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Software Design and System Architecture


A Joint Project of ISRO and CWC

Prepared By

Regional Remote Sensing Centres

National Remote Sensing Centre
ISRO, Department of Space
Government of India
CAZRI Campus, Jodhpur342003



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Software Design and System Architecture

India-WRIS Software Design and System ArchitectureDesign and Development Document For Implementation
of Web-Enabled Water Resources Information System




India-WRIS Project Team Members

Approved /Controlled by
Project Director, IndiaIndia-WRIS
Dy. Project
WRIS Project
Regional Remote Sensing Centre (West), NRSC
ISRO, Department of Space, Government of India
CAZRI Campus, Jodhpur342003
Central Water Commission, New Delhi

A nationwide water resources information system, IndiaWRIS, containing all aspects of water resources and
related data have been designed to address major
challenges of water sector in India. This technical
overview document discusses about the project
background, vision, objectives, scope and deliverables.
The document illustrates the database that is being
generated under five major groups namely, watershed
atlas, administrative layers, water resources projects,
thematic layers and environmental data. A set of tools as
well as several major and sub-information systems have
been designed for visualization of spatial layers and its
attributes. Hardware and software configuration
implemented to store the large volume of highly complex
data for the entire country has been described. The
document also outlines the capacity building programmes
and modelling activities that has been planned under the
Keywords: Software Design, Software Architecture,
Web Server, Hardware Architecture, Database, Tools and
Technologies, Security Architecture.


Primary Authors


Date Completed

India-WRIS Software
Design Document &
System Architecture
V 1.0


India-WRIS Software
Design Document &
System Architecture
V 2.0


Updated with new

features of WRIS
WebGIS Ver.1

August 3, 2011

India-WRIS Software
Design Document &
System Architecture
V 3.0


Formatted according to
the new guidelines and
updated with the
features on India-WRIS
WebGIS Version 2.0

March 3, 2012

1. Introduction
1.1 Purpose of the document
1.2 Intended Users
1.3 Project Scope
1.4 Methodology, tools and techniques overview
1.5 Hardware and Security
2. User Requirements Analysis

2.1 Product perspective

2.2 Current and proposed process along with technology forecast
2.3 Product features
2.4 Operating Environment at the client end
2.5 Software Interface Used:
2.6 Server side software requirements
3. Design Overview

3.1 Potential user groups

3.2 General characteristics of India-WRIS users
3.3 India-WRIS Users
3.4 Features & Functionality
4. Architectural Strategies
4.1 Data Flow Diagram
5. Tools & Technologies
5.1 Geo Spatial Software Architecture
5.2 Front End Software Design
6. Software Architecture
6.1 Software Development Methodology, tools and techniques
6.2 Distributed 3-Tier Client/Server Architecture
6.3 Thin Web Client Architecture
7. INDIA-WRIS Datacenter Architecture
7.1 Introduction
7.2 SAN
7.3 Database Maximum Availability Architecture

7.4 Database Backup Mechanism

7.5 India-WRIS Security Architecture

7.6 System Environmental Specifications

8. Communication &Security Architecture

8.1 Security Communication Architecture
8.2 Security Architecture
8.3 Web Server & Application Server Security
8.4 Database Server Security
8.5 Physical Security
8.6 Network Security
9. Human Machine Interaction /System Features
9.1 Tools Categorization
9.2 Detailed Component description of India-WRIS Web-GIS 2D application

Annexure A: India-WRIS Office Order
Annexure B: Technology Study
Annexure C: ArcGIS Family of Products

Figure1: WRIS Front Screen
Figure2: Major information systems of India-WRIS Explorer
Figure3: Sub information systems of India-WRIS Explorer
Figure4: Screen Shots of Proposed 3D services
Figure5: Screen Shots of Proposed Mobile services
Figure6: Screen Shots of Proposed Wiki services
Figure7: Control Flow of Proposed Success Story Module
Figure8: Context Level DFD
Figure9: Level 1 DFD
Figure10: Level 2 DFD 2D Modules
Figure11: Level 2 DFD 3D Modules
Figure12: Level 3 DFD
Figure13: Data Flow in WRIS
Figure14: WRIS Technology Architecture
Figure15: Presentation, Business Logic, and Data Access Layers
Figure16: Web Application Architecture (Tools & Technologies)
Figure17: SAN Architecture
Figure18: Tape Library
Figure19: Router
Figure20: Communication Architecture
Figure21: Web Server Architecture
Figure22: Application Server Architecture
Figure23: Oracle Database Server
Figure24: WRIS Tools Categorization
Figure25: Map Control
Figure26: Navigation tools
Figure27: WRIS Overview Component
Figure28: Draw tool component
Figure29: Charting tool component
Figure30: Table of Contents
Figure31: User interaction with search panel
Figure32: User interaction with Identify tool
Figure33: 3D No Tilt and Tilt indicated in the icon
Figure34: 3D Navigation Control
Figure35: Notes tools in 3D
Figure 36: ArcGIS 3D Application Menu
Figure 37: ArcGIS 3D Find Menu
Figure 38: Geo-tagging
Figure 39: Geo-processing Tools
Figure 40: WRIS 3D Charting Tools


Table1: Software Interface Details

Table2: Pre-requisites of Application Server
Table3: WRIS Potential user groups
Table4: WRIS User Category
Table5: General Information menus
Table6: Layers involved in Sub Info Systems
Table7: WRIS 3D Features
Table8: Major functionalities of Create Your WRIS
Table9: Comparison of Data Generation Software
Table10: Comparison of Data Hosting Software
Table11: Comparison of Front End Technologies
Table12: Major Tools Categories
Table13: Major WRIS Tools


The Software Design Document aims to
provide the guidelines for the development
Resources Information System (IndiaWRIS) and it can be referred to at all stages
of development as well as updating the
information system.
1.1 Purpose of the document: It has been
proposed that the India-Water Resource
Information System (India-WRIS) shall be
developed as a single window solution to
impart all information related to various
aspects of water resources in the country in
GIS form and to provide tools to visualize,
analyze and interpret the data obtained
thereof. For the development of such a
comprehensive system strict guidelines
need to be laid down and adhered to which
will help achieve the vision of the project
effectively and in time. The Software Design
Document for India-WRIS has been created
in such a way so as to present the vision of
the project to the software development
team in a lucid and implementable format
with the least amount of ambiguity and the
need for further changes. This document
will evolve with public as well as CWC
official feedback and suggestion as updated
1.2 Intended Users: This document contains a
collection of general set of guidelines for the
creation of an interactive web-GIS
application to fulfill the aims of the IndiaWRIS project and shall aim to serve as the
guiding force for the Software Development
team involved in the task of developing the
application. This document is intended for
WRIS software development team as well
as any organization/researcher/software
developer who wish to develop any WebGIS
application for natural resource information
development process to go through its
various cycles in a seamless and smooth
fashion and to help the WRIS team in
sharing responsibilities and completing the

development work in a structured fashion. A

general overview along with various aspects
of the development shall be outlined in this
document including the hardware and
software requirements, database and
coding standards etc.
1.3 Project Scope: India-WRIS shall make all
the available data related to water
resources in India through a web-based
system to be available throughout the world
over internet. It shall employ the use of the
latest web 2.0 technologies for data
dissemination and have the most advanced
GIS data processing systems at the back
end augmented with the best database
connectivity so that the user is able to arrive
at the data that they are looking for in an
intuitive and good looking form in real time.
User will also have the facility to take the
data forward by facilities like being able to
create customized reports.
1.4 Methodology, tools and techniques
overview: The coming to web 2.0
technologies has opened up the never
foreseen vista of Internet in its most potent
form. The data that was earlier hidden in
files obscured by numerous formats has
come to the fore in a multitude of
representation forms. With the coming of
web 2.0, the user participation has become
the prime force driving the internet and the
presence of internet has left just the realm
of personal computers and has pervaded all
kinds of devices, wired as well as unwired.
The users are now able to generate the
content that they wish to view as against the
static pages they were forced to see in the
past. The client-server interaction is ever on
the rise with each coming application.
1.5 Hardware and Security: An information
system with the complexity of India-WRIS
needs support from a state-of-the-art
hardware at the back-end. Along with the
changes in software, the hardware scenario
in the industry has also been rapidly
changing over the years. It becomes
imperative to make use of the best available

options to be ready for the future. Data

security is another aspect of the same that
must not be taken lightly. Stringent practices
must be followed so as to prevent the
hardware and the data from getting under
any kind of attacks or mal-practices carried
out of malicious intent.

The current document aims at discussing

each of the above points in greater detail in
the subsequent chapters. The content of the
topics have been arrived at after thorough
discussions during various workshops and
meetings organized for the purpose.



Water is a subject that touches everyones
life. Yet, it is difficult to define- in the form of
exact questions that an end user might want
answered through an information system
related to water. A series of workshops and
meetings were held with the officers and
engineers who work for the Central Water
Commission for the various water related
projects of the country. Open house
discussions were carried out with visions of
the proposed information system and
demonstrations of prototypes that had been
created based on the various similar
information systems available online. The
participants were meticulously noted down
and internal discussions were carried out to
convert these suggestions into a form so
that they may be implemented for the
current purpose.
2.1. Product perspective: The utility of a
web enabled information system that will
bring all the information related to an
important matter like water to the common
man and the decision makers in a simple
way can hardly be overstressed. For a
country as vast as India with an intricate
network of rivers, dams, canals and
numerous other ways of water supply the
issue of water management is a very
important one. This is especially noteworthy
in the light of new issues like global
warming and international water treaties.
Earlier all the information related with this
crucial issue was available only in physical
files that were accessible only at few places.
This placed a heavy restriction on data
availability and thus hampered its study and
understanding. This is where the idea of a
web enabled information system takes its
India-WRIS aims to collect all the available
information on water in the country,

generate some new data from processing of

the old and present them to the users so
they may benefit from it. The various levels
at which such information will come into use
can be:
The common man can have an overview of
the water resources of the country aided
with maps. More importantly, he can find out
about the various schemes of the
government that are underway related to
water along with the information related to
power generation, rivers, statistics of
rainfall, weather etc. all through a single
window system available through the
The local and state governments can use it
as a tool to understand their role in the
management of the valuable resource of
water. It will also serve as an invaluable tool
while formulating new projects involving the
use of water.
The central government will have the benefit
of having the access to all the data
pertaining to whole of the country in one
place and presented in a simple form. This
will be of high importance in formulating
new policies as well as in implementation
and monitoring of the existing ones. It may
also come in as an aid in resolving
important issues related with water
2.2. Current and proposed process along
with technology forecast: Attempts to
create water resources information system
have been made throughout the world over
the past years. While the old system
constituted of looking up data from physical
files, the coming of cheap processing power
and Internet to distribute it has ushered in a
new era for creating a digital information
system. Some of the greatest attempts at

bringing the water resources information

have been by USGS, which has its water
at . Another example of
a national water resources information
website is that of Australia. It is available at . Even in our
country, very good attempts have been
made especially in the state of Andhra
Pradesh and an information system
complete with digital maps is available for
public use. This is available at:
While these entire systems serve as the
basic guiding force behind the proposed
information system, the scope of the current
work encompasses much beyond them. The
best use of the latest technologies must be
made so as to present the data in simplest
of ways, yet not losing any of its potency. At
the same time, an eye must be kept on the
technologies that are appearing on the
horizon and attempt be made to learn and
implement them at all times so that the
existing system may not appear out of date
when it is presented in the public domain.
Of special note in this respect are the 3D
engines that are capable of representing 3D
data in the existing web browsers. Such
visualization of geographic data like the
DEM and make the data presentation all the
more effective. Of special note for examples
of such a technology are Skyline Globe and
( ).
2.3. Product features: Any information
system aiming to have geographic content
along with other collateral data must be a
comprehensive one and should have the
following features at the least:
Interoperable Spatial data viewer: The
spatial data viewer can load data from
centralized and distributed data servers
and also provide the utility to the user to
load the local data.

Map display tools: To display the map

and to enable the user to view the area
of his choice using tools such as Levels
of Display, Zoom In, Zoom Out, Zoom to
scale, Pan, Go to, full extent, Overview
Map, Choice of displayed layers ,
identification, theme overlays etc.
Query and Search: To help the user
locate the information across various
layers by having Fixed Queries as well
as advanced option to build his own
queries, Search using keywords on
multiple layers etc.
Measurement: To enable the user to
measure parameters such as distance
between two points, length of a curved
line, and area of a polygon. Note that the
parameters can either be found just by
choosing an existing feature or by
drawing a new feature using on screen
Data presentation: This will primarily use
the display of data thro ugh appropriate
kinds of Charts, Graphs and data in
tabular form.
Analysis: To help the user arrive at
decisions by combining data from
multiple layers using Union, Intersection
and perform various tools over them like
proximity analysis, buffering, clipping etc.
Annotation and output: These features
will enable the user to customize the data
and to take the output forward. Such a
tool set can include symbologies to mark
a point, highlight an area, facility to put
labels, save snapshot, create pdf maps,
print etc.
3D display: Advanced features like
terrain view, fly around/ fly to, simulations
and measurements over terrain should
be provided.
2.4. Operating Environment at the client
end: Since India-WRIS is proposed to be a
tool to view and distribute data over

Internet; it is very desirable that it should be

totally independent of the type of system it
is being viewed upon. This may even be the
crux of the utility of any such product in the
coming days. As such, development of the
system should be in such a way that once
the same is hosted on the server, the user
must be able to access it from machines
with all the operating systems like Windows,
all flavors of Linux, OSX etc. Similarly,
India-WRIS being a thin client system, it
must be accessible across all web browsers

like Internet Explorer, Firefox, Netscape

Navigator, Google Chrome, Safari etc.
Since the proposed system is being built
using Adobe Flex, the only pre-requirement
for the systems in this respect is that the
browsers must have Flash players installed
on them. But this is hardly a constraint as a
large amount of information on the Internet
is available in this form and almost all users
have flash players already installed on their

2.5. Software Used:

Operating System
Front end

Windows XP
Flash Builder, Microsoft .NET(C#) , Visual Studio
2008, PHP
Oracle 11g
ArcGIS server 10
IIS (Internet Information Services)

Back end database

Back end GIS
Web server

Table1: Software Used

2.6. Server side software requirements:

Server side software consists of Oracle
database server for data management, Web
server for web hosting and ArcGIS server
Operating system

as application server for mapping services.

The minimum system requirements of
server for ArcGIS 9.3 are:

Pentium 1GHz minimum

Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional with Service Pack 3 or higher
Microsoft Windows Server 2003
Microsoft XP Home Edition with Service Pack 1 or higher
Microsoft XP Professional Edition with Service Pack 1 or higher

Internet Explorer

Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher

Windows Installer



512 MB minimum

Installation Drive

1433 MB NTFS disk space

System Drive

Up to50 MB
Typically C: where windows\system32 is located
Table2: Pre-requisites of Application Server


The creation of India-WRIS has the sole
purpose of bringing all the water related
data within easy reach of the users. Thus,
the user and their requirements become
of prime importance when designing the
information system. In this light, a study
was carried out to capture the user
expectation from a national level water
resources information system. The
outcome of this study shall be discussed
in the following sections:





User Group
Policy formers and analysts

3.1. Potential user groups: During the

phase of inception and development of
the prototypes, the interaction with various
users has helped in categorization of the
expectations and the use they intend to
put India-WRIS to:


This group consists of individuals and organizations

that keep a tab on the water scenario in the country
and the impact it is expected to make on other
spheres like the economy of the nation. They are
always interested in accurate and holistic view of the
water situation of the country so they may help the
government in formation of policies after thorough
analysis of the available data. They also need to
assess the impact of the previous policies and such
an information system shall be very handy to them.
Planners and managers of This group mostly consists of the offices that need to
monitor the numerous projects being carried out at
national and state level. New projects are also
constantly planned at these levels and various inputs
are required for that purpose. The officers of the
Central Water Commission and the state water
resource departments come under this category.
business A large part of the growing Indian economy is also
dependent on the water resources of the country.
Most of the industries in the nation are dependent on
water directly or indirectly. Also, their activities have a
large impact on the level and quality of water in their
area. Such users need to assess the information at
their levels and make use of it.
A vast numbers of users come under this category,
as they need to assess the water related data for the
nation for various research projects. This, leads to a
better understanding of the issues related to water
and thus should be actively promoted. The role of
research in the area is being taken very seriously and


General Public

the availability of data through such an information

system is very necessary.
Water is an essential subject for the common man,
even though he may not be interested in advanced
statistics. But the information related to its availability
at local level as well as its correlation to the socioeconomic parameters is of utmost importance to
general public.
Table3: WRIS Potential user groups

3.3. General characteristics of India-WRIS
users: India-WRIS is being created in
such a way so that it will have the potential
to be used by an extremely wide range of
people from different professional and
educational background both nationally as
well as internationally. However, in the
light of the technologies being used, the
following characteristics are imperative of
a potential India-WRIS user:

Ability to make use of available tools:

Even though the tools being designed for
India-WRIS are being developed in such
a way that they shall be intuitive and
easy to use, some tools, such as query
tools shall expect a certain amount of
user input for generation of usable
output. The user should have the ability
to provide the same.
Task driven: Often the user shall come
to the information system with a specific
type of query in mind. However, since
India-WRIS contains a massive amount
of information distributed under various
heads, the specific information may be
spread throughout the information
system instead of being answered at one
place. Such users should have the ability
to search for and correlate data available
in a distributed form.

Familiarization with use of Internet:

Since the information system shall be
available through internet, the user
should be familiar with the use of
computer- especially for obtaining data
through the use of internet.
resources and issues: Although the
user is not expected to be an expert in
water resources and have a technical 3.4. India-WRIS User: The user for Indiaunderstanding of the related issues, it is
WRIS may be defined as an individual,
essential that he should be aware of the
group or organization that will make use of
very basic concepts of water resources
at least one of the available functionalities of
and how it affects our day to day life.
the proposed information system. Based on
Ability to draw inference: If the user is
the data access permissions and the
to draw any conclusion from the statistics
visualization tools developed thereof, the
users have been categorized into two
and visual information being presented
through India-WRIS, he should have a
certain level of mathematical as well as
data interpretation aptitude.





