Self-Compacting Concrete

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State-of-the-art
Geert DE SCHUTTER

Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research – Department of Structural Engineering
21 March 2012, Ghent

Self-Compacting
Concrete

Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research

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Self-compacting concrete
• Fills the formwork like a liquid
• No external compaction energy
• Substantial ecological benefits

Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research

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the ‘Non Plus’ system gradually faded away. without any further compaction.SCC – Two Decades (?) ‘Modern’ SCC Japan. in spite of the heavy competition of the more traditional approach relying on masonry. 1980’s ‘Parents’ Underwater concrete + Highly flowable concrete ‘Great great grandfather’ System ‘Non Plus’ First developed in 1906 in Germany. Successfully applied for house construction. the Netherlands and Belgium in the 1910’s and 1920’s Consisted of liquid concrete poured into the formwork. Due to problems related to the complex and expensive formworks. and applied in Germany. Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 4 .

SCC – Two Decades (?) System ‘Non Plus’ Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 5 .

SCC – Two Decades (?) System ‘Non Plus’ Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 6 .

SCC - Two decades of research and practice

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Selection of materials and mix design

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Selection of materials and mix design
State-of-the-art
Standard materials for use in concrete are suitable for SCC
A wide range of mix proportions exists to produce SCC
Common practice:
Powder-type SCC, VMA-type SCC, Mixed-type SCC
Bottleneck:
Designing ROBUST SCC mixes
Further developments:
Tailor made systems based on ternary or quaternary blends,
Including synergetic effects.
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Selection of materials and mix design Isothermal heat production rate Increasing limestone filler content Possible occurrence of new hydration peak Physical effect Chemical effect Effect of limestone filler on cement hydration Portland cement Portland cement + limestone filler Time Filler effect Porous interface Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research Dilution effect limestone 10 .

Selection of materials and mix design Selection of materials and mix design State-of-the-art Bottlenecks Future developments Partly covered in STAR Reports: RILEM TC 174-SCC RILEM TC 188-CSC Robustness Robustness Tailor-made blends Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 11 .

Mixing process Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 12 .

2011 Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 13 .

Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 14 .Mixing process (Schiessl.2007). Lowke. Mazanec.

Mixing process Mortar/paste level Concrete level • New development: vacuum mixing Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 15 .

Mixing process Ongoing fundamental research project on vacuum mixing (Ghent University & University College): • Conventional Concrete. SCC. UHPC • Pore structure / Air void system • Rheology • Mechanical properties • Durability Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 16 .

Mixing process Mixing process State-of-the-art Bottlenecks Future developments Partly covered in STAR Reports: RILEM TC 188-CSC Influence of mixing process often neglected or not understood More fundamental studies of mixing process. including advanced mixing techniques like vacuum mixing Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 17 .

Pumping Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 18 .

Pumping Precast industry – automated production process Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 19 .

Pumping – Belgian Concrete pipe factory • High quality concrete pipes • Diameter up to 1. Energy Shift to more environment friendly production method? Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 20 . Vibration.2 m Experienced problems: Noise.6 m • Length up to 3.

Pumping – Belgian Concrete pipe factory Estimated energy saving Current production method Pumping SCC Mixing Energy 0.0 GWh 0.6 GWh Transport Energy 0.6 GWh 0.642 GWh Energy saving: about 60% of actual energy consumption Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 21 .2 GWh 0.0 GWh Finishing Energy Neglected Neglected Total Energy 1.4 GWh 0.042 GWh Compaction Energy 1.

foundation slab .perimeter walls .central core .mega-columns SCC was pumped Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 22 .Pumping on-site WFC Shanghai SCC was applied for .

.Pumping: fundamental study Shear stress (Pa)400 RHEOLOGICAL RESULTS 350 Yield stress: 300 SCC < TC 250 TC 200 Viscosity 150 SCC > TC SCC 100 50 Shear thickening 0 0 5 10 15 Shear rate (1/s) Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research SCC is more fluid than TC.

especially at the higher discharges. PUMPING RESULTS Pressure loss (kPa/m) 45 40 35 SCC 30 25 20 This is the opposite to the rheological results !! TC 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Discharge (l/s) Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research The paradox of pumping SCC .Pumping: fundamental study Pumping pressures for SCC are higher.

based on the measured shear stresses: 1200 SCC 1000 800 Viscosity (and shear-thickening) influences pumping pressures significantly.Pumping: fundamental study Shear stress (Pa) Extrapolation of rheometer results. yield stress does not. 600 TC 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Shear rate (1/s) Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research .

