25 views

Uploaded by Arunachalam Muthiah

Design

save

You are on page 1of 6

-154

© Pergamon Press Ltd., 1979. Printed in Great Britain

0038--092X/7910201-0149l$02.0010

**DESIGN AND OPTIMISATION OF AN ABSORPTION
**

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM OPERATED BY SOLAR ENERGY

S. ALIZADEH,F. BAHARand F. GEOOLA

Materials and Energy Research Centre, Aryamehr University of Tech. P.O. Box 41-2927, Tehran Iran.

(Received 10 March 1978; revision accepted 14 August 1978)

Abstract--A general theoretical study on design and optimisationof the water-lithium bromide and the ammoniawater absorption refrigerationcycles has been undertaken. The results of this study show that in general for fixed

initial conditions and given system refrigerationcapacity higher generator temperature causes higher cooling ratio

with smaller heat exchange surfaces and consequently lower cost. A comparison of the two cycles also indicate

that the water-lithium bromide system is simpler than the ammonia-watersystem and operates at a higher cooling

ratio and smaller heat exchange surfaces for the same conditions.

For the ammonia-water cycle

I. INTRODUCTION

**Theoretical studies of the performance of absorption
**

refrigeration cycles including those using water-lithium

bromide and ammonia-water as refrigerant-absorbent

combinations have already been reported by various

authors[l-3]. In this paper further theoretical studies

have been performed considering in particular the design

and optimisation of an absorption refrigeration cycle

operated by solar energy. The water-lithium bromide and

ammonia-water refrigerant-absorbent combinations

were chosen for this study because of their extensive use

in absorption refrigeration systems especially those

operated by solar energy.

(2)

=l(h~-hw)+hw+(RYr

**in which R is the circulation factor defined as
**

R = yr - y,

y~ - y,

2. CYCLE ANALYSIS

SE Vol. 22, No. 2--0

(I)

(3)

**where yr is the weight concentration of lithium bromide
**

or ammonia in the refrigerant vapour leaving the generator (for water-lithium bromide system y, = 0), y, is the

weight concentration of the weak solution (weak in

refrigerant) leaving the generator and ys is the weight

concentration of the strong solution leaving the absorber.

The subscripts in eqns (I) and (2) refer to the states

represented in Figs. 1 and 2, respectively. Equations (1)

and (2) have been evaluated for a number of generator

temperatures with evaporator temperature of 1.7°C,

condenser temperature of 35°C and absorber temperature

of 21°C.

**The design and optimisation of the performance of an
**

absorption refrigeration cycle depends mostly on the

existing initial conditions. For example, the temperature

of the evaporator is fixed and as a result the low-side

pressure of the cycle is fixed and could be specified. Two

other fixed parameters are the condenser and absorber

temperatures. It has been shown that[l] the cooling ratio,

defined as the ratio of the energy removed from the

surroundings during the refrigeration phase to that

supplied to the generator during the regeneration phase,

increases as the condenser and absorber temperatures

decrease. In systems using a water cooled condenser and

absorber these two temperatures depend on the

temperature of the available cooling water. After the

temperatures of the evaporator, the condenser and the

absorber have been identified the generator temperature

has to be determined. This is the last and the most

important parameter which must be specified, because

unlike the other three temperatures of the cycle this

depends on other factors. If the cooling ratio of the

system is considered against other variables of the cycle

the following approximate relations can be derived for

the two cycles (see Figs. 1 and 2).

For the water-lithium bromide cycle

h/,

7/= h7 + (R - l)h4 - Rh3"

l)h,-Rh7

3. EFFECTS OF USING SENSIBLE HEAT EXCHANGERS

If sensible heat exchangers are used between the absorber and the generator for both the water-lithium

bromide and the ammonia-water systems so that the

strong solution leaving the absorber is heated by the

weak solution leaving the generator, the temperature rise

of the strong solution A Ts, is given by the following

equation

(4)

AT~ = F(x, k)bT,,

**in which ATmisthe maximum temperature difference in
**

the heat exchanger and F ( x , k ) i s the heat exchanger

effectiveness defined as

b eX((l/k)-°-

l

F(x, k) = ~ eX~,lk~_,_ k

(5)