General user


Premium user

The users of this category shall have the access to all the nonrestricted data of the information system. This information shall be
accessible to the user through a comprehensive set of tools
visual as well as statistical, developed as part of the information
The users falling in this category shall have access to the complete
dataset being created as a part of the project. The tools for the
users in this group shall contain all the tools developed for the
other two categories as well as some advanced visualization
techniques. The data shall also be available for download and
manipulation in this category. These advanced facilities and data
access shall be available to users based on physical segregation
and/or secure user authentication.
Table4: WRIS User Category

From the point of view of designing the

software, it does not make any difference
whether the user is an individual, a group or
an organization. The privileges available to
different categories of users shall be equally
distributed amongst them.

3.5. Features & Functionality: The IndiaWRIS

nationally consistent and authentic water
resources data, its related collateral data
along with wide range of user interactive
features and functionalities in a Single
Window. It is a thin client scalable web
enabled information system which provides
facility to view these data in 2D, 3D. The
system also makes available tools to create
value added maps by way of multi-layer
stacking of GIS database so as to provide
integrated view to the water resources
scenarios. The system serves for advanced
modeling purposes and future Spatial

Decision Support Systems (SDSS) including

automated data collection.

Home Page
The home page of India-WRIS system
provides information about the Web GIS
system, project, its execution, all the events
held under the project, and links to navigate
further. It also provides an interface for user
authentication to get access to all the
functionalities of the information as per his
group. The user has also access to WRIS
community forums where they can discuss,
post their queries to various water experts
all over the world. The system also offers
general search functionality using major
keywords. The system also displays last
updated date of the information system with
the total number of end users visited the

Figure1: WRIS Front Screen

The schematic diagram shown in Figure:1

outlines the whole gamut of facilities that
shall be available in the new version of
India-WRIS. Easily accessible menus will
bring to the user the host of facilities of the
information system. These menus can be
categorized into three basic types:

These set of menus will function as the

basic introduction to India-WRIS for the user
and will provide information regarding the
project- to be refered to at anytime during
the exploration of the information system.
The various sections accessible through
these menus may be enumerated as:

General Information menus









The base home page of the information system which list all available
features & and their access point for these features. Focal point of all
information and tools available in information system.
It will provide general description about the WRIS project. The information
will contain conceiving of project, its evolution, its background, project
partners, and brief summary of what all features are available, deliverables
and so on. The users also have provision to download & print this
This provides comprehensive information of the source of spatial and nonspatial data available through WRIS. The metadata will comprise of who
created the layer, when, how the data is collected, method of collection,
device calibration, if spatial data then its projection etc. The users also
have provision to download & print this information.
Categorized list of tools available in WRIS. The user can view the details
of each tool and how it works in step wise fashion. The users also have
provision to download & print this information.














Visitor #








Various documents like WRIS overview, general guidelines, project

planning & management and software design documents, various reports
generated during project phase etc. will be available to user to view and
download. It also directs to data downloads section where user can
download data in form of pdfs, excel, shape file with these representations
like maps, tables and charts based on the user privileges.
It section allows user to send their user experiences, suggestions and
feedback about the information system or website to the WRIS team. The
feedback will be acknowledged with a system generated automatic
response and the same will be redirected to related peoples.
The contact details of ISRO & CWC WRIS project directors. If necessary
users can give their suggestions directly to them by accessing these
Help will contain both detailed and contextual help. It will comprise of
details about how to navigate and what each tools will do and how to
operate the system and each tool etc. It will also contains the glossary,
abbreviations, key terms used in WRIS. The users also have provision to
download & print this information.
Comprehensive keyword based search. This tool will become contextual
when navigating through different parts of the information system.
It will provide interface to login into the system with a user id (a valid user
email-id) and a password. Only after login he can get access to more
functionality as well as data and map downloads. The system also has a
section where he can create his user account through a simple interface.
The system displays the current visitor number. As part of WRIS tracking
system the visitor navigation details are recorded like system IP, date of
access, place of access and frequency of the page visit.
The system also contains disclaimer which describes scope of right and
obligation for using the system and India-WRIS data.
Diagrammatic representation with text to navigate easily through the
information system.
This answers frequently asked questions about India-WRIS.
Displays the date of last modification or up gradation made in the current
online version of India-WRIS.
The links will provide other related sites & recommended sites which are
good to refer other than India WRIS.
Table5: General Information menus

WRIS Info Discovery

The user will be provided with list of
information which briefs what all water
resource and other related information are
there in India-WRIS. This will act as a
Sitemap or table of content with a feature
where the user can search for some

particular information say location or river

name or some other features. The search
results will be details list all information that
is available in India-WRIS data base across
various themes.

WRIS Core System

It serves the actual window through which

all water related information finds its way to
the user.
India-WRIS Explorer
India-WRIS Explorer forms the crux of the
user experience. All the tools (visualization,
processing, representational, multi-mediastandalone as well as in groups) form an
expression in the India-WRIS Explorer. In
order to facilitate the user to explore the
data in an organized fashion and to aid him
to arrive at the information he seeks, the
explorer has been organized in various
Geo-Visualization: This module is used to
visualize various layers and their sub layers
of India-WRIS which is about 107 spatial
layers in a tree structure format. These
layers are band together under major
Administrative Layers, Thematic Layers,
Environmental data. Along with these
layers, various sub layers which will contain
more than 100 attributes. The user can turn

on and off these layers based on their area

of interest/their specific requirement.
Various visualization tools along with draw,
measure, analysis tools will be made
available to explore these huge datasets.
WRIS Sub-Information Systems: More
often than not, a typical user is in search for
data in some organized way- instead of a
large set of data in one place of which he is
expected to make sense. With this problem
in mind, the India-WRIS Explorer shall
present the data in modular format. A set of
datasets that should logically exist together,
are clubbed along with fixed queries and
customized visualization techniques. This
provides readymade Information system
with specialized analysis capabilities. There
will be around 12 information systems and
30 such sub information systems, the
Figure: 2 displays the 12 major systems
where the Figure: 3 represents the 30 such
sub information systems based on their
themes. A discussion about these
information systems follows in brief:

Figure2: Major information systems of India-WRIS Explorer

Figure3: Sub information systems of India-WRIS Explorer

Sub Info System




International, State, District and Tehsil / Taluk, Village boundaries

Towns / Villages - location and extent


Railway network
Road network


Water Resource

All six Water resource regions of the country.

Region Info Sys

Basin Info Sys
Watershed Info Sys
River Info Sys

Surface Water Body

Water Resources
Projects Info Sys

Command Area Info


Minor Irrigation Info

Canal Info Sys

The system displays about 25 basins and approx.96 sub-basins. This will
be displayed in 2D and 3D
Contains information regarding the Major rivers of the country upto Subsub-tributary level (5th order).
Surface Water body
Major and Medium Irrigation Projects & Lift irrigation Schemes
HE Projects
Multipurpose Projects
Flood Control Projects
The system includes details about 1802 Major and medium irrigation
command area, Waterlogging and salt affected areas in major, medium
irrigation command areas, Soil samples in major and medium irrigation
command areas. The data in this info-system comes from the Command
Area Information System (CAIS) project Joint project of ISRO & CWC.
Contains information about the minor irrigation projects (District-wise) for
the country. The data in the sub-info system comes from the project
carried out at RRSC-W for the district wise division.
AIBP Projects


Aquifer / Litholog
Litholog data with aquifer parameters
Ground Water Level
Info Sys
Ground Water

Ground water observation wells data and analysis. The system will also
contain data about pre-post well data and depth.
RGDWM project


IMD Meteorological stations
Meteorological Info
CWC Meteorological stations
AWS. This also contains data of rainfall, Evaporation and Temperature.
Climate Info Sys
Climate related layers IMD Grid Data
Hydro-observation and sedimentation stations data of CWC
Info Sys
This will contain discharge of river level, level of water during off season.
River water quality
Surface Water Quality Surface water body quality
Wetland water quality

Ground Water Quality

Snow Cover/Glacier

Lake water quality

This will also contain what is permissible according to WHO & in which
level it of whole country.
GW Quality from CGWB
GW Quality from RGDWM (State observation network)

Snow Cover

Inland Navigation
Inland navigation waterways
Waterways Info Sys
Inter-basin Transfer
Inter-basin Transfer Links
Links Info Sys
Flood Info Sys
Drought Info Sys
Water Extremes Info
Land Use / Land
Land Degradation

Drought Prone Area (Planning Commission)

Drought Area (NADAMS)
Water extremes events. This system will show lowest-highest rainfall,
temperature and flood that was happen

Land Use/ Land Cover

Land Degradation

Wasteland Info Sys


Soil Info Sys

Soil Maps


Water Tourism Info
Tourist sites
Urban Info Sys
Based on Census Data
Rural Info Sys

Based on Census Data

Table6: Layers involved in Sub Info Systems

WRIS Temporal Analyst:

Along with the

various datasets, in order to keep track of
the various topics that change in time,
temporal navigation methods and tools are

also required. India-WRIS consists of

various such attributes which are temporal
in nature. Because of the continuing

nature of temporal data different interactive

navigating/exploring the vast dataset. Some
of the commonly used techniques like are
time sliders, clickable calendars, animations
or zoomable time series graphs will be used
for representing the these kinds of data.

The 3D application will be based on ESRIs

ArcGIS Explorer and its customized Addins. The twin aims of this Application will be
3D Visualization and 3D Analysis. The
system consists of advanced features like:
terrain view, fly around/ fly to and
measurements over terrain are provided.

WRIS 3D Explorer


Spatial Data can be visualized in 3-D by draping it over a DEM. This
will give a better representation of the locations latitude, longitude
as well as height above the datum. Non-spatial data will be shown
by way of graphs and symbols whose size is proportional to the
value (for e.g.: showing depth of water table by bars). This will lead
to a better understanding of tabular data and its distribution

3D Analysis

Analysis where height plays an important role is performed and the

results will be displayed here. This includes flood inundation,
reservoir capacity estimation, ground water depth estimation etc.
Table7: WRIS 3D Features

Figure4: Screen Shots of Proposed 3D services

WRIS Connect- User Services

The data in India-WRIS will be ever
expanding in nature with the realization of
connectivity of India-WRIS with real time
data up-gradation systems. The strength of
an information system lies in its ability to
Query Interface: Beyond from the fixed
datasets provided through India-WRIS

keep itself up to date. In the light of these

challenges, the India-WRIS Explorer shall
have dedicated tools to aid the user obtain
the updated data and perform some
processing upon it using additional data
available locally. These tools form a part of
the user services:
Explorer, the user is sure to have a lot of
queries not answered directly through the

available tools. To explore more details,

user can place his queries through Query
interface that contains set of fixed queries
on various hydrological parameters. The
user can fetch various answers from

different permutations and combinations of

these fixed queries. The results of the query
will be displayed in spatial as well as nonspatial formats.

The users can

download various finished theme based
reports on various unit levels like basin,
sub-basin, state etc. The reports will be
generated based on the pre-defined
templates. The user can also generate the
reports based on map area and theme that
the user has defined

operation is triggered on the server through

a geo-processing task that has been
predefined and the output is generated in
shape file format whose files are
compressed together and made available to
the user for download.

Processed Grid Data: In this section various

This module aims at keeping the data

content of the various layers of India-WRIS
up to date by providing facilities to the data
providing sources to ingest the current
attribute data directly into the relevant
layers. The authorized users can enter the
respective spatial and non-spatial data in
the specified format into the information
system through this facility. For example,
the data collection unit at various river
gauge monitoring stations can, if they have
access to India-WRIS, feed in the latest
water level of the river at prescribed
frequency. For this, facilities shall be
provided in the information system to take
the user input, and a process shall be
worked out to validate the data before it is
shown on the system. This validation can
also be automated to an extent by
comparing the data with the existing
variance of data.

Foundation Info Products:

international satellites, freely available

frequent interval data like temperature,
rainfall datasets will be collected and
datasets of only Indian regions will be
processed and presented in proper context.
Latest Hydro Observations: It consists of

AWS and Automatic Gauge Data. Real time

automatic weather station (AWS) data such
as Rainfall, Relative humidity, Wind speed,
Wind direction, solar radiation, Air
temperature, and Air pressure. Automatic
Gauge Data contains real time weather data
such as Rainfall, River Water Level, River
Flow, and Gauge Discharge.
Data Download: Apart from viewing the

Input Data Builder

available data, the user may also wish to

take the data and perform some analysis on
it on his system using tools that may not be
Create Your WRIS
available in India-WRIS. Using this feature
the user may be provided with the facility to
It will allow user to create a map of his area
choose a layer and extract a small portion
of interest with basic functionalities, analysis
of the data pertaining to that layer, to be
& modeling of data.
processed further. The feature extraction
Data Selection
The user can select a particular area of map as well as the layers he
needed. These selected data will be available for further editing and

Analysis Frame

Change Detection
Linked Views 2D
Modeling Frame

Report Generation

The above selected data will be populated at this frame. In this frame, user
can change the symbology or add new/edit features and do various
analysis over these features
The user can analyze/detect the changes that occurred in current GIS
data layers from latest satellite/aerial data like new road created etc.
The user can view the selected area in 2D and 3D view in the
collaborative environment where the navigation in 2D will prompt the same
scene in 3D.
Models will be given in the menu bar with options such as Import your
attributes (for importing users attribute data), Import model (for online
model downloading or user created models) and Run Model (for running
the selected model)
The user can generate reports based on the last analysis on the map.
Table8: Major functionalities of Create Your WRIS

WRIS Mobile
The mobile version of India-WRIS
information system provides GIS data and
functionalities in portable devices like
mobile phones, Tablets, Pocket PCs, Smart

Phones. They are mainly used for

visualization, real time data collection using
GPS technology and updating the IndiaWRIS database, spatial querying, search,
field service automation, surveying and
navigating route map.

Figure5: Screen Shots of Proposed Mobile services

The bulk of the textual data lies in the IndiaWRIS Water Resources Projects section.
The data comprising of the data collected
from various sources like the Technical
Advisory Committee (TAC) Notes, Project
Monitoring Reports etc. To create, manage
and maintain these huge set of information

about the various types and entities of

Water Resources Projects of India, a WRISWiki application is developed. This
application is a customized version of widely
known wiki framework. Each project will
have a dedicated web page and the
technical details of each project will be
summarized in the Salient Features. Each
project page has a dynamic map on it,

which shows the general location of the

project as an icon on the map.
Authenticated and authorized users can
create/update the details of particular
or upload
documents, TAC notes and ground images

using this facility. In order to curb vandalism

and ensure purity of data, it will be ensured
that no page will be live unless it has been
certified by the India-WRIS team. The
application also retains the entire history
and has an ability to revert back to an
earlier version of any page if needed.

Figure6: Screen Shot of Proposed Wiki services

Share Success Stories

The objective of this section is to target
India-WRIS users and other Water
Resources Planning and Management
community to share their success stories of
water management / Models with IndiaWRIS. This section will contain two
platforms to view and share stories related
with water resources planning and

management that makes an impact over

society to use water effectively and
efficiently. View section is to view already
shared information regarding successful
water resources information system. Share
section is to share information system /
work to aware people regarding effective
and efficient use of water resources

Figure7: Control Flow of Proposed Success Story Module

WRIS Education
This section of India-WRIS aims to educate
the user about the importance of
understanding the water resources of our

nation and the role that India-WRIS can play

for the purpose. This will be achieved
through various online learning tools aided
with audio- visual components.


For the development and representation of
the WebGIS application two broad
approaches have been considered. In one
approach like customary paper map along
with various mapping functionalities have
been presented in a 2D application. In the
other approach the map has been displayed
over the rotating globe, giving user an
experience of 3D.
The general working of the application can
be explained using the data flow diagrams.
The features and the functionalities of the
application, both 2D and 3D are explained
in detail in the subsequent sections.




Data Flow
Diagrams present the logical flow of
information through a system in graphical or
pictorial form. The Data Flow Diagram may
be used to represent system or software at
any level of abstraction. DFD may be
partitioned into levels that represent
increasing information flow and functional
details. Therefore the DFD provides the
mechanism for functional modeling as well
as information flow modeling.

Figure8: Context Level DFD

Figure shows the context level data flow diagram that renders the working of the system at
extremely superficial level. It depicts foremost entities involved in the system. It explains that
the system is accessible to three types of users: general users, premium users and the
administrator and their interactions with the users.

Figure9: Level 1 DFD

Figure shows the interaction of the users with the system in more detail. All the three types of users
interact with the system by visiting the website. The general users can view and query on limited
data. Premium users and the administrator, in addition to having access to this information can have
access to detailed information provided from the geo database, but only when their login entries are


Figure10: Level 2 DFD 2D Modules


Figure11: Level 2 DFD 3D Modules

Figure show the level 2 data flow diagram where the Premium user is directed to his
respective module. It portrays all the facilities provided to the Premium users through the 2D
application. Here the user can put forward requests for mapping actions, chart generation,
query, viewing reports and printing maps. The mapping actions include zooming, panning,
adding or removing overlays and finding distance. After the requests are put forward the
database is queried by the respective processes and the requested dataset is retrieved
which is then displayed on the map in form of results.


Tools & Technologies

India-WRIS will employ GIS technology as a
means to display, query, and analyze water
resource spatial data. Providing support for
this GIS capability will significantly improve
user access to all water resource
information data. In this light, India-WRIS
Architecture will primarily employ GIS
software components from the ESRIs
ArcGIS suite of geospatial tools as well as
various RIA technologies for front end

5.1. Geo Spatial Software Architecture

5.1.1. Database Generation: As apparent from
the scope of the India-WRIS project, the
database for India-WRIS is highly complex
with numerous sources involved. Much of
the data is spatial in nature but the amount
of associated data is massive and since
some of it is also temporal in nature, the
size of the dataset will increase
exponentially with the passage of time. The
creation and management of such data is a
colossal feat in itself and requires state of
the art tools. Thankfully, there are a number
of tools to choose from and the primary
objectives to be kept in mind while making a
choice should be:
1. The data being generated should be
compatible with the database as well as
designed for fast retrieval through web
based applications over internet. This
may look apparent but is the crux of the
information system. Many tools are
available that generate data in their
generic formats which are not supported
by the best database and hosting
architectures available in the market.

