>What is the main purpose of a DNS server?

DNS servers are used to resolve FQDN hostnames into IP addresses and vice versa.
>What is the port no of dns ?
53.
>What is a Forward Lookup?
Resolving Host Names to IP Addresses.
>What is Reverse Lookup?
It?s a file contains host names to IP mapping information.
>What is a Resource Record?
It is a record provides the information about the resources available in the N/W infrastructure.
>What are the diff. DNS Roles?
Standard Primary, Standard Secondary, & AD Integrated.
>What is a Zone?
Zone is a sub tree of DNS database.
>Secure services in your network require reverse name resolution to make it more difficult
to launch successful attacks against the services. To set this up, you configure a reverse
lookup zone and proceed to add records. Which record types do you need to create?
PTR Records
>SOA records must be included in every zone. What are they used for ?
SOA records contain a TTL value, used by default in all resource records in the zone. SOA
records contain the e-mail address of the person who is responsible for maintaining the zone.
SOA records contain the current serial number of the zone, which is used in zone transfers.
>By default, if the name is not found in the cache or local hosts file, what is the first step
the client takes to resolve the FQDN name into an IP address ?
Performs a recursive search through the primary DNS server based on the network interface
configuration .
> What is primary, Secondary, stub & AD Integrated Zone?
Primary Zone: - zone which is saved as normal text file with filename (.dns) in DBS folder.
Maintains a read, write copy of zone database.
Secondary Zone: - maintains a read only copy of zone database on another DNS server. Provides
fault tolerance and load balancing by acting as backup server to primary server.
Stub zone: - contains a copy of name server and SOA records used for reducing the DNS search
orders. Provides fault tolerance and load balancing.

However. all of the zones required by DNS are stored in a text file on the server computer. These text files must be synchronized among DNS name servers by using a system that requires a separate replication topology and schedule called a zone transfer However. Replication between domain controllers takes up a significant amount of bandwidth. You have one companywide AD-integrated zone. if you use Active Directory integrated DNS when you configure a domain controller as a DNS name server. When you configure a computer as a DNS server. the DNS server that is included with Windows 2000 Server. The DHCP server must support. zone data is stored as an Active Directory object and is replicated as part of domain replication. Active Directory integrated DNS enables Active Directory storage and replication of DNS zone databases. This zone also allows dynamic updates. naming it as you would name your AD domain. after the installation of the domain controller. > Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones. zones are usually stored as text files on name servers that is. > What is the main purpose of SRV records ? SRV records are used in locating hosts that provide certain network services. dynamic updates for legacy clients. . and it is critical to keep this zone up-todate. which contains several thousand resource records.msc rightclick on the zone you want to add srv record to and choose "other new record" and choose service location(srv). Windows 2000 DNS server. > At some point during the name resolution process. three of which are also used as DNS servers. What is the most likely cause of this failure ? The zone you created was not configured to allow dynamic updates.> How do you manually create SRV records in DNS? This is on windows server go to run ---> dnsmgmt. The local interface on the DNS server was not configured to allow dynamic updates. and be configured to allow. the requesting party received authoritative reply. accommodates storing zone data in Active Directory. > Your company uses ten domain controllers. you are unable to locate infrastructure SRV records anywhere in the zone. What should you do? Change the replication scope to all DNS servers in the domain. Which further actions are likely to be taken after this reply ? After receiving the authoritative reply. the resolution process is effectively over. You are looking to cut bandwidth usage for the purpose of replication. > Which of the following conditions must be satisfied to configure dynamic DNS updates for legacy clients ? The zone to be used for dynamic updates must be configured to allow dynamic updates. you installed a DNS server and created a zone. > Before installing your first domain controller in the network.

