There are two types of relative clause: identifying relative clauses and non-identifying relative clauses .

•An identlfying relative clause gives necessary information and is essential to the meaning of the main sentence. The relative pronouns can be omitted when they are the object of the relative clause. The relative clause is not put in commas.
e.g. People are fined. (Whieh We don 't know. The of the sentenee is not elear.) People who/that park iIIegally are fined. (Whieh people? Those who park iIIegally.) The film was boring. (Whieh film? We don't know. The meaning of the sentenee is not elear.) The film (which/that) I watched yesterday was boring. (Whieh film? The one I watehed yesterday.) people? meaning

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Fin in the re'afive pronoun or adverb. Put commas where necessary. Write I for identifying, NI for non·identifying and say whether the relative can be omitted or noto 1 The dress ... whlch/that ... she bought was too big. (1, can b~ omltUd) 2 Mrs Stewart ...............................was the school's headmistress for ten years has retired now. 3 This is the kitten .............................I found in my garden. 4 Martin Reeds .............................was born the same year as I was is a distinguished author. 5 Pauline Smith ...............................; ...was in my class at school is a very successfullawyer now. 6 The library .....................they knocked down yesterday was in very bad condition. 7 The car .................................I bought last year is a red Ferrari. 8 Have you read the book ................................was written by one of the professors from my university? 9 That's the man ..............................dog buried a bone in my vegetable garden. 10 My garden ...................................llike very much looks beautiful when all the flowers bloom. 11 I know a girl ..........................goes skiing in Switzerland every winter. 12 Jane ................................I don't know very well is very good at her job. 13 The woman ...................................we spoke to is called Claire.

•A non-identifying relative clause gives extra information and is not essential to the meaning of the main sentence. In none.g. The Jeffersons live next door. (The meaning of the sentenee is elear.) The Jeffersons, who own a Jaguar, live next door. (The relative clause gives extra information.) My cat is ealled Monty. (The meaning of the sentenee is elear.) My cat, which I found on the street, is called Monty. (The relative clause gives extra information.)

identifying relative clauses, the relative pronouns cannot be omitted and cannot be replaced by that. The relative clause is put in commas.

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Choose the correct answer.

1 John is a boy ... C ... studies hard every day. A when B which who

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2 This is the bicycle ................I used to ride to school on. A whom B whose which

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3 I remember the time ..................I fell and broke my armo A where B when which 4 The reason .....................he is happy is that he has just passed his exams. A why B which when

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5 Where's the bread .......................I bought this morning? A who B when that 6 That's the woman .....................best friend is a film star. A whose B who's which

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7 Paul is holding the prize ............................he won in the competition. A where B who which 8 The chair ......................she is sitting on is an antique. A when B where e which 9 The woman .....................lives in that house is very rich. A which B who where

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10 The book ........................I borrowed from the library is very interesting. A that B whose e who's

they can be omitted or not.

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FiII in the gaps with the correct re'ative pronoun or adverb and say whether

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A The book 1) ... which/that ... (can be omitted) I borrowed from the library was about a girl 2) ................ works in Africa 3) ....................there are many people starving. It is a very sad story. B John is aman 1) .............................only ambition is to be rich. That's the reason 2) ................................he works so hard. He doesn't listen to people 3) ......................... tell him to slow down. The day 4) .............................he becomes a millionaire will be the day 5) ....................... he has a rest. Home is the place Ilike best. I am a person 1) . needs time to myself. The thing 2) ...............I most like to do is relax in my living room, 3) ..................I am free from stress and 4) ...............there are no interruptions. D The moment 1) ..........................I met Peter is a moment 2) ....................I will always remember. He is someone 3) .........................../ wi/l a/ways admire tor his courage, 4) ..............................has seen him through some difficult times. That's the reason 5) ............................Iliked him straight away and 6) ............................we became good friends 7) ....................................understand and respect each other. E Tom likes classical music, unlike Graham, 1) ................. .......... only listens to pop music and 2) ........................ favourite band is the Backstreet Boys. Tom likes music 3) ..............................relaxes him, but Graham goes to nightclubs 4) ....................he can dance to loud music.

FiII in the gaps with the correct re'ative adverb or pronoun.

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5 Writethe appropriate place in the or the correct re'ative pronoun adverb in
sentences below. The woman /\ opened the door was wearing a uniformo 2 The man mother lives next door won a lot of money last year. 3 This ring, was a present from my husband, is very valuable. 4 My father, is a policeman, really enjoys his job. 5 The house I used to live has been knocked down now. 6 The book was given to me for my birthday is very

The Lion King is a film 1) ... which ...........everyone will enjoy. The story is set in Africa, 2) ............................there are many wild animals, and the hero ot the story is Simba, 3) ..........................father is the king of the lions. Simba's evil uncle Scar, 4) ..................................wants to be king, kills Simba's father and sends Simba away. Years pass, and Simba grows up. One day, he meets a lioness, Nala, 5) ..............................was his childhood friendo She tells him that Scar, the king, is causing problems and that's the reason 6) ..................................... she has come to find him and take him back. Simba and his friends form a plan 7) .......................................will put an end to Scar's wickedness. The film has characters 8) ...........................................you will love, and the music, 9) ..............................was written by Elton John, is moving and dramatic. Disney, 10) ..............................films have entertained children and adults alike for years, have excelled themselves this time.

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Correct the mistakes.

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7 That teacher, is very good at his job, is popular with all

his students. 8 Martin, sister has travelled the world, is a very interesting persono 9 The office the boss works is very luxurious. 10 Jane, mother is my hairdresser, is getting married next month. 11 The building is on the corner of the street is falling down. 12 Richmond, I was born, is a very nice place to live.

1 That's the man who's dog Ilook after in the summer. 2 The reason which I'm tired is that I didn't sleep well last night. 3 Tim is someone which I've known since I was very young. 4 The moment who I realised my mistake I was very embarrassed. 5 The town which Shakespeare was born is called Stratford-upon-Avon. 6 Simon, whose lives near me, is learning to play the guitar. 7 Tom, who party we went to last month, has just bought a speedboat. 8 She's rich. That's she doesn't work. 9 There's the place which Sam's car broke down. 10 That exam, who was very difficult, was written by our teacher.