2. The database should be scalable. There

is a large amount of choice available in
terms of tools available for database
generation but a number of them are not
designed to handle large datasets.
3. The generated data should be
compatible to be put into RDBMS form.
The data being generated in India-WRIS
is highly complex in nature and relations
exist between the attributes of one layer
with those of multiple layers. This should
be kept in mind when choosing the tools
for database generation.
4. The data should be easily retrievable
and capable of being converted in other
popular formats.
5. Apart from these, the tool should be
capable of various tasks that come
within the purview of GIS database
generation tools viz:
a) Viewing or exploring data.
b) Creating data (the dataset is
c) Editing data (the dataset is
d) Storing.
e) Conflation (integrating datasets
from different sources).
f) Transforming
coordinates systems, different
representation/format of
same data).
g) Querying (resulting in a selection
from the dataset).
h) Analyzing (resulting in a new
dataset, with new information
obtained from the original






Vector Editing


Most of the software has been in use for a

long time and their services have been
incorporated in various projects. Based on


the experience within the organization as

well as the reviews available online, the
following table summarizes facilities of the
aforementioned software:


Create maps.



Raster Editing
OS Support




Table9: Comparison of Data Generation Software

Based on the above information, the choices that emerge are AutoCAD Map, ERDAS IMAGINE,
ESRI ArcGIS and IGIS. Since most of the dataset in India-WRIS will be vector in nature,
especially the ones that shall finally go into the web application, the software that have special
tools to handle, edit and manipulate vector data have to be given preference. Also, since the
data is massive in size, the software should have inherent properties to handle the creation and
maintenance of data in multi user environment. ESRIs ArcGIS suite of products is especially
capable in this regard. ArcGIS also has capabilities to create Geo Databases which is a RDBMS
file format for GIS data which allows it to be manageable, scalable and easy to write queries for.

5.1.2. Database
system is basically a water resource
information system so shall deal with
hydrological data and have a wide variety of
applications in the fields such as water
development activities. However, the IndiaWRIS system requires that the data must be
reliable as well as in ready-to-use form. In
such context, a tool that helps to process
data efficiently so as to derive the desired
information plays the crucial role. As the
data of hundreds of years need to be
considered in the analysis, the tool is even
more desirable. It is envisaged that for
India-WRIS the database will be organized
in different scales. There are different
scales according to the use of the
application. The data will be displayed
according to the user and his allotted
scaling values. The scales are 1:50000,
1:250000 etc.
India-WRIS is a water information system
so it shall have its data in the form of spatial
data, which will be handled using geodatabases. Implementation of India-WRIS,
multiuser geospatial
database, using ESRIs enterprise GIS
technology starts with designing Geodatabase. In order to facilitate utilize the
multiuser departmental data for building
robust geospatial database; a 3-tier oriented
Geo-database Architecture has been
The main component of 3 tiers Geodatabase Architecture is:
Physical Layer: The physical layer is
designed to provide GIS data structure
for storing and systematically organizing
(1:50000 and 1:250000 etc.). The
feature list for each specified scale has
been taken from India-WRIS database
document. The functional advantages of
this layer are:
As the minimum or no constraints or
rule are imposed in the structure of

this, it allows import or convert of

multi-source spatial/no spatial data
received from different department.
Provided facility for multi-user editing
to make compatible to defined
Once the database editing is
completed and made compatible to
India-WRIS standards
Modeling Layer: In this layer, defined
general constraints, association would
be created within and across the
features in different scales to achieve
object level relationship and behavior.
Hence this layer provided opportunity to
embed naturally existing generic event
based behavior in the physical data
structure to enhance performance of the
Application Layer: This is the gateway
for utilization of the India-WRIS
geospatial database for developing
India-WRIS application.
To create the multi-scale and multiuser
database, India-WRIS system will use a
relation database management system
(RDBMS) that is Oracle, which supports
multi user system. And to deal with the
geospatial data, India-WRIS will use one
of the ArcGIS applications ArcSDE that
with the help of oracle creates multiuser
database. Overview of Oracle Database
Architecture: An Oracle database is
a collection of data treated as a unit.
The purpose of a database is to store
and retrieve related information. A
database server is the key to solving
management. In general, a server
reliably manages a large amount of
data in a multiuser environment so
that many users can concurrently
access the same data. All this is
accomplished while delivering high
performance. A database server also

prevents unauthorized access and

provides efficient solutions for failure
Oracle Database 11g is available in a
choice of editions tailored to meet the
IT needs of all sizes of organizations.
Oracle Database 11g Standard Edition
(SE) is available on single or clustered
servers with a maximum capacity of
four sockets in total. It includes Oracle
Real Application Clusters as a
standard feature at no additional cost. Real Application Clusters: Oracle
Real Application Clusters (RAC)
harnesses the processing power of
multiple, interconnected servers on a
cluster. It provides unlimited scalability
and high availability for any packaged
or custom application by exploiting
clustered hardware configurations,
with the simplicity and ease of use of a
single system image. Oracle Real
Application Clusters allows access to
a single database from multiple
servers on a cluster, insulating both
applications and database users from
server failures,
performance that scales out ondemand at low cost. Oracle Real
Application Clusters is a vital
component of grid computing that
allows multiple servers to access a
single database at one time.
An Oracle RAC database not only
appears like a single standard Oracle
Database to users, but the same
maintenance tools and practices used
for a single Oracle Database can be
used on the entire cluster. All standard
backup and recovery operations,
including the use of Recovery
Manager, work transparently with
RAC. All SQL operations, including
data definition language and integrity
constraints, are also identical for both
configurations. The most important
part of RAC, however, is the ability to
manage workloadto add nodes or

relinquish nodes on demandbased

on our application processing needs.
Oracle Background Processes: An
Oracle database uses memory
structures and processes to manage
and access the database. All memory
structures exist in the main memory of
the computers that constitute the
database system. Processes are jobs
that work in the memory of these
The architectural features discussed in
this section enable the Oracle
database to support:
Many users concurrently accessing
a single database
The high performance required by
concurrent multi-user, multiplication
database systems
Oracle creates a set of background
processes for each instance. The
background processes consolidate
functions that would otherwise be
handled by multiple Oracle programs
running for each user process. They
asynchronously perform I/O and
monitor other Oracle process to
provide increased parallelism for
better performance and reliability.

Overview of Database Backup

and Recovery Failures

Database Backups: Because one or

more files can be physically damaged
as the result of a disk failure, media
recovery requires the restoration of
the damaged files from the most
recent operating system backup of a
database. You can either back up the
database files with Recovery Manager
(RMAN), or use operating system
utilities. RMAN is an Oracle utility that
manages backup and recovery
operations, creates backups of
database files (data files, control files,
and archived redo log files), and

restores or recovers a database from

database system, the possibility of a
system or hardware failure always
exists. If a failure occurs and affects
the database, then the database must
be recovered. The goals after a failure
are to ensure that the effects of all
committed transactions are reflected
in the recovered database and to
return to normal operation as quickly
as possible while insulating users from
problems caused by the failure.
Oracle provides various mechanisms
for the following:
Database recovery required
different types of failures


Flexible recovery operations to suit

any situation
Availability of data during backup
and recovery operations so users of
the system can continue to work
Features: Oracle includes security
features that control how a database is
accessed and used. For example,
security mechanisms:


Prevent unauthorized
schema objects


and use of the database at the system

level. For example, system security


The amount of disk space available

to a user's schema objects
The resource limits for a user
System security mechanisms check
whether a user is authorized to
connect to the database, whether
database auditing is active, and which
system operations a user can perform.
Data security: This includes the
mechanisms that control the access
and use of the database at the
schema object level. For example,
data security includes:
Which users have access to a
specific schema object and the
specific types of actions allowed for
each user on the schema object (for
example, user SCOTT can issue
SELECT and INSERT statements
but not DELETE statements)
The actions, if any, that are audited
for each schema object
unauthorized users from bypassing
Oracle and accessing data


Associated with each database user is

a schema by the same name. By
default, each database user creates
and has access to all objects in the
corresponding schema.
Database security can be classified
into two categories: system security
and data security. Oracle ORDBMS: Object Oriented

Relational Database Management System,
the WRIS technical architecture will include
the Oracle RDBMS as jointly decided by
CWC and ISRO. The decision to utilize the
Oracle RDBMS will have a significant
impact on the Middleware and System
Software Layers. In addition, Oracle
connectivity software must be installed on
the middle tier in support of WRIS

System security: This includes the

mechanisms that control the access

Oracle Database is the industry-leading

database management system that you can

Audit user actions

use to store all types of business data, 5.1.3. Database Hosting: Dissemination of data
including relational, document, multimedia,
is an equally important aspect of IndiaXML, and location data. It is available on a
WRIS. In fact, the main aim of the project is
wide range of platforms and scales from
to bring the data within the easy reach of
single processor systems to grids of
the user. Thus, the proper hosting of data
interconnected servers. It is easy to deploy
must be the forte of the information system.
and manage; can handle all data
The following points must be considered
exceptional availability, scalability, reliability,
when choosing a platform for hosting an
and security.
requirements as discussed previously:
High Availability
The server should be capable of
Real Time Backup and Recovery
catering to a sufficiently large number of
Incremental backup and recovery
users. Since the information system is
Default RMAN Compression (BZIP2)
being created on an essential subject
Data Recovery Advisor
whose importance is only expected to
Transparent Application Failover
rise in the coming years. Currently, the
Performance & Scalability
expected users are mostly the officers
Indexing and sequencing
from the national and state water
departments. But in the coming years, it
Automatic Workload Management
is expected that the information system
will be accessed by an increasing
number of general public. The hosting
Encryption toolkit, OLAP etc.
architecture should be capable of
handling the rise in user base and
should only be limited to the hardware.
It should be capable of hosting a
database that can be scaled to very
Automatic memory management
large extents, considering a database
Automatic Storage Management
for the size of India.
Automatic undo management
The server should be compatible with
Automatic statistics management
the data that has been generated and
Server managed backup and
must be optimized for superior
recovery (RMAN)
performance while disseminating the
Flash Recovery Area, including out
of the box configuration
It should be capable of connecting to
various types of data sources with the
least possible down time when updating
and must be capable of working in
active-active mode with the use of
redundant servers.
It should support geo-processing tasks
as they form an integral part of the
information system and shall only
become more important as the


projects have been carried out within ISRO

using the aforementioned tools, and using
the wisdom gained from these projects as
well as the information available online, the
following considerations must be made:



Raster Data Hosting


The concept of serving GIS data over

internet is relatively new, when compared to
the time since when the GIS data has been
available. In the past few years, a number of







Vector Data Hosting

OGC Compliance
GeoProcessing Task
through KML
OS Support
Technical Support





Table10: Comparison of Data Hosting Software

The bulk of data that will have to be

disseminated in India-WRIS is vector in5.2.
nature. Some of the tools such as ERDAS
APOLLO and Skyline Globe are better
optimized to host raster data where as
some have special tools to host and access
Vector data viz. ArcGIS Server.
Since most of the tools are relatively new
and ever changing, most of the information
available online regarding them fast
becomes obsolete. Thus, constant support
is required for the tools which are
sometimes not available at crucial junctures
in case of Free and Open Source tools.

Front End Design

Front end of India-WRIS refers to the
interface available to the user via internet on
various devices, through which the user can
access, navigate and utilize the data in the
information system. Since the data available
shall be mammoth as well as highly
complex in nature, the designing of the
interface is a very intricate affair. As such,
the tools for the creation of the user
interface become crucially important. The

unprecedented rise in the number of

technologies available and the amount of
things that each one of them can achieve.
Not very long ago, the web was a collection
of static web pages whose content had to
be changed manually. The coming to web
2.0 technologies has opened up the never
foreseen vista of Internet in its most potent
form. The data that was earlier hidden in
files obscured by numerous formats has
come to the fore in a multitude of
representation forms. With the coming of
web 2.0, the user participation has become
the prime force driving the internet and the
presence of internet has left just the realm
of personal computers and has pervaded all
kinds of devices, wired as well as unwired.
The users are now able to generate the
content that they wish to view as against the
static pages they were forced to see in the
past. The client-server interaction is ever on
the rise with each coming application.
Another thing that has changed is the way
data is presented to the users. Earlier the
user had limited choice and had to be
content with the static pages that were on
offer. The new technologies have brought to
fore a torrent of technologies each having
their own strong points. This section brings
out the result of the in-depth analysis of
some of these technologies which were

considered to be suitable
development of India-WRIS.



The inception of India-WRIS has been at a

very opportune time when the internet has
become a melting pot of numerous
technologies which enable the visualization
of complex data with consummate ease.
Unlike in the past, when there were
relatively few technologies available for web
application development and GIS was
mostly a domain of desktop applications, we
have a plethora of technologies to choose
from. While this is a major plus point for the
creation of a nation-wide information
system, it should be constantly kept in mind
that all of these technologies are constantly
being improved and are highly dynamic in
terms of functionalities available. Thus the
process of choosing one over the other is
highly complicated and should be done with
a number of factors in mind. This chapter
tries to bring out the process that has been
followed to choose the technologies for use
in the development of India-WRIS.
The flow of data in India-WRIS is fairly
complex with the data coming in from a
wide variety of sources, being stored in
databases and being consumed in various
web-based applications through a number
of services. The following diagram outlines
the basic flow of in India-WRIS:

Figure13: Data Flow in WRIS

As is clear in the diagram, there are three

major components of data flow in relation to
India-WRIS, namely: Data sources and
software for database generation and
conversion, Database storage & hosting
and Web application & User interface.
These have been discussed in the following
sections in detail regarding the complexities
involved and the options considered:

In the recent past, it has been envisioned in

ISRO that all the geoportals should
ultimately come under the same umbrella so
that all the spatial data may be accessed at
the same place and correlation between
different datasets can be studied &
analyzed to draw detailed inferences. In
order for this to happen, there should be

some common guideline that all the server

tools must conform to for interoperability.
The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)
sets the standards for the sharing of
Geospatial data over the internet. All the
spatial serving tools that adhere to or aim to
adhere to these standards must be
preferred over those that do not.
5.2.1. RIA: What and Why: RIA stands for Rich
Internet Application. An RIA is a web
application that has many characteristics of
a desktop application, typically delivered
either by way of a site-specific browser, via
a browser plug-in, independent sandboxes,
or virtual machines.
In a traditional web application all the
activity is wrapped around client/server
architecture with a thin client. As the name

suggests all the processing is done at the

that it is with a traditional webserver while the client is only used to
display static content. The biggest drawback
Asynchronous: The client engine can
as experienced over the years with this
interact with the server asynchronously
system is that all the interaction with the
i.e. without waiting for the user to
application must pass through the server,
perform an interface action like clicking
which requires data to be sent to the server,
on a button or link. This option allows
the server to respond and then the page to
reload at the client end with the response.
RIA designers to move data between
This becomes tedious and time and
the client and the server without making
resource consuming.
the use wait.
RIAs on the other hand have an enhanced
Network Efficient: The network traffic
client side technology which can execute
is significantly reduced because an
instructions on the clients computer,
application-specific client engine is more
thereby circumventing the slow and
synchronous communication loop between
intelligent than a standard web browser
the server and the client. This client side
and has the capacity to decide
processing technology is generally termed
what/which data needs to be exchanged
as client engine. [This is very much the
with the servers.
requirement of India-WRIS because of
5.2.2. RIA Development Platform
It goes without saying that the user
requirements for the India-WRIS project are
Adobe Flex: The Adobe Flex product line is
best fulfilled through a Rich Internet
another solution for delivering RIAs across
Application that will have the facility for data
the enterprise and over the web. The Flex
visualization in multitude of forms with
capabilities for analysis on the client side.
product line provides a programming model
The data will be dynamic in nature and the
(Flex framework), integrated Eclipse-based
user will have the power to represent it in
development tools (Flex Builder), and
any form that he desires.
data integration services (Flex Data
Services) that enable organizations to
Benefits: As RIAs deploy a client engine to
deliver solutions by integrating with existing
execute instructions at the client machine,
applications and websites.
Richer: RIA applications provide
Flex framework: Applications delivered
improved User Interface behaviors
with Flex execute with the help of the
normally not obtainable with standard
browser and Flash Player runtime. Flash
browser based web-applications.
Player provides a consistent, crossMore Responsive: The interface
platform runtime that contains virtual
behaviors are typically much more
machine with integrated support for
responsive than those of a standard
multilingual text display, printing, data
web browser that must always interact
manipulation, motion, and multimedia.
with a remote server.
Client/Server balanced: The demand
components that enable applications to
for client and server computing
interact with any remote server via
SOAP web services, REST services, or
resources is better balanced, so that the
raw HTTP or custom socket-based
web server need not be the workhorse

