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REYNOLDS NUMBER

DETERMINATION
EXPERIMENT NO.1
(APRIL 20, 2012)

Submitted by:
GROUP II
Abubo, Renier
Caraan, Zaila Marie R.
Cruzat, Jayrick V.
Magpantay, Vanessa M.

Submitted to:
Engr. Rejie C.Magnaye
(Instructor)

I.Introduction
In fluid mechanics, a criterion of whether fluid (liquid or gas) flow is
absolutely steady (streamlined, or laminar) or on the average steady with small
unsteady fluctuations (turbulent). Whenever the Reynolds number is less than
about 2,000, flow in a pipe is generally laminar, whereas, at values greater than
2,000, flow is usually turbulent. Actually, the transition between laminar and
turbulent flow occurs not at a specific value of the Reynolds number but in a range
usually beginning between 1,000 to 2,000 and extending upward to between 3,000
and 5,000.
In 1883 Osborne Reynolds, a British engineer and physicist, demonstrated
that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in a pipe depends upon the value of
a mathematical quantity equal to the average velocity of flow times the diameter of
the tube times the mass density of the fluid divided by its absolute viscosity. This
mathematical quantity, a pure number without dimensions, became known as the
Reynolds number and was subsequently applied to other types of flow that are
completely enclosed or that involve a moving object completely immersed in a fluid.
Studies have shown that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in tubes
is not only a function of velocity but also of density and viscosity of the fluid flow in
the tube. These variables are combined into the Reynolds number, which is
dimensionless. Reynolds number can be calculated by the equation,

Where:
is the density of the fluid (kg/m3)
is a characteristic linear dimension,
(travelled length of the fluid; hydraulic diameter when dealing with river
systems) (m)
is the mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid (SI units: m/s)
is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pas or Ns/m or kg/(ms))
is the kinematic viscosity ( = / ) (m/s)
II.Objectives:
1.) To determine the Reynolds number for the different types of flow
of fluids.
2.) To describe the operation of Reynolds Number Determination setup and
the importance of its application.
3.) To describe the effect of pressure on volumetric flow rate, the type of flow
regime manifested and the Reynolds number.
4.) To determine what pressure can achieve laminar, transition and turbulent
type of flow regime.

5.) To distinguish if the Reynolds number computed tally to the flow regime
manifested on dye behavior.
III.Materials and Equipment
Stopwatch
Dye solution
Graduated Cylinder (1L)
Reynolds Apparatus
Receiving Basin with Volume Measurement Gradient on the Side
IV.Methodology and Procedure
1.) Prepare the dye solution and the manometer fluid solution composed of
tinge of iodine in chloroform.
2.) Fill with water the overhead tank and receiving tank together with the glass
tube. Make sure no bubbles formed.
3.) Calibrate the fluid inside the manometer to a pressure of 2inHg By adjusting
the metal gradients.
4.) Open the plug cock for the discharge of pipe. Observe and Note the nature
of flow from the filament.
5.) Collect the water from the discharge pipe in a 1L graduated cylinder. Record
the time till the graduated cylinder was filled with water. Then close the valve
afterwards.
6.) Repeat procedure four and five for three trials.
7.) Repeat procedure three to six with pressure of 4inHg, 6inHg, and 8inHg.
V.Presentation of Results

Pressure
(inHg)

2
4
6
8

Trials (Duration in sec)

1
20.72
14.59
12.57
11.10

2
20.53
15.11
12.10
10.68

3
20.82
14.81
11.98
10.98

Averag
e

20.69
14.84
12.22
10.92

Volumetric
Flowrate
(m3/sec)
10-5

Velocity
(m/s)

4.8333
6.7385
8.1833
9.1575

0.0385
0.0536
0.0651
0.0729

Reynolds Type of
Number
Flow
(NRe)
1716.44
2393.06
2906.14
3252.11

Laminar
Transition
Transition
Transition

Computations
@ 250C
H2O= 997.08 kg/m3

Volume of water collected = 1L (0.001m3)

= 0.8937x10-3 Pa-sec

Diameter= 40mm (0.04m)

VI. Analysis and Evaluation


VII. Conclusion and Recommendation.

The major factors affecting the fluid flow is fluid velocity and viscosity.
At low velocities fluid flow is laminar, and the fluid can be pictured as a
series of parallel layers, or lamina, moving at different velocities. The fluid friction
between these layers gives rise to viscosity. The viscous stresses within a fluid tend
to stabilize and organize the flow. Thus, as the fluid becomes viscous, the flow
becomes laminar. On the other hand, as the fluid flows more rapidly, it reaches a
velocity, known as the critical velocity, at which the motion changes from laminar to
turbulent, with the formation of eddy currents and vortices that disturb the flow. This

is due to the fluid inertia that tends to disrupt organized flow leading to chaotic
turbulent behavior.
The behavior of the fluid flow is quantified by the Reynolds number.
Reynolds number is defined as the ratio of inertial and viscous force to characterize
the types off low patterns. With increase in flow velocity, the initial forces increase
so as the Reynolds Number. The Reynolds number is significant in the design of a
model of any system in which the effect of viscosity is important in controlling the
velocities or the flow pattern.
VIII. References
Foust, Alan s. et.al. (1980), Principles in Unit Operations, 2nd edition, Canada:
John Wiley and Sons.
Geankoplis, Christi J. (1995), Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd
edition, Singapore: Prentice Hall International Inc.
McCabe, Warren L.; Julian C. Smith, and Peter Harriot (1993), Unit Operations of
Chemical Engineering, 5th edition, New York: McGraw Hill Inc.
Perry, Robert H. and Don W. Green (1997), Perrys Chemical Engineers
Handbook, 7th edition, USA: McGraw Hill Co., Inc.
Reynolds number (physics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2012. Reynolds
number (physics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/500844/Reynolds-number