**where x is the heat exchanger parameter given by the
**

149

150 S.18 (9) where y is the weight concentration of lithium bromide or ammonia in the mixture. 5 Reflux condenser 6[< Condenser I / tw % Generator ~ 0 G(Solar energy) Solution heat exchanger Absorber Exp. vapour Condenser t (7) j ] Strong Generator i • solution / (3) J (Solar energy) 0G (4) Weak solution (8) ." Fig.18 (8) and for ammonia-water solution Cp = 0.09y + 4.71y +4.I Solution heat exchanger (2) Exp. and is defined as Cps (7) where Cpo is the specific heat of the weak solution.. 2. The Co -. ALIZADEHet al. 5 and 6 . Schematic of the ammonia-water system. The cooling ratio has been plotted against the generator temperature for different values of the heat exchanger parameter in Figs. Schematic of the water-lithium bromide system.61 o. valve I IO ( oJ Fig. (G)] 1 Evaporator f I [Ab=b7 (. The other variable in eqn (5) is the generator temperature parameter.3. relation specific heat of a solution of water-lithium bromide is approximately given by x UA = __~pms'-- (6) in which the subscript s refers to the strong solution. 1. k. Refrig.

7 *C Iio .o/3 P E 8o o 50 - 20 035 i - 040 045 0.. The thermodynamic paths of the two cycles have also been shown by the solid lines in Figs. 140 Tc = 3 5 "C TE = 1. the evaporator and .. 075 07 wl % Fig. and circulation factor. as follows: x = B [C(R CR I)]'/3 (II) In the above relation B is a constant which depends on the temperatures of the condenser.Design and optimisationof an absorption refrigerationsystem operated by solar energy 151 IIO / /f Tc = 3 5 *C TE = 1.50 Ammonia.7 *C ? 85 E _P=___4zmm h~ 8 ~ / ~D 35 J I0 04 05 06 L i t h i u m bromide. 3 and 4.. Thermodynamic path for the water-lithium bromide cycle. C. 0. for both the water-lithium bromide and the ammoniawater cycles. By application of eqn (10) the heat exchanger parameter can be expressed as a function of the system refrigeration capacity. By applying various simplifications. 3. Duflie and Sheridan[5] have shown that the UA value for the exchanger could be approximated by UA = 379 m ~13 (10) where mo is the mass flow rate of the weak solution and the value of the constant 379 has been determined from experimental values of mass flow m. The value of x = pc in Figs. The sensible heat exchangers between the fluid streams entering and leaving the generator should transfer the maximum amount of heat consistent with economy of construction. Assuming streamline flow for the weak solution in the heat exchanger (this can usually be done by selecting the proper diameter for the exchanger tube) it can be shown that [4] the value of UA for the exchanger is proportional to the cube root of the mass flow rate of the weak solution. Thermodynamic path for the ammonia-water cycle. 5 and 6 could actually be considered as heat exchanger parameters above 10. 4. R.55 065 060 wl % Fig.

