202

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 23, NO. 1, MARCH 2008

Wind–Diesel Generation Using Doubly Fed
Induction Machines
Rub´en Pe˜na, Member, IEEE, Roberto C´ardenas, Senior Member, IEEE, Jos´e Proboste,
Jon Clare, Senior Member, IEEE, and Greg Asher, Fellow, IEEE
Abstract—In this paper, the modeling and control strategy of
a wind–diesel generation system are discussed. In the proposed
topology, the diesel engine and the wind turbine are both variablespeed machines, allowing maximum fuel efficiency and optimal
energy capture from the wind. A vector-controlled doubly fed induction generator is used in each generation system to provide
fixed voltage and frequency to the load. The diesel unit balances
the system power and changes the speed according to the power
demand in order to minimize the fuel consumption. The electrical
torque of the wind system generator is regulated to maximize the
energy capture of the wind turbine. The advantages of operating
a diesel engine at variable speed are discussed. The dynamic and
steady-state operation of the wind–diesel system, including voltage and frequency control, active power balancing, and control of
the reactive power supplied to the grid/load are analyzed in this
paper. Experimental results, from a 3-kW experimental prototype
are presented in this paper.

ρ
Air density.
Electrical angle.
θe
Rotor position angle.
θr
Slip angle.
θslip
Induction machine rotational speed.
ωr
Stator electrical frequency.
ωsG
Slip frequency.
ωslip
Superscripts

Demanded value.
Subscripts
(d, q)
Synchronous rotating coordinates.
G, W
Diesel, wind generation quantity.
r, s
Rotor or stator quantities.
(α, β)
Stator fixed coordinates.

Index Terms—Diesel-driven generators, induction generator, induction motor drives, wind energy.

ARIABLE-SPEED operation of wind turbines has many
advantages that are well documented in the literature [1],
[2]. The torque peaks in the gearbox and shafts are reduced,
the wind turbine can operate with maximum aerodynamic efficiency, and the power fluctuations can be absorbed as an inertial
energy in the blades. In some applications, the wind turbine may
be augmented by an additional source, usually a diesel generator.
These systems are called wind–diesel systems [3], [4] and they
may be used to supply electrical energy to stand-alone loads,
e.g., small villages that are not connected to the main utility.
Most diesel generation systems operate at a constant rotational
speed due to the restriction of constant frequency at the generator
terminals. However, diesel engines have high fuel consumption
when operating at light load and constant speed [5], [6]. Moreover, for light loads at rated speed operation, not all the fuel
is burned by the engine and wetstacking is produced [7], [8].
This increases maintenance costs [8]. In order to improve the
efficiency and avoid wetstacking, a minimum load of about 30%
to 40% is usually recommended by the manufacturers [8].
In recent publications [5]–[9], the operation of variable-speed
diesel engines is proposed. The main advantage of variablespeed operation is increased efficiency, because the fuel consumption can be reduced by up to 40%, especially when the
diesel generator supplies energy to a light electrical load [7], [8].
Moreover, the engine life is increased because the diesel engine
is run at a low speed for a light load. In this way, not only is
the wetstacking avoided, but also the engine is operated with a
lower thermal signature [6].
To explain further the motivation for this paper, Fig. 1(a)
illustrates the electrical load characteristics measured during
October (middle spring) at “Villa Tehuelche,” a small village
100 km from the city of Punta Arenas, Chile. A fixed-speed

V

NOMENCLATURE
General
i
Lm , Ls , Lr
R r , Rs
Te
v
λ
σ
σs
DFIG
DGS
GR
ims
p
PWM
Rb
Tsr
τ
V
WECS

I. INTRODUCTION

Stator or rotor current.
Magnetising, rotor, stator inductance.
Rotor, stator resistance.
Electrical torque.
Stator or rotor voltage.
Stator or rotor flux.
Total leakage coefficient.
Stator leakage coefficient.
Doubly fed induction generator.
Diesel generator system.
Gear ratio.
Magnetizing current.
Number of poles.
Pulsewidth modulator.
Turbine blade radius.
Tip speed ratio.
Time constant.
Wind velocity.
Wind energy conversion system.

Manuscript received April 24, 2006; revised January 29, 2007. This work
was supported in part by Fondecyt under Grant 1010942, in part by the British
Council, and in part by the University of Magallanes. Paper no. TEC-001152006.
R. Pe˜na, R. C´ardenas, and J. Proboste are with the Electrical Engineering
Department, University of Magallanes, Punta Arenas 113-D, Chile (e-mail:
ruben.pena@umag.cl; rcd@ieee.org; jprobost@umag.cl).
J. Clare and G. Asher are with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, U.K. (e-mail:
jon.clare@nottingham.ac.uk; greg.asher@nottingham.ac.uk).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TEC.2007.914681

0885-8969/$25.00 © 2008 IEEE
Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. Downloaded on December 12, 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