Flex Builder: The Flex development

model uses MXML for user interface
design and layout and ActionScript (an
implementation of ECMA Script) for
client logic. The Flex Builder integrated
provides tools for coding, debugging,
and visual user interface layout design
can integrate with existing source code
management systems. In addition to
this, Flex provides integrated support for
unit testing tool.
Flex Data Services: Flex Data Services
extends the capabilities of the Flex client
framework by providing additional
services for managing data transfer and
integrating with existing applications and
infrastructure. Flex Data Services is
implemented as a Java web application
and can be deployed on standard Java
application servers. The services
provided by Flex Data Services
integrate with the existing security
profiles defined within the Java
application server. Flex Data Services
can be deployed using standard
deployment tools provided with the
server and can integrate with application
server clustering features. In addition,
applications built with Flex Data
Services can access existing serverside session data and application logic
using standard Java APIs.
Using the Flex API, developers can
combine GIS -based Web services from
ArcGIS Server with other Web content,
which can be displayed in simple, dynamic
mapping applications over the Web or on
the desktop. The API exploits the powerful
geospatial capabilities of ArcGIS services.
Users can transform their local data into a
visually rich interactive map, query and
display GIS data features and attributes,
locate addresses, identify features, and
perform complex spatial analytics. The two

languages used to write Flex applications

are: MXML and ActionScript.
About MXML: MXML is an XML markup
language that can be used to lay out user
interface components. It can also be used to
declaratively define non -visual aspects of
an application, such as access to data
sources on the server and data bindings
between user interface components and
data sources on the server. Like HTML,
MXML provides tags that define user
interfaces. MXML will seem very familiar if
one has worked with HTML. However,
MXML is more structured than HTML, and it
provides a much richer tag set. For
example, MXML includes tags for visual
components such as data grids, trees, tab
navigators, accordions, and menus, as well
as non -visual components that provide web
service connections, data binding, and
animation effects. One can also extend
MXML with custom components that are
referenced as MXML tags. One of the
biggest differences between MXML and
HTML is that MXML -defined applications
are compiled into SWF files and rendered
by Adobe Flash Player or Adobe
AIR, which provides a richer and more
dynamic user interface than page -based
HTML applications. One can write an MXML
application in a single file or in multiple files.
MXML also supports custom components
written in MXML and ActionScript files.
About Actionscript: Flex developers can
use ActionScript to implement custom
behavior within their Flex applications.
Firstly MXML tags are used to declare
things like the containers, controls, effects,
formatters, validators, and web services that
the application requires, and to lay out its
user interface. Each of these components
provides the standard behavior one would
expect. For example, a button automatically
highlights when the mouse pointer is rolled
over it, without writing any ActionScript. But
a declarative language like MXML is not
appropriate for coding the action to happen
when the user clicks a button. For that, a
procedural language like ActionScript is

used, which offers executable methods,

various types of storage variables, and flow
control such as conditionals and loops. In a
general sense, MXML implements the static
aspects of any application, and ActionScript
ActionScript is an object - oriented
procedural programming language, based
on the ECMAScript (ECMA -262) edition 4draft language specification.
3D Application: A version of India-WRIS is
also envisioned to be designed to display
data in 3 Dimensional earth based model.
This format has become popular over the
years with the use of utilities such as
Google Earth. In respect of India-WRIS,
similar functionalities can be used to
represent data with 3D visualization. The
prominent technology that is available for
this purpose is ArcGIS Explorer. A brief
summary of it is outlined below:
ArcGIS Explorer : ArcGIS Explorer is a
free 3D GIS viewer produced by Esri. It is a
part of ArcGIS software suite. AGX can be
used as a client for ArcGIS Server, ArcIMS,
ArcWeb Services and WMS. It supports
many GIS file formats (both vector and
raster) such as shapefile, GeoTIFF, MrSID,
IMG and KML.
AGX is a Windows
application that displays digital globes from
ArcGIS Server, ArcIMS, Web Mapping
Services, or a variety of local data types.
AGX integrates the rich world of GIS data
sets and server-based geo-processing
applications. It does this by accessing the
full GIS capabilities of ArcGIS Server
including geo-processing and 3D services.
With ArcGIS Explorer, users can access
ArcGIS Online basemaps and
Fuse local data with map services to
create custom maps.
Add photos, reports, videos, and
other information to maps.

Perform spatial analysis (e.g.,

visibility, modeling, proximity search)
The following are the key features of AGX:
Easy and intuitive to use: It's easy for
anyone to begin working with ArcGIS
Explorer, with its intuitive and easy to
use ribbon user interface that presents
tools in the context of how you use
them. Tools including integrated tool tips
and Help.
Choosing variety of Basemap: The
Basemap Gallery allows you to choose
from a variety of ready-to-use basemaps
so you can get started quickly. Select
from ArcGIS Online basemaps such as
World Imagery, World Streets, World
Topographic Maps, or choose a Bing
Map service (Aerials, Hybrid, and
Roads). User can also create their own
basemaps and add them to the Gallery.
Toggle basemaps on the fly while
maintaining your operational layers
Adding local data functionality: User can
add local data such as geodatabases,
shapefiles, KML/KMZ, GPX, and raster
formats (JPEG 2000, GeoTIFF, and
MrSID). You can also add layer files and
Desktop, or add locations from
Mapping services accessibility: User can
access a wide variety of mapping
services from ArcGIS Server; ArcIMS;
and Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
(OGC) WMS, and GeoRSS feeds
Integration with multimedia data:
Integrate a wide variety of content such
as photos, videos, documents, and
more and place them in a geographic
Integrated 2D and 3D environment:
Switch display modes with a single click.
View maps and globes in any projection
or coordinate system
Expandability: Extend ArcGIS Explorer
using Add-Ins and the Analysis Gallery.
Extend the core capabilities using
geoprocessing tools and models

published using ArcGIS Server, or

connect to a wide variety of other
available services.
Explorer using
application configurations with no
functionality and add your own tools,
and customize the look and feel of
ArcGIS Explorer to meet the needs of
specific users or workflows in your
organization. You can also use the free,
downloadable software development kit
(SDK) to create new add-ins.

The development tool should have a

robust development environment with
integrated help facilities.
It should have facilities to integrate
various visualization techniques such as
charts, animations and videos.
The basic requirement to run the
application should be minimal.
It should be supported by multiple
browsers and operating systems.

Rich User
Mapping API
Ease of
OS Support

Java FX









Based on the requirements of India-WRIS, a

comparison can be made between the front
end development tools with the following
criteria in consideration:


With the above points under consideration,

the facilities can be summed up in the
following table:



So Good

Table11: Comparison of Front End Technologies

Based on the considerations made above,

the points that emerge are:
Not all RIA development tools are
suited for developing mapping
applications as they have to be
supported by the database hosting
technologies. Usually the spatial
database engines provide support
for specific front end designing
technologies in the form of
Application Programming Interfaces
(API). ESRI has particularly been
very active by providing support for a
host of APIs for Flex, Silverlight,
Javascript, .NET etc.
Some technologies like the Google
Web Toolkit necessitate the use of
internet even while development
because the libraries for the
development of their tools are only
technologies cannot be deployed in
closed user requirement mode, as
may be the case in India-WRIS
where a version of the information
system may be required to be
hosted in a closed LAN.
India-WRIS shall need a number of
small analysis tools. Sometimes it is
burdensome to have all these
analysis done on the server side.
The technologies that provide client
side computing in these situations
have an upper hand in this regard.

Amongst the web technologies reviewed,

the following points have come to the fore:
1. The current scenario on the web
development front provides an
unprecedented set of truly versatile
tools that may be suitable for the
2. With the requirements of India-WRIS
in mind, the obvious choice is the
use of Rich Internet Application
(RIA) for its ease of use as well as
streamlines the available choices for
development of the user interface.
3. Based on the review carried out, as
well as the prototype applications
developed with the current project in
mind, the use of Adobe FLEX
paired with ArcGIS technologies
proves its mettle as the right
technology for the current use.
4. In order to create a fully scalable
environment, it should be created in
the Enterprise GeoDatabase format.
For this, Oracle needs to be
available along with ArcGIS suite of
5. Further, in order to create the 3D
application for India-WRIS ArcGIS
Explorer emerges as the obvious
choice. In order to customize the
same, MS Visual Studio can be




Software Development Methodology,

tools and techniques
The WRIS Project Development Team is
anticipating the use of the Windows
operating system for developing the IndiaWRIS for distributed 3-tier client/server
architecture. The proven success of this
operating system along with the vast
amount of help available owing to its
widespread use ensures the India-WRIS
has a solid base in which to build upon. Also
needed, as part of this server is Microsofts
Internet Information Services (IIS), that will
be used as the India-WRIS web server.

6.1.1. Object-Oriented Software Development

developed using an object -oriented
development methodology; a methodology
that is based on the concepts of classes,
objects, data abstraction, encapsulation,
procedural programming techniques, objectoriented development concentrates on
identifying those objects that constitute the
real-world problem domain and how they
are manipulated, not on how something is
procedurally accomplished. The various
objects that comprise a software application
have relationships, and collaborate with
each other, to perform the work of the
system through message passing. One of
the principal advantages of an object oriented development methodology is the
ability to change existing objects or add new
objects to the software system with minimal
impact to the other objects that comprise
the system. This advantage enhances the
capability to modify and adapt the software
system to the changes that will inevitably
occur over time within the real -world
problem domain.

The decision to develop India-WRIS using

methodology is one of the primary
architectural decisions that have been made
by the WRIS Project Development Team.
This methodology informs the teams
approach to analysis and design, which, in
turn, is reflected in the numerous
interactions and class diagrams that form
construction, the WRIS Design Model will
be physically implemented using objectoriented programming languages and
6.1.2. Layering: The architectural pattern utilized
by the WRIS Project Development Team is
the layers design pattern. A layer represents
a slice through the software architecture,
with each layer representing a grouping of
related functionality. Layering provides a
way to decompose the system into more
manageable software components and
restrict inter -system dependencies with the
goal being to design a system that is more
loosely coupled but highly cohesive and
thus easier to maintain. An important
characteristic of the layers design pattern is
the directional dependencies that exist
between the various layers. That is, a
software component within a given layer
should ideally access only components
within its own layer or components in the
This directional
dependency rule is one of the mechanisms
by which the goal of the layers design
pattern is realized. The extent to which this
rule is followed during system design will
have an effect on the ease with which the
resulting system can be enhanced and
maintained over time. To ensure that this
rule does not overly restrict the system
design, however, the purpose for each layer
implementing the layers design pattern for a

given project, the number and composition

of the layers required by the system will be
determined by the complexity of the

problem domain and the solution space

(i.e., the technical architecture).

Figure14: WRIS Technology Architecture

6.1.3. Problem Domain Layers: A common

application of the layers design pattern
organizes and defines the various layers
within the problem domain based upon the
responsibilities assigned to each layer.
Responsibility-based layering isolates and
responsibilities into a hierarchical structure,
typically comprised of the following three
layers (Figure 4-1):
Presentation Layer: This top layer
provides support for the interactions
between the actors, or the users of the
System and the software system itself
through the presentation of user interfaces.
Business Logic Layer: This middle layer
provides support for application specific
business processes, as well as, the
application and enforcement of business
and data integrity rules.

Data Access Layer: This bottom layer

provides support for data access and
persistence when using, for example, a
relational database.
With respect to directional dependencies,
and based upon the hierarchical structure of
the responsibility-based layers design
pattern, the Presentation Layer initiates
communication with the Business Logic
Layer and, occasionally, the Data Access
Layer, but neither of these two lower layers
would initiate communication with the
Presentation Layer. The Business Logic
Layer initiates communication with the Data
Access Layer, but the Data Access Layer
would never initiate communication with the
Business Logic Layer. While the Data
Access Layer would never initiate
communication with either of the two layers
structurally above it, this layer does initiate
communication with the RDBMS.

Figure15: Presentation, Business Logic, and Data Access Layers

The responsibilities assigned to each layer

precisely define the purpose for each layer.
As a result, this architectural pattern
decomposing a complex system in order to
facilitate the comprehension, organization,
manageability, and maintainability of the
system. For this reason, the WRIS Project
architectural pattern for use within the WRIS
Design Model.

services -based layers, a common approach

organizes the services provided by these
layers into the following two solution space
Middleware Layer: Contains components
such as GUI -builder, interface to the
database management system, platformindependent operating system services (e.g.
FLEX Framework, communication services,
System Software Layer: This layer
contains components such as operating
systems, RDBMS, interfaces to specific
hardware etc.

6.1.4. Solution Space Layers: In addition to the

problem domain layers discussed above,
additional solution space layers will be
required that provide the services specific to
the technical architecture of the deployment 6.1.5. Layers in WRIS software: The India-WRIS
environment. These service -based layers
problem domain and solution space layers
are graphically depicted in Figure 4-2 with
provide the functionality required by the
problem domain layers in order to fulfill their
the directional dependencies between the
responsibilities. Thus, these layers are
layers within the problem domain as well as
essential to successfully deploy the
between the application layer and the
software system. Although there are many
Middleware and System Software layers.
ways to conceptually describe these

Figure15: Application, Middleware and System Software Layers for India WRIS

6.2. Distributed 3-Tier Client/Server

architecture pattern is the next architectural
pattern utilized by the WRIS Project
Development Team. Unfortunately, the
phrase client/server architecture is an often

misused phrase, including its frequent use

to describe the software architecture of a
system. While this phrase does describe the
distribution aspects of the software
architecture, it is only one view of the overall
software architecture. Indeed, there are
multiple possible Client/server architectures
described within this distribution pattern

including 3-Tier Architecture, Fat-Client

Architecture, Thin-Client Architecture and
Distributed Client/Server Architecture.

To ensure a shared understanding of the

distributed 3 -tier client/server architecture
pattern within the context of the India-WRIS
software architecture, each essential
element of this distribution pattern will be
individually described below. Within the
context of distributed 3-tier client/server
architecture, the phrase client/server
indicates that multiple client and server
processor nodes will be used to execute the
software written to support the projects
business and functional requirements. In
addition, and at any given point in time,
each individual client processor node will
only provide support for a single client. In
contrast, each server processor node will
provide support for multiple clients. Server
processor nodes could include, but are not
limited to, one or more application web and
RDBMS servers.

Further, this distribution of functionality will

be specialized in terms of the software
executed on each of the processor nodes.
That is, client processor nodes will
specialize in providing support for the
presentation services. In contrast, server
processor nodes will specialize in providing
support for business and data services. In
some cases, the specialization at the server
processor node level can include the
separation of support for the business and
data services across distinct server nodes,
which enables the implementation of
extremely high-performance server nodes
(e.g., Blade servers) in support of the
The obvious goal of this distribution pattern
is scalability. That is, adding server
processor nodes and re-balancing the
business and data services processes
across the available server pool can
achieve a greater degree of scalability in
support of the projects performance
requirements. If for no other reason, the
India-WRIS will utilize the distributed 3-tier
client/server architecture pattern. Although it
is probably obvious, it is nonetheless
important to point out that this distributed
architecture is dependent upon the BCE
and layers design patterns.

The use of the phrase 3-Tier within the

context of this distribution pattern indicates
that the software written to support the
requirements will be divided into 3 logical
partitions where each partition provides a
distinct service. The three logical partitions 6.3. Thin Web Client Architecture
Presentation Services
The Thin Web Client architecture pattern is
Business Services
the next architectural pattern utilized by the
Data Services
India-WRIS Project Development Team.
This architectural pattern builds upon both
While there is clearly an overlap at this point
the layering and distribution patterns
in the discussion between this pattern and
discussed previously in that the Thin Web
the layers design pattern, the distinction
Client architecture pattern provides support
between these two pat terns will become
for the WRISs Presentation Layer utilizing a
particularly evident in the discussion of
standard web browser physically located at
distribution that follows. The use of the
the client processor node. Designing the
term distributed within the context of this
India-WRIS to be a browser-based
pattern indicates that the three logical
partitions will be spread among the various
software system to be able to leverage the
client and server processor nodes
emerging technologies of the Internet,
discussed above.
positions India-WRIS users to be able to
conveniently access important local, state,

regional, and national water web sites while

using the India-WRIS, and provides some
otherwise available to the users of
traditional Windows-based GUI. Within the
context of this architecture, the browser
functions as a generalized user interface
device. All user interactions with the system
will be conducted through the browser.
Beginning with the India-WRIS startup
page, each interaction with the system
returns an HTML page. This page serves as

the browsers instructions on how to render

the text and graphics displayed to the user.
As a result, the scope of supported client
processing is maximized and users could
conceivably access the India-WRIS by
means of a web browser. The architectural
significance of the decision to use the Thin
Web Client architecture, however, goes
Presentation Layer using a browser to
render HTML pages.