@__ -r --÷ = j i o~ i i. . Therefore x can be plotted vs the generator temperature for different values of C as in Figs. =C Fig. Heat exchanger parameter as a function of generator temperature for the ammonia-water system. Heat exchanger parameter as a function of generator temperature for the water-lithium bromide system.8 07-- 0. Fig. 8.o I i I o. 0. condenser temperature of 35°C and absorber temperature of 21°C..- .. the constant B for water-lithium bromide case is 46.1 i l O3 60 J ~ . = 1 90 9~ °C G e n e r a t o r temp. .6 I .. ALIZADEH et aL 09 ! 0. the generator and the solution heat exchanger) and higher cooling ratio. m 0.. There are of course limitations for high generator temperature one of which is the crystallization problem in the case of water-lithium bromide when the generator temperature becomes too high. the absorber and it also varies from refrigerant to refrigerant. Cooling ratio as a function of generator temperature for the water-lithium bromide system. This places a lower bound for the generator temperature because as the circulation factor increases the mass flow rates in the system also increase and this suggests larger heat exchange surfaces and therefore a higher cost.7 J X=I p 05 . 0.4 U i .. 5-8 it can be seen that for a given refrigeration capacity. ~ [ To 75 80 J Generator i 1 8~ temp. ._0 0.2 . 7... These figures show that as the generator temperature decreases the circulation factor increases for a given C.9 04 (J Q3 I/! ._~ 8 0. In general from Figs. If a temperature difference of 8°C is assumed between the average temperature of the collector surface and the generator temperature for heat transfer purposes. 7 and 8.2 0.. Fig.152 S.6 and for the ammonia-water case it has a value of 16. the flat plate collector area required for producing I kJ hr-' for an average horizontal insolation of 3046kJhr-' m -2 is .7 % T~ = 35 °c t i i 70 80 90 I00 Generator I I0 temp. 6. x in eqn (11) is a function of the generator temperature for a specified value of C.5---0 .8 °C Fig. Cooling ratio as a function of generator temperature for the ammonia-water system. 5. i i °C ~ . higher generator temperature causes lower cost (because of lower mass flow rates in the absorber. For evaporator temperature of 1. Another limiting feature is that producing very high temperatures with flat plate solar collectors is difficult. "r" TE=I..1. ¢.7°C. 120 t30 140 °C 60 70 80 90 I00 I10 120 130 140 Generator temp.. Since R is a function of the generator temperature only when other conditions of the system are fixed.

Increasing the flat plate collector area by 60 per cent requires the use of a storage system to store the 20 per cent of refrigeration in the form of heat or refrigerant for the time when there is no available solar energy[6]. Collector area as a function of generator temperature for the water-lithium bromide system. Also from Figs. 10. Once the generator temperature has been specified the heat exchanger parameter and the fiat plate collector area required are known from Figs. then the total .- ! 1. a very high generator temperature is not possible with flat plate collectors. can be shown to be 60 per cent higher (see Appendix). The system can now be designed for the obtained values of mr and m~.I z *c r~=3~*c 116 i I5 ~ I H~j/= 3046 kJ hr-' m-2 . 8] show that the water-lithium bromide system has a higher cooling ratio for the same initial conditions. The flat plate collector is assumed to have a surface emissivity of 0. In design and optimisation of the performance of an absorption refrigeration system the most important variable which has to be taken into account is the temperature of the generator because the other parameters of the system depend on the existing initial conditions and consequently are fixed. .9 I: 0. 4.- -- m. A comparison of the two cycles also show that the water-lithium bromide system is simpler than the ammonia-water system and operates at a higher cooling ratio and heat exchanger parameter for the same conditions. then an auxilliary heater could be used to increase the generator temperature up to the lower limit. *C 90 . 7 and 8 it is clear that for the same generator temperature and system refrigeration capacity.Design and optimisation of an absorption refrigeration system operated by solar energy plotted vs the generator temperature for different heat exchanger parameters in Figs. in which mr is the refrigerant mass flow rate represented by the equation u. . Determination of the generator temperature is influenced by several factors. Another limiting feature in the case of waterlithium bromide cycle is the crystallization which occurs when the generator temperature becomes too high. A. 0 ~ . is calculated and from that the mass flow rate of the strong solution. 9.1 and the collector tilt angle is 30° at 40o North Lat. 95 Fig. or A. 9 and 10.. The collector surface emissivity is 0. . 7-10. This should be avoided by placing an upper limit on the generator temperature.8-- Ol~55 I I ] 60 - 65 -- i 70 75 80 85 Generotor ten'@.60)(12660)CAf 1. By eqn (11). then the system could be designed for this generator temperature and the collector area required is determined from Figs. 9 and 10. Assuming that 20 per cent of total refrigeration has to be delivered during the time in which there is no available solar energy. Also. A comparison of the two systems described briefly in this paper and in more detail elsewhere [7. = 12660 h-~I~' (14) 0.8 ! i i i : rAlal *c re. (12) where AI is the collector area required for producing one kJ hr-'. = (1.1 and the collector tilt angle is 300 at 40° North Lat.1 with a 30° tilt angle at 40° North Lat.4 flat plate collector area required. and this produces a lower bound for the generator temperature. If the generator temperature taken as the average temperature of collector -8°C is below the lower bound previously indicated for the generator temperature. knowing x and C the circulation factor. *C Fig. C O N C L U S I O N S 2 % o" 8 O GecN~'amr ten'@. If the design generator temperature is assumed to be 8°C below the average temperature of collector surface.. The collector surface emissivity is 0. R. m~. the water-lithium bromide system has a higher heat exchanger parameter. One of these is economic considerations when the generator temperature becomes too low.2 . Collector area as a function of generator temperature for the ammonia-water system. is determined from the following relation ms = R m r ~ 153 (13) .1 .