” (b) Fuel consumption for fixed speed and variable speed operation. A single vector-controlled front-end converter is used to connect the dc link to the ac bus. optimizing the energy capture from the wind [10]. for variable-speed operation.M. or from the front-end converter according to some control law. 1(b) shows the fuel consumption characteristic of the generator illustrating the saving that could be made by operating at variable speed. On the contrary.g. 50-Hz Proposed wind–diesel system. Fuel consumption curves obtained from a 3-kW. The wind–diesel system proposed in this paper is based on DFIGs (see Fig. only simulation results are presented. typically. a chopper. Moreover. However. (a) Frequency distribution for the load at “Villa Tehuelches. the power converters are rated to only a fraction of the total system power. and the rotational speed of the diesel generator increases. For instance. The machine stators are connected together to form an ac bus with fixed frequency and voltage.M. The WECS DFIG electrical torque is controlled to drive the wind turbine to the point of maximum aerodynamic efficiency. Fig. 2). the same flux vector position used to control the DGS generator can be used to control the WECS generator [13]. in this publication. In general. For the wind–diesel system in Fig. then the DGS has to supply more energy into the grid. diesel system is used to supply electricity to the village. The DGS (when connected) is always controlled to regulate the voltage and electrical frequency of the load [14]. Therefore. The overall fuel saving obtained for this month would be 22%. 2. The reactive power required by the system can be supplied from the DGS generator. are presented illustrating the advantages of variablespeed operation. since the DGS forms a virtual grid for the WECS. In this case. the stator flux is estimated from the grid voltage and stator current measurements. If a DFIG is operated in a restricted speed range. if the energy captured from the wind turbine is reduced. in [5]. but the power captured by the wind turbine is not sufficient to feed the load. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. performance of the system when load impacts are considered. the load increases because electrical heating is used. and the vector control system is orientated in the stator flux. the control systems for stand-alone operation of the DGS are discussed. Downloaded on December 12. there are at least three modes of operation. However. DFIGs are used in the variable-speed DGS and in the WECS. and an inverter are used in each generator. Finally. the load is 40% to 60% of the nominal value. The second mode of operation is when the wind speed is very low. . The second and the third modes of operation are addressed in this paper. This saving is in addition to the other benefits outlined earlier. at 30% of the machine-rated power. Restrictions apply. daily from 6:30 A. Permanent magnet machines are considered and a diode rectifier. the energy supplied from the DGS decreases. 220-V. A single dc link is used to connect the DGS and WECS rotor converters. if the energy captured from the WECS increases. the simulation results for a variable-speed wind–diesel system.. Three voltage source PWM converters are required for the proposed wind–diesel system.˜ et al. typically. When both the DGS and the WECS are sourcing the load. the WECS generator. and the rotational speed of the diesel generator is reduced in order to save fuel and improve efficiency. Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. to reduce the losses and increase the efficiency of the whole generation system [11]. the load has to be sourced with generation from both the WECS and the DGS. the generator is synchronized to the grid. The first mode is when the wind turbine is operating at high wind speed. proposed in Fig. 2. Therefore. during winter. with an additional energy store. the effects of inductive load disturbances are not considered. e. [14]. The WECS DFIG is controlled for grid-connected operation [10]. [15]. the power consumption has to be balanced with the total power generated by both the generators. the control of the nonlinear diesel system is not addressed. The first mode of operation is not considered here since it has been discussed extensively in [14].: WIND–DIESEL GENERATION USING DOUBLY FED INDUCTION MACHINES PENA 203 Fig. The maximum load may occur few times during the year. Most of the time. are presented by the authors in [13]. the WECS is disconnected and the DGS supplies the required energy to the grid/load. the optimal control of the reactive power sourcing is outside the scope of this paper. In this case. power electronic interfaces must be provided in order to have constant frequency and regulated voltage in the ac load. These converters are vector controlled to regulate the rotor currents in both the machines. 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. In [5]. of the wind–diesel system. Some preliminary results. However. and the power captured by the WECS is sufficient to source the load. During winter. In Section II. the third mode of operation for the proposed wind–diesel system is when the WECS is connected to the system. to 12:00 P. If the control is run on a processor other than that used for the DGS system. Fig. DFIGs have long been considered as a good choice for variable speed generation systems [10]–[12]. Small-signal models and control system design are not discussed. Otherwise. 1. there is little discussion about load voltage regulation. 2. the diesel generator is disconnected and the WECS DFIG is controlled to operate in a stand-alone mode [14]. and grid frequency control.

regardless of the direction of the power flow. The stator flux angle θsG is obtained by the integration of the reference stator frequency ωsG = 2π50 rads−1 . Restrictions apply. 3. B. The slip angle is given by  (6) θslipG = θsG − θrG = ωsG dt − θrG where θrG is the DFIG rotor position. If iqrG follows the reference under the action of a fast current control loop. Also. The idrG and iqrG currents are regulated using the PI controllers. operating at variable speed. Modeling and Control of the DFIG The machine equations of a DFIG in a synchronously rotating d–q reference frame. VOL. 23. The rotor current iqrG is controlled in order to follow a reference current given by (4) to force the orientation of the reference frame along the stator flux vector position. 3. an appraisal of the proposed wind–diesel topology is presented in the conclusion. then the orientation of the reference frame along the stator flux vector will be correct. . are presented and discussed verifying the validity of the proposed methodology. In Section III. the following expression is obtained for the dynamics of the magnetizing current τsG dim sG 1 + σsG + im sG = idrG + vdsG dt RsG (5) with τsG = LsG /RsG and σsG = (LsG − Lm G )/Lm G . The converter currents are controlled with the conventional vector control approach [10] with a d–q reference frame oriented along the stator voltage vector position Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. 1. Section IV presents experimental results for the stand-alone operation of a variable speed DGS. the control systems for simultaneous operation of the DGS and WECS are introduced and small-signal models are analyzed. Downloaded on December 12. Compensation terms are added to the controller outputs to provide linear transfer functions in order to simplify the controller design and ensure good tracking of these currents. 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. II. with the q-axis aligned along the stator flux vector position are given by [14]      idsG LsG 0 λdsG = Lm G im sG = 0 iqsG 0 LsG    Lm G idrG 0 + (1) 0 Lm G iqrG   vdsG vqsG vdrG vqrG        d λdsG RsG idsG 0 = + iqsG 0 RsG dt λqsG    0 −ωsG λdsG + ωsG 0 λqsG     d λdrG RrG idrG 0 = + 0 RrG iqrG dt λqrG    0 −ωslipG λdrG + ωslipG 0 λqrG (2)  of the reference frame on the stator flux vector gives iqrG = − LsG iqsG . MARCH 2008 Fig. MODELING AND CONTROL OF THE DIESEL SYSTEM A. Proposed control system for the diesel doubly fed induction machine and front-end converter. Finally. Control Strategy of the Front-End Converter (3) where im sG is the equivalent stator magnetizing current and ωslipG = ωsG − ωrG is the slip frequency. experimental results related to simultaneous operation of the WECS and DGS. NO. Aligning the d–q axis The aim of the front-end or stator-side converter is to regulate the common dc link voltage E. Lm G (4) Considering (1) and (2). A diesel engine operating at variable speed regulates the speed of the generator. The magnetizing current is controlled via the rotor excitation current idrG .204 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. diesel generator system are presented. The vector control schematic is shown in the left-hand side of Fig.