Figure16: Web Application Architecture (Tools & Technologies)

This decision has significant implications for

both the client and servers Middleware and
System Software Layers in that these layers
must now include support for:

A standard Web Browser (Client): As

mentioned above, the browser functions as
a generalized user interface device.
A Web Server (Server): The Web server
functions as the principal access point for
the users of the system. That is, the client
browsers can only access the system

through a Web server. Web server software

requirements include Internet Information
ArcGIS Server: Hosts and runs services.
The GIS server consists of a server object
manager (SOM) and one or more server
object containers (SOCs).
HTTP (Client and Server): Hyper Text
Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the most
common protocol for communication
between the clients browser and the Web
server. The Middleware and System
Software Layers must provide support for
Web Applications developed by the WRIS
Project Development Team using tools like
Flex Builder, Oracle etc.
Clustering and Load Balancing (Server):
Clustering and Load Balancing allows the
workload of an application to be distributed
relatively evenly over a group of machines.
In order to handle the potentiality large
number of concurrent users that will be
accessing the India-WRIS, the System
Software layer must provide support for
Clustering and Load Balancing.
As discussed before, the development of
the information system shall attempt to
make use of the best software technologies
available for geospatial data display and
representation in both thin as well as thick
client mode. Scalability of the system
without loss in ease of data access is of
prime importance in this case. This means
that the solution should be able to handle
any amount of data and any number of
users trying to access it simultaneously. At
the same time scope must be kept for
keeping an eye on the future technologies
keeping in mind the large time frame for the
final output to be in operation. For the thin
client system, the proposed solution
consists of creating the interface through
pages created by making use of the Adobe
Flex. The SDK for Adobe Flex is available
free for download from the Adobe website.
However, in order to hasten up the

development process and to be able to

utilize the full power of the technology,
Adobe has come up with a development
environment called Flex Builder. This
development environment is based on the
Eclipse software and is very intuitive and
easy to use. In order to make use of the
latest functionalities in web 2.0, it will be
needed to be abreast with this technology at
all times. API for showing maps through
Flex is provided by ArcGIS and they are
updated from time to time. The latest API is
used for the purpose of map display. For the
thick client system, it has been proposed to
make use of the ArcGIS Explorer
technology. ArcGIS Explorer is also free to
download but in order to customize the
application, one need to make use of Visual
Studio .net development environment. The
current version for ArcGIS Explorer is 1700
while the Visual Studio 2010 is the current
version for the customization environment.
Sufficient number of licenses shall be
obtained for both Flex Builder as well as
Visual Studio to make proper utilization of
the hardware being set aside for the
development of the information system.
In both of the above cases, ArcGIS Server
is the proposed solution that will host the
various geospatial services and which the
thick and the thin clients will consume for
display of the maps as well as provide the
value added services. The team that will be
generating data for India-WRIS shall also
share the same ArcGIS Server setup. Thus
the setup for the ArcGIS server has to be in
a failsafe mode with ample redundancy to
ensure that the services are not impeded at
any point of time. Since web is a very
dynamic place with the influx of new
technologies happening all the time,
exploration of the same must be constantly
done. The need for this is more in the light
of the fact that the current project shall span
over a time frame of 4 years and with the
past record of web technologies, the future
is bound to bring a host of new
technologies. In the current technological
horizon some of the new utilities that look
promising are Microsoft Silverlight and 3D

Engines for enabling of 3D visualizations

right from the thin clients like Internet
explorer. Silverlight is a technology that
promises to be very exciting and proper
exploring of the same must be carried out

with respect to map visualization in the

current project. In order to use it, the utilities
required are Visual Studio and Expression



7.1 Introduction:
Vision of India-WRIS is to provide a Single
Window solution for all water resources
data and information in a standardized
national GIS framework. It allows users to
Search, Access, Visualize, Understand and
Analyze comprehensive and contextual
water resources data for assessment,
monitoring, planning, development and
Management (IWRM). The India WRIS
information system contains very massive

database comprised of highly complex

datasets. In order to create and manage
such a database, a comprehensive
architecture has to be in place. As
India-WRIS project envisions the single
window web enabled water resources
information system, the hosting of India WRIS website and information system
enforces the implementation of necessary
hardware and software. The India WRIS
datacenter architecture and its various
component details are explained below.

Figure: IndiaWRIS Datacenter Architecture

The functional block diagram of the
library. A leased line connection of 200 Mbps
datacenter architecture of the India -WRIS
is being used for the high and robust data
web hosting facility is illustrated above. The
transfer between the users and the web
datacenter consists of internet connectivity,
server for providing the availability of this
Security setup, web server, application
server, database server, SAN and tape

7.2 SAN (Storage Area Network):

SAN plays a major role in the working of
India-WRIS application. Storage area
network is a dedicated centrally managed
infrastructure, which enables any to any
of server and storage
system. It is basically a high-speed network
behind LAN/WAN networks and is optimized
for data I/O operation and storage

management. SAN facilitates universal

access and
technology growth, provides affordable 24
X 7 X 365 availability, and improves
and disaster
tolerance. Storage area network is another
main part of India -WRIS datacenter
architecture. The actual data will be residing
in SAN storage with RAID5 configuration.

Figure: IndiaWRIS SAN Architecture

SAN consists of two independent
Fabric switches and has no single
point of failure. If one SAN fabric fails,
the configuration is in a degraded
mode, but it is still valid. If the SAN
contains only one fabric, it is still a
valid configuration, but a failure of the
fabric might cause a loss of access to
data. Therefore, SANs with one
fabric are considered to have a

possible single point of failure.

Generally a request from a desktop
to store/access data will be routed
to appropriate application server over
a LAN. Various zones have been
created to access SAN storage space
to each server. The virtual disc of
predefined storage size is created and
made available to the server as per
the requirement.

1. 10/100/1000BASE-T port for
management to be provided
2. Multi-path and load balancing
capability shall be configured
3. Hardware RAID support with global
hot spare disks
4. Scalable to 15TB (Usable)
after RAID 5 or better
configuration and 20%
snapshot area
5. Minimum 100,000 cache iops.

1. Native 4 Gbps per port (non blocking) FC Switch with minimum 1 6

ports populated and
10/100/1000BASE-Tport for
2. Switch should provide capability to
monitor and manage the switch either
using GUI or
Web browser.
3. Switch should provide capability for
auto sense 1/2/4 Gbps.
4. Backplane should collectively
support native 4 Gbps bandwidth
for each port to give end-to-end 4
Gbps connectivity solution.

SAN Switch:
Fiber Channel switch is a network
switch compatible with the Fiber
Channel (FC) protocol. It allows the
creation of a Fiber Channel fabric,
which is currently the core component
of most storage area networks. The
fabric is a network of Fiber Channel
devices which allows many to -many
communication, device name lookup,
and redundancy.
mechanism that disables unwanted
traffic between certain fabric nodes.
SAN administrators typically add new
switches as their server and storage
grow, connecting switches
together via fiber optic cable using the
standard device ports.

Network Switch:
The network switch is the networking
device used in India-WRIS application
to connect the all servers to the router
in the network. A network switch is a
computer -networking device that
connects network segments. Network
switch commonly refers to a Network
bridge because it processes and
routes data at the Data Link Layer.
Switches that additionally process
data at the Network Layer are often
referred to as Multilayer switches. The
term network switch does not
generally encompass unintelligent or
passive network devices such as
hubs and repeaters.


Figure: SAN Switch

7.3 Database Maximum Availability

Database Servers:

consists of


servers; a database server is

database services to other computer
programs or computers, as defined by
the client -server model. The database
server may also refer to a Computer
dedicated to running such a program.

frequently provide database server

functionality, and Oracle database
management system relies exclusively
on the client -server model for
India -WRIS
is implementing redundant
database servers to avoid the fail over
and for the load balancing purpose.
The enterprise geo-database for the
whole India -WRIS data/layers will be

and stored
database. It will have link with ArcSDE.
The online users will be classified
and restricted access to the actual
database will be implemented by
defining certain rules in Oracle database
administration. The actual database will
be residing in SAN storage. The
database servers will be connected to
the SAN storage through the fiber optic
cables for fast access of data.

Figure: IndiaWRIS Database Maximum Availability Architecture

1. RHEL v5.0 server operating
2. Single Intel Quad Core
3. 12GB DDR3 RAM.
4. 1 x Fiber Channel dual ported
HBA s with 4Gbps per port
5. SAS drive with 15K rpm with
RAID support.

7.4 Database Backup Mechanism

Database Backup Server:

The database backup server is used

to maintain backup of latest update in
the oracle database which is stored in
SAN. These backup will be stored in
tape cartridges. Separate backup
solution mechanism is adopted using
industrial standard backup solution
Tape Library:
Tape library is a storage device that
contains one or more tape drives, a
number of slots to hold tape cartridges, a

barcode reader to identify tape cartridges

and an automated method for loading
tapes (a robot).
These devices can store immense
amounts of data, currently ranging from
20 terabytes up to more than 50
petabytes of data, or about one hundred
thousand times the capacity of a typical
hard drive and well in excess of
capacities achievable with network
attached storage. They also provide
systematic access to very large
quantities of data. The tradeoff for their

larger capacity is their slower access

mechanical manipulation
Access to data in a library takes
from several seconds to several
minutes. Because of their slow
random access and huge capacity,
tape libraries are primarily used for
backups and as the final stage of digital
archiving. The Tape libraries used in
India-WRIS application give the backup
of 2 -4 terabytes. MSL 4048 tape library
is connected through SAN switches

Figure: Database Backup Mechanism


Single Xeon processor

2*300 GB SAS Disks
Backup software

7.5 India-WRIS Security Architecture

Standards followed
ISO Standards of Information
Security Management System
(ISMS) termed as ISO 27000 series
ISO 27001 defines the requirements
for ISMS

ISO 27002 is the code of practice for

information security management
Cert-In : Indian Computer
Emergency Response Team

According to those standards Information

system security architecture is classified
into seven layers as depicted

Data layer security - Customized

databases security solutions with
Application Security Following the
secure software development lifecycle,
secure coding practices and security
bulletins of technology used.
Host Security security of host will
be implemented through secure
configuration and maintenance of
Resource controls, security testing the
OS, host based Anti-Malware software
& firewall and implementing IIS
(Internet Information Service (web
server) security.
Network Security - At this layer
security will be implemented through
Secure configuration of networking
devices ( Router, Ethernet Switches,
San Switches )
Perimeter Security - Intrusion
Prevention system (IPS)- Proactive
real time security breach detection and
prevention against various threats
from application layer to data-link layer
using industry leading technology
Physical Security Datacenter is
hosted within a high security campus,
managed by trained and efficient staff.
Automated access control system is
implemented for enhancing the
physical security

Policy, Procedures and Awareness

- A proactive readiness against any
breach of security and successful
functionality will be ensured through
predefined policies and procedures.

7.6 System Environmental

The standard computer systems will have
the following environment specification.
1. Dedicated UPS 20KVA with
120 minutes battery backup
3 phase input, single phase
32 Amp Nema Type Socket 2
Nos (Minimum)
2. A/c 2 Tons 2 Nos
3. Electrical Requirement
Input: 200240 V at 50/60
Hz, 100 -150
max from two
Output: 230 V at 50/60 Hz, 100 150 Amp/phase max.
4. 1Gbps CAT6/6A Network cabling


Communication & Security Architecture


Communication Architecture:

Since the proposed solution for India-WRIS

is a web enabled one and is expected to be

used by users across the world, the

infrastructure to host it should be robust.
The following diagram outlines the path
through which the data shall travel before it
reaches the user.

Figure20: Communication Architecture

This network should be capable of

handling a sizeable amount of
simultaneous user requests. As such,
the internal network of the setup should
be based on 1 Gbps LAN.

8.2. Security Architecture:

Server for processing the spatial data

requests and a Database Server (centralize
repository) for storing huge amount of data.
The whole application and supporting file
will be residing at root drive of the Web
server. The main India-WRIS servers will be
configured along with the backup servers.
The Web server will also act as an Antivirus
server for providing entry level security for
the entire setup. Some of them are:

To make India-WRIS Information system

more robust, reliable and secure, security
will be implemented on various levels. In 8.3. Web Server & Application Server
Security: A Web server is a computer
deployment architecture consists of three
host configured and connected to Internet,
types of servers; A Web server for hosting
for serving web pages on request and an
the information system, an Application

Application Server will serve data and

information, based on service based system
architecture. Since India-WRIS web server
is open to public access it can be subjected
to attempts by hackers. Hackers can deface
the information system and steal valuable
national level data from the systems.
Common security threats to the web server

can be Unauthorized access (Defacement,

Content theft, Data manipulation), Improper
Usage (Vulnerable to external attacks,
Hosting improper/malicious contents (e.g.
phishing)), Denial of services, Physical

Figure21: Web Server Architecture

Figure22: Application Server Architecture

In India-WRIS information system, several

measures are considered to avoid below
mentioned security flaws:
Insufficient network boundary security
Flaws or bugs in web hosting software
(Os, application)
Insecure design and coding of hosted
Weak password
Social engineering
Lack of operational control
These measures comprise of implementing
various security controls at network
application levels. The system security
architecture places multiple layers/barriers
between an attacker and business critical
information resources. These multiple layers
prevent direct attacks against important
In securing the India-WRIS server the
following steps will be considered:
Check for the presence of security level
features like types of authentication,
levels of access control and support for
remote administration and logging
features on the chosen web server.
Install only the required features of the
application servers and remove default
features not being used.
Install web server software in a
CHROOT cage.
Remove all sample files, scripts,
manuals and executable code from the
web server application root directory.
Remove all files that are not part of the
web site
Remove the HTTP service banner so
that web server and operating system
type & version are not reported.
Create a new custom least-privileged
user and group for the web server
process, unique from all other users and
The configuration files should not be
writable. It should be in read only mode.

The server should be configured in such

a way that the contents are only read
and not modified by the web server
implications before selecting the plugins,
server side scripts, scripts and the
programs for the web server.
Third party free modules available
should not be used without proper
checking and verification of their
functionality and security.
Configure the web server to use the
latest CRL (Certificate Revocation List)
along with authentication and encryption
technologies (SSL)
Some Measures Considered for Web and
Application server are:

Secure coding practices: Server side

applications are written in various
programming languages with less
amount flaws in the scripts. Thus
restricting the attackers.

2. Sandbox Security: India-WRIS web

information system is built using Flex
and ActionScript languages of Adobe
family. The output files will be in html as
well as SWF formats. They are run in
client machine using Adobe Flash
Player plugins. The SWF files
themselves are typically hosted on a
server and then downloaded to, and
displayed on, the client computer when
requested. ActionScript is the ECMA
standards-based scripting language that
Flash uses that features APIs designed
to allow the creation and manipulation of
client-side user interface elements and
for working with data. The Flex security
model protects both client and the
server. Consider the following two
general aspects to security:
Authorization and authentication of

Flash Player operating in a sandbox

on the client
applications can integrate with the
authentication and authorization scheme
of any underlying server technology to
prevent users from accessing your
applications. The Flex framework also
mechanisms that let you control access
to web services, HTTP services, and
server-based resources. Flash Player
runs inside a security sandbox that
prevents the client from being hijacked
by malicious application code.
3. SQL Injection: The information system
access parameters from a web user,
and generate SQL queries to database.
SQL Injection can be a common threat
to the India-WRIS application. To avoid
server side
applications will filter out characters like
single quote, double quote, slash, backslash, semi colon, extended characters
like NULL, carry return, new line, etc,
and reserved SQL keywords like
SELECT, Delete, Union.

Leakage occurs when a web site
reveals sensitive data, such as
developer comments or error messages
which may add an attacker in exploiting
informations will be taken care during
the development phase itself.

Windows 2008/ 2003 Enterprise Edition
operating system
Two Intel Quad Core processors
1Gbps Network connectivity
SAS drive with 15K rpm with RAID
8.4. Database Server Security: A database
is installed as a back end server component

to serve a web application through the use

of query language. Database security
should be in place to ensure data access
only to authorized users and protect the
data. The following steps will be configured
for securing the database system for IndiaWRIS setup.
Remove unnecessary services and
Depending on the importance of the
data it will be encrypted
Secure the server behind a firewall and
will use IDS to detect any intrusion
The server process will be run as a user
with minimum privileges & never as
Enforce secure coding practices in
database access programs
Audit trail logs will be enabled
Database users not required will be
The server will not be assigned publicly
accessible IP, and access to the
database servers will be allowed only
from the web server on a particular port
Depending on the importance of the
data fine grained record/row level
auditing will be considered
Use of the remote authoring tools for
editing content directly on public web
site will not be allowed.
If the remote administration of the server
is unavoidable it will be established only
through a secure channel.
All content management clients will be
placed in a screened network zone with
limited access. And the contents
uploaded on the server will be verified to
ensure that it is free of any malicious
Monitoring and analyzing of log files will
be there so that the suspicious behavior
of users can be tracked. An alert
mechanism will be implemented to alert
administrator in case of any malicious
activity detected in logs. All the log files

will be regularly archived, secured and

A proper backup policy will be enforced
and ensue regular backup of files to

maintain integrity of the data files. This

will be done by either generating MD5
hashes of important files or by using
software integrity checkers.

Figure23: Oracle Database Server

RHEL v5.0 server operating system
Single Intel Quad Core processors.
1 x Fibre Channel dual ported HBAs with 4Gbps per port
SAS drive with 15K rpm with RAID support.

8.5. Physical Security: Proper physical and

environment security controls will be in
place to protect the India-WRIS hosting
resources. Physical security controls will be
taken to protect against physical damage,
unauthorized disclosure of information, theft
and loss of control over system integrity.

server infrastructure will be created at

different physical location to recover
from any disaster. India-WRIS will have
disaster recovery site which will be in a
state to take over web services, when
required. Care will be also taken to
mitigate the effects of different natural

Physical Access Controls: Proper

access control mechanism will be 8.6. Network Security: The India-WRIS
deployed to restrict physical access to
network architecture has been designed to
the servers. Except for designated
create different security zones / segments
administrators no one else can be
for external users, internal users and the
allowed to log on to the server locally.
servers. Some of the measures taken to
Disaster Recovery Centre: Depending
on the criticality a replica of the entire

implement the network security are as


Firewall: A firewall is used to restrict

traffic between the public network and
the web server, and in between the web
server and the internal networks.
Servers providing supporting services to
the web server will be placed on another
subnet isolated from the public and
internal networks. If required traffic to
this server can be filtered using another
firewall. The firewall will be configured
for full logging and a mechanism for
generating alerts on suspicious activity.
The following guidelines are considered
for firewall configuration of the IndiaWRIS network:
Place a DENY ANY RULE at the
end of the rule base
Never create ALLOW ANY rule
ALLOW rules will be created only for
required services and servers. This
will result in all traffic being
All traffic destined for the firewall
itself will be disallowed
implemented. The application level
filtering will also be implemented if


Intrusion Detection System (IDS):

deployment architecture will protect the
network perimeter, extranets, and the
internal network in real-time. It analyses
the network data stream and identifies
the attempts to hack or break into the
information system. It identifies attacks
through various methods including
anomaly detection and signature
matching and can generate an alarm or
react to the attack attempt. Current rule

base will be designed to avoid false

alarms generation.

Antivirus: An antivirus package will be

installed on the web server system. All
clients which access the web server for
the purpose of administration and
content management will have to use
this antivirus with latest signatures. All
documents and files hosted on the web
server will be hosted only after being
checked for virus and Trojans.


Access controls: Access controls are

enforced at different levels. Router will
be configured to stop the unwanted
traffic and attacks. The following points
will be considered for a secured
configuration of India-WRIS system:
Deploy proper access management
and disabled remote administration
Enable strong password
Required ACLs and logging to
central syslog server will be turn on

8.7. Host
configurations will be made for IndiaWRIS host server security:
Only essential services will be
running in the OS
OS and applications software will be
kept up to date to protect against
common attacks.
Will implement user authentication &
all unneeded users and groups will
be removed
OS will be implemented by
appropriate object, device, and file
access control
A strong password policy will be
including failed logging.