LI kg -~ generator temperature parameter mass flow rate. 143 (1962). Sheridan.= Ai 1/3 1. J.20(12660C)(24) D (A2) Dividing eqn (A2) by eqn (AI) we obtain At _ 1/3+0. 2. Internal Rep. Bahar and F. APPENDIX If the refrigeration load occurs mostly during daytime. pp. Solar Energy 6. Iran. 10/00107. Los resultados de este estudio muestran queen general para condiciones iniciales fijas y sistema dado de capacidad de refrigeraci6n.O. and Chem. McAdams. Internal Rep. 9 and 10. C Cp F HAy h h!~ K m p R T AT U x y NOMENCLATURE heat exchanger area. (A5) . Tehran. Box 41-2927. kJ kg-I °C-I heat exchanger effectiveness average horizontal insolation. done fi un cofit moins 61ev6. Duffie and N. = (I. R. Australia (1965). By substituting for AI from eqn (A4) into eqn (A3) we obtain A. Consequently the collector area required is AI Subscripts a A C E ]" m r s t v w weak solution absorber condenser evaporator fiat plate collector maximum refrigerant strong solution total vapour saturated water REFERENCES I.. L. R. donne des refroidissements plus 61ev6s et n¢cessite de plus petites surfaces d'6changeurs duns les mimes conditions. F. 137 (1968). The theoretical performance of the lithium bromide-water intermittent absorption refrigeration cycle. Chinnappa.60)(12660)CA! which is the same as eqn (12) in the text. Performance of an intermittent refrigerator operated by a flat-plate collector. Lithium bromide-water refrigerators for solar operation. 5. R6sum6--Une 6tude sur la fabrication et l'optimization des cycles de refroidissement par absorption a 6t6 entreprise sur des syst6mes eau-bromure de lithium et eau-ammoniaque.60 A~ (A3) The following relation can also be written A~ = (12660)CA: (A4) in which A! is the flat plate collector area required for producing one kJhr -Z and can be obtained from Figs. E. Development of a computer package for the design of an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system utilising solar energy. A. William H. Iran. 4. 321 (1975).20 . 3rd Edn. F. Resumen--Un estudio general te6rico ha sido hecho sobre disefio y mejora de los ciclos de absorci6n refrigerativa de agua-bromido de litio y amonia-agua. 3. S. the Institution of Engineers. A. Development of a computer package for the design of a water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system utilising solar energy. Geoola. McGraw-Hill. Utilisation of solar energy for air conditioning. 229235. Chemical Engineering Department. Reti. Les r~sultats de cette 6tude montrent que si on fixe les conditions initiales et la capacit6 de r6frig6ration.°C overall heat transfer coefficient of heat exchanger. Geoola. P. J. des temp6ratures plus 61ev6es du g6n6rateur aboutissent h des refroidissements plus 61ev6s avec une surface plus petite des 6changeurs.. 1/3(12660C)(24) D (Al) in which D is the daily total refrigeration in kJm -2 day -~ obtained from the flat plate collectors.S. = 1/3(12660C)(24) + 0. Heat Transmission. New York (1954). Materials and Energy Research Centre. S. Bahar and F. C. since it has to be supplied for only about 8 out of 24 hr. kJ kg-~ enthalpy of vaporization.Sc. Une comparaison des deux syst6mes montre que le syst6me eau-bromure de lithium est plus simple que le syst6me eau-ammoniaque. Alizadeh. thesis. H. Tehran. then for C tons of refrigeration capacity roughly l J3 of the actual amount of refrigeration is necessary. Una comparaci6n de los dos ciclos tambi6n indica que el sistema de agua-bromido de litio es mils simple que el sistema de amonia-agua y opera en un radio de enfriamiento mils alto y menor cambio de superficies de calor para las mismas condiciones. refrigeration ton = 12660 LI hr -~ specific heat. Box 41-2927. A. Solar Energy 12. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1959). 10100/06.60 or Af = 1. Materials and Energy Research Centre. Theoretical performance of an ammonia sodium thiocyanate intermittent absorption refrigeration cycle. 7. ALIZADEHet al. If 20 per cent of the refrigeration has to be delivered during the time in which there is no available solar energy.O. Perry. la temperatura mils alta del generador causa un radio mis alto de enfriamiento con menor cambio de superficies de calory consecuentemente menor costo. m 2 flat plate collector area. Mech. °C temperature difference. Alizadeh. Sargent and W. Beckman. then the total flat plate collector area required is A. Solar Energy 17. mz system capacity. kj hr-I m-2OC-I heat exchanger parameter lithium bromide or ammonia weight per cent cooling ratio 6. kJ hr -~ m -z enthalpy. kghrpressure circulation factor temperature. m2kJ-t hr total flat plate collector area. 154 A A! A. 8. V. P. B. S. Engng Trans.