According to Fig. Downloaded on December 12. the total gain Kp = K1 K2 of the diesel engine is dependent on the rotational speed of the engine and the power supplied by the DGS. 5. 5. a continuous function for the optimal curve in the power-rotational speed plane for minimum fuel consumption can be obtained. Fuel consumption versus power at various rotational speed.and variable-speed diesel engines [6]– [9]. 3. Fuel efficiency also decreases when the power supplied by the DGS is increased without adjusting the rotational speed. which depends on the speed and output power [16]. 220-V. 4. The control scheme for the diesel engine is shown in Fig. the relationship between the optimal rotational speed and the power supplied by the DGS is almost linear. 7) is implemented. The reference frame orientation angle can be derived from the stator flux vector position of the diesel-driven DFIG as θv = θsG + π/2. Variation of K p as a function of power and rotational speed. The fuel consumption in a diesel engine depends on the speed and torque of the machine. C.8 pu in order to improve the system efficiency. If losses in the DFIG are neglected.6 pu. From the fuel consumption characteristic of Fig. 7. The dynamic of the actuator is represented by a first-order model with a time constant τ2 [16]. and n is the number of cylinders. 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. This is in broad agreement with the previous research [5]–[7]. at 20% of rated power. In order to compensate the variations of Kp . 6. the speed demand (optimum speed) for the diesel engine is calculated by using a look-up table where the optimal power–speed curve (see Fig. the en- gine speed has to be varied from ∼0. N is the speed in r/min. Fig. Therefore any increase/decrease in load power should be accompanied by an increase/decrease in the rotational speed to improve the system efficiency. In order to minimize the fuel consumption. [16]–[18].˜ et al. Restrictions apply. 6 shows the fuel consumption curves obtained experimentally from a 3-kW. or could be the output of a reactive power controller. This dead time can be calculated as 60 60st + (7) τ1 = 2N n 4N where st = 2 or four for two. 6. for five rotational speeds. as shown in Fig. 4. The input to the look-up table is PeG . [17] and a gain K2 . Modeling and Control of the Diesel Engine The model of the diesel engine used (see Fig. The reactive power component reference current could be set to zero. 2 LsG (8) As shown in Fig. The diesel speed is regulated by using a PI controller. 4. The control schematic is shown in the righthand side of Fig. if the power supplied by the DGS is changed from 35% to 45% of the rated value. and experimental data obtained from a 3-kW diesel generator set. The controller gain is a function of the speed and power and is adjusted using an additional 2-D look-up table. 6. The combustion system is represented as a variable gain K1 . θv . In Fig. For instance. 4) is based on the previous work on fixed. 205 Diesel engine model. there is 50% of additional fuel consumption when the system is operated at rated speed instead of 0. and a dead time τ1 . 50-Hz diesel engine.7 to ∼0. Fig. J is the total system inertia and B is the friction coefficient. Fig. implying close-to-unity displacement factor operation.or four-stroke engines. and the output is the demanded speed. The load torque TeG is the electrical torque calculated according to [14] TeG = 3 p L2m G im sG iqrG . Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. a gain scheduling control system is used [16]. For the diesel system tested in this paper. the power supplied by the diesel engine to the shaft is given by PeG = ωrG TeG . A PI controller is used to process the error in the dc link voltage and generate the active power component reference current.: WIND–DIESEL GENERATION USING DOUBLY FED INDUCTION MACHINES PENA Fig. . Further discussion about the variation of K1 and K2 for a typical diesel generator set is presented in [16].

The stator flux position θe is obtained as [10]. and iqL are the d–q components of the load voltage and current. [22] TeW = 2 kopt ωrW (10) where kopt is a constant that depends on the blade aerodynamic. and wind turbine parameters. 2 3pLm W im sW (12) This section discusses the system integration of the WECS and DGS. (14) In (14). β) reported in [21] is used. The total power supplied to the grid/load is PL = vdL idL + vqL iqL (17) where vdL . C. Because the stator resistance in each machine is relatively small. [20] (9) where Ct (Tsr . via the common dc link. respectively.206 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. there is a point of maximum power capture when the turbine is operating at the maximum power coefficient (Cpm ax ) [19]. The WECS DFIG is vector controlled with a reference frame orientated along the stator flux. respectively. and by neglecting the losses. the relationship between the power supplied from the stator and the power supplied by the machine rotor is [23] Pr = −sPs . and ωT is the rotational speed of the blades. The net power supplied from each DFIG is PW = −(PsW + PrW ) = −PsW (1 − sW ) PG = −(PsG + PrG ) = −PsG (1 − sG ). the rotor q-axis reference current is given by (13). the wind turbine operates at an optimum power coefficient when the generator electrical torque is regulated as [20]. sG < 0). the integrators of (11) are replaced by bandpass filters [10]. However. and the rotor d-axis reference current is set to zero. To avoid the integrator drift produced by the dc component in the signals. gear box ratio. The worst case. for optimal power capture. For each DFIG. Tsr is the tip-speed ratio (= ωT Rb /V ). Modeling of the Wind Turbine The power captured and the mechanical torque produced by a wind turbine are given by [19]. vdsW ≈ vdsG ≈ vdL ≈ 0 and the load power can be obtained as PL ≈ vqL iqL . Control of the Proposed Wind–Diesel System Tm = 0. For simultaneous Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. [19]– [22]. Ps and Pr have positive values when the power is supplied from the grid to the machine stator or rotor. The electrical torque is obtained as [10] TeW = 3 p L2m W (im sW iqrW ) 2 LsW (13) With some minor modifications. and the dynamic and steady-state operation of the entire system. For each wind velocity. If sW and sG have opposite signs. 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. may occur when both generators are operating at a supersynchronous speed (i.. More information related to the control of variable-speed generators for wind energy systems is presented in [2]. β is the blade pitch angle. 23. In this paper. [14]   λβ sW θe = tan−1 λα sW  λα sW = (vα sG − RsW iα sW )dt  λβ sW = (vβ sG − RsW iβ sW ) (11) where λα sW and λβ sW are the α − β stator flux components. from the viewpoint of the maximum current in the front-end converter. The grid voltage and frequency is established by the DGS system. For most applications. MARCH 2008 using (12) and (10). the position of the synchronous reference frame is given by (11). in a steady state. a part of the energy is directly supplied from the WECS DFIG rotor to the DGS DFIG rotor (or vice versa). β) are the torque and power coefficients. B. [10]–[12].e. with s = (ωsG − ωre )/ωsG and ωr e = (p/2)ωr . Further information regarding vector control of grid-connected DFIGs is presented in [10].5πρCt (Tsr . Optimal rotational speed versus power curve. 3 can be applied to grid-connected DFIGs. . it can be shown that. it is concluded that not all the power required by the machine rotors is supplied from the grid through the front-end converter. β) and Cp (Tsr . unless otherwise specified. (15) The front-end converter is used to supply electrical energy to both machine rotors. The total power supplied by the front-end converter to the machine rotors Pfe is Pfe = −(sW PsW + sG PsG ). β)Rb2 V 3 2 2LsW kopt ωrW . this case is unlikely to occur unless a high load above the nominal power of the DGS is connected to the grid. MODELING AND CONTROL OF THE WIND TURBINE SYSTEM A. sW . it is considered that. Restrictions apply. the blade characteristic Ct (Tsr . β)Rb3 V 2 Pm = 0. In this case. by adopting similar ratings for the front-end converter and the two rotor converters will provide a satisfactory system. vqL . 7.5πρCp (Tsr . idL . Downloaded on December 12. Modeling and Control of the WECS DFIG The proposed control strategy considers the generator of the WECS as a grid-connected DFIG. the control system shown in the left-hand side of Fig. [15]. If the losses are neglected. [14]. III. NO. (16) From (16). [14]. 1. the torque component current (iqrW ) is regulated as i∗qrW = Fig. VOL.