Pumping: fundamental study Theoretical prediction of pressure losses Bingham: t = t 0 + m p × g& Overestimation with factor 2 to 5 Modified Bingham: t = t 0 + m × g& + c × g& ² Overestimation with factor 4 to 10 Conditions of use for (extended) Poiseuille formula: No slippage Homogeneity Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research .

Pumping: fundamental study Theoretical prediction of pressure losses Homogeneity ? Pipe wall Lower concentration of aggregates MAGNEL LABORATORY FOR CONCRETE RESEARCH Pipe centre-line HYDRAULICS LABORATORY .

Pumping: fundamental study Theoretical prediction of pressure losses Homogeneity: geometrical wall effect Pipe wall Shear rate Shear stress: FIXED !! Lower concentration of aggregates Velocity Rheological properties MAGNEL LABORATORY FOR CONCRETE RESEARCH HYDRAULICS LABORATORY Pipe centre-line .

Pumping: fundamental study Theoretical prediction of pressure losses Homogeneity: geometrical wall effect + structural breakdown Pipe wall Shear rate Shear stress: FIXED !! Velocity MAGNEL LABORATORY FOR CONCRETE RESEARCH HYDRAULICS LABORATORY Pipe centre-line .

W.E.B. + S.Pumping: fundamental study Theoretical prediction of pressure losses Homogeneity: G. + dynamic segregation Pipe wall Shear rate Shear stress: FIXED !! Lower concentration of aggregates Velocity MAGNEL LABORATORY FOR CONCRETE RESEARCH HYDRAULICS LABORATORY Pipe centre-line .

Pumping: fundamental study Slip or no slip? That’s the question! Ongoing research… Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 31 .

Pumping: fundamental study Slip or no slip? That’s the question! Ongoing research… Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 32 .

in order to understand surface and slip conditions Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 33 .Pumping Pumping State-of-the-art Bottlenecks Future developments Partly covered in STAR Reports: RILEM TC 188-CSC Surface layer? Slip conditions? Real velocity measurements.

Filling of formwork Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 34 .

Filling of formwork Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research .

Filling of formwork Example: Villa Gistel (Belgium) Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research .

in order to avoid non-appropriate filling.Filling of formwork Simulation tools needed. taking into account complex rheological behaviour of SCC/ Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 37 .

Filling of formwork Large scale testing at Ghent University Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 38 .

21 m •SCC inlet: at the base and central Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 39 .Filling of formwork Wall type A •Dimensions 4 m x 2 m x 0.21 m •SCC inlet: at the base on the short side Wall type B •Dimensions 4 m x 2 m x 0.

Filling of formwork CFD + VOF techniques Governing equations – Navier-Stokes equations •Conservation of mass (continuity equation): •Conservation of momentum: •Constitutive equation – Herschel-Bulkley: Free surface flows – Volume of Fluid Method Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 40 .

Filling of formwork Simulation results for wall A Simulation results for wall B Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 41 .

Filling of formwork Patent pending New development: automatic connection valve Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 42 .

Filling of formwork New development: automatic connection valve Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 43 .

Video of casting operation Filling of wall formwork Uncoupling of pipes Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 44 .

Advanced modelling.g. Formwork pressure Industrial development. e. e.Filling of formwork Filling of formwork State-of-the-art Bottlenecks Future developments Partly covered in STAR Reports: RILEM TC 188-CSC Complex behaviour. valves. Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 45 . including CFD. thixotropy.g.

Hydration process Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 46 .

Hydration process Isothermal heat production rate Effect of limestone filler on cement hydration Increasing limestone filler content Possible occurrence of new hydration peak Portland cement Portland cement + limestone filler Time Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 47 .

Hydration process Analytical modelling Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 48 .

Hydration process HYMOSTRUC MODEL embedded particles expansion caused by embedded particles outer product inner product din.x x/2 dx Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 49 .

Hydration process Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations (Lothenbach et al) Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 50 .

especially in ternary and quaternary blends Advanced hydration modelling including thermodynamic modelling and multi-scale approach to predict properties. Tailor made binders Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 51 .Hydration Process Hydration process State-of-the-art Bottlenecks Future developments Partly covered in STAR Reports: RILEM TC 205-DSC Interaction cementfillers-plasticizer not always fully understood.

Mechanical properties Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 52 .

Mechanical properties Compression Bond Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research Shear 53 .