- project on lpg refrigerator mechanical projectUploaded bypatel ketan
- Ra Me 05501 Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUploaded bysivabharathamurthy
- WHZ_2005.pdfUploaded byΓεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος
- Absorption Cycle Utilizing Ionic Liquid as Working FluidUploaded byme641siva
- 19xrv- chiller carrier manualUploaded bymohdzamry
- Cold Stor CalculationUploaded byEngFaisal Alrai
- Refrigeration SystemUploaded byalmrifky90
- Approximate Design and Costing Methods for Heat ExchangersUploaded bymohammad
- CO2 FundamentalsUploaded bysalahzantout
- 062Uploaded byDadirami Dadi
- 1-Investigation of Two-phase Heat Transfer Coefficients of Argon-freon Cryogenic Mixed RefrigerantsUploaded byRamalho12345
- 5 Term Ref-full Study Material - MschemeUploaded byJp Ilangumaran
- Study of Air Coditioner & RefrigeratorUploaded by01parth
- GSE-EnVision-ProcessFund-Sim-I.pdfUploaded byFungky King
- Vapor FinalUploaded byAhmad Razin Jasmi
- Safety ManagementUploaded byRandolf Igneel Lagundaon
- Appendix 28Uploaded bymasaminathan
- 20101126 112358 CASESTUDY Case Study Electric vs BiomassUploaded byzxchan2
- Exp 3 Plate Heat ExchangerUploaded byMeema Faatimahbag
- Heat Transfer in Evaporators & CondensersUploaded byjebman1
- Heat ExchangersUploaded byhelder.santos1114
- Microgasturb and Abs ChillerUploaded bybigsteve9088
- Heat ExchangersUploaded bydekragulj
- MONITORING AND ANALYSIS OF THE TURBODETENTOR OPERATING SYSTEM FROM CRYOGENIC DISTILLATION PLANT USING LABVIEW SOFTWAREUploaded byIJAR Journal
- Improving Efficiency Using Heat Drivven Absorption ChillerUploaded byRobby Wijaya
- IntroductionUploaded byUmair Saleem
- Oil Gas 1009 Heat Ex ChangersUploaded byammeet14
- Faliures of Rotatory CompressorsUploaded byjohnzepol
- Advanced Cooling- Chiler Hire FleetUploaded byinfo3903
- 20150922-G22-EXP12Uploaded bychiang95