because the stator resistance voltage drop is negligible. Two DSP boards.: WIND–DIESEL GENERATION USING DOUBLY FED INDUCTION MACHINES PENA Fig. From Fig. the relationship between the quadrature currents supplied from the WECS and DGS is obtained from (18) as ∆iqsW (1 − sW ) = −∆iqsG (1 − sG ). . By using a wind turbine Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. In order to balance the power and considering constant load operation (i. 3). Fig. The block labeled “nonlinear gain” represents the transfer function obtained by linearising (13) as ∆i∗qrW 4LsW kopt ωrW 0 = . iq . using a look-up table. in the DSP memory. 207 Small-signal model for stator flux regulation of the DGS generator. Downloaded on December 12. are used to control the whole system. In Fig. Restrictions apply. IV. The algorithms for the emulation of the variablespeed wind turbine. 9. A speed-controlled cage induction machine is used to emulate a 3. wind profiles are sent from the host PC to a secondorder model of the WECS implemented in the DSP. 8 shows the small-signal model for the power control system of the proposed wind–diesel topology. it is concluded that the load reactive power can also be supplied by Experimental system. ∆idL ≈ 0). 8. β) from the look-up table. and the DFIG stator current. considering the low bandwidth of the stator flux control loop. 9 shows the closed loop control system used to regulate the stator flux of the DGS generator. ∆ωr 3pL2m W im sW 0 (19) Fig. If the load is relatively small compared to the energy captured by the WECS. To implement the emulation. Emulation of wind turbines has already been presented in [22] and [24]. The grid voltage control is achieved through stator flux regulation. However. 9 idL . then the pitch control of the blades [20] or the power dissipation in a dump load has to be used in order to balance the power in the system. The cross-coupling terms [10] between the d and q axes are neglected in Fig.0-kW diesel engine with 35% transient torque overload and rated friction losses of 0. because they are compensated at the output of the current controller (see Fig. the reactive power can be supplied from the front-end converter or the WECS generator. Fig. The DSP boards are installed in separated host computers. each generator supplies a fraction of the load power. and the control of the front-end converter are implemented in one of the DSP boards. the DGS generator. 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. 8. From (15)..2 kW. 8. Alternatively. 10. based on the TMS320C31 processor. operation of the DGS and WECS. and vector control of the WECS DFIG are implemented in a second DSP board. the grid voltage and frequency are regulated by the DGS generator. It is assumed that the wind turbine is driven at maximum aerodynamic efficiency by regulating the electrical torque of the WECS generator via (10). Variations in the power generated by the DGS also produce changes in the rotational speed of the diesel engine that is regulated to a new operating point. 9. this is relatively slow. respectively. and idsW are the reactive components of the load current. front-end converter current. tracking of the optimal rotational speed. The flux is regulated by controlling the rotor current idrG . In the proposed system. the WECS generator is similar to a current source supplying the energy captured from the wind to the system. The wind turbine is emulated using a speed-controlled dc machine. and is briefly discussed here. optimum speed tracking. (18) Fig. vector control of the diesel-driven DFIG. the load quadrature current iqL is obtained as iqL = −(iqsW (1 − sW ) + iqsG (1 − sG )). minimizing the fuel consumption. a change in the power captured from the wind turbine is compensated by a change in the opposite direction for the power generated from the diesel system. 10. In Fig. The power coefficient curve is stored.e. EXPERIMENTAL WORK The proposed wind–diesel topology has been tested by using the experimental system shown in Fig.˜ et al. Linear interpolation is used to obtain the power coefficient Cp (Tsr . Small-signal model for power component of voltages and currents. (20) Therefore. The control algorithms for the emulation of the diesel engine.