Human Machine Interaction /System Features

India-WRIS system provides a set of tools in
Tool Panel.
Each of these tools will
encapsulates some level of GIS functionality
in the Map. The broad categorization of
tools is Map display tools, Navigation tools,
Navigation Tools

Display Tools
Search & Query Tool
Personalization Tools

Statistical Calculator
Data Representation
and Analysis
Advanced Tools
Other Tools

Presentation Tools, Measurement Tool,

Search and Querying Tool, Report Tool etc.
The detailed descriptions of tools are given
in the table below.

Tools to navigate and explore data in India-WRIS. Navigation tools are the
set of tools that will allow user to fully interact with the map. Navigation
tools consist of Zoom-In, Zoom-Out, Pan, Previous Extent, Next Extent to
view the different extent of the map.
Tools to facilitate better and detailed visualization of overlaid datasets
Tools to find data based on user input condition and queries. The tool also
allows the user to do both Localized and Global search.
This provides the user with the options for personalizing the map as per
users preferences. Tools to customize the WRIS data representation in user
defined way.
The Geo-Calculator allows the user to calculate parameters based in location
and user input.
Formula based output generated from India-WRIS data and user inputs.
Tools used in various information systems to represent various datasets.
These representation methods aid in data analysis.
Specialized geo-processing tools for theme specific data with user input data
Tools like WRIS community forums in popular social networking sites as well
as through mail where they can discuss, post their queries to various water
experts all over the world through WRIS system.
Table12: Major Tools Categories

Navigation Tools

Zoom In: It zoom into a particular area on map that is selected by the user


Zoom Out: Is zooms-out the map to come out of the detailing.


Pan: It allows user to Pan around the whole map


Full Extent: It allows viewing the map at the full extent.


Previous Extent: It allows going to previous extent when the map extent is changed.


Next Extent: It allows returning from the previous extent.


Map Overview: Provides location of current view in context with larger map area.


Go To: Zoom to an area based on specified latitude and longitude


Select Area Zoom/Rubber Zoom: Smooth Zooming into a selected area

Display Tools

Swipe: It swipe the particular selected layer in the map to reveal underlying layers


Spotlight: It removes overlaid layer from the selected portion for better visualization


Magnifier: To view the zoom in layer details of selected portion only


Get Feature Info: On selecting a particular feature it displays summary info


Identify: identify the details of all the visible layers including the elevation details of the
point(Spot Elevation)

Search & Query Tool


Keyword Search
Query Builder: create user defined queries


Search by Proximity

Personalization Tools

Draw: Allows to draw a shape/line/point on map


Print: To print the current viewing area in landscape or portrait mode.


Save as Image


Bookmark: Allows bookmarking a specific location on the map for future reference.


Share a Link: Share the current view of map with another user through mail


Pin Mark: User can pin mark his location of interest and type his comment on same


Geo-Tagging: Attaching actual photograph of that particular location on the map


Add to result: It adds the results of the process


Tools to calculate parameters based on location and user input.

Distance between two points
Area (in multiple units )
DD <-> DMS Converter

Statistical Calculator

Formula based output generated from India-WRIS data and user inputs. Some Identified
calculators are:
Runoff Calculation
Rainwater Harvesting
Soil Loss for basin level Calculator
Discharge over a Broad Created Weir
Storage Capacity of Reservoir
ET Calculator
Moisture Index
Thermal Index
Ground Water Recharge Calculator
Base Flow Calculator
Water Quality Index
Gypsum Requirement Calculator
Soil acidification calculator
Sodicity Calculator
Salinity Calculator

Data Representation and Analysis


Charting Tools : Various type of Chart representation with the raw data and on the fly
processed data
Cluster Map: Representing the average well depth, population summary


Heat Map: Representing the density distribution of wells


Temporal Data: Temporal animation display of daily, monthly and annual data of various



Advanced Tools

Network Analysis/Route Tool: It specifies the defined route of road, rail and river network.


Surface Profile: Generate the surface terrain height graph of selected points on map


Feature Extraction: Allows downloading selected feature to download as .shp file.


Online Report Generation: Automated *.pdf generation of the user defined area and
selected themes. (like Basin Report )


Edit Tool: Allows users to edit the features in the map


Julian Day Lookup Tool

Water Year Lookup Tool
Elevation Residual Calculator

Other Tools

iFrame : Sharing frame of WRIS in other applications

Links on Facebook /Twitter/Orkut/Google+
Table13: Major WRIS Tools

9.2. Detailed Component description

Map Control: Map control is the control
provided by the ESRI, which is basically
used to display the map in the application.
The map can be zoomed-in and zoomed-

out by the mouse roll over and roll out

respectively. It also includes built-in
feature of panning to the area of interest.
Associated with Map control is a
navigation bar and scale bar. Navigation
Bar can be used to zoom in and zoom out
the map extent on the mouse click. Scale
Bar can be used to show the scale of the

Figure25: Map Control

Navigation Tools: Navigation tools are

the set of tools that will allow user to
fully interact with the map. Navigation
tools consist of Zoom-In, Zoom-Out,

Panning, Previous Extent, and Next

Extent to view the different extent of the

Figure26: Navigation tools

o Zoom In: Zoom-In tool would

allow the user to perform a rubber
zoom-in on the map to reach to the
specific area of interest to view the
Description: ZoomIn is a button
component, a click on which will
allow the user to draw an extent on
the map and it will zoom that
particular selected area to a defined
scale. ZoomIn button uses ESRIs
Navigation Class which provides the
navigation. ZOOM_IN property to
perform the Zoom In functionality.

Zoom Out: Zoom-Out tool would

allow user to perform rubber zoomout to come out of the detailing of
the map.

Description: ZoomOut is a button

component, a click on which will
allow the user to draw an extent on
the map and it will zoom out that
particular selected area to a defined
scale. ZoomOut button uses ESRIs
Navigation Class which provides the
Navigation.ZOOM_OUT property to
perform the Zoom Out functionality.
o Panning: Panning is one of other
basic tools provided in the tool set,
which would allow users to shift map
holding it with a hand cursor to reach
to his area of interest.
Description: Pan is a button
component, a click on which will help
the user to pan the map and move
the map where he wishes .It will

allow the user to pan around the

map without changing the scale of
view. Pan button uses ESRIs
Navigation Class which provides the
navigation.PAN property to perform
the panning functionality.
o Previous Extent: Previous Extent
allows user to go to the previous
extent when the user changes the
map extent.
Description: Previous Extent is a
button component, a click on which
will help the user to see the previous
extent of the map and it zoom the
map to that extent. Previous Extent
button uses ESRIs Navigation Class
nav.zoomToPrevExtent() function to
perform the functionality. This tool
keeps track of the extent history for
the browsing of the map and any
previous view visualized by the user
can be viewed again by using the
Previous Extent tool.
o Next Extent: Next Extent allows
user to return to the next extent
when you have gone to previous
Description: Next Extent is a button
component, a click on which will help
the user to see the next extent of the
map and it zoom the map to that
extent. Next Extent button uses
ESRIs Navigation Class which
provide the nav.zoomToNextExtent()
function to perform the functionality.
This tool too makes use of the
browsing history of the map extent

and helps in navigating the views

along with the Previous Extent tool.
o Full Extent: Full Extent allows user
to view the map at the full extent.
Description: Full Extent is a button
component, a click on which will help
the user to see the full extent of the
map. Full Extent button uses ESRIs
Navigation Class which provide the
nav.zoomToFullExtent() function to
perform the functionality.
General Guideline for the navigation tools:
Since the navigation tools are the most
basic and frequently used tools in any
mapping application, these should be
arranged in a toolbar on the map for easy
access. Suitable icons rather than text
should represent these tools, with tool tips
to assist the user at all steps.
Other basic Tools too should be placed with
these for user-friendly interface.
Out-Of-Box Tools
o Overview Map: The Overview Map shows
the location of current view in context with
the larger geographical area. The shaded
red box in the Overview Map panel
represents the zoom window in the map
display panel. Users can zoom in and out,
and the red box will resize accordingly. To
go quickly to any location on map user can
pan the red box of overview map and he will
be panned to that extent without changing
the scale of view.
This panel should be draggable and
restorable so as to maximize the map
display area.

Figure27: WRIS Overview Component

Description: An overview map is also a

button component, on click of which a small
overview map window is popped up which
shows the current location of the map in
context with the larger geographical area.
Overview Map button click event calls the
function showOverview() which further calls
the MapOverview.mxml . This mxml uses
the action script,, to perform
the functions.
o ToolBox: Toolbox is a set of tools. This is
given a semi-transparent background and is
made to appear with a flying effect. The
toolbox comprises of functionalities like

Draw Tool, Measure Tool, Printing, Charting

and other Analysis Tools. A brief description
and nature of each tool follows:
Draw Tool: The basic need of the tools
included in the Draw toolbox is to provide
the user with the options for personalizing
the map as per his preferences. This tool is
included to allow users to draw or insert
certain symbols to highlight their area of
interest while explaining and understanding
the data provided through the maps. The
symbols includes: Point, Line, Polygon,
Freehand Polyline, Freehand Polygon, Text
or eraser for the symbols drawn.

Figure28: Draw tool component

Description: The Draw Tool is a component

that contains a set of tools for drawing. On a
click of draw tool button by user a pop
window will open from where he can select
the various option, like draw a point or
polyline, polygon , free polyline and free
polygon. The user also has option to write a
text on the map.
These functions are performed with the help
of ESRIs Draw Toolbar. Which provide the
various properties to draw the geometry on
the map.
Draw.MAPOINT: It allows the user to draw
a point on the map.
Draw.POLYLINE: It allows the user to draw
a straight line on the map.
Draw.POLYGON: It allows the user to draw
a polygon the map of a particular shape.
Draw.FREEHAND_POLYLINE: It allows the
user to draw a free polyline of irregular
shape on the map.
Draw.FREEHAND_POLYGON: It allows the
user to draw a free polygon or irregular
polygon of any shape on the map.
Measurement Tools: Measurement tool is
another tool which uses geometry services
published from the server. The Measure tool
calculates cumulative distance between
locations and measures areas. To measure
cumulative distance, users click at a starting
point on the map and click at sequential
locations. Each line segment measures the
distance between current and previous
locations and the Total Length, which is the
distance between current location and the
starting point is displayed in the result
window, which becomes visible when the
tool is activated. Similarly, user will draw an
area on the map and the measure tool will
calculate the area and display it in result
Description: A click on the toolbox button
will pop up a set of toolbox. Clicking the
measure tool button on it will invoke the
measureTool() function which will result in
another pops up window from where he has

three options to Measure Terrain, Measure

Distance and Measure Area.
A click on the measure Terrain invokes the
measureTerrain() function which calculates
the Latitude and Longitude of the points .
A click on the measure distance invokes the
measureDist() function which calculates the
distance between the two points .
A click on the measure Area button invokes
measureArea() function which gives the
area of the polygon drawn by the user on
the map.
Print Tool: The Print Tool prints the map in
the current view. When this tool is activated
the print dialog box opens.
Description: Print tool is invoked by the user
by using the print icon on the toolbox. A
click on the print tool button pops up a
window, which allows the user to select the
size of the map to be printed. A click on the
print tool button invokes the Print() function
which helps to take pout the print of the
map. It internally uses the FlexPrintJob
library file. Printing option may also be used
to print the output in the form of images or
pdf documents.
Charting Tool: Charting Icon on the
Toolbox allows the user to visualize various
charts as per his requirements. The charts
can be of various categories. The interface
to generate the desired chart should be
simple and user-friendly. Most of the charts
would require an input from the user. Based
on these inputs the data will be retrieved
and displayed in form of a chart. Once
generated, these charts can be depicted in
various types such as Bar Charts, AreaCharts, Pie Chart, and Doughnut etc.
Moreover, a summary of information is
provided to the user in form of table. Best
efforts should be made to make the charts
lively and interactive.

Figure29: Charting tool component

Description: Chart tool is accessible by

using icon on the toolbox. A click on the
chart tool button pops up a new window,
where user can give the inputs. It invokes
the showChart() function which uses the
displayChart component to display the
charts according to the users selection
Analysis Tools: Various analysis tools as
per the requirement of Water resource
analysis are added as tool in the Analysis
toolbox. These tools are meant for analysis
of area selected/ drawn by the user. e.g.
User may need the Ground Water Depth of
any region on the map in the form of a
chart, to compare the Ground Water Depth
or the user may need to analyze command
area state wise, again in form of charts
fluctuation in well depth before and after
monsoon of a well point on the map.
Description: The various Analysis tools
should be arranged in component. The

component pops up by flying in when the

user clicks on the icon of the Analysis tool
on the Toolbox. Since different tools would
need different user action as input , the
instructions should be properly included in
the interface to assist the user to make full
use of the tool. The graphs/charts created
by the tools should also have compliance
with the map so that the user can associate
the data on them with that on the map.
Clear: Clear is a part of vertical toolbar. On
clicking the clear button it invokes the
myGraphics.Clear() function which remove
all the graphics of the map.

Table of Content: The Table of content is

component, which allows user to view the
Table of content for the map layers and
allows them to see the active layers on the
map. This tool is activated for map
displayed with dynamic map services.

Figure30: Table of Contents

Description: Table of content is a

component, which is placed in a tab of an
accordion component; datagrid is used to
show the layer with checkbox. The checked
Layer by user will be visible on the map,
unchecked layer are not visible on the map.
The Datagrid with checkboxes and visible
LayerTOC.mxml and the selection of layer
LayerVizRenderer.mxml. This tool occupies
the left part of the panel and may be hidden
from view by clicking on the expand/hide
button. When this tool is hidden, the map is
automatically extended to fill the area. This
action maximizes the map display area for
the user.

Search Tool: Search tool is placed in a tab

of accordion to the left of the page. The
search tool allows the user to do both
Localized and Global search. The local
search restricts the user only to a particular
layer such as command, District, Drainage.
The global search is a comprehensive
search. The search tool asks for some user
inputs like search text and layer on which
the search has to be made. Search panel
also has a tree-view as its part where the
search results will be displayed. All the
results will be stacked in this result panel
.The user has the facility to highlight and
view the result on the map also to assist the
user visually. The facility to clear past
results is also provided.

Flow diagram:

Figure31: User interaction with search panel

Description: Search tool is a set of

components, it consists of combo-box to
select the various layers, and another
component is also combo-box which is
editable. The user can either enter the text
to be searched or select the default values
in case of the localized search. There is a
search button, the click of which invokes
onSearch() function which give the user
desired output and the result will be shown
in the result panel which is tree-view and
simultaneously zooms to the searched
features on the map. Result will be shown in
the tree-view pattern, which is done by
creating xml string that is dataprovider of
A click on a particular result in the result
panel calls the glow() function to highlight
that area on the map.
Identify Tool: When users select the
Identify tool and clicks on the map, it
retrieves information (attributes) of all active

layers at that point and displays them in the

Results window. Users can view all the
basic information pertaining to each of the
attribute of all active layers at the point
selected on the map, in the result window.
The result widow is a part of the Identify
Panel. The identified layers are populated in
the combo-datagrid. The user has the
option to choose one or more layer at a
time. After making the choice the user can
click Show Details button to get the detailed
As the user clicks some other point,
information corresponding to the new point
will be shown in the result window clearing
the last result. As the result window is
closed the feature gets deactivated allowing
the user to work with other tools. The result
window is kept floating over the application
so that no part of the map is masked by its

Figure32: User interaction with Identify tool

Description: Identify feature facilitates use to

view the details of the feature of interest.
This tool will first display the entire layer in
the map and let the user choose layer/s.
After completing the choices user gets the
details of selected layers. If user clicked the
boundary of two or states/districts etc., then
also he will be given details of all
User interface consist a CheckBoxDataGrid
that extends DataGrid, so that user can
make choices by checking each layer.
Detailed information of chosen layer/s is
displayed in a separate Panel, along with a
header and then details of layer in
sequence (if more than one layers are
In the header number of count of the
selected feature are also shown. e.g. Tahsil
(3) to indicate the total number of Tehsil

8.1. Components of India-WRIS WebGIS 3D application:

Various maps are draped on a globe and

user can navigate over the terrain and know
where he is by seeing the current latitude
and longitude of the middle of the display
and the current elevation of his observation
point in the status area at the bottom of the
display. In this 3D application along with the
basic tools of zoom-in, zoom-out, identify
and so on user has various facilities like
facility to zoom to any result in result panel,
fly around on the globe create Notes, Quick
reference to view/notes, Add geo-tagged
photographs, organization of contents of
map, Draw tool for personalization of map,
customizing the size and symbols of marked
features on the map, geoprocessing tool for
analysis, generating charts to get better
presentation and above of all facility to save
all the customization on the map on the
local machine of user, are provided.
Basic mapping functionalities: ArcGIS
functionality like zoom-in, zoom-out, and
pan on the mouse wheel move.
Tools of ArcGIS Explorer

ArcGIS Explorer is a free 3D GIS viewer

produced by ESRI. It is a part of ArcGIS
software suite, other desktop GIS software.
ArcGIS Explorer can be used as a client for
ArcGIS Server.

o Navigation tool: Navigation Control

has two modes: one Indicator mode
and other Navigation mode. Indicator
mode displays the orientation of the
map; it's a dynamic graphic that shows

which direction represents North and

the degree to which the map has been


Figure33: 3D No Tilt and Tilt indicated in the icon

User can't interact with the Navigation

Control when it is in Indicator mode;
however when user moves the mouse over
its north arrow the control changes to
display its Navigation mode; using the
mouse user can interact with the Navigation
Control in this mode to move around the

map, change its orientation, and reset

various aspects of the map to their original
settings. Tooltips appear over each of the
elements of the control when user is in this
mode. The actions user can perform using

1 Click to tilt down

2 Shows degree of tilt
3 Click to move North*
4 Drag to rotate
5 Click to zoom in
6 Drag to tilt up or down
7 Click to move East
8 Drag to zoom in or out
9 Click to move West
10 Click to move South
11 Click to tilt
12 Reset tilt to initial setting
13 Set North at the top of the map
14 Display the full extent of the
15 Click to zoom out
16 Tilt disc changes color when the
observer position is beneath the
Figure34: 3D Navigation Control

o Add Content to a map: Since ArcGIS

Explorer is a client for ArcGIS Server,
ArcGIS Explorer can utilize all the

published services. GIS services used

are map service, globe service.