- Mechanics and Energetics of Load Carriage During Human Walking _ Journal of Experimental BiologyUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Ergonomic effects of load carriage on the upper and lower back on metabolic energy cost of walking.pdfUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Nature Volume 56 Issue 1445 1897 [Doi 10.1038%2F056217a0] BOYS, C. v. -- Bicycles and Tricycles an Elementary Treatise on Their Design and Construction With Examples and TablesUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Hooper_An Evaluation of Physiological Demands and Comfort Between the Use of Conventional and Lightweight Self-contained Breathing ApparatusUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Roger_Energy Expenditure of Heavy Load CarriageUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- YONGZHONG_The Acceptable Load While Marching at a Speed of 5km hUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Hong_Effects of Load Carriage on Heart Rate Blood Pressure and Energy Expenditure in ChildrenUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Krajewski_enegry Cost of Heavy Load Carriage and Prolonged Walking in RotcUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Epstein_Predicting Metabolic Cost of Running With and Without Backpack LoadsUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Abe_Ergonomic Effects of Load Carriage on Energy Cost of Gradient WalkingUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Natick_US Army_LOADS CARRIED BY SOLDIERS.pdfUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Determinants of Load Carrying AbilityUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Quesada _Biomechanical and Metabolic Effects of Varying Backpack Loading on Simulated MarchingUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Energy Expenditure in Manual Load CarriageUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Physiological Effects of Wearing Heavy Body Armour on Male SoldiersUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Ex.04Uploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Effects of Load Carriage, Load Position, And Walking Speed on Energy Cost of WalkingUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Ex.05Uploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Dynamic SimulationUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- CascadeUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- adsk_slgUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Ex.02Uploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Mass BalanceUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Samlite UgwUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Choice of Refrigerant (Autosaved) (Autosaved)Uploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Abe_Ergonomic effects of load carriage on the upper and lower back on metabolic energy cost of walking.pdfUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Ex.01Uploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- wxclipsUploaded byArunachalam Muthiah
- Ex.03Uploaded byArunachalam Muthiah

- HEAT TRANSFER 2011 JNTUH Question PaperUploaded byAnil Frivolous Abstemious
- Air Cooled Screw Chiller R134aUploaded byamitbslpawar
- Heat Exchangers SeminarUploaded byShivang Gupta
- Trocador de CalorUploaded byjuliana trentin
- En Iso 9346_1996 Mass TransferUploaded bybabis1980
- Transferencia de calor (1).pdfUploaded byWilson Javier Melo
- Sensores Multipunto_infoUploaded byZunalf Rhf
- TALLER 9Uploaded byvane
- CyklisP_SelectedIssuesUploaded byramli006
- An Improved Horner Method for Determination of Formation Temperature, Kutasov, 2005.pdfUploaded byjoreli
- 16269.pdfUploaded bykarol
- Greenbuilding Regulations Villas Residential DevelopmentUploaded byJanesha
- Enfriamiento y Congelamiento de Materiales BiológicosUploaded byAnonymous 5agtz5NLqJ
- Fenômenos de Transporte Parte B - primeira parteUploaded byIgorPaesdeFreitas
- المفرداتUploaded byNaseradin Abujnah
- Pipe Spacing Chart-xlsUploaded byAhmad Dzulfiqar Rahman
- Introduction to Building Technology A6V10096099 Hq EnUploaded byJude Maala Onanad
- 14272_MEC002ZUploaded byKirandeep Singh Gandham
- Transferencia de Calor - Resistencia TérmicaUploaded bySergio Andres Saavedra
- Chapter 12 SolutionsUploaded byArpitRanderia
- 8. Mech - IJME Effect of Dusty Fluid on MHD Free -R. K DhalUploaded byiaset123
- 6th Semester Mechanical Engineering Syllabus (MG University)Uploaded byJinu Madhavan
- PROBLEMAS DE INGENIERIA TERMICA APLICADA (1).pdfUploaded byLuisinho LC
- 2.5 Insulation & RefractoriesUploaded byriyazcomm_257961932
- CondensersUploaded bymazin
- Experimento Del RefrigeradorUploaded byneysser
- Central-Hudson-Gas-and-Elec-Corp-Residential-HVAC-RebatesUploaded byGenability
- NUMEROS ADIMENSIONALESUploaded byAyzak Cornejo
- TesisokUploaded byPablito Catota
- Energy Modeling GuidelinesUploaded byBrian May