10) i. Restrictions apply. Initially. The speed range for both the machines is from 700 to 1300 r/min (rated speed 1000 r/min). the emulation of the diesel engine is implemented. ω(k) is calculated from (22). considering losses at 45%. the load is increased to 1. The reference and the actual speeds Fig. Downloaded on December 12. while the magnetizing current of the DGS is controlled at 7-A resulting in a 120-V stator voltage. At t = 50 s. (c) Front-end converter currents. The converters switching frequency is 1 kHz and the sampling time is 0. Fig.208 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. NO. 11(b) shows the estimated fuel consumption for these load conditions. and is used as the demand velocity for the speed control system of the cage induction machine (see Fig. (a) Magnetizing and rotor currents. 11. and correspondingly. Emulation of the Diesel Engine The diesel engine emulator models both the steady state and dynamic characteristics by controlling the rotational speed of an induction machine drive (different machines were used for the emulations because of the availability of equipment in the laboratory). 11. 56%. With this emulation technique. In steady state. The speed of the system increases and a new optimal speed of 1190 r/min is reached. A. 4. for 45% and 56% of rated power. The dc-link voltage is regulated at 530 V and a 10 µF/phase capacitor is connected to the stator to filter the high-order PWM harmonics. considering the experimental results of Fig. 6. and 85% of rated power. The rotational speed is a function of the actuator input u(s) (see Fig. (b) Estimated fuel consumption. the rotational speed and torque current settle to a new operating point. 11(a) shows the speed tracking performance when step resistive loads are applied to the stator. 11. External DSP interfaces are used to measure the rotor position (using 10000 pulses per revolution encoders). 23. Fig. the ∗ ) is calculated in reference speed of the WECS generator (ωrW each sampling time (see [22]). The q-axis rotor current reflects the increase in power demand due to the load impacts. The variation in the daxis rotor current is due to the slight variation in the second Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. the rotational speed is obtained as ω(s) = 1 Kp e−sτ 1 u(s) − TeG (s) (1 + sτ2 )(sJ + B) (sJ + B) (21) using (8) and the bilinear transform.9 kW load at the optimum speed of 783 r/min.3 kW. From Fig. For each sampling time. 12(a) shows the magnetizing and the d–q axis rotor currents for the conditions corresponding to Fig. Current response corresponding to Fig. 4) and the DFIG electrical torque. After the transient. At these loads the diesel is running. the induction machine rotates at the same speed as the DGS modeled under dynamic and steady-state conditions. MARCH 2008 model and the methodology discussed in [22] and [24]. A complete discussion of the emulation technique used in this paper can be found in [24] and [25]. Fig. The load is decreased at t = 275 and 360 s. Control system performance for load steps. for signal conditioning and to provide the PWM signals to the power converters. the control strategy drives the generator to the new optimum speed of 910 r/min. the fuel saving operating at reduced speed would be 18% and 10%. (b) Stator currents. Using (21) and (22). 12. Extrapolation has been used to estimate the fuel consumption outside the registered experimental data.e. A new step load is applied at t = 150 s resulting in a total load of 2. the system is running with a 0. the DFIG rotates at the same speed as that of a generator driven by a real wind turbine. respectively. 1.5 ms. Experimental Results for the DGS Experimental results for the DGS supplying energy to a standalone load are presented in this section. Fig. (a) Speed tracking performance. (21) can be discretized to Kp [(z + 1)Ts ]2 z −N t u(z) ω(z) = (2τ2 + Ts )(2J + BTs )(z − A)(z − C) − A= (z + 1)Ts p L2m G ∗ 3 i i∗ (z) J(z − A) 2 LsG m sG qrG (2J − BTs ) (2J + BTs ) C= (2τ2 − Ts ) (2τ2 + Ts ) (22) the variable delay Nt is calculated as τ1 /Ts . VOL.1 kW. The speed-controlled dc machine forces the DFIG speed to this value. are shown. where τ1 is obtained from (7) and Ts is the sampling time. The system is tested for step changes of resistive and inductive loads. 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. . B. ±30% of the synchronous speed. Two identical DFIGs are used for the implementation of the experimental rig.

0. The front-end converter q-axis current (iq ) is regulated at zero [see Fig. 16(b) shows that the dip in the magnetizing current for the reactive load step is reduced to 10% [compare with Fig. the system losses are increased when the reactive power is supplied from the front-end converter and the speed settles to a higher value ≈1300 r/min. Initially. 13(b) shows the d–q stator flux components for these load and speed transients. The front-end converter reactive power is regulated in order to supply all the reactive power required by the load (i.8 s. 15(b). the increase in the system losses. .65 kvar is applied. 14(b)]. the power supplied by the machine reduces. 14. Fig. 12(b) shows the d–q axis DFIG stator current. 11. At t ≈ 1 s.. Fig. (b) DC link voltage and magnetizing current. These results illustrate well-managed interactions between the controllers. and a speed of about 1128 r/min. the reference and real speeds whereas Fig. Fig.9 kW. 14. term of the right-hand side in (5). As the magnetizing current error goes to zero. However. the reference speed increases due to the increase in power.: WIND–DIESEL GENERATION USING DOUBLY FED INDUCTION MACHINES PENA Fig. A dc link voltage dip of about 20 V occurs. Restrictions apply. Downloaded on December 12. Fig. The dc link voltage excursion is within ±10 V during these load and speed transients. and the regulation is very good because the effect of the stator resistance voltage drop is negligible. because during transients. (a) Speed tracking performance. The q-axis stator flux is close to zero.˜ et al. the additional reactive power is supplied by the DFIG with a dynamic that is dependent on the low bandwidth of the magnetizing current control loop. 16 and 17. In Fig. The dynamic of the response can be improved if the required reactive power is supplied by the front-end converter. 15(a)]. the speed of the system settles down to about 1128 r/min. 14 shows the operation of the system when an inductive load step is applied to the stator. 11. There is an overshoot in the magnetizing current (and stator voltage) of about 35%. at t ≈ 1 s. reflecting the correct orientation of the vector control system. (b) d–q stator flux components. Voltages and flux corresponding to Fig. a load step of about 1. Because the load is resistive the d-axis stator current is nearly zero and the power factor is close to unity. 12(c) shows the front-end converter currents. Finally. Fig. the angle between the stator flux and the voltage is not π/2 as assumed Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. (a) Reactive power currents. 15 shows the d–q axis active and reactive power current components corresponding to the load transients of Fig. 13(a) shows the dc link voltage and the rms stator voltage corresponding to the test of Fig. 13. (a) DC link and stator voltages. The d-axis front-end converter current reverses when the speed is above synchronous. is compensated by a small increase in the DFIG q-axis rotor current. During the load steps. Current response for the test of Fig. at t ≈ 13 s. hence. 14. This is shown in Figs. The variation on the dc link voltage is mainly produced by changes in the machine stator voltage. 14(b) shows the dc link voltage and magnetizing current. the system is supplying a 1. Fig. The dip and the overshoot of E are below 20 V. Fig. As shown in Fig.e. Initially. 14. Fig. the d-axis rotor current compensates the increase in the load reactive power. hence. 15. The q-axis stator current reflects the power changes due to the load impacts. After the transient. 14(a) shows 209 Fig. because power is supplied to the load from the stator and the rotor of the DFIG.25 kvar load. the reference speed reduces because the load impact causes a magnetizing current (and stator voltage) dip of about 30%. with the optimum speed control strategy enabled. Fig. idsG ≈ 0). (b) Active power currents. The stator voltage is practically constant. hence. The settling time for the magnetizing current is about 0. 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. Control system response for an inductive load step. the final value for the speed (≈1214 r/min) is slightly higher than the initial speed because of the additional losses produced by the increase in the stator current. The d–q axis front-end converter currents illustrate the operation close to unity power factor (q-axis current ≈ 0). the inductive load step is disconnected at t ≈ 13 s. produced by the load step.