User can add these types of content to a

ArcGIS Online
ArcGIS Layers
Map Content Files
KML files
GIS Services
Raster Data
Geodatabase Data
Text Files
GPS Data files
Image Overlays
o Personalization tools: Different users
need the same data in different manner
that meet their needs in the process of
analysis. The various personalization

tools provided by ArcGIS Explorer make

it easy for the user to work with maps.
These personalization tools include
Create notes.

Create a Note: This is an important

personalization tool that remains user of
something he observed of discovered. Note
can be supplied anywhere on the map using
Note in the Home tabs Create group. Each
note has a title, text, and an associated
shape that user can sketch on the map. The
text user supplies will appear in a popup
window that displays when he clicks the
shape associated with the note or select
Show Popup in the note's contextual tab or
context menu.

Figure35: Notes tools in 3D

o Contents Window: On the Home tab, in

the Map group click the Contents Window
button to show the Contents window:
The Contents window lists the contents of
the map:
Initially, the only item displayed in the
Contents window is the default map. User
has the opportunity to add new content to
the map; when user does so, an entry
representing that content will also appear in
the Contents window. In addition to notes,
views, links, and folders, any geographic
data content that added to the map is listed
in the Contents window.

When these notes/views are selected the

user gets the option to view details, zoom to
the location or remove it from content
window. By default, new notes are inserted
at the top of the Contents window, though it
is also possible to move them to a folder,
which gives the user the ease to organize
his work.
When user exits ArcGIS Explorer he will be
prompted to save any new results.
o Add
functionality user can include in ArcGIS
Explorer is called an add-in. User can
download add-ins or acquire them from a
developer who built an add-in using the

ArcGIS Explorer SDK. There are four

types of add-ins:

default part of the application is the

Folder button which creates a new

Buttons that appear on the Ribbon and

execute a function when clicked. An
example of a button that is included as a

Figure 36: ArcGIS 3D Application Menu

Dockable windows that open on a click of a button on the

Ribbon and that can be docked in the application like other builtin windows such as the Contents window or Find window.

Galleries that appear on the Ribbon and present a series of

choices that user can click. Examples of galleries that are
included as default parts of the application is the Symbol gallery:
Extensions that automatically start and run in the background.
Extensions dont have any user interface and often provide
services for other add-ins such as monitoring traffic and
updating graphics on the map.

Figure 37: ArcGIS 3D Find Menu

o Add Geotagged Photos: One of the

new tasks delivered with ArcGIS Explorer
is the Add Photo task. The Add Photo
task places photos that have been
geotagged on the map. After adding the
task and activating and click on Browse
the user can navigate to a folder

containing geotagged photos. The

folder's contents are displayed in the task
(note that only JPEG format images are
supported). The user can check the
photos he wants to add, and click Place

Figure 38: Geo-tagging

o Geo
fundamental purpose of geoprocessing is
to allow user to automate GIS tasks. A
geoprocessing service represents a
collection of published tools that perform
tasks necessary for manipulating and
analyzing geographic information across
a wide range of disciplines. In respect of
WRIS, the geoprocessing and analysis
tools are bound to play a major role by

enabling the users to extract information

from the data available through the
Various geo-processing tools can be
created as per the requirement of the user.
For example, incorporating various query
functionalities like finding the waterlogged
areas in a command, Salinity in the
command or district-wise command areas in
a state and so on.

Figure 39: Geo-processing Tools

Another important geo-processing tool

developed in the WRIS application is the
Clip-and-Ship tool. Apart from viewing the
available data, the user may also wish to
take the data and perform some analysis on
it on his system using tools that may not be
available in WRIS. Using the Clip-and-ship
tool the user may be provided with the
facility to choose a layer and extract a small
portion of the data pertaining to that layer, to
be processed further. The clipping operation
is triggered on the server through a
geoprocessing task that has been
predefined and the output is generated in
compressed together and made available to
the user for download.
o User Data Input module: This module
aims at keeping the data content of the
various layers of India-WRIS up to date by
providing facilities to the data providing

sources to ingest the current attribute data

directly into the relevant layers. For
example, the data collection unit at various
river gauge monitoring stations can, if they
have access to India-WRIS, feed in the
latest water level of the river at prescribed
frequency. For this, facilities shall be
provided in the information system to take
the user input, and a process shall be
worked out to validate the data before it is
shown on the system. This validation can
also be automated to an extent by
comparing the data with the existing
variance of data.
o Charting: Charting tool has also provided
with the ArcGIS Explorer that will help the
user in visualizing the data in a more lucid
manner. The user will be provided with an
add-in wherein he can choose to activate
the charting functionality. Once activated a

new browser will open up that will require

some input from the user to retrieve the
data from the database and the display
them in form of charts. The user will also be

able to choose the chart type, among the

available types (such as Bar chart, Piechart, Column chart) to view the chart of his

Figure 40: WRIS 3D Charting Tools

ArcGIS References: -new/index.html
m -version.html -900.html
Adobe Flex:
Oracle Database References: ntro.htm
Software Design Document References: irements.html
General References: -flow-diagram/

Annexure A: India-WRIS Office Order

Government of India
Department of Space
Indian Space Research Organisation
Antariksh Bhavan
New BEL Road
Bangalore 560 094
April 06, 2009
Sub. : Project on India Water Resources Information System (India-WRIS)
Organisational Arrangements

Under the aegis of the NNRMS Standing Committee on Water Resources (NNRMS SCW), a project for generation / organization of an Information System for management of water
resources in the country was conceptualized. Further, based on the interactions held between
ISRO and Central Water Commission (CWC / Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR), and the
deliberations by the Group of Officers identified by CWC, a national level project India Water
Resources Information System (India-WRIS) was arrived at. This project has since been
approved by CWC / MoWR, and ISRO is entrusted with the responsibility of implementing the
project. RRSSC, Jodhpur will be the lead Centre from ISRO to implement the India-WRIS
India-WRIS is envisaged as a single-window, web-enabled information system
comprising of over 30 layers of spatial data and a host of attribute data for planning and
management of water resources in the country. This database will also be integrated with
custom built tools and Decision Support System (DSS) for water resources management at
different levels of hierarchy.
This Office Order sets forth the organizational arrangements, within ISRO, for
successful, time-bound implementation of the India-WRIS project. The designated personnel will
carry out the tasks related to the project, in addition to their existing responsibilities, from their
respective Centres/ Units/ Offices.
Dr. J.R. Sharma, Head, RRSSC-Jodhpur is designated as Project Director for the IndiaWRIS.
The following, designated as Dy Project Directors, India-WRIS, along with the Project
Scientists associated with them shall work as teams under the overall guidance of the Project
Director, India-WRIS.
Dy. Project Directors
Project Scientists
Standards, S/W Development & Integration :
Shri Vinod M. Bothale, Sci/Engr-SG,

Shri Shantanu Bhatawdekar, Sci/Engr-SG,

DOS, New Delhi

RRSSC, Jodhpur

Shri K Nagajyothi, Sci/Engr-SE,

RRSSC, Bangalore
Shri SS Rajashekhar, Sci/Engr-SE,
RRSSC, Nagpur
Shri Harish Karnatak, Sci/Engr-SD,
Shri D Giribabu, Sci/Engr-SD,
RRSSC, Dehradun

Database organization :
Dr MC Gupta, Sci/Engr-SG,

Dr S S Rao, Sci/Engr-SF,
RRSSC, Nagpur
Dr A K Bera, Sci/Engr-SF,
RRSSC, Jodhpur

Legacy data ISRO Projects :

Dr VV Rao, Sci/Engr-SG,

Dr G Ravishankar, Sci/Engr-SF,
Dr Rakesh Paliwal, Sci/Engr-SE,
RRSSC, Jodhpur

Content Generation :
Ms Rajashree V Bothale, Sci/Engr-SG,

Dr G Sreenivasan, Sci/Engr-SE,
RRSSC, Nagpur
Dr Sudha Ravindranath, Sci/Engr-SE,
RRSSC, Bangalore

Content Generation :
Dr D Dutta, Sci/Engr-SG,
RRSSC, Kharagpur

Dr VM Choudhary, Sci/Engr-SE,
RRSSC, Kharagpur
Dr BK Bhadra, Sci/Engr-SE,
RRSSC, Jodhpur

Content Generation :
Dr SN Das, Sci/Engr-SF,
RRSSC, Nagpur

Shri John Mathew, Sci/Engr-SE,

RRSSC, Dehradun
Shri S Rama Subramoniam, Sci/Engr-SD,
RRSSC, Jodhpur

Content Generation :
Dr P Manavalan, Sci/Engr-SG,
RRSSC, Bangalore

Shri Pramod Kumar, Sci/Engr-SF,

RRSSC, Dehradun
Shri Suparn Pathak, Sci/Engr-SE,
RRSSC, Jodhpur

Shri Uday Raj, Sci/Engr-SG, RRSSC-CMO and Shri Shantanu Bhatawdekar, Sci/EngrSG, DOS, New Delhi, are designated as Project Coordinators, and will provide interface and
liaison support among the participating agencies.
The following two teams will carry out the quality evaluation of the databases generated
and test & evaluation of the software packages developed under the project, respectively :

Quality Evaluation of Databases :

Dr A Jeyaram, Sci/Engr-SG, RRSSC, Kharagpur Convener
Dr S Sudhakar, Sci/Engr-SG, NRSC
Shri Uday Raj, Sci/Engr-SG, RRSSC-CMO
Ms Rajashree V Bothale, Sci/Engr-SG, RRSSC, Jodhpur

Dr D Dutta, Sci/Engr-SG, RRSSC, Kharagpur

Dr G Ravishankar, Sci/Engr-SF, NRSC
Dr M Kudrat, Sci/Engr-SF, RRSSC, Dehradun
Shri Suparn Pathak, Sci/Engr-SE, RRSSC, Jodhpur
Dr KK Sarma, Sci/Engr-SE, NE-SAC

Test & Evaluation of Software Packages :

Shri PG Diwakar, Sci/Engr-G, RRSSC, Bangalore Convener
Shri Vinod M Bothale, Sci/Engr-SG, RRSSC, Jodhpur
Shri MV Ravikumar, Sci/Engr-SG, NRSC
Dr SS Rao, Sci/Engr-SF, RRSSC, Nagpur
Dr SN Das, Sci/Engr-SF, RRSSC, Nagpur
Shri DSP Rao, Sci/Engr-SE, RRSSC, Nagpur
Ms A Vijaya Banu, Sci/Engr-SD, RRSSC, Bangalore
Shri B Chandrasekaran, Sci/Engr-SD, RRSSC, Bangalore
Shri Dibya Jyoti Chutia, Sci/Engr-SD, NE-SAC

Towards performing the various functions related to smooth implementation of the IndiaWRIS project, and to facilitate execution of related activities, in consonance with the guidlines
provided by the EOAM-MC, the India-WRIS PM is constituted as under :


Project Director, India-WRIS


Dy Project Directors
Conveners, Quality Evaluation & T&E
Dy. Director (Applications), EOS
IFA, ISRO Headquarters
Project Coordinators


Shri Vinod M Bothale, Sci/Engr-SG,

RRSSC, Jodhpur


The PMB shall meet as often as necessary.

The Directors/Head of concerned ISRO Centres, and Programme Offices at ISRO HQ.,
will ensure necessary institutional support for successful implementation of the India-WRIS
Director, RRSSCs and Project Director, India-WRIS will keep Chairman,
ISRO/Secretary, DOS informed periodically of the progress of the various activities under the
The EOAM-MC will provide the overall guidance and directions for the India-WRIS
Project, and will also periodically review the progress.

This Office Order comes into force with immediate effect.

-sd (G. Madhavan Nair)

Chairman, ISRO / Secretary, DOS

Annexure B: Technology Study

Database Generation Tools:
In the light of the above, the various GIS
data generation tools that have been
considered (arranged in alphabetical order)
AutoCad Map:
Autocad is a CAD (computer Aided Design
or Computer Aided Drafting) software
application for 2D and 3D design and
drafting. It was developed and sold by
AutoDesk, Inc. It supports a number of
APIs for customization and automation.
These include AutoLISP, Visual LISP,
VBA.Net and ObjectARX. ObjectARX is a
C++ class library, which was also the base
for products extending Autocad futionality to
specific fields, to create products such as
AutoCAD Architecture, AutoCAD Electrical,
AutoCAD Civil 3D, or third-party AutoCAD
based applications.
The AutoCAD Map extension is designed
specifically to work with geographic data
and brings the familiar toolsets of CAD
environment into the mapping domain along
with AutoCADs standards of precision.
ERDAS Imagine:
ERDAS IMAGINE is a remote sensing
application with raster graphics editor
capabilities designed by ERDAS, Inc for
geospatial applications. The latest version is
ERDAS IMAGINE 2010 10.1, aiming
primarily at geospatial raster data
processing and allows the user to prepare,
display and enhance digital images for
mapping use in GIS or in CADD software. It
is a toolbox allowing the user to perform
numerous operations on an image and
generate an answer to specific geographical
ESRI (Environmental Systems Research
Institute) is a software Development and
Services Company providing GIS software

applications. ESRI uses the name ArcGIS to

refer to its suite of GIS software products
which operate on desktop, server, and
mobile platforms. ArcGIS also includes
developer products and web services.
GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources
Analysis Support System) is a free, opensource geographical information system,
capable of handling raster, topological
vector, image processing, and graphic data.
GRASS is released under the GNU General
Public License (GPL), and it can be used on
multiple platforms including MAC OS X,
Microsoft Windows (natively or with optional
Cygwin tools) and Linux. Users can
interface with the software features through
a graphical user interface (GUI) by using the
internal GUI with X Window System or by
plugging into GRASS via Quantum GIS.
They can interface with the modules directly
through the modified version of the shell
that the application launches or by calling
individual modules directly from a preferred
shell (this latter method requires the setting
of several environment variables).
IDRISI is an integrated GIS and remote
sensing software developed by Clark Labs
at Clark University for the analysis and
display of digital geospatial information.
IDRISI is a PC grid-based system that offers
tools for researchers and scientists engaged
in analyzing earth system dynamics for
effective and responsible decision making
for environmental management, sustainable
resource development and equitable
resource allocation.
IGIS provides a framework for implementing
GIS for a single user or for multiple users. It
is a joint project of ISRO, IGL and Scanpoint
and has been developed keeping in mind
the best available tools for Raster as well as
Vector manipulation.
InterGraph GeoMedia:
GeoMedia is a technology, suite of software
components in Intergraph Corporations GIS

and family of software products that include;

GeoMedia Objects, GeoMedia Viewer
(free), GeoMedia, GeoMedia Professional,
GeoMedia WebMap, GeoMedia WebMap
Professional and others. It is developed as
client or server software specifically for the
Microsoft Windows environment.
Manifold System is a GIS software package
developed by that runs on
Microsoft Windows. The GIS software
competes with ESRI and MapInfo GIS
products. Manifold 7.00 handles both vector
and raster data, includes spatial SQL, a
built-in Internet Map Server (IMS) and other
general GIS features.
Microsoft MapPoint:
Microsoft MapPoint is both a technology
(MapPoint Web Service, previously known
as MapPoint.NET) and a specific software
program created by Microsoft that allows
users to view, edit and integrate maps. The
software and technology are designed to
facilitate the geographical visualization and
analysis of either data or custom data.
MapPoint is intended for business users but
competes in the low-end GIS market. It
includes all of the functionality of the most
recent version of Streets and trips, the
consumer mapping software, at the time of
development, as well as integration with
Microsoft Office, data mapping from various
sources including Microsoft Excel, and
Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) interface
allowing automation of the MapPoint

Database Hosting Tools:

In the light of the India-WRIS requirements,
a number of tools available for the purpose
have been reviewed. The experience of
other projects has also been incorporated
when performing this study. A brief overview
of the products considered follows:
Is a FOSS GIS server that has been
developed in compliance with OGC
standards. The project is an outcome of
developments that started in 2000 by

Geography Department of Bonn University.

It is based on Java and currently offers its
3.0 version.
ERDAS APOLLO is an interoperable
platform allowing enterprises to share their
data internally and with any third party. It
has been developed by ERDAS Inc. and
helps in hosting of data to be visualized in
client-server mode.
ESRI ArcGIS Server
ArcGIS Server is used as a Relational
Database Management System Connector
for other ESRI software to store and retrieve
GIS data within a commercially available
Relational Database Management System.
Currently, ArcSDE can be used with Oracle,
Db2, Informix, and Microsoft SQL Server
databases. It supports its native SDE binary
data format, Oracle Spatial, and SL
Geometry. ArcGIS Server is an internet
application service, used to extend the
functionality of ArcGIS Desktop software to
a browser based environment.
It is an Open Source Server developed in
Java for dissemination of spatial data. It is
designed for interoperability based on OGC
standards and thus it is capable of
publishing any data that complies with OGC
It is an Open Source tool available for
hosting GIS data and building spatially
enabled internet applications. It supports
multiple programming languages and was
developed by University of Minnesota with
support from NASA to make satellite data
available to the public.
Skyline Globe
The SkylineGlobe Web package is an
ASP.NET project for building 3D web
application, based on the SkylineGlobe
Enterprise Technology. The SkylineGlobe
SkylineGlobe 3D application and all the
associated tools such as the Layers
Manager Tool, Drawing and Measurement
Tool. It can be customized and expanded
with additional tools you develop. The
SkylineGlobe Web Package is managed

using the SkylineGlobe web application and

powered by on Oracle or Microsoft SQL
Server database.