01 0.50 Peak strain [‰] 2.07 1.04 0.06 0.25 2.Compression Mechanical properties Peak strain limestoneSCC higher than peak strain of CVC for same compressive strength 90 80 70 f c.cyl [N/mm²] 60 CVC1 CVC2 CVC3 SCC1 SCC2 SCC5 SCC7 50 40 30 20 10 0 1.00 0.00 2.50 0.05 0.75 3.00 SCC LS SCC BFS SCC FA SCC SF SCC BFS+LS SCC FA+LS 7 14 21 28 Time [days] Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 54 .02 Influence filler type on peak strain Largest strains for limestone filler 0.03 0.75 2.

0 1.0 2.5 55 .Bond Mechanical properties 200 150 Top-bar effect: 500 1750 1700 16 mm 500 1500 250 450 200 Height [mm] 150 200 1250 1000 750 500 CVC1 SCC1 SCC2 250 Smaller top-bar effect for SCC 0 0.5 Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 2.5 1.

dmax Influence limited ± 2-3% ITZ quality Influence significant Around 8% Bond Influence limited ± 2% Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 56 .Shear Mechanical properties Shear strength Interlock .

Mechanical properties Take-home message Applying existing models = Safe Adjusting models = Taking benefit of better performance Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 57 .

taking profit of alignment due to casting.Mechanical properties Mechanical properties State-of-the-art Bottlenecks Future developments Partly covered in STAR Reports: RILEM TC 228-MPS Some remaining issues like fatigue and tension stiffening Smarter use of (steel) fibers. combined with advanced CFD modelling TC 228-MPS: STAR report expected by end of 2012 Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 58 .

Durability Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 59 .

7394 18 2 R = 0.2.8394x .Durability Transport properties Important factors (as for TVC): ‣W/C ‣Degree of hydration ‣Mineral additions 20 y = 1.8899 K [10 -12 m/s] 16 14 12 10 8 SCC 6 TC 4 2 0 4 More general parameter: 6 8 f cap 10 12 [%] Water permeability vs. capillary porosity in case of SCC and traditional concrete (TC) ‣Capillary porosity ‣More general and more accurate than W/C! Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 60 .

Published by RILEM. 2007. Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 61 .Durability of SCC More details: State-of-the-art report of RILEM TC 205-DSC ‘Durability of SelfCompacting Concrete’.

Exposure classes: . production and conformity’ . T(0.45) additional requirement Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 62 .Durability in practice EN 206 – 1 (2001): ‘Concrete – Specification.XC4: ‘Cyclic wet and dry – concrete surfaces exposed to water contact’ .Only applicable to vibrated concrete SCC?? .minimum compressive strength class Concrete type e. splash and spray zones – parts of marine structures’ .maximum W/C ratio .Concrete types: . performance.minimum cement content .g.XS3: ‘Tidal.

Equivalent Concrete Performance Concept . New developments concerning practical durability issues: . However.Durability in practice As some general and practical conclusion it can be mentioned that the durability of SCC is at least as good as the durability of traditional concrete with similar W/C and cement content. SCC might show a somewhat inferior durability.Durability indicators Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 63 . when the comparison is made based on strength.

Durability Durability State-of-the-art Bottlenecks Future developments Partly covered in STAR Reports: RILEM TC 205-DSC Code prescription (similar as for TVC): ‘deemed to satisfy’ Durability indicators Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research ECPC 64 .

concrete technology has shown a significant evolution Self-compacting Concrete is a further step towards a tailor-made environment friendly concrete Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 65 .Conclusion During the last decades.

Lesage (KUL) Ir.Acknowledgement Dr. Craeye Dr. S. Gao Ir. Dils Ir. K. Desnerck Ir. Le Ir. Tichko Ir. V.-M. I. Liu Dr. K. Y. G. S. X. Z. D. Audenaert Dr. Ye Dr. Feys Dr. Tan Ir. B. H. Pop Ir. Boel Dr. P. A.D. Poppe Dr. J. Mu (Former) co-workers of the Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 66 .

19 en 26 november 2012 Session 1: General introduction to SCC and constituent materials Session 2: Properties of fresh selfcompacting concrete mixes Session 3: Mix design Session 4: Construction process Session 5: Hydration and microstructure Session 6: Engineering properties Session 7: Durability Session 8: Standards. De Schutter (UGent) Prof. Ir. De Schutter (UGent) Dr. Dr. Ir. De Schutter (UGent) Ir. Dr. Dr. P.BBG Module SCC. Lesage (KU Leuven) Dr. 12. Dr.-Arch. V. Ir. G. Ir. Van Itterbeeck (WTCB) Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 67 . Boel (HoGent) Dr. G. Desnerck (UGent) Prof. Van Itterbeeck (WTCB) Prof. K. Ir. Ir. P.-Arch. Ir. G. specifications and practical applications Prof. avondcursus 5. P.