the losses decrease. Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. and the stator is connected to the grid by using a manually operated circuit breaker. 19. Also. (b) Front-end converter currents. the DGS speed. To overcome both of these difficulties. connecting the WECS generator to the grid is equivalent to a step demand in the reactive power supplied by the DGS generator. The rotational speeds are 830 and 1300 r/min. 1. b) and supersynchronous (c. 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. the rotor of the WECS DFIG is opened. initially 1130 r/min. 19 and 20 show results for connection of the WECS generator to the system. The equivalent per phase stator voltage va is also shown. Before the connection. 18(a) and (b)] and supersynchronous speed [Fig. WECS connection to the system. (a) DGS speed. if the current supplied by the front-end converter increases. Fig. Restrictions apply. These results are obtained at sub. the reference reactive power for the front-end converter is gradually reduced in order to reduce the losses and avoid variations in the stator voltage. Figs. hence. However. Downloaded on December 12. This excursion is reduced if the front-end converter provides the reactive power. Experimental Results for the DGS and WECS Assuming that the DGS is already active. 18 shows steady-state results for the voltages and currents of the DFIG stator and front-end converter. a control strategy is used in which the required reactive power is initially provided by the front-end converter. 23. this reduces the maximum power current Fig. the front-end converter operates at close to unity power factor. 17 shows the magnetizing currents supplied by the DFIG and frontend converter corresponding to the test of Fig. In this test. System performance with reactive power compensation. The speed finally settles at 1215 r/min. it may produce higher switching and conduction losses in this power converter.9 kW with a 0. VOL. a sudden change in the reactive power provided by the DGS DFIG may produce a relatively large variation in the magnetizing current (and stator voltage) due to the low bandwidth of the magnetizing current loop. After the transient. MARCH 2008 Fig. (b) Magnetizing current and dc link voltage. d) speed. As discussed in the previous section. Fig. hence. but as the reactive power supplied by the front-end converter reduces. available in the converter. 17(a)]. The load reactive power is supplied entirely by the machine. C. Fig.97 lagging power factor. 16. 16. tends to increase due to the higher losses. no change in the reactive current is seen by the machine during the inductive load impact. (a) DFIG currents.5%. Reactive power current components. (b) Magnetizing current and dc link voltage. When the WECS is connected.[Fig. 18(c) and (d)]. Steady state operation at sub (a. 3). Fig. The dc link voltage has a maximum overshoot of 4. 18. 19(a) shows the speed during the transient. respectively. the system is sourcing a load of 1.210 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. 19(b) shows the magnetizing current and the dc link voltage. by the front-end converter control system (see Fig. 17. The d-axis stator current is regulated at zero [see Fig. Fig. NO. (a) Speed tracking. The dip and the overshoot in the magnetizing current are below 12%. . Fig.

iqrW . for this operating point the DGS DFIG is less efficient when the magnetizing current is supplied from the stator instead of the rotor.˜ et al. 19). Fig. Restrictions apply. 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. Control system response for a WECS DFIG q-axis current step. 19. Therefore. the power supplied from the DGS is slightly higher than that supplied before the connection of the WECS generator. The q-axis rotor current is regulated at zero. 19. The optimum speed for the WECS corresponds to continuous operation at maximum power coefficient. 20. 21(a) shows the response of the WECS DFIG rotor current controller. (b) Currents in the DGS. The next experimental test shows the power balance produced when a change in the active and/or reactive power generated by the WECS is balanced by an opposite variation in the active and/or reactive power generated from the DGS DFIG [see (20) and Figs. The performance of the system for a step change in the torque current. is given Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. the variation in the magnetizing current is also low. (b) Currents in the DGS. 22(a). The DGS speed corresponding to the tests of Figs. For this test. The variation in the DGS torque current is negligible. At t ≈ 3 s. (a) Reactive power component. For this test. 23. appropriate to verify the performance of the proposed control system. there is an increase in the DGS losses and the speed of the DGS system rises. the DGS DFIG q-axis rotor current does not change significantly. Rotor and stator current corresponding to the test of Fig. Fig. 24. the DGS reactive stator current is zero and the total reactive current is supplied from the front-end converter [iq in Fig. 21(b) shows the reactive and magnetizing currents of the 211 DGS speed for active and reactive power changes from the WECS. 20. 21. Fig. The performance of the wind–diesel system for a step increase in wind velocity is shown in Fig. when iq ≈ 0. are shown in Fig. 21 and 22 is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. with the reactive current component set to zero. Therefore. DGS DFIG when the step increase in idrW takes place. are shown in Fig. 22. because the power balancing is produced mainly by changes in the rotational speed of the DGS and a small variation in the torque current of the DGS generator [see Figs. Fig. and for each wind velocity. required by the DGS generator. (b) Active power current components. the power factor seen from the DGS DFIG stator increases to 0. Fig. Control system response for a WECS DFIG d-axis current step. Finally. the current idrG in the DGS DFIG reduces. a part of the power required by the load is supplied from the WECS and the speed of the DGS reduces accordingly.: WIND–DIESEL GENERATION USING DOUBLY FED INDUCTION MACHINES PENA Fig. Downloaded on December 12. Fig. 22. Therefore. Initially. (a) Currents in the WECS. The active and reactive power current components. the power factor seen from the DGS is 0. (a) Currents in the WECS. 22(b) and 23]. 20(a)]. The rotor current idrG sets the flux in the DGS machine. and a step demand of 3-A reactive current is produced. A step in the wind velocity is not realistic but is a very drastic change. is provided from the WECS. the reactive power of the load is supplied by the DGS. considering the increase in the generator speed (see Fig. The speed of the WECS is controlled at 800 r/min. and before the transient. Because a part of the magnetizing current. 8 and 9]. . When a step increase in iqrW is applied.8 lagging.95. The WECS d–q rotor currents. corresponding to the test of Fig. For the idrW step change.0 kW. The load connected to the system is 2. 20(b) shows the DGS torque currents and the front-end converter active power current component (i∗qrW = 0 for this test). the front-end reactive current is decreased using a slow ramp. 23.