Front End Design Tools/ RIA

Development Platforms
A number of tools are available that have
the capabilities to develop RIA. This section
presents an overview of a few of the
prominent ones:
1. Ajax
JavaScript and XML) is a group of
interrelated web
development methods
used on the client-side to create interactive
applications can retrieve data from the
server asynchronously in the background
without interfering with the display and
behavior of the existing page. Data is
usually retrieved using the XMLHttpRequest
object. Despite the name, the use of XML is
not needed, and the requests need not be
Like DHTML and LAMP, Ajax is not one
technology, but a group of technologies.
Ajax uses a combination of HTML and CSS
to mark up and style information. The DOM
is accessed with JavaScript to dynamically
display, and to allow the user to interact
with, the information presented. JavaScript
and the XMLHttpRequest object provide a
method for exchanging data asynchronously
between browser and server to avoid full
page reloads.
2. Curl
Curl is a RIA platform, providing an
applications. Using Curl,
Organizations can create a new class of
Web-based offerings that provide all the rich
interactivity, functionality and performance
of client-server applications. Curl enables
companies to implement innovative SOA
and Web 2.0 strategies. It combines
program logic, graphics and text processing

into one language/platform. The Curl

product set includes three elements: The
Curl Language, the Curl Run Time
Environment and the Curl Integrated
Development Environment.
3. Adobe Flex
The Adobe Flex product line is another
solution for delivering RIAs across the
enterprise and over the web. The Flex
product line provides a programming model
(Flex framework), integrated Eclipse-based
development tools (Flex Builder), and
data integration services (Flex Data
Services) that enable organizations to
deliver solutions by integrating with existing
applications and websites.
Flex framework
Applications delivered with Flex execute
with the help of the browser and Flash
Player runtime. Flash Player provides a
consistent, cross-platform runtime that
contains virtual machine with integrated
support for multilingual text display, printing,
data manipulation, motion, and multimedia.
components that enable applications to
interact with any remote server via SOAP
web services, REST services, or raw HTTP
or custom socket-based protocols.
Flex Builder
The Flex development model uses MXML
for user interface design and layout and
ECMAScript) for client logic. The Flex
Builder integrated development environment
(IDE) provides tools for coding, debugging,
and visual user interface layout design can
integrate with existing source code
management systems. In addition to this,
Flex provides integrated support for unit
testing tool.
Flex Data Services
Flex Data Services extends the capabilities
of the Flex client framework by providing
additional services for managing data
transfer and integrating with existing
applications and infrastructure. Flex Data
Services is implemented as a Java web
application and can be deployed on

standard Java application servers. The

services provided by Flex Data Services
integrate with the existing security profiles
defined within the Java application server.
Flex Data Services can be deployed using
standard deployment tools provided with the
server and can integrate with application
server clustering features. In addition,
applications built
with Flex Data Services can access existing
server-side session data and application
logic using standard Java APIs.
4. Google Web Toolkit
Google Web Toolkit is an open source set
of tools that allows web developers to
create and maintain complex JavaScript
front-end applications in Java. Other than a
few native libraries, everything is Java
source that can be built on any supported
platform with the included GWT Ant build
files. It is licensed under the Apache
License version 2.0.
GWT emphasizes reusable, efficient
solutions to recurring Ajax challenges,
namely asynchronous remote procedure
calls, history management, bookmarking,
5. HTML 5
HTML 5 is a new version of HTML 4.01 and
XHTML 1.0 focusing on the needs of Web
application developers as well as evolving
HTML and addressing issues found in the
current specifications.
While the HTML 5 specification (also on the
W3C as a Working Draft) is not finalized yet,
you can use it with any browser that
supports it or any part of itIt is currently
supported by Safari, Firefox, Opera, and IE
6. JavaFX

JavaFX is a Java platform for creating and

delivering rich Internet applications that can
run across a wide variety of connected
devices. The current release (JavaFX 1.3,
April 2010) enables building applications for
desktop, browser and mobile phones. TV
set-top boxes, gaming consoles, Blu-ray
players and other platforms are planned.
To build JavaFX apps developers use a
statically typed, declarative language called
JavaFX Script; Java code can be integrated
into JavaFX programs. JavaFX is compiled
to Java byte code, so JavaFX applications
run on any desktop and browser that runs
the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) and
on top of mobile phones running Java ME.
On desktop, the current release supports
Windows XP, Windows Vista and Mac OS X
operating systems. Beginning with JavaFX
1.2 Oracle has released beta versions for
Linux and OpenSolaris. On mobile, JavaFX
is capable of running on multiple mobile
operating systems, including Symbian OS,
Windows Mobile, and proprietary real-time
operating systems.
7. JavaScript
JavaScript is an implementation of the
ECMAScript language standard and is
typically used to enable programmatic
access to computational objects within a
host environment. It can be characterized
as a prototype-based object-oriented
scripting language that is dynamic, weakly
typed and has first-class functions. It is also
considered a functional programming
language like Scheme and OCaml because
it has closures and supports higher-order
JavaScript is primarily used in the form of
client-side JavaScript, implemented as part
of a web browser in order to provide
enhanced user interfaces and dynamic
websites. However, its use in applications
outside web pagesfor example in PDFdocuments, site-specific browsers and
desktop widgetsis also significant.

JavaScript uses syntax influenced by that of

C. JavaScript copies many names and
naming conventions from Java, but the two
languages are otherwise unrelated and
have very different semantics. The key
design principles within JavaScript are
taken from the Self and Scheme
programming languages
8. Microsoft Silverlight
Microsoft Silverlight is an application
framework for writing and running rich
Internet applications with emphasis on
multimedia, animations, and graphics, with
features and purposes similar to those of
Adobe Flash. The run-time environment for
Silverlight is available as a plug-in for most
web browsers. While early versions of
Silverlight focused on streaming media,
current versions support multimedia,
developers support for CLI languages and
development tools.

Annexure C: ArcGIS Family

of Products
ArcGIS Desktop, ArcGIS Engine, and
ArcGIS Server - is built from ArcObjects.
Casual users of ArcGIS Desktop are
probably not aware of, nor do they care
about, ArcObjects. They simply run ArcMap
and edit their map. It's not until they want to
start customizing ArcGIS Desktop or
building their own applications that they
become more familiar with ArcObjects. The
main difference between running a desktop
application and one based on a GIS server
is in where the ArcObjects components
reside. For desktop applications, the objects
needed for the application are instantiated
and run in the application itself on the local
machine. For instance, when one starts
ArcMap and opens a map document, the
ArcMap application instantiates the objects
that allows drawing of the map, adding

The current version 4 was released in April

2010. It is compatible with multiple web
browsers used on Microsoft Windows and
Mac OS X operating systems. Mobile
devices, starting with Windows Phone 7 and
Symbian (Series 60) phones, were
expected to become supported in 2010. A
free software implementation named
Moonlight, developed by Novell in
cooperation with Microsoft, is available to
bring most Silverlight functionality to Linux,
FreeBSD and other open source platforms.
9. Open Laszlo
OpenLaszlo is an open source platform for
the development and delivery of rich
Internet applications. It is released under
Common Public License (CPL). The
OpenLaszlo platform consists of the LZX
programming language and the OpenLaszlo

layers, editing the layout, and so on.

Essentially, all the objects stored in the map
document are rehydrated for use during that
ArcMap session. When one saves the map,
the current state of the objects used during
the session is written to the map document
for later use. Unlike desktop applications,
clients of a GIS server -based application
remotely. One can think of the GIS serve r
as the container that hosts the objects for all
client applications that need to use them in
much the same way an ArcMap session
hosts the objects for an individual user.
However, with the GIS server, objects are
shared between clients. Because of this, the
way clients use the GIS resources running
on the server is a little different. When one
creates an application that accesses a GIS
server, the prescribed coding guidelines for
accessing the objects running on the server
needs to be followed. These guidelines are

presented and described in the Developer

Help system.
ArcGIS Server: Familiarity with ArcGIS
Desktop also leads to familiarity with the
GIS resources one works within the desktop
environment. For example, if one wants to
display GIS data, one does so through
maps and globes. If locations need to be
found by their address, an address locator
can be used. If some analysis needs to be
done, the geo-processing tools in the
toolbox can be utilized. Each of these items
functionality. Fundamentally, the GIS
functionality is exposed through a specific
set of ArcObjects components that
implement the functionality. On the GIS
server, instead of working with, for instance,
map documents, globe documents, and
address locators, one works with map
services, globe services, and geocode
services. GIS resources that have been
made available on the server are

collectively referred to as services. Actually,

one still uses map documents, globe
documents, and address locators, as these
are the sources for the services hosted on
the GIS server. Thus, if one wants to share
a map that has been made on the GIS
server, the map document to define the map
service that runs on the server is used. The
main purpose of a GIS server is to host
services and distribute them to client
applications that need to use them.
Additionally, the GIS server provides a set
of tools that allows managing the services;
for example, one can use the ArcGIS Server
Manager application to add and remove
services. It's useful to understand how a
GIS server system is put together so that
one can build applications that effectively
utilize ArcObjects running in a server
environment. This section serves as an
introduction to the components that
compose a GIS server. The following image
shows the

Components of ArcGIS Server System

An ArcGIS Server system is made up of

some of the following components:
GIS server: The GIS server host, GIS
resources, such as maps, globes, and
address locators, and exposes them as
services to client applications. The GIS
server itself is composed of two distinct
parts: the server object manager (SOM)
and server object containers (SOCs). As
the name implies, the SOM manages
the services running on the server.
When a client application requests the
use of a particular service, it's the SOM
that actually provides one for the client
to use. The SOM connects to one or
more SOCs. The SOC machines host
the services that the SOM manages.
Depending on the configuration, one
can run the SOM and SOC on different
machines and also have multiple SOC
machines. The Figure above shows a
SOM machine connected to two SOC
Web server: The Web server hosts Web
applications and services that use the
resources running on the GIS server.
Clients: Clients are Web, mobile, and
desktop applications that connect to
ArcGIS Server Internet services or
ArcGIS Server local services.
Data server: The data server contains
the GIS resources that have been
published as services on the GIS server.
documents, address locators, globe
Manager and ArcCatalog administrators:
ArcGIS Server administrators can use
either Manager or ArcCatalog to publish
their GIS resources as services.
Manager is a Web application that
administering the GIS server, creating
Web applications, and publishing
ArcGIS Explorer maps on the server.
ArcCatalog includes a GIS Servers
node, which can be used to add
connections to GIS servers for either

general server usage or administration

of a server's properties and services.
ArcGIS Desktop content authors: To
author the GIS resources, such as
maps, geo-processing tools, and globes
that will be published to the server, one
needs to use ArcGIS Desktop
ArcCatalog, and ArcGlobe.
Additionally, if a cached map service is
being created, ArcCatalog will be needed to
create the cache. Working for an
organization that manages geo graphic
information, one faces the challenge of
sharing ones collection of geographic
information with people inside the
organization and those outside as well.
ArcGIS Server provides the platform for
sharing the GIS resources, such as maps,
with the user community, whether they're
sitting in the same office using ArcGIS
Desktop or sitting across the country
accessing and viewing maps through the
ArcGIS Server allows the sharing of GIS
resources across an enterprise and across
the Web. GIS resources are the maps,
globes, address locators, geo-databases,
and tools that one wants to share with
others. These resources are shared by
hosting them on the ArcGIS Server system
or GIS server, and allowing client
applications to use and interact with the
resources. The main advantages of sharing
the GIS resources on a GIS server are the
same as sharing any data through any kind
of server technology: the data is centrally
managed, supports multiple users, and
provides clients with the most up -to-date
information. One might ask as to why a GIS
server is needed for this, wouldn't any
server technology work? In addition to
providing access to particular GIS
resources, the GIS server also provides
access to the GIS functionality that the
resource contains. For example, one might
be able to share a map with someone
through a server, but it would be even better

if that person could also interact with the

map, like find the closest hospital,
restaurant, or bank and get directions to it
from their location. Thus, the G IS server
not only allows one to share resources, like
maps, but also to access the GIS
functionality embedded in them.

ArcEditor- is a powerful GIS desktop

system for editing and managing
geographic data. It includes all the
functionality of ArcView along with
additional advanced editing tools to
ensure the quality of your data.
ArcCatalog - ArcCatalog is the data
management application, used to
browse datasets and files on one's
computer, database, or other sources.
In addition to showing what data is
available, ArcCatalog also allows users
to preview the data on a map.

ArcGIS Desktop: ArcGIS Desktop includes

a suite of integrated applications that allow
you to perform GIS tasks, from simple to
advanced, including mapping, geographic
analysis, data editing and compilation, data
geoprocessing. It is available at different
product levels, with increasing functionality.

ArcMap - ArcMap is the central

application used in ArcGIS, where you
display and explore the datasets for
your study area, assign symbols, and
create map layouts for printing or
publication. ArcMap is also the
application used to create and edit
datasets. It represents geographic
information as a collection of layers and
other elements in a map.

ArcReader - is a basic data viewer for

maps and GIS data published in the
proprietary ESRI format using ArcGIS
ArcView - is the entry level of ArcGIS
licensing offered. With ArcView, one is
able to view and edit GIS data held in
flat files.

ArcToolbox It contains geoprocessing, data conversion, and
analysis tools, along with much of the
functionality in ArcInfo.
ArcScene - ArcScene is a map display
similar to ArcMap that is customized for
displaying 3-D data.

ArcGlobe - ArcGlobe is a 3D
visualization application that allows you
to view large amounts of GIS data on a
globe surface.
ArcSDE: The GIS data used by the IndiaWRIS will be stored within the Oracle

RDBMS utilizing ESRIs Spatial Database

Engine (ArcSDE). ArcSDE enables GIS
data to be stored in an Oracle database
along with the applications non -spatial data
and enables its access to the clients.
Storing GIS data in a database within the
Oracle RDBMS environment, instead of the
traditional file -based storage, provides the
security and backup capability for the GIS
data, as it does for the other relational, non spatial databases.
ArcSDE is ESRI's technology for accessing
and managing geospatial data within
relational databases. ArcSDE technology
supports reading and writing of multiple
standards, including (among other data
Consortium, Inc. (OGC) standards for
Organization for Standardization (ISO)
standard for spatial types, and the Oracle
Spatial format.
ArcSDE is unique in its support of the
following capabilities:
It is open and interoperable across
multiple database management systems
(DBMS) (Oracle, SQL Server, DB2,
Informix, and PostgreSQL).
It is standards based, using as its native
data structure the OGC binary simple
features standard and the ISO spatial
type (for Oracle, IBM DB2, IBM Informi
x, and PostgreSQL only).
It supports full, open SQL access to
geo-databases stored in Oracle, IBM
DB2, IBM Informix, and PostgreSQL.
It fully supports the Oracle format for
feature storage (using Oracle Spatial
and Oracle Locator).
It provides high performance and scales
to a large number of users. ArcSDE
geo-databases outperform all other
solutions for storage and retrieval of
spatial data. When one need a multiuser
geo-database that can be edited and
used simultaneously by many users, the
ArcSDE geo-database provides the

solution. It adds the ability to manage

both a shared, multiuser geo-database
and a number of critical version -based
GIS workflows. The ability to leverage
an organization's enterprise relational
databases is a key advantage of the
ArcSDE geo-database. ArcSDE also
supports users who need to manage
long transactions and version based
workflows; for example, to manage
historical archives, distributed editing,
and federated replicas across many
DBMS architectures, as well as to
support multiuser editing scenarios.
ArcSDE geo-databases work with a variety
of DBMS storage models (IBM DB2, IBM
Informix, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and
PostgreSQL). ArcSDE geo-databases are
used in a wide range of workgroups,
departments, and enterprise setting s. They
take full advantage of their underlying
DBMS architecture to support the following:
Extremely large, continuous GIS
Many simultaneous users
Long transactions and versioned
Relational database support for GIS
data management (providing the
benefits of a relational database
such as scalability, reliability,
security, backup, and integrity)
Standards-based SQL Types for
Spatial when the DBMS supports
this capability
implementations, it has been found that
DBMS are efficient at moving the type of
large binary objects required for GIS data in
and out of tables. In addition, GIS database
sizes and the number of supported users
can be much larger when using ArcSDE. In
the past, ArcSDE was sold as a separate
ESRI product. Beginning with ArcGIS 9.2,
ArcSDE technology is still included in
ArcGIS; however, it is no longer a separate
product. Instead, ArcSDE technology has

been integrated into both the ArcGIS Server

and ArcGIS Desktop products. ArcSDE geodatabases readily scale from personal,
single -user geo-databases, through
workgroup geo-databases, up to extremely
large enterprise geo-databases.
Based on the comprehensive review carried
out about the existing technologies both for
generation & hosting of the GIS data as well
as the tools for creating the User Interface,
the following points emerge to the fore:
1. GIS tools like ERDAS and AutoCAD are
great for content generation and display
on machines using their core software,
but they lag behind when considered as
the back end for hosting data and
creating a light-weight user interface
that can be accessed over internet.
2. Most of the GIS data hosting software
focus mostly on display on Raster data,
whereas the basic requirement in IndiaWRIS is on Vectors, both for display as
well as analysis. Technologies of note in
this context are ERDAS Apollo Server
and Skyline Globe.
3. The open source tools, while very
ambitious in concept, lack the reliability
in terms of robustness and support that
a national project of the stature of India-

WRIS requires. Further, the benefits of

quick and robust implementation
obtained by making use of the state-ofthe-art commercial GIS software far
outweighs the setback caused by the
small cost involved in procurement of
the commercial products.
4. In the light of the above, ArcGIS group
of GIS products outshines the other
software in terms of content generation,
content management, interoperability,
ease of access, content scalability, GeoProcessing tools etc. Besides this, this
software also allow for the development
of the front end using a host of web
technologies which opens up a large
gamut of possibilities.
5. Another point that stands in favor of
ArcGIS is that it also doubles up in
managing the database generation in
multi-user mode with support for
versioning and backup. This also
ensures seamless integration with the
upgrading of database while hosting
with minimum or zero down time.