if the DNS server that is authoritative for the private root zone is running on an operating system other than Windows Server 2003 or Windows 2000. Therefore. you must use file-based zones on that server. >What are the benefits of using Windows 2003 DNS when using AD-integrated zones? If your DNS topology includes Active Directory. Active Directory integrated zones: Enable you to secure zones by using secure dynamic update.>You are administering a network connected to the Internet. >You installed a new AD domain and the new (and first) DC has not registered its SRV records in DNS. and reduces network traffic. Enable replication that propagates changed data only. What is the most likely reason for this? DNS servers are not caching replies. Updates that are made to any domain controller are replicated to all domain controllers and the zone information about any primary DNS server within an Active Directory integrated zone is always replicated. Name a few possible causes. . Local client computers are not caching replies… The cache.Zone information about any primary DNS server within an Active Directory integrated zone is always replicated. Because DNS replication is single-master. All DNS servers running on these domain controllers can act as primary servers for the zone and accept dynamic updates. Your users complain that everything is slow. However. you can only use Active Directory integrated zones on Active Directory domain controllers. Every Active Directory integrated zone can be replicated to all domain controllers within the Active Directory domain or forest. The machine cannot be configured with DNS client her own . a primary DNS server cannot be a single point of failure because Active Directory uses multimaster replication. You can combine Active Directory integrated zones and file-based zones in the same design. In an Active Directory integrated zone. The DNS service cannot be run.. a primary DNS server in a standard primary DNS zone can be a single point of failure. you can delegate this zone to any domain controller running either Windows Server 2003 or Windows 2000.dns file may have been corrupted on the server. you must decide whether or not to store Active Directory integrated zones in the application directory partition. If you have an Active Directory infrastructure. compresses replicated data. it cannot act as an Active Directory domain controller. Active Directory integrated zones enable you to store zone data in the Active Directory database.If you are using Active Directory integrated zones. use Active Directory integrated zones. Provide increased fault tolerance. Preliminary research of the problem indicates that it takes a considerable amount of time to resolve names of resources on the Internet. For example.

. This list is contained in the stub zone using name server (NS) resource records.example. usually the DNS server hosting the primary zone for the delegated domain name. it queries the master servers. Stub zones enable a DNS server to perform recursion using the stub zone's list of name servers without needing to query the Internet or internal root server for the DNS namespace. By using stub zones throughout your DNS infrastructure. When a DNS server loads a stub zone. name server (NS) resource records. the DNS server hosting both the parent zone and the stub zone will maintain a current list of authoritative DNS servers for the child zone.com.com. Use stub zones to: ? Keep delegated zone information current. it will have a complete list of the DNS servers for the zone.>What are the benefits and scenarios of using Stub zones? Understanding stub zones A stub zone is a copy of a zone that contains only those resource records necessary to identify the authoritative Domain Name System (DNS) servers for that zone. ? Improve name resolution. By updating a stub zone for one of its child zones regularly. However. The master servers for a stub zone are one or more DNS servers authoritative for the child zone. ? Simplify DNS administration. for the necessary resource records of the authoritative servers for the zone widgets. The IP address of one or more master servers that can be used to update the stub zone. stub zones do not serve the same purpose as secondary zones and are not an alternative when considering redundancy and load sharing. such as widgets. ? The list of the authoritative DNS servers for a zone. A master server may be a primary or secondary DNS server for the zone. The list of master servers may contain a single server or multiple servers and can be changed anytime. you can distribute a list of the authoritative DNS servers for a zone without using secondary zones. This type of resolution may be necessary when a corporate merger requires that the DNS servers for two separate DNS namespaces resolve names for clients in both namespaces. which can be in different locations. There are two lists of DNS servers involved in the loading and maintenance of a stub zone: ? The list of master servers from which the DNS server loads and updates a stub zone. and the glue A resource records for the delegated zone. A stub zone is used to resolve names between separate DNS namespaces. A stub zone consists of: ? The start of authority (SOA) resource record. In both cases.example.

full compatibility with the domain name system (DNS) was a critical priority. Forwarding according to these domainname conditions improves conventional forwarding by adding a second condition to the forwarding process. > Describe the importance of DNS to AD ? When Microsoft began development on Active Directory. the query is forwarded to the IP address of a DNS Server that is associated with the domain name. A conditional forwarder setting consists of a domain name and the IP address of one or more DNS servers. but because of the central role that DNS plays in Internet name resolution and Microsoft's desire to make its product lines embrace the Internet. Active Directory was built from the ground up not just to be fully compatible with DNS but to be so integrated with it that one cannot exist without the other.0. When a DNS client or server performs a query operation against a Windows Server 2003.>What are the benefits and scenarios of using Conditional Forwarding? Rather than having a DNS server forward all queries it cannot resolve to forwarders. but because of the central role that DNS plays in Internet name resolution and Microsoft's desire to make its product lines embrace the Internet. see WINS replication overview WINS server group address. and then.1. the DNS server can forward queries for different domain names to different DNS servers according to the specific domain names that are contained in the queries. For more information.2. Microsoft's direction in this case did not just happen by chance. Used to support auto discovery and dynamic configuration of replication for WINS servers. Active Directory was built from the ground up not just to be fully compatible with DNS but to be so integrated with it that one cannot exist without the other. if the DNS server is configured to forward for the domain name that is designated in the query (a match). . >What is the 224. a list of domain names is set up on the Windows Server 2003-based DNS server along with the DNS server IP address. While fully conforming to the standards established for DNS. Microsoft's direction in this case did not just happen by chance.x or higher. as long as the BIND version is 8. such as Unix BIND. If the DNS server has no domain name listed for the name that is designated in the query.based DNS server that is configured for forwarding. the DNS server looks to see if the query can be resolved by using its own zone data or the zone data that is stored in its cache. Used to support auto discovery and dynamic configuration of replication for WINS servers. Active Directory can easily adapt to exist in a foreign DNS environment. full compatibility with the domain name system (DNS) was a critical priority. which greatly eases the administration required for DNS environments. To configure a DNS server for conditional forwarding.24 address used for? WINS server group address. When Microsoft began development on Active Directory. it attempts to resolve the query by using standard recursion. In addition. Active Directory can expand upon the standard feature set of DNS and offer some new capabilities such as AD-Integrated DNS.

ADDR. Active Directory can expand upon the standard feature set of DNS and offer some new capabilities such as AD-Integrated DNS.ARPA.0 network will have a PTR (or 'Pointer') entry in 10. given the IP address.INADDR. and is expressed as a character string for a decimal value in the range 0-255 (with leading zeros omitted except in the case of a zero octet which is represented by a single zero).10. There is a Reverse Lookup file 10.ARPA domain are defined to have up to four labels in addition to the IN-ADDR.While fully conforming to the standards established for DNS.ARPA file may contain entries for hosts in many domains. Active Directory can easily adapt to exist in a foreign DNS environment. which greatly eases the administration required for DNS environments. The following is quoted from RFC 1035: "The Internet uses a special domain to support gateway location and Internet address to host mapping.COM.150.ARPA with the following contents: Exp : 1. Any hosts with IP addresses in the 150. and to facilitate queries to locate all gateways on a particular network on the Internet.ACME. .x or higher. > What is the "in-addr. "Domain names in the IN-ADDR.ADDR." Reverse Lookup files use the structure specified in RFC 1035.150. it is common for a user or an application to request a Reverse Lookup of a host name.ARPA and has a substructure which follows the Internet addressing structure.ARPA suffix.0. Each label represents one octet of an Internet address.IN-ADDR.ARPA referencing the host name for that IP address. Consider the following scenario.150.10. This article explains this process. The intent of this domain is to provide a guaranteed method to perform host address to host name mapping. "The domain begins at IN-ADDR. "Host addresses are represented by domain names that have all four labels specified. then the Reverse Lookup file for this network would be 10.0. In addition.20 IN PTR WS1. such as Unix BIND. if you have a network which is 150.IN. For example. A single IN.2.0. Other classes may employ a similar strategy in other domains. as long as the BIND version is 8.arpa" zone used for? In a Domain Name System (DNS) environment.