the rotational speed and power generated from the DGS are also varied. 24. The DGS speed is shown in Fig. Therefore. as shown in Fig. 24. In order to balance the power variations in the energy supplied from the WECS. (a) DC link voltage.212 Fig. the wind velocity is increased to 10 m/s. (b) Front-end converter current. 25(c)]. the power supplied by the DGS reduces to balance the generated power with the power of the load. the corresponding variation of the DGS speed is also slow. (c) WECS DFIG current. are well regulated as shown in Fig. for the condition corresponding to Fig. At t ≈ 3 s. The DGS optimum speed ≈ 1164 r/min and WECS optimum speed ≈ 650 r/min.opt = Tsr. The WECS speed increases until it reaches the new optimum speed (1300 r/min). The wind profile used in the emulation is shown in Fig. 25(a)–(c). (c) DGS optimal speed and real speed. 26. converter to the rotor of both DFIGs is increased after the wind step. (c) DGS DFIG stator voltage. Therefore. the regulation of the dc link voltage. . the tracking of the DGS optimum speed is good. (b) Optimal speed and WEC real speed. For this test. NO. 27(a). magnetizing Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. 23. Fig. 27.opt is the tip speed ratio corresponding to Cpm ax .e. the variation in the stator (grid) voltage is very small [see Fig. and because the load is constant. the power current id also increases. Even for the relatively large variation in the power generated from the WECS. 26(b). 26. Restrictions apply. After the transient (t ≈ 25 s). 28(a)–(c). the WECS tracks well the low-frequency components of the optimum speed. Active current components corresponding to the test of Fig. The net power supplied from the front-end Fig. This is accompanied by a reduction of the DGS speed reaching the new optimum value of ≈ 835 r/min. Fig. The system active power current components for the condition corresponding to Fig.opt V GR Rb (23) where Tsr. 24 are shown in Fig. 27(b). (a) DGS DFIG current. the WECS is initially operating with a wind velocity of 5 m/s. Imposing a q-axis rotor current given by (13). MARCH 2008 Speed system performance for a step increase in wind velocity. 27. Experimental results using a wind profile are shown in Fig. Currents and voltages corresponding to the test of Fig. Initially. (a) Wind profile. 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. 24. System performance for a typical wind profile. Downloaded on December 12. and stator voltage. 27(c). (b) DGS DFIG Magnetising current. the DGS q-axis rotor current decreases slightly because the power reduction is mainly due to the speed variation. The WECS optimum speed and the real speed are shown in Fig. The dc link voltage. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. As shown in this graphic. 25. As shown in Fig. by [19] ωrW . i. 1. the DGS is operating below the synchronous speed and the WECS above the synchronous speed. little power is supplied from the WECS to the load. a 2 kW load is connected to the ac bus and the wind velocity is 5 m/s. for t < 1 s. 24. Because of the relatively slow variation in the power generated from the WECS. VOL. DGS magnetizing current.

