltered areas about the home. The name Hymenoptera means 'membrane wings'.

with jagged inner edges and dark coloured triangular structures found one on either side. Aphid Mouthparts When the aphid arrives on a suitable leaf. Each of them consist of 5-segmented sensory maxillary palp in addition to other parts. labellum). The liquid food is then drawn up from the pseudotracheae through the food channel into the esophagus. Flies Mouthparts Sponging mouthparts consist of a fleshy. Salivary secretions from the labella assist in dissolving and collecting food particles so that they may be more easily taken up by the pseudotrachea (this is thought to occur by capillary action). The probiscis (galea) is a modification 4|Page . Adult Butterfly Mouthparts Siphoning mouthparts are found in butterflies and some moths (Lepidoptera). Lingua or the hypopharynx A membranous tongue-like structure found attached beneath the labrum Mandibles A pair of hard. it thrusts its proboscis through the leaf tissue until it reaches the food-carrying cells in a vein. The mandibles and the maxillae grind the food by moving it laterally. roughly rectangular shaped structure. Maxillae A pair of structures lying outside and behind the mandibles.The different mouthparts are: Labrum or the upper lip It is a broad. horny. The labella is a complex structure consisting of many grooves. large. The labrum and labium help to hold the food between the mandibles and the maxillae. The maxillae are used to manipulate the food before it enters the mouth. The maxillary and labial palps have sense organs which help them to chose a suitable vegetation. The two mandibles move in horizontal motion and crush food between them. sponge-like organs called the labella (singular. elbowed labium. Labium Forms the broad median lower lip consisting of several parts in addition to a pair of 3-segmented labial palps on either side. which sops up liquids much like a sponge does. called pseudotrachea. at the distal end of which are large. heavy. Saliva is injected which begins the process of digestion and the fluid is sucked up through the proboscis into the gut.

has an effect on the land or crops we grow on that is favourable to us. They are used to steady and manipulate the food. 'pincers' which are less powerful than the mandibles. Naturally these types of insects are categorised as “detrimental”. Beneficial and Detrimental Insects Beneficial Some insects are considered beneficial to agriculture because their habits. powerful cutting jaws. It actually represents the fused pair of ancestral second maxillae.of the maxillary galea found in the more primitive madibulate (chewing) mouthparts. They have a three segmented palp which is also sensory. the lower cover. fit together to form a tube that is used to suck up nectar (it acts like a straw). An example would be the common snails and slugs which feed essentially on lettuce and leafy vegetables. The soil can then be used to grow crops more effectively resulting in us categorising these types of insects as “beneficial”. during feeding. as seen in the cockroach. When not in use the proboscis is coiled and held close to the underside of the head. The salivary glands discharge saliva through it. Hypopharynx. Compare the above diagram with the cockroach maxillae. hard. Detrimental Then there are those insects which are seen as detrimental to agriculture because how they find food or even what they eat may inflict undesirable effects on human agricultural activity. a tongue-like structure in the floor of the mouth. They have a five segmented palp which is sensory and often concerned with taste. The probiscis consists of paired galea which. Labrum. An example is the earthworm which feeds on live and dead organic matter leaving behind a trail of enrichened soil. Bee Mouthparts Mandibles are very small and suitable for moulding wax. Labium. a cover which may be loosely referred to as the upper lip. Mandibles. Maxillae. Insect Life Cycles 5|Page . the labium is curved downwards and inwards forming a tube used for sucking up nectar. whether it may be the way they move or find food. Obviously it can be deduced that this outcome is not what farmers are looking for. often referred to as the lower lip.

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13/1/12.26/8/14.html CSIRO.10/3/12.2/ http://www.html Unknown.29/8/14.29/8/ – Fleas. http://www.29/8/14.csiro.26/8/14. http://en.ento.Thysanura.Not Specified.Hermiptera.30/8/ ology. http://www.5/8/14.htm CSIRO.aspx? OrderID=25407&PageID=overview Dr David Britton. http://www. http://en.html CSIRO.30/8/14.Hymenoptera.wikipedia.True Bugs.Not Specified.html University of Wikipedia. http://australianmuseum.wikipedia.29 August 2014.csiro.25/8/14.asp G & Ian Brisbane Insects.ento.Mouthparts of a Butterfly.Australian Insect Families.Not Specified.ento. 7|Page .html Insect Identifation http://www.ento.brisbaneinsects.csiro.Flies and Mosquitoes. http://www.16/3/14.Biology Insect Life Wikipedia.2014. http://www. http://bugs.Insect Anatomy.