Appl. Nawrocki. E. and M. 2001 IEEE Power Eng. 2004.525 Ω. Electron. 1990. A. N. Hofmann. Matthews. and J. Hope. Koharagi. Annu. 2003. and J. Scudiere. K. 2005 IEEE Power Electron. Conf. Haynes. Lm = 0. The electrical torque of the WECS generator is controlled to drive the system to the rotational speed. current. 1988.” IEEE Ind. Restrictions apply. Clare. Mar. Dettmer. Chen and Y.” IEEE Control Syst. 17. Oak Ridge. 1998. “Doubly-fed induction generators using back-to-back PWM converters and its applications to variable-speed windenergy generation. 8. [2] S. The experimental results have verified that the stator voltage regulation is very good. Ls = 0. [15] B. no. vol. Depending on the load size and the power supplied by the WECS generator. May 1996. “Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines. pp. Eng. Hofman. 6 poles. no. Front-end converter: C = 2600 µF . Mag. J. The generation system uses two doubly fed induction machines with corresponding PWM rotor inverters connected to a common dc bus. A. “A permanent magnet synchronous generador with variable speed input for cogeneration system. Mag. no. step changes in wind velocity. M. τ2 = 0. (b) DGS DFIG magnetizing current. 1995 17th British Wind Energy Assoc. M. T.398. load impacts. B.0796. [8] J. D. “Power smoothing and performance improvement of wind turbines with variable speed. Roy. Jiang. Asher. F. The performance obtained from the experimental tests is excellent. Theiss. REFERENCES Fig. Rabelo and W. 18. H. vrated = 10 m/s. Lf = 12 mH.” in Proc. GR = 1. [18] L. Pe˜na. Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. The wind energy system control strategy considers the generator as connected to a grid. Clare. Muller. where maximum energy capture is obtained.” Oak Ridge National Laboratory. B. vol. [12] S. “Control strategies for wind turbines. G. L. M. Bleijs. Wind turbine (emulated): 1300 r/min. “Advanced power generation systems for the 21st century: Market survey and recommendations for a design philosophy. Stator 220 V delta. the control system regulates the DGS rotational speed to minimize fuel consumption. A. Guzzella and A. and J. Wilmshurst. 12. “Modelling. H.” in Proc. Cherup. J. A. Oct. pp. J. Bleijs. 29. “Power flow optimisation and grid integration of wind turbines with the doubly-fed induction generator. Gates. May/Jun. and G. simulation and performance analysis of a hybrid power system for mobile medical clinic. Otaduy. Deicke. showing the feasibility of the proposed wind–diesel system. “A wind diesel system with variable speed flywheel storage. 9. V. 153. Tolbert.8 kg · m2 . pp. Inst. Klett. and stator voltage is very good during the whole wind profile. D. “A k-step predictive scheme for speed control of diesel driven power plants. Mag. “A doubly fed induction generator using back to back PWM converters supplying an isolated load from a variable speed wind turbine. [5] Z. Tech.. . Meeting Conf. J. Peterson.” Wind Eng. and operation of the WECS with a realistic wind profile. May 1993.˜ et al. Kassel. 389–396. thesis. R. B. and G. Sep. (c) Stator voltage. S. Soc.0825. 2003 IEEE Power Electron. Malik. vol. W. Several tests including the connection of the WECS generator to the system.0835 H. Smith. Annu. Ind./Apr. [6] L. pp. M. Rs = 0. vol.” IEEE Control Syst. Downloaded on December 12. The control strategy for the diesel-driven generator allows indirect control of the stator voltage (the ac system load voltage) by regulating the stator flux magnitude via the control of the rotor current. E.1 s. 353– 358. Mar. [4] R. Spec. pp. 1993. B. “Revolutionary energy—A wind/diesel generator with flywheel storage. Winter Meeting. 129–145. Rb = 1. De Doncker. J. Soc. Jul. University of Kassel. Mag.. pp. W.. Amstutz. 1999. 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1. He is the author or coauthor of more than 180 research papers published in various international journals. He is the author of the paper that received the Best Paper Award from the Industrial Electronics Society. variable-speed drive systems and electromagnetic compatibility. “Wind-energy recovery by a static scherbius induction generator. 1976. University of Magallanes.Sc. particularly the control of ac machines. in 1984. Ind. 46. Pe˜na. 12. A. in 1976. Punta Arenas.. Jon Clare (M’90–SM’04) was born in Bristol. Asher was a member of the Executive Committee of European Power Electronics (EPE) Association until 2003.” IEEE Trans. His current research interests include control of power electronics converters. ac drives. Chile. Asher. 37. VOL. pp. Nov. Asher.K.. Jul. He received the Electrical Engineering degree from the University of Magallanes.” IEEE Trans. Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. Ind. no. Pe˜na is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. and J. Craig. respectively. 2. and the M.D. for the best paper published in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS during 2004. Nottingham. 1981.. Pe˜na. respectively. Smith and K. G.. and J. 483–493.. in 1988. Energy Convers. and renewable energy systems. 1. degree in electronic engineering and the Ph. His current research interests include control of electrical machines. P.. Cardenas is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Nottingham. and Ph.” in Proc. [22] R.K. . no. 370–379. University of Nottingham.D. Jun. vol. in 1992 and 1996. Apr. C. 2004. and D. pp. 4. Chile. Concepcion. Clare. and renew- Jos´e Proboste was born in Puerto Natales. no. Zinger. U... Greg Asher (M’98–SM’04–F’07) received the Graduate degree in electrical and electronic engineering from Bath University. His current research interests include power electronic converters and modulation strategies. [20] E.. G. Muljadi. Mar. Chile./Feb. Graz. A.D. 1999. In 1984. University of Magallanes. Downloaded on December 12. pp. in 1992 and 1996. U. His past research interests include motor drive systems. U. [24] R. Butterfield. Nigim. Aerosp. He received the B. 1997. 12. [23] G. and Ph. 1976. on March 21. and the Ph. He received the Electrical Engineering degree from the University of Magallanes. where he was engaged in teaching and research in power electronic systems. vol. His current research interests include control of power electronics converters and ac drives. Bristol. U. where he is currently a Professor in the Power Electronics and also the Head of the Research Group. Akpolat. and the M. Bath. Chile. E. 2006.. he has been with the Power Electronics. no.. Clare is a member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. 2004. [25] H. “A variable speed wind turbine power control. Nottingham.K. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Nottingham. vol. Syst.” IEEE Trans. respectively. Eng. 1. “Dynamic emulation of mechanical loads using a vector-controlled induction motor-generator set. Austria. pp. in 1979. he was a Lecturer at the University of Magallanes. [21] J. he was a Research Assistant and a Lecturer at the University of Bristol. R. Electron. degree in bond graph structures and general dynamic systems from University of Bath. Electr. Prof. He is an Associate Editor of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society and is currently the Chair of the Power Electronics Technical Committee for the Industrial Electronics Society. In 1989. where in 2000. vol. ˜ (S’95–M’97) was born in Coronel. 19. 2008 at 21:56 from IEEE Xplore. where he is currently a Professor in the Electrical and Electronics Department.K. 240–246. Power Electron. He is currently with the Electrical Engineering Department.K. Punta Arenas. Prof. Appl. He is currently a Research Assistant in the Electrical Engineering Department. Conf. Jan.214 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Bristol. 128.Sc. “Emulation of wind turbines and flywheels for experimental purposes. vol. Machines and Control Group. Inst. and where he is currently the Head of the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. Restrictions apply. 196–205. Punta Arenas. England. he was a Lecturer in Control in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Nottingham. 23. variable speed drives. 2. Chile.” IEEE Trans. From 1984 to 1990. MARCH 2008 [19] A.” IEEE Trans. U. pp.K. Muljadi and C. pp. Roberto C´ardenas (S’95–M’97–SM’07) was born in Punta Arenas. He is also an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. Chile. U. Prof. Nottingham.. vol.” presented at the 2001 Eur. 317–324. Dr. “Pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine generation.Sc. able energy systems.D. NO. “Dynamics of wind generators on electric utility network. Clare. Miller. Rub´en Pena Chile. C´ardenas. no. Since 1990. Energy Convers. 181–186. he was appointed the Professor of Electrical Drives. in 1979 and 1990. University of Nottingham. “Sensorless vector control of induction machines for variable speed wind energy applications. He received the Electrical Engineering degree from the University of Concepcion. C´